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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 65%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are
inhabited

@Fiji:People

Population: 802,611 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 139,713; female 134,220)
15-64 years: 63% (male 251,646; female 251,425)
65 years and over: 3% (male 12,051; female 13,556) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.92 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.65 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.29 years
male: 63.92 years
female: 68.78 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.74 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.6%
male: 93.8%
female: 89.3% (1995 est.)

@Fiji:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
conventional short form: Fiji

Data code: FJ

Government type: republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

National capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
July 1990; another new constitution, which opens the way for a
non-ethnic Fijian to become prime minister, was signed by the
president on 25 July 1997 and will come into force no later than 28
July 1998

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president
since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); First Vice
President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAI'IA (since 12 January 1994); Second
Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June
1992); Deputy Prime Minister Taufa VAKATALE (since 7 August 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
note: there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president
on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which
consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly
system
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a
five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA elected president; percent of
Great Council of Chiefs vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (34
seats; 24 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, and 1
for the island of Rotuma; members appointed by the president to serve
five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (70 seats; 37
reserved for ethnic Fijians, 27 for ethnic Indians, and 6 for
independents and others; members elected by popular vote on a communal
basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 18-25 February 1994
(next to be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party - SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FAP 5, GVP 4,
independents 2, ANC 1
note: when the new constitution comes into force, the composition of
the legislative branch will change to the following: Senate-32 seats
(14 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed by the
prime minister, eight appointed by the leader of the opposition, and
one appointed by the Council of Rotuma); House of Representatives-71
seats (23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians,
three reserved for other ethnic groups, and there will be 25 open
seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT-primarily
Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party
(NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian Nationalist Party
(FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY;
General Voters Party (GVP), Leo SMITH; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
leader NA; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), leader NA; Fiji Indian
Liberal Party, leader NA; Fiji Indian Congress Party, leader NA; Fiji
Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, leader NA;
Fijian Association Party (FAP), Ratu Finau MARA; General Electors'
Association, David PICKERING
note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the remaining
members of the ANC have renamed their party the General Electors'
Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, PCA,
Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ratu Napolioni MASIREWA
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry M.
DINGER
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 314466
FAX: [679] 300081

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane,
a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji:Economy

Economy-overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports
and a growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign
exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity.
Roughly 250,000 tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and
drought, however, contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings
from tourism and sugar and to the emigration of skilled workers.
Fiji's growth slowed in 1997 because the sugar industry suffered from
low world prices and rent disputes between farmers and landowners.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1996)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,500 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 18%
services: 61% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 235,000
by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary
earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $540.65 million
expenditures: $742.65 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber,
small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 200,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 545 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 705 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice,
sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish catch
13,796 tons (1991)

Exports:
total value: $639 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: sugar 32%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber
partners: EU 26%, Australia 15%, other Pacific island countries 11%,
Japan 6%

Imports:
total value: $947 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products,
food, consumer goods, chemicals
partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EU 6%, US 6%

Debt-external: $333.8 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $14.35 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.5
million from New Zealand (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1-1.9064 (January 1998),
1.4437 (1997), 1.4033 (1996), 1.4063 (1995), 1.4641 (1994), 1.5418
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 60,017 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
center
domestic: NA
international: access to important cable link between US and Canada
and NZ and Australia; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 12,000 (1992 est.)

@Fiji:Transportation

Railways:
total: 597 km; note-belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
Corporation
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 3,440 km
paved: 1,692 km
unpaved: 1,748 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,800 GRT/18,034 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, passenger 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1997 est.)

Airports: 24 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 17 (1997 est.)

@Fiji:Military

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes
army, navy, and a small air wing)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 214,475 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 118,181 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 9,180 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $32 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5% (1997)

@Fiji:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

FINLAND

@Finland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 337,030 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland-3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 76%
other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power
plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial
wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife
populations

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography-note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost
national capital on European continent; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

Population: 5,149,242 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 488,974; female 469,343)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,736,883; female 1,700,466)
65 years and over: 14% (male 284,929; female 468,647) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.2% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.24 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.65 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.82 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.15 years
male: 73.61 years
female: 80.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Gypsy 0.12%, Tatar
0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small
Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Finland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

National capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular-laani); Aland,
Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Lanni, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun
Laani

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held NA
January 2000); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by
the president
election results: Martti AHTISAARI elected president; percent of
vote-Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-Social Democratic Party
28.3%, Center Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party
17.9%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party
5.1%, Green League 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish
Christian League 3.0%, Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%;
seats by party-Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22,
Swedish People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1,
Finnish Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges appointed by
the president

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition: Social Democratic Party [Paavo LIPPONEN];
National Coalition (conservative) Party [Sauli NIINISTO]; Leftist
Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and
Democratic Alternative [Claes ANDERSSON]; Swedish People's Party
[(Johan) Ole NORRBACK]; Green League [Pekka HAAVISTO]
other: Center Party [Esko AHO]; Finnish Christian League [C. P. Bjarne
KALLIS]; Rural Party [Raimo VISTBACKA]; Liberal People's Party [Pekka
RYTILA]; Greens Ecological Party or EPV [Eugen PARKATTI]; Young Finns
[Risto PENTTILA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Finnish Communist Party-Unity
[Yrjo HAKANEN]; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners
Party; Communist Workers Party [Timo LAHDENMAKI]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU,
WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 171931
FAX: [358] (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Finland:Economy

Economy-overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK,
France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is
manufacturing-principally the wood, metals, and engineering
industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing
about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development
is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products.
Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation
for the rural population. The economy has come back from the recession
of 1990-92, which had been caused by economic overheating, depressed
foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between
Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had
been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finns voted in an
October 1994 referendum to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined
the Union on 1 January 1995. Attempts to cut the unacceptably high
rate of unemployment and increasing integration with Western Europe
will dominate the economic picture over the next few years. Despite
high unemployment and moderate GDP growth of 3.9% anticipated for
1998, inflation is forecast to rise to 2.5%

GDP: purchasing power parity-$102.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.6% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$20,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 37%
services: 56% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.533 million
by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%,
finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and
forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

Unemployment rate: 14.6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $33 billion
expenditures: $40 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 14.143 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 58.626 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 13,181 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle;
annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value: $38.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
partners: EU 46.5% (Germany 13.4%, UK 10.4%), Sweden 10.1%, US 6.7%,
Japan 2.6%, Russia 4.8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $29.3 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and
fabrics, fodder grains
partners: EU 44% (Germany 16.6%, UK 8.0%), Sweden 11.7%, US 7.1%,
Russia 7.1%, Japan 6.3% (1995)

Debt-external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $355 million (1993)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1-5.4948 (January 19987), 5.1914
(1997), 4.5936 (1996), 4.3667 (1995), 5.2235 (1994), 5.7123 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2.5 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: good service from cable and microwave radio relay
network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations-access to
Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note-Finland shares the
Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.98 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 235

Televisions: 1.92 million (1995 est.)

@Finland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,859 km
broad gauge: 5,859 km 1.524-m gauge (2,073 km electrified; 480 km
double- or more-track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 77,782 km
paved: 49,780 km (including 431 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,002 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable
for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu,
Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,069,794 GRT/1,127,087
DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 11,
passenger 1, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 34, short-sea
passenger 11 (1997 est.)

Airports: 158 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 69
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 89
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 84 (1997 est.)

@Finland:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea
Guard)

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,286,563 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,059,657 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 33,492 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.9 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.6% (1995)

@Finland:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for Latin American cocaine
for the West European market

______________________________________________________________________

FRANCE

@France:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 547,030 sq km
land: 545,630 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
note: includes only metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,892.4 km
border countries: Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy
488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573
km

Coastline: 3,427 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment-current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air
pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from
urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: largest West European nation; occasional strong, cold,
dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral

@France:People

Population: 58,804,944 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,674,417; female 5,411,685)
15-64 years: 65% (male 19,243,919; female 19,182,933)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,759,565; female 5,532,425) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.31% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 11.68 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.12 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.51 years
male: 74.6 years
female: 82.62 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African,
Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1980 est.)

@France:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique Francaise
local short form: France

Data code: FR

Government type: republic

National capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular-region);
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the
"territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into
96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the overseas
territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
suggestion of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May
2002); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot-Jacques CHIRAC 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN 47.36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (321 seats-296 for metropolitan France, 13 for
overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to
serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are
elected under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year
terms)
elections: Senate-last held 24 September 1995 (next to be held
September 1998); National Assembly-last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next
to be held NA May 2002)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-RPR 94, UDF 127, PS 75, PCF 15, other 10; National
Assembly-percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party-PS 245, RPR
140, UDF 109, PCF 37, PRS 13, Ecologists 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1,
various left 9, various right 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation, judges
are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of
the Judiciary; Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel,
three members appointed by the president, three members appointed by
the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the
president of the Senate; Council of State or Conseil d'Etat

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Philippe
SEGUIN]; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of PR, FD, RAD,
PPDF) [Francois LEOTARD]; Democratie Liberale or DL [Alain MADELIN];
Democratic Force or FD [Francois BAYROU]; Socialist Party or PS
[Francois HOLLANDE]; Communist Party or PCF [Robert HUE]; National
Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; The Greens [Jean-Luc BENNAHMIAS];
Generation Ecology or GE [Brice LALONDE]; Citizens Movement or MDC
[Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT]; National Center of Independents and
Peasants or CNIP [Oliver d'ORMESSON]; Radical Socialist Party or PRS
(previously the Left Radical Movement or MRG) [Jean-Michel BAYLET];
Movement for France or LDI-MPF [Philippe DEVILLIERS]; Mouvement des
Reformateurs [Jean-Pierre SOISSON]; Mouvement Ecologiste Independant
[Jenevieve ANDUEZA]; Parti Populaire Pour la Democratie Francaise or
PPDF [Herve de CHARETTE]; Parti Radical [Thierry CORNILLET]; Adherents
Directs [Pierre-Andre WILTZER]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members
(est.); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1 million members
(est.); independent white-collar union or Confederation Generale des
Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or CNPF or Patronat

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN,
EAPC, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ,
G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UNRWA,
UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Felix G. ROHATYN
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design
and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of
Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official
flag for all French dependent areas

@France:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the four West European trillion-dollar
economies, France matches a growing services sector with a diversified
industrial base and substantial agricultural resources. Services now
account for more than 70% of GDP, while industry generates about
one-quarter of GDP and more than 80% of export earnings. The
government retains considerable influence over key segments of each
sector, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and
telecommunication firms. It nevertheless has been slowly relaxing its
control over these sectors since the early 1990s, most recently
selling 23% of France Telecom. The government also plans to sell its
stakes in Air France and in the insurance, banking, and defense
industries. Meanwhile, large tracts of fertile land, the application
of modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make France the
leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. A major exporter of
wheat and dairy products, France is virtually self-sufficient in
agriculture. The economy expanded by 2.3% last year, following a 1.3%
gain in 1996. Persistently high unemployment still poses a major
problem for the government, however, as does the need to control
government spending to keep the economy internationally competitive
and meet membership qualifications for the European Economic and
Monetary Union (EMU) which is slated to introduce a common European
currency in January 1999. Succeeding governments have shied away from
cutting exceptionally generous social welfare benefits or the enormous
state bureaucracy, preferring to pare defense spending and raise taxes
to keep the deficit down. The JOSPIN administration has pledged both
to lower unemployment and bring France into EMU, pinning its hopes for
new jobs on economic growth and on legislation to gradually reduce the
workweek from 39 to 35 hours by 2002.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.32 trillion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$22,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 26.5%
services: 71.1% (1994)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 25.5 million
by occupation: services 69%, industry 26%, agriculture 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 12.4% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $222 billion
expenditures: $265 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 102.94 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 467.541 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,841 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; beef, dairy products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks
among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Exports:
total value: $275 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles
and clothing
partners: Germany 17%, Italy 9%, UK 9%, Spain 8%, Belgium-Luxembourg
8%, US 6%, Netherlands 4.5%, Japan 2%, Russia 0.7% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $256 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products
partners: Germany 17%, Italy 10%, US 9%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8%, UK 8%,
Spain 7%, Netherlands 5%, Japan 3%, China 2% (1997 est.)

Debt-external: $117.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $7.915 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 35 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive
introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (with total of 5
antennas-2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications
with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave
0

Radios: 49 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters)
note: Eutelsat receive-only TV service

Televisions: 29.3 million (1993 est.)

@France:Transportation

Railways:
total: 32,027 km
standard gauge: 31,928 km 1.435-m gauge; 31,940 km are operated by
French National Railways (SNCF); 13,805 km of SNCF routes are
electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked
narrow gauge: 99 km 1.000-m gauge
note: does not include 33 tourist railroads, totaling 469 km, many
being of very narrow gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 892,500 km
paved: 892,500 km (including 9,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural
gas 24,746 km

Ports and harbors: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La
Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen,
Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine:
total: 62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,528,107 GRT/2,354,235
DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 5, chemical tanker 8, combination bulk 1,
container 6, liquefied gas tanker 4, multi-function large load carrier
1, oil tanker 18, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea
passenger 6, specialized tanker 1
note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships
in Iles Kerguelen (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) (1997 est.)

Airports: 473 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 266
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 95
914 to 1,523 m: 73
under 914 m: 56 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 207
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 75
under 914 m: 129 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@France:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Marines), Navy (includes Naval Air),
Air Force (includes Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 14,739,065 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 12,264,824 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 407,794 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $47.7 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.5% (1995)

@France:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Suriname
claims part of French Guiana; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie
Land); Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by
France and Vanuatu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of South American
cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH GUIANA

(overseas department of France)

@French Guiana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 91,000 sq km
land: 89,150 sq km
water: 1,850 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,183 km
border countries: Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 83%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
thunderstorms; flooding

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana:People

Population: 162,547 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 26,003; female 24,840)
15-64 years: 64% (male 56,034; female 47,250)
65 years and over: 5% (male 4,245; female 4,175) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.4% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.73 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.53 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 14.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.48 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.34 years
male: 73.12 years
female: 79.71 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)
adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic groups: black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese,
Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83%
male: 84%
female: 82% (1982 est.)

@French Guiana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Guiana
conventional short form: French Guiana
local long form: none
local short form: Guyane

Data code: FG

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Dominique VIAN (since NA January 1997)
head of government: President of the General Council Stephan PHINERA
(since NA March 1994); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM
(since NA March 1992)
cabinet: NA
elections: representative of the French Government appointed by the
president of France on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior;
presidents of the General and Regional Councils are appointed by the
members of those councils, who vote on party lines

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Council or Conseil Regional (31 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council-last held 20-27 March 1994 (next to be held
NA 2000); Regional Council-last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA
1998)
election results: General Council-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party-PSG 8, FDG 4, RPR 1, other left 2, other right 2, other 2;
Regional Council - percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PSG 16,
FDG 10, RPR 2, independents 3
note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 24 September 1989
(next to be held NA September 1998); results-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-RDSE 1; 2 seats were elected to the French
National Assembly on 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RPR 1, PSG 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court
based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and
French Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party or PSG [Leone
MICHOTTE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jean BART] (may be a subset of PSG);
Nationalist Popular Party of Guyana (Parti Nationaliste Populaire
Guiana) or PNPG [Jose DORCY]; Union of Social Democrats (Union des
Socialistes Democates) or USD [Leon BERTRAND] (umbrella group of RPR
and UDF); Rally for the Republic or RPR [Leon BERTRAND]; Union for
French Democracy or UDF [R. CHOW-CHINE]; Guyana Democratic Forces or
FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Walwari Committee [Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON];
Action Democrate Guiana or ADG [Andre LECANTE]; Democratic and
European Rally of the Senate or RDSE

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@French Guiana:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France
through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at
Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic
activities, with exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp)
accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1992. The large
reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export.
Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area, where the
population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent
on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem,
particularly among younger workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$800 million (1993 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,000 (1993 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.5% (1992)

Labor force:
total: 46,300 (1993)
by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry
21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate: 24.1% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $176 million
expenditures: $350 million, including capital expenditures of $92
million (1994)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum,
gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 165,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 420 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,890 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, vegetables, bananas,
sugar; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports:
total value: $81 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: shrimp, timber, gold, rum, rosewood essence, clothing
partners: France 60%, EU 7%

Imports:
total value: $605 million (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: food (grains, processed meat), machinery and transport
equipment, fuels and chemicals
partners: France 62%, Germany 4%, Belgium-Luxembourg 4%, US 2%

Debt-external: $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1-6.0836 (January 1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 31,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair open wire and microwave radio relay system
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 79,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 22,000 (1992 est.)

@French Guiana:Transportation

Railways: 0 km (1995)

Highways:
total: 1,817 km (national 432 km, departmental 385 km, community 1,000
km)
paved: 727 km
unpaved: 1,090 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and
coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

Ports and harbors: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 11 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

@French Guiana:Military

Military branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 46,136 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 29,878 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@French Guiana:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani
and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption;
minor transshipment point to Europe

______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH POLYNESIA

(overseas territory of France)

@French Polynesia:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 140 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 4,167 sq km (118 islands and atolls)
land: 3,660 sq km
water: 507 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Orohena 2,241 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French
Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
Pacific Ocean-the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Nauru

@French Polynesia:People

Population: 237,844 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 40,264; female 38,770)
15-64 years: 62% (male 77,011; female 71,100)
65 years and over: 5% (male 5,347; female 5,352) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.67 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.67 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.25 years
male: 69.87 years
female: 74.75 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Polynesian(s)
adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 14 and over can read and write, but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98% (1977 est.)

@French Polynesia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia
conventional short form: French Polynesia
local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
local short form: Polynesie Francaise

Data code: FP

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1946

Government type: NA

National capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des
Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent,
and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French
Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE
(since NA 1994)
head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French
Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of the
Territorial Assembly Justin ARAPARI (since 13 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of
the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
elections: high commissioner appointed by the president of France on
the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the
Territorial Government and the president of the Territorial Assembly
are elected by the members of the assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee
Territoriale (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 May 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-People's
Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 22, Polynesian Liberation Front 10,
New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 24 September 1989
(next to be held NA September 1998); results-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-UC 1; two seats were elected to the French
National Assembly on 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
results-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-People's Rally for
the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First
Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law
or Tribunal Administratif

Political parties and leaders: People's Rally for the Republic
(Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]; Polynesian Union Party
(includes Te Tiarama and Pupu Here Ai'a Party) [Jean JUVENTIN];
Independent Front for the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira)
[Oscar TEMARU]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON];
Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa) [Jacques DROLLET]; Te Aratia Ote
Nunaa (Tinomana Ebb); Haere i Mua [Alexandre LEONTIEFF]; Te e'a No
Maohi Nui [Jean-Marius RAAPOTO]; Pupu Taina [Michel LAW]; Entente
Polynesian [Arthur CHUNG]; Centrist Union or UC

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,
ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white
band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave
pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the upper
half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave pattern;
the French flag is used for official occasions

@French Polynesia:Economy

Economy-overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel
in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy
to one in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed
by the military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for
about 20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.
The small manufacturing sector primarily processes agricultural
products. The territory will continue to benefit from a five-year
(1994-98) development agreement with France aimed principally at
creating new jobs.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$1.76 billion (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.5% (1994)

Labor force:
total: 118,744 (of which 70,044 are employed) (1988)
by occupation: agriculture 13%, industry 19%, services 68% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $636 million
expenditures: $643 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 79,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 330 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,500 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits; poultry,
beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $245 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: cultured pearls 53.8%, coconut products, mother-of-pearl,
vanilla, shark meat (1992)
partners: France 33%, US 8.5% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $967 million (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners: France 44.7%, US 13.9% (1994)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1-110.60 (January 1998), 106.11 (1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995),
100.94 (1994), 102.96 (1993); note-linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 33,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 116,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 35,000 (1992 est.)

@French Polynesia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 792 km
paved: 792 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT
ships by type: passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 43 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 11 (1997 est.)

@French Polynesia:Military

Military branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
Gendarmerie

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@French Polynesia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS

(overseas territory of France)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Geography

Location: south of Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about
equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note-French
Southern and Antarctic Lands includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul,
Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along
with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US
does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 S, 67 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 7,781 sq km
land: 7,781 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles
Kerguelen; excludes "Adelie Land" claim of about 500,000 sq km in
Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Area-comparative: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Ross on Kerguelen 1,850 m

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
volcanoes

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there were 101 (1997) mostly researchers whose numbers vary from
winter (July) to summer (January)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic
Lands
conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands
local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques
Francaises
local short form: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

Data code: FS

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1955;
administered from Paris by a high commissioner of the Republic

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there

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