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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles
Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes "Adelie Land"
claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing
meteorological and geophysical research stations and French and other
fishing fleets. The fish catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign
ships are exported to France and Reunion.

Budget:
revenues: $14.2 million
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine:
total: 61 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,164,686 GRT/3,805,913
DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, chemical tanker 7, container 10,
liquefied gas tanker 5, oil tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 12
note: French Southern and Antarctic Lands owns 3 additional ships
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 78,691 DWT that operate under French
registry (1997 est.)

Airports: none

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica is not
recognized by the US

______________________________________________________________________

GABON

@Gabon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator,
between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 11 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 267,670 sq km
land: 257,670 sq km
water: 10,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,551 km
border countries: Cameroon 298 km, Republic of the Congo 1,903 km,
Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron
ore

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 77%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: deforestation; poaching

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Gabon:People

Population: 1,207,844 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 202,364; female 202,249)
15-64 years: 61% (male 372,157; female 364,806)
65 years and over: 6% (male 32,718; female 33,550) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.23 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 85.43 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.51 years
male: 53.55 years
female: 59.56 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings
(Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and Europeans
154,000, including 6,000 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality

Religions: Christian 55%-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
Bandjabi

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.2%
male: 73.7%
female: 53.3% (1995 est.)

@Gabon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Gabonese Republic
conventional short form: Gabon
local long form: Republique Gabonaise
local short form: Gabon

Data code: GB

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized 1990)

National capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1960) (Gabon granted
full independence from France)

Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
head of government: Prime Minister Paulin OBAME Nguema (since 9
December 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in
consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: President Omar BONGO reelected; percent of vote-Omar
BONGO 51%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of a Senate (91
seats) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats);
members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms
elections: National Assembly-last held in December 1996 (next to be
held in December 2001); Senate-last held 12 January 1997 (next to be
held in January 2002)
election results: National Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party - PDG 100, Morena-Bucherons/RNB 8, PUP 3, CLR 3, FAR 1, UPG
1, USG 2, PGP 2; Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PDG 51, RNB 17, PGP 4, ADERA 3, RDP 1, others 15
note: the provision of the constitution for the establishment of a
senate was implemented in the 12 January 1997 elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three
chambers-Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional Court;
Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts

Political parties and leaders: Action Forum for Renewal or FAR [Leon
MBOU-YEMBI, secretary general]; Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR
[General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG,
former sole party [Simplice Guedet MANZELA, secretary general];
Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Pierre-Louis AGONDJO-OKAWE,
president]; Gabonese People's Union or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU];
Gabonese Socialist Union or USG [Dr. Serge Mba BEKALE]; National
Recovery Movement-Lumberjacks or Morena-Bucherons/RNB [Fr. Paul
M'BA-ABESSOLE]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA];
ADERA; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Akexandre SAMBAT,
president]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA
chancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0668
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth RASPOLIC
embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
mailing address: B. P. 4000, Libreville
telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92
FAX: [241] 74 55 07

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and blue

@Gabon:Economy

Economy-overview: Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of
most nations of sub-Saharan Africa. This has supported a sharp decline
in extreme poverty but because of high income inequality a large
proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon depended on timber
and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s.
The oil sector now accounts for 50% of GDP. Gabon continues to face
fluctuating prices for its oil, timber, manganese, and uranium
exports. Despite the abundance of natural wealth and a manageable rate
of population growth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal
management. In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and
Gabon failed to settle arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a
cancellation of rescheduling agreements with official and private
creditors. Devaluation of its Francophone currency by 50% on 12
January 1994 sparked a one-time inflationary surge, to 35%; the rate
dropped to 6% in 1996. The IMF provided a one-year standby arrangement
in 1994-95 and a three-year Enhanced Financing Facility (EFF) at near
commercial rates beginning in late 1995. Those agreements mandate
progress in privatization and fiscal discipline. France provided
additional financial support in January 1997 after Gabon had met IMF
targets for mid-1996. In 1997, an IMF mission to Gabon chastened the
government for overspending on off-budget items, overborrowing from
the central bank, and slipping on its schedule for privatization and
administrative reform (such as reduced public sector employment and
salary growth).

GDP: purchasing power parity-$6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$5,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.1%
industry: 54.6%
services: 38.3% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry and commerce, services

Unemployment rate: 10%-14% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $302
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement;
petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and gold
mining; chemicals; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 310,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 925 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 800 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil; rubber; okoume
(a tropical softwood); cattle; small fishing operations (provide a
catch of about 30,000 metric tons)

Exports:
total value: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 81%, timber 12%, manganese 5%, uranium (1996)
partners: US 50%, France 16%, Japan 8%, China, Spain, Germany (1996)

Imports:
total value: $969 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, petroleum
products, construction materials
partners: France 39%, Cote d'Ivoire 13%, US 6%, Netherlands 5%, Japan

Debt-external: $3.9 billion (1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 22,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay,
tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a
domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 250,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 5)

Televisions: 40,000 (1993 est.)

@Gabon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 649 km Gabon State Railways (OCTRA)
standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge; single track (1994)

Highways:
total: 7,670 km
paved: 629 km (including 30 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,041 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

Ports and harbors: Cape Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Mayumba,
Owendo, Port-Gentil

Merchant marine:
total: 3 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,003 GRT/60,663 DWT (1997
est.)

Airports: 64 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 54
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 26 (1997 est.)

@Gabon:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Republican Guard (charged
with protecting the president and other senior officials), National
Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 277,850 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 142,334 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 11,352 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $154 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.4% (1993)

@Gabon:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial
Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

______________________________________________________________________

GAMBIA, THE

The Gambia

The Gambia
@Gambia, The:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and
Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 16 34 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 11,300 sq km
land: 10,000 sq km
water: 1,300 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 740 km
border countries: Senegal 740 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry
season (November to May)

Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 53 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 45% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last 30 years

Environment-current issues: deforestation; desertification;
water-borne diseases prevalent

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the
continent of Africa

@Gambia, The:People

Population: 1,291,858 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 296,108; female 295,136)
15-64 years: 52% (male 330,215; female 336,056)
65 years and over: 2% (male 18,194; female 16,149) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.42% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.3 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.93 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.91 years
male: 51.59 years
female: 56.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.91 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Gambian(s)
adjective: Gambian

Ethnic groups: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola
10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), non-African 1%

Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
vernaculars

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.6%
male: 52.8%
female: 24.9% (1995 est.)

@Gambia, The:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form: The Gambia

Data code: GA

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

National capital: Banjul

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower
River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western
note: it has been reported but not verified that the name of the
MacCarthy Island division has been changed to Central River

Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); note-The Gambia and Senegal
signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation
of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement
was dissolved on 30 September 1989

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

Constitution: 24 April 1970; suspended July 1994; rewritten and
approved by national referendum 8 August 1996; reestablished in
January 1997

Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law,
and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 12 October
1996); Vice President Isaton Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October
1996); Vice President Isaton Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet is appointed by the president
elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year
term; the number of terms is not restricted; election last held 26
September 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote-President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH
55.5%, Ousinou DARBOE 35.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly; 49 seats (45
elected, 4 appointed by the president)
elections: last popular election held 2 January 1997 (next to be held
NA)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-APRC 33,
UDP 7, NRP 2, PDOIS 1, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation
and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; National
Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic
Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA];
United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]; note-in August 1996
the government banned the following from participation in the
elections of 1996: People's Progressive Party or PPP [former President
Dawda K. JAWARA (in exile)], and two opposition parties-the National
Convention Party or NCP [former vice president Sheriff DIBBA] and the
Gambian People's Party or GPP [Hassan Musa CAMARA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Crispin GREY-JOHNSON
chancery: Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399, 1379, 1425
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald Wesley SCOTT
embassy: Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul
mailing address: P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
telephone: [220] 392856, 392858, 391970, 391971
FAX: [220] 392475

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with
white edges, and green

@Gambia, The:Economy

Economy-overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural
resources and has a limited agricultural base. About 75% of the
population depends on crops and livestock for its livelihood.
Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of peanuts,
fish, and hides. Reexport trade normally constitutes a major segment
of economic activity, but the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in
January 1994 made Senegalese goods more competitive and hurt the
reexport trade. The Gambia has benefited from a rebound in tourism
after its decline in response to the military's takeover in July 1994.
Short-run economic progress remains highly dependent on sustained
bilateral and multilateral aid and on responsible government economic
management.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.23 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 15%
services: 58% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services
18.9%, government 6.1%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $88.6 million
expenditures: $98.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: processing peanuts, fish, and hides; tourism; beverages;
agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking; clothing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 29,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 73 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 74 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava
(tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats; forest and fishing
resources not fully exploited

Exports:
total value: $160 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: peanuts and peanut products 70%, fish, cotton lint, palm
kernels
partners: Japan, Senegal, Hong Kong, France, Switzerland, UK,
Indonesia

Imports:
total value: $140 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery
and transport equipment
partners: China, Cote d'Ivoire, Hong Kong, UK, Germany

Debt-external: $426 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: bilateral $36.1 million; multilateral $34.7 million (1994)

Currency: 1 dalasi (D) = 100 butut

Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1-10.513 (December 1997), 10.200
(1997), 9.789 (1996), 9.546 (1995), 9.576 (1994), 9.129 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 11,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open wire
international: microwave radio relay links to Senegal and
Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 180,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government owned)

Televisions: NA

@Gambia, The:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,700 km
paved: 956 km
unpaved: 1,744 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 400 km

Ports and harbors: Banjul

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Gambia, The:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, National Police, National Guard

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 286,847 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 144,547 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.2 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY93/94)

@Gambia, The:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: short section of boundary with Senegal is
indefinite

______________________________________________________________________

GAZA STRIP

Introduction

Current issues: The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13
September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank. Permanent status negotiations began on 5 May 1996, but have
not resumed since the initial meeting. Under the DOP, Israel agreed to
transfer certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian
Authority, which includes a Palestinian Legislative Council elected in
January 1996, as part of interim self-governing arrangements in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and responsibilities
for the Gaza Strip and Jericho took place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4
May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area and in
additional areas of the West Bank pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28
September 1995 Interim Agreement and the Israel-PLO 15 January 1997
Protocol Concerning Redeployment in Hebron. The DOP provides that
Israel will retain responsibility during the transitional period for
external security and for internal security and public order of
settlements and Israelis. Permanent status is to be determined through
direct negotiations.

@Gaza Strip:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Israel

Geographic coordinates: 31 25 N, 34 20 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 360 sq km
land: 360 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 62 km
border countries: Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement-permanent status to be
determined through further negotiation

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 39%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: desertification; salination of fresh
water; sewage treatment

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: there are 24 Israeli settlements and civilian land use
sites in the Gaza Strip (August 1997 est.)

@Gaza Strip:People

Population: 1,054,173 (July 1998 est.)
note: in addition, there are 6,000 Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip
(August 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 52% (male 278,551; female 265,009)
15-64 years: 46% (male 241,420; female 238,857)
65 years and over: 2% (male 12,966; female 17,370) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 6.4% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 49.07 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 18.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.45 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.95 years
male: 71.56 years
female: 74.4 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish
0.6%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many
Palestinians), English (widely understood)

Literacy: NA

@Gaza Strip:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gaza Strip
local long form: none
local short form: Qita Ghazzah

Data code: GZ

@Gaza Strip:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic progress in the Gaza Strip has been
hampered by tight Israeli security restrictions. In 1991 roughly 40%
of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by Israeli
industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker
remittances supplementing GDP by roughly 50%. Gaza has depended upon
Israel for nearly 90% of its external trade. The Persian Gulf crisis
and its aftershocks have dealt blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker
remittances from the Gulf states have dropped, unemployment and
popular unrest have increased, and living standards have fallen. The
redeployment of Israeli forces in the Gaza Strip in May 1994 has added
to the set of adjustment problems. This series of disruptions has
meant a sharp decline in employment in Israel since 1991 and a drop in
GDP as a whole. An estimated 378,000 persons were in refugee camps in
1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -6.9% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,100 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 25%
services: 42% (1995 est., includes West Bank)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 8.4% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: services 66%, industry 21%, agriculture 13% (1996)
note: excluding Israeli settlers

Unemployment rate: 28% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $684 million
expenditures: $779 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996)
note: includes West Bank

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce textiles,
soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial
center

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by Israel

Electricity-production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Israel

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: olives, citrus, other fruits, vegetables; beef,
dairy products

Exports:
total value: $630 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.) (includes West Bank)
commodities: citrus
partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Imports:
total value: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.) (includes West Bank)
commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1-3.5340 (December
1997), 3.4494 3.1917 (1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

Communications

Telephones: NA
note: 3.1% of Palestinian households have telephones

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA; note-95% of Palestinian households have radios (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 station operated by the Palestinian
Authority

Televisions: NA; note-59% of Palestinian households have televisions
(1992 est.)

@Gaza Strip:Transportation

Railways:
total: NA km; note-one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little
trackage remains

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: small, poorly developed road network

Ports and harbors: Gaza

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)
note: includes new international airport that was scheduled to open in
June 1997, but has been delayed due to political and security
disagreements between Palestinian and Israeli negotiators

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Gaza Strip:Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Gaza Strip:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied
with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim
Agreement-permanent status to be determined through further
negotiation

______________________________________________________________________

GEORGIA

Introduction

Current issues: Beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence in
1991, Georgia began to stabilize in 1994. Separatist conflicts in
Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been dormant since spring 1994,
although political settlements remain elusive. Russian peacekeepers
are deployed in both regions and a UN Observer Mission is operating in
Abkhazia. As a result of these conflicts, Georgia still has about
250,000 internally displaced people. In 1995, Georgia adopted a new
constitution and conducted generally free and fair nationwide
presidential and parliamentary elections. In 1996, the government
focused its attention to implementing an ambitious economic reform
program and professionalizing its parliament. Violence and organized
crime were sharply curtailed in 1995 and 1996, but corruption remains
rife. In 1997, SHEVARDNADZE succeeded in bringing international
attention to the Abkhazia conflict. The UN sponsored two meetings on
the subject, but a resolution is still far off. Georgia also took some
steps in 1997 to reduce its dependence on Russia, acquiring coastal
patrol boats it hopes to use to replace the current Russian border
units on the Black Sea coast. The year 1997 also saw a sharpening of
rhetoric-especially from parliament-against Russia's continued
military presence on Georgian territory.

@Georgia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the
north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland
opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east;
good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore,
copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow
for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi;
heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate
supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Georgia:People

Population: 5,108,527 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 562,623; female 540,378)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,631,296; female 1,756,087)
65 years and over: 12% (male 235,042; female 383,101) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.92% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.72 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.1 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 51.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.79 years
male: 61.36 years
female: 68.4 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri
5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Orthodox 75% (Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian
Orthodox 10%), Muslim 11%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%,
other 7%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Georgia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: GG

Government type: republic

National capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 53 rayons (raionebi, singular-raioni), 9
cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous
republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
Abashis, Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi),
Adigenis, Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi),
Akhalgoris, Akhalk'alak'is, Akhalts'ikhis, Akhmetis, Ambrolauris,
Aspindzis, Baghdat'is, Bolnisis, Borjomis, Chiat'ura*, Ch'khorotsqus,
Ch'okhatauris, Dedop'listsqaros, Dmanisis, Dushet'is, Gardabanis,
Gori*, Goris, Gurjaanis, Javis, K'arelis, Kaspis, Kharagaulis,
Khashuris, Khobis, Khonis, K'ut'aisi*, Lagodekhis, Lanch'khut'is,
Lentekhis, Marneulis, Martvilis, Mestiis, Mts'khet'is, Ninotsmindis,
Onis, Ozurget'is, P'ot'i*, Qazbegis, Qvarlis, Rust'avi*, Sach'kheris,
Sagarejos, Samtrediis, Senakis, Sighnaghis, T'bilisi*, T'elavis,
T'erjolis, T'et'ritsqaros, T'ianet'is, Tqibuli*, Ts'ageris,
Tsalenjikhis, Tsalkis, Tsqaltubo*, Vanis, Zestap'onis, Zugdidi*,
Zugdidis
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
(previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992,
Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of
Parliament 11 October 1992; elected president 5 November 1995;
inaugurated 26 November 1995); note-the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
(previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992,
Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of
Parliament 11 October 1992; elected president 5 November 1995);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000)
election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE elected president; percent of
vote-Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 74%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or Umaghiesi Sabcho
(235 seats; members are elected to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA November
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-CUG 24%, NDP 8%, AGUR 7%,
all other parties received less than 5% each; seats by party-CUG 107,
NDP 34, AGUR 32, Progress Bloc (DUG, Political Association "Georgian
Proprietors," Political Union of Young Democrats, Solidarity) 4, SPG
4, others 9, Abkazian deputies 12, independents 29, not filled 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges elected by the Supreme Council
on the president's recommendation; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG
[Eduard SHEVARDNADZE]; National Democratic People's Party [Mamuka
GIORGADZE]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina
SARISHVILI-CHANTARIA]; Union for "Revival" Party or AGUR [Alsan
ABASHIDZE]; Union of Traditionalists or UGT [Akaki ASTANTIANI];
Socialist Party or SPG [Vakhtang RCHEULISHVILI]; Georgian United
Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman]; Greens
Party [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; United Republican Party or URP [Nodar
NATADZE, chairman]; National Independent Party or NIP [Irakli
TSERETELI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party or GSDP [Guram
MUCHAIDZE, secretary general]; Conservative-Monarchist Party or GCMP
[Temur ZHORZHOLIANI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: supporters of ousted President
Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January 1994) remain a source of
opposition; separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE
chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC
20005
telephone: [1] (202) 393-5959
FAX: [1] (202) 393-4537

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy: #25 Antonelli Street, T'bilisi 380026
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: 995-32-989-967 or 995-32-933-803 (operator assisted)
FAX: tie-line FAX 997-0200; 933-759 or 938-951

Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist
side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white
below

@Georgia:Economy

Economy-overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around
Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes;
mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial
sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The
country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas
and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is
hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to
civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has
made substantial economic gains in 1995-97, increasing GDP growth and
slashing inflation. Georgia still suffers from energy shortages,
although energy deliveries are steadily improving. Georgia is pinning
its hopes for long-term recovery on the development of an
international transportation corridor through the key Black Sea ports
of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. The construction of a Caspian oil pipeline
through Georgia-scheduled to open in early 1999-should spur greater
western investment in the economy. A growing trade deficit, continuing
problems with corruption, and political uncertainties cloud the
short-term economic picture.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$8.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 11.8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,570 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 29%
industry: 16%
services: 55% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7.1% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.2 million (1996)
by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry
25%, other 44% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $441 million
expenditures: $606 million, including capital expenditures of $54
million (1996 est.)

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, foundry equipment,
electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment,
machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors,
process control equipment, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes,
chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: 8.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 4.558 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.1 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,175 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; small
livestock sector

Exports:
total value: $400 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products;
diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles;
chemicals; fuel re-exports
partners: Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria (1996)

Imports:
total value: $733 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts,
transport equipment
partners: Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan (1996); note-EU and US send
humanitarian food shipments

Debt-external: $1.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $28 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,200 million ($675 million
disbursements)

Currency: lari introduced September 1995 replacing the coupon

Exchange rates: lari per US$1 (end of period)-1.32 (December 1997),
1.28 (December 1996), 1.24 (December 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 672,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: poor service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for
telephones (December 1990 est.)
domestic: NA
international: landline to CIS members and Turkey; satellite earth
station-1 Eutelsat; leased connections with other countries via the
Moscow international gateway switch; international electronic mail and
telex service available

Radio broadcast stations: 2 national broadcast stations, 3 regional
broadcast stations

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: NA

@Georgia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 1,583 km 1.520-m gauge (1993)

Highways:
total: 20,700 km
paved: 19,354 km
unpaved: 1,346 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine:
total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 87,730 GRT/122,769 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, oil tanker 5, short-sea passenger 1 (1997
est.)

Airports: 28 (1994 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

Transportation-note: transportation network is in poor condition and
disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages;
network lacks maintenance and repair

@Georgia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces,
National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,286,126 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,017,954 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 40,946 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: 79 million lari (1997);
note-conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 8.8% (1998 approved budget)

@Georgia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates to
Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

GERMANY

@Germany:Geography

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 356,910 sq km
land: 349,520 sq km
water: 7,390 sq km
note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the
German Democratic Republic, and Berlin, following formal unification
on 3 October 1990

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,962 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium,
copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and
industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of
continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain,
resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy
pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents
from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography-note: strategic location on North European Plain and along
the entrance to the Baltic Sea

@Germany:People

Population: 82,079,454 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 6,570,582; female 6,240,671)
15-64 years: 68% (male 28,688,052; female 27,532,099)
65 years and over: 16% (male 4,866,122; female 8,181,928) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.84 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.77 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.99 years
male: 73.83 years
female: 80.33 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: German(s)
adjective: German

Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%,
Poles 0.4%, other 4.6% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in
the former Yugoslavia)

Religions: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%,
unaffiliated or other 26.3%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1977 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Germany:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland

Data code: GM

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Berlin
note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of
years, with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
ministries even after parliament moves in 1999

Administrative divisions: 16 states (laender, singular-land);
Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in
1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West
Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and
French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany)
proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone;
unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

National holiday: German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of
the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Roman HERZOG (since 1 July 1994)
head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the proposal of the
chancellor
elections: president elected by the Federal Convention including
members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of members elected
by the Land Parliaments for a five-year term; election last held 23
May 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); chancellor elected by an absolute
majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last
held 16 October 1994 (next to be held 27 September 1998)
election results: Roman HERZOG elected president; percent of Federal
Convention vote - NA; Dr. Helmut KOHL reelected chancellor; percent of
Federal Assembly-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral chamber (no official name for the two
chambers as a whole) consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag
(656 seats usually, but 672 for the 1994 term; elected by direct
popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional
representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three
direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms)
and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (68 votes; state governments are
directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on
population and are required to vote as a block; term is not fixed)
elections: Federal Assembly-last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held
by 27 September 1998); Federal Council-last held NA (next to be held
NA)
election results: Federal Assembly-percent of vote by party-CDU 34.2%,
SPD 36.4%, Alliance 90/Greens 7.3%, CSU 7.3%, FDP 6.9%, PDS 4.4%,
Republicans 1.9%; seats by party-CDU 244, SPD 252, Alliance 90/Greens
49, CSU 50, FDP 47, PDS 30; note-one Greens member defected to the CDU
making the seat count CDU 245, Alliance 90/Greens 48; Federal
Council-current composition-votes by party - SPD-led states 41,
CDU-led states 27

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or
Bundesverfassungsgericht, half the judges are elected by the Bundestag
and half by the Bundesrat

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union or CDU
[Helmut KOHL, chairman]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Theodor
WAIGEL, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT,
chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Oskar LAFONTAINE,
chairman]; Alliance '90/Greens [Christa NICKELS]; Party of Democratic
Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY, chairman]; Republikaner [Rolf
SCHLIERER, chairman]; National Democratic Party or NPD [Gunter
DECKERT]; Communist Party or DKP [Rolf PRIEMER and Heinz STEHR,
cochairpersons]

Political pressure groups and leaders: employers' organizations,
expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA,
MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UPU,
WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John C. KORNBLUM
embassy: Deichmanns Aue 29, 53170 Bonn
mailing address: APO AE 09080, PSC 117, Bonn
telephone: [49] (228) 3391
FAX: [49] (228) 339-2663
branch office: Berlin
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig,
Munich

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and gold

@Germany:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997 the German economy, the world's third most
powerful, benefited from robust exports, particularly to other members
of the EU and the US, as well as strengthening equipment investment.
But anemic private consumption and a contraction in the construction
industry limited the expansion. Unemployment continued to set post-war
monthly records through the end of 1997 and averaged 4.3 million for
the year. In preparation for the 1 January 1999 start of the European
Monetary Union, the government has made major efforts in 1996-97 to
reduce the fiscal deficit. This effort has been complicated by growing
unemployment, an erosion of the tax base, and the continuing transfer
of roughly $100 billion a year to eastern Germany to refurbish this
ex-communist area. In recent years business and political leaders have
become increasingly concerned about Germany's decline in
attractiveness as an investment target. They cite increasing
preference by German companies to locate new manufacturing facilities
in foreign countries, including the US, rather than in Germany, to be
closer to the markets and to avoid Germany's high tax rates, high wage
costs, rigid labor structures, and extensive regulations. For similar
reasons foreign investment in Germany has been lagging in recent
years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.74 trillion (western: purchasing power
parity-$1.60 trillion; eastern: purchasing power parity-$144 billion)
(1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.4% (western 2.5%, eastern 1.7%) (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$20,800 (western: purchasing
power parity - $23,600; eastern: purchasing power parity-$9,100) (1997
est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 34.5%
services: 64.4% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.8% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 38.7 million
by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 3%, services 56% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $755 billion
expenditures: $832.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: western: among world's largest and technologically
advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery,
vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; eastern:
metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1997)

Electricity-capacity: 109.727 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 495.875 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,154 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture-products: western: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets,
fruit, cabbage; cattle, pigs, poultry; eastern: wheat, rye, barley,
potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides

Exports:
total value: $521.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 88.2% (including machines and machine tools,
chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural
products 5.0%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.0%, other 3.5% (1995)
partners: EU 57.7% (France 11.7%, UK 8.1%, Italy 7.6%, Netherlands
7.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.5%, Austria 5.5%), Eastern Europe 8.0%,
other West European countries 7.5%, US 7.3%, NICs 5.6%, Japan 2.5%,
OPEC 2.2%, China 1.4% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $455.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 74.2%, agricultural products 9.9%, fuels
6.4%, raw materials 5.9%, other 3.6% (1995)
partners: EU 55.5% (France 10.8%, Netherlands 8.6%, Italy 8.4%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 6.6%, UK 6.4%, Austria 3.9%), Eastern Europe 8.7%,
other West European countries 7.2%, US 6.8%, Japan 5.3%, NICs 5.3%,
China 2.4%, OPEC 1.7%, other 7.1% (1995)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $9 billion (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1-1.8167 (January 1998),
1.7341 (1997), 1.5048 (1996), 1.4331 (1995), 1.6228 (1994), 1.6533
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 44 million

Telephone system: Germany has one of the world's most technologically
advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital
expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the
eastern part of the country is being rapidly modernized and integrated
with that of the western part
domestic: the region which was formerly West Germany is served by an
extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern
networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay,
and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely
available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries;
since the reunification of Germany, the telephone system of the
eastern region has been upgraded and enjoys many of the advantages of
the national system
international: satellite earth stations-14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2
Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 6
submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication
centers; tropospheric scatter links

Radio broadcast stations: western-AM 80, FM 470, shortwave 0;
eastern-AM 23, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 246 (repeaters 6,000); note-there are
15 Russian repeaters in eastern Germany

Televisions: 44.8 million (1992 est.)

@Germany:Transportation

Railways:
total: 43,966 km
standard gauge: 43,531 km 1.435-m; 40,355 km are owned by Deutsche
Bahn AG (DB); 17,015 km of the DB system are electrified and 16,941 km
are double- or more-tracked
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (DB operates 146 km of 1.000-m
gauge); 7 km 0.900-m gauge; 39 km 0.750-m gauge
note: in addition to the DB system there are 54 privately-owned
industrial or excursion railways, ranging in route length from 2 km to
632 km, with a total length of 3,465 km (1995)

Highways:
total: 633,000 km
paved: 627,303 km (including 11,300 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,697 km all-weather (1996 est.)

Waterways: western-5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft
of 1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine
and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea
and North Sea; eastern-2,319 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural
gas 97,564 km (1988)

Ports and harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne,
Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg,
Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart

Merchant marine:
total: 515 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,448,105 GRT/7,940,824
DWT
ships by type: cargo 202, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 2,
container 253, liquefied gas tanker 6, multifunction large-load
carrier 6, oil tanker 9, passenger 4, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 7
note: includes ships from the former East Germany and West Germany;
Germany owns 460 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) that operate
under the registries of Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Cyprus, Hong
Kong, Liberia, Malta, Norway, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Marshall
Islands, Singapore, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997 est.)

Airports: 620 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 321
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 61
1,524 to 2,437 m: 70
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 123 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 299
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 57
under 914 m: 228 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 63 (1997 est.)

@Germany:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force,
Medical Corps, Border Police, Coast Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 20,915,978 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 17,888,396 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 465,179 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $42.8 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% (1995)

@Germany:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: individual Sudeten German claims for
restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion
after World War II

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest
Asian heroin and hashish, Latin American cocaine, and
European-produced synthetic drugs

______________________________________________________________________

GHANA

@Ghana:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote
d'Ivoire and Togo

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