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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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males age 15-49: 98,960 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 50,308 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.5 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Equatorial Guinea:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because
of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay; maritime boundary
dispute with Nigeria because of disputed jurisdiction over oil-rich
areas in the Gulf of Guinea

______________________________________________________________________

ERITREA

Introduction

Historical perspective: On 29 May 1991, ISAIAS Afworki, secretary
general of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which
then served as the country's legislative body, announced the formation
of the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the
23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region
of Eritrea; the referendum resulted in a landslide vote for
independence, which was proclaimed on 27 April 1993.

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 121,320 sq km
land: 121,320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,630 km
border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Kobar Sink -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,013 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil and
natural gas (petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 48%
forests and woodland: 20%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest
shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia
along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27 April
1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 3,842,436 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 826,686; female 818,323)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,026,922; female 1,042,156)
65 years and over: 3% (male 66,222; female 62,127) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.39% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 12.57 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: it is estimated that between 200,000 and 350,000 Eritrean
refugees were still living in Sudan in mid-1997

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.51 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.31 years
male: 53.19 years
female: 57.51 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.99 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, minor
ethnic group languages

Literacy: NA

@Eritrea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government
note: following a successful referendum on independence for the
Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly,
composed entirely of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice or
PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional
Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS
Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature

National capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular-awraja); Akele Guzay,
Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye
note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating
that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been
established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six
provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, would go into
effect some time in 1998; the new provinces, the names of which had
not been recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for
recognition by the US government, pending acceptable definition of the
boundaries, were: Anseba, Debub, Debubawi Keyih Bahri, Gash-Barka,
Maakel, and Semanawi Keyih Bahri; more recently, it has been reported
that these provinces have been redesignated regions and renamed
Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Anseba, Gash-Barka, Southern, and
Central

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
(1993)

Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993,
was replaced by a new constitution that was promulgated in May 1997

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note-the transitional constitution of 19 May 1993 did
not provide rules for suffrage, but it seems likely that the final
version of the constitution, which may be promulgated some time in
1998, will follow the example set in the referendum of 1993 and extend
suffrage to all persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
note: the president is head of the State Council and National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last
held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
limits not established)
elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new
constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old
Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member
Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and
ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans
living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to
serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections
to a National Assembly are held in 1998; only 75 members will be
elected to the National Assembly-the other 75 will be members of the
Central Committee of the PFDJ

Judicial branch: Judiciary the Supreme Court; 10 provincial courts; 29
district courts

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS
Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean
Liberation Front-United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said NAWUD];
Eritrean Liberation Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC [Ahmed
NASSER]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Semere RUSSOM
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991
FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate William CLARK
embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara
mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX: [291] (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is
green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive
branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea:Economy

Economy-overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993,
Eritrea faced the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately
poor African country. The economy is largely based on subsistence
agriculture, with over 70% of the population involved in farming and
herding. The small industrial sector consists mainly of light
industries with outmoded technologies. Domestic output (GDP) is
substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government
revenues come from custom duties and taxes on income and sales. Road
construction is a top domestic priority. Eritrea has inherited the
entire coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for revenues
from the development of offshore oil fields, offshore fishing, and
tourism. Eritrea's economic future depends on its ability to master
fundamental social and economic problems, e.g., overcoming illiteracy,
promoting job creation, expanding technical training, attracting
foreign investment, and streamlining the bureaucracy.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$2.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.8% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$600 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 20%
services: 62% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $226 million
expenditures: $453 million, including capital expenditures of $88
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 73,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton,
tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope); livestock (including goats);
fish

Exports:
total value: $71 million (1996 est.)
commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures
partners: Ethiopia 67%, Sudan 10%, Saudi Arabia 4%, US 3%, Italy,
Yemen (1996)

Imports:
total value: $499 million (1996 est.)
commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products
partners: Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Italy, United Arab Emirates

Debt-external: $162 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 nafka = 100 cents

Exchange rates: nakfa per US$1 = 7.2 (March 1998 est.)
note: following independence from Ethiopia, Eritrea continued to use
Ethiopian currency until late in 1997 when Eritrea issued its own
currency, the nakfa, at approximately the same rate as the birr, i.e.,
7.2 nakfa per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most
of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to
improve the system
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled)

Televisions: NA

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 307 km
narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.)
note: nonoperational since 1978 except for about a 5 km stretch that
was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and
of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly
Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)

Highways:
total: 4,010 km
paved: 874 km
unpaved: 3,136 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,516 GRT/5,747 DWT
ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 20 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Eritrea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $40 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Eritrea:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: a dispute with Yemen over sovereignty of the
Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to
arbitration under the auspices of the ICJ; a decision on the Islands
is expected in mid-1998

______________________________________________________________________

ESTONIA

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont
combined

Land boundaries:
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with
neighboring states
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber,
cambrian blue clay

Land use:
arable land: 22%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 36% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment-current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide
from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of
soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former
Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade
lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected
by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,421,335 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 136,278; female 131,480)
15-64 years: 67% (male 456,796; female 492,946)
65 years and over: 14% (male 66,261; female 137,574) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.99% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 9.04 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.15 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.98 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.52 years
male: 62.5 years
female: 74.83 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 64.2%, Russian 28.7%, Ukrainian 2.7%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.9% (1995)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox,
others include Baptist, Methodist, 7th Day Adventist, Roman Catholic,
Pentecostal, Word of Life, 7th Day Baptist, Judaism

Languages: Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1989 est.)

@Estonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular-maakond):
Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa
(Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa
(Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla),
Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa
(Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Mart SIIMANN (since 12 March 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he
or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of
balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between
the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last
held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister
nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Lennart MERI elected president by an electoral
assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI
and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote-Lennert MERI 61%,
Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K
14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and
Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats by party-KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8,
Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court, chairman appointed by the Parliament
for life

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU
[Mart SIIMAN, chairman] made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party or EK,
Country People's Party [Arnold RUUTEL, chairman]/Farmer's Assembly or
EME, Rural Union or EM [Arvo SIRENDI, chairman] , and Pensioners' and
Families' League or EPPL [Mai TREIAL, chairperson]; Reform Party or RE
[Siim KALLAS, chairman]; Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman];
Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Toivo
JURGENSON, chairman]; National Independence Party or ERSP [Tunne
KELAM, chairman]; Our Home is Estonia [Viktor ANDREJEV] made up of two
parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian Party of Estonia;
note-Our Home is Estonia split when two Russian Party of Estonia
members withdrew; United Peoples Party [Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman];
Russian Party of Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV, chairman]; Moderates or M
[Andres TARAND] made up of two parties: Social Democratic Party or
ESDP and Rural Center Party or EMK; Social Democratic Party [Eiki
NESTOR, chairman]; Rural Center Party [Vambo KAAL, chairman];
Right-Wingers [Ulo NUGIS, chairman]; Republican Conservative [Vootele
HANSEN]; Development/Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN, chairwoman],
note-party was created by defectors from Center Party in late spring
1996, Development Party faction split and now holds five independent
seats

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNTSO,
UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Grigore-Kalev STOICESCU
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Walter
ANDRUSYSZYU
embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
mailing address: American Embassy Tallinn; PSC 78, Box T; APO AE 09723
telephone: [372] (6) 312-021
FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May
1990-three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997 Estonia's continued implementation of market
economic reforms, disciplined fiscal and monetary policies, and a
liberal free trade regime resulted in GDP growth of 10% and a drop in
inflation to 11.2%. Estonia can point to its inclusion among the first
group of Central and East European countries to begin EU accession
talks in 1998 as its most significant economic achievement in 1997.
Other economic strengths include solid investment grade rating from
both Standard and Poors and Moody's, government revenue collection in
excess of projections by more than 6%, growth in exports at a faster
rate than imports, and record levels of foreign direct investment,
among the highest per capita in Central and East Europe. Estonia
privatized its shipping company in 1997, but failed to make as much
progress privatizing other large infrastructure/utility companies,
such as Eesti Energia and the Oil Shale company, which it plans to
privatize in the next two years. The growing current account deficit,
which stood at nearly 10% of GDP at yearend 1997, remains a serious
concern. In 1998, GDP is expected to grow by 5.5% and inflation to
fall 10%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$9.34 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 10% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,450 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.1%
industry: 24.9%
services: 68% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 785,000 (1996 est.)
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
20%, other 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.7 billion
expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $214
million (1996 est.)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 3.287 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 8.083 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,355 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: textiles 16%, food products 16%, machinery and equipment
16%, metals 9% (1995)
partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Latvia (1995)

Imports:
total value: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 29%, foodstuffs 14%, minerals
13%, textiles 13%, metals 12% (1995)
partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany (1995)

Debt-external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $147 million (1993)
note: Western commitments $285 million (including international
financial institutions)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August
1992)

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1-14.527 (January 1998), 13.882
(1997), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223 (1993);
note-krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8
to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 400,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: system is antiquated; improvements are being made
piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international
connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for
subscriber service
domestic: substantial investment has been made in cellular systems
which are operational throughout Estonia
international: international traffic is carried to the other former
Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international
gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic,
submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits
everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital
network via Helsinki

Radio broadcast stations: 3 commercial broadcast stations, 1
government broadcast station (1994)

Radios: 710,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1993)
note: provide Estonian programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first
and second programs

Televisions: 600,000 (1993 est.)

@Estonia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,304 km
paved: 8,142 km (including 65 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,162 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Narva, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 368,340 GRT/455,696 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 27, combination bulk 1, container 5, oil
tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 5 (1997 est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Estonia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 351,148 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 275,610 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 10,424 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $35 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% (1995)

@Estonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a
technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been
ratified; Estonia claimed over 2,000 sq km territory in the Narva and
Pechory regions of Russia-based on boundary established under the 1920
Peace Treaty of Tartu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, and cocaine from Latin America to
Western Europe and Scandinavia

______________________________________________________________________

ETHIOPIA

Introduction

Historical perspective: On 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian
government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a
new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and
regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995.

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,127,127 sq km
land: 1,119,683 sq km
water: 7,444 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,311 km
border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Denakil -125 m
highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash,
natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 25%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: landlocked-entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost
with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 58,390,351 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 13,468,783; female 13,398,500)
15-64 years: 51% (male 15,095,357; female 14,812,537)
65 years and over: 3% (male 734,471; female 880,703) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 44.69 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 21.25 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya, and Somalia
for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to
continue slowly in 1998; small numbers of Sudanese and Somali
refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting in their own
countries, began returning to their homes in 1998

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 125.65 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 40.85 years
male: 39.76 years
female: 41.97 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.88 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella
6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.5%
male: 45.5%
female: 25.3% (1995 est.)

@Ethiopia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: YeItyop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: YeItyop'iya
abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions
(astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 1 federal
capital*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benishangul/Gumaz; Gambela;
Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples;
Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu
regime)

Constitution: promulgated December 1994

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided in the December 1994
constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
approved by the Council of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by the Council of People's
Representatives for a six-year term; election last held June 1995
(next to be held NA 2001); prime minister designated by the party in
power following legislative elections
election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by
the Council of People's Representatives-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of
the Federation or upper chamber (117 seats; members are chosen by
state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the Council of People's
Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve
five-year terms); note-the upper chamber represents the ethnic
interests of the regional governments
elections: regional and national popular elections were held in May
and June 1995 (next to be held NA 2000) and the Federal Parliamentary
Assembly assumed legislative power on 21 August 1995
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-NA; note-EPRDF won nearly
all seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the national
legislature

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Oromo Liberation Front or OLF;
All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's
Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed
since MENGISTU'S defeat, including several Islamic militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David H. SHINN
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] (1) 550666
FAX: [251] (1) 552191

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from
the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the
three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and
the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African
countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African
colors

@Ethiopia:Economy

Economy-overview: Ethiopia remains one of the poorest and least
developed countries in the world. Its economy is based on agriculture,
which accounts for more than half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of
total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor
cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security
conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs
from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but
less than 10% of agriculture, is state-run. The government is
considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants and is
implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the
economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads,
water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected
during years of civil strife.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$29 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$530 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 55%
industry: 12%
services: 33% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 0% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and
services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1 billion
expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415
million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 464,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.143 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 20 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
potatoes, other vegetables; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $418 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, leather products, gold (1995)
partners: Germany 32%, Japan 14%, Djibouti 7%, Saudi Arabia 8%, Italy
8% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $1.23 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles and aircraft (1994)
partners: Saudi Arabia 15%, Italy 11%, US 12.3%, Germany 8% (1994)

Debt-external: $5.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of period)-6.9530 (February
1998), 6.8080 (September 1997), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500
(1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93)
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

Communications

Telephones: 100,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate
for government use
domestic: open wire and microwave radio relay
international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.9 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Ethiopia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to
revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals

Highways:
total: 28,500 km
paved: 4,275 km
unpaved: 24,225 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked but by agreement with
Eritrea may use the ports of Assab and Massawa

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 73,775 GRT/98,279 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 (1997
est.)

Airports: 86 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 76
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 20 (1997 est.)

@Ethiopia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police
note: following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia's naval facilities
remained in Eritrea's possession; current reorganization plans do not
include a navy

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 13,240,029 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 6,900,452 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 630,087 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $126 million (budget for FY97/98)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Ethiopia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: most of the southern half of the boundary with
Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with
Somalia over the Ogaden

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat)
for local use and regional export

______________________________________________________________________

EUROPA ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Europa Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28 sq km
land: 28 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a small French military garrison

@Europa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Europa Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Europa Island:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

Communications

Communications-note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Europa Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Europa Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________

FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
(dependent territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 12,173 sq km
land: 12,173 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
about 200 small islands

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 99%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 1% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors;
short growing season

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):People

Population: 2,805 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: English

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Data code: FA

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK, also claimed by
Argentina

Government type: NA

National capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK, also
claimed by Argentina)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK, also claimed by
Argentina)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985; amended 1997

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor Richard RALPH (since 29 January 1996);
Chief Executive A. GURR (since NA); First Secretary R. T. JARVIS
(since NA)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative
Council, two ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial
secretary), and the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats, 8
elected, 2 ex officio; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held NA October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2002)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is non-resident

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered
on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram
(sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship
Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Economy

Economy-overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture,
mainly sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of the
work force. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish
winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK
and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So
far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been
unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987, when the
government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone; overfishing is
a growing problem. These license fees total more than $40 million per
year and support the island's health, education, and welfare system.
To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development Corporation has
built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and
trout fishing. The islands are now self-financing except for defense.
The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration
zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest
substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day. An
agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse
licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest
in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,100 (est.)
by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

Unemployment rate: full employment; labor shortage

Budget:
revenues: $53.4 million
expenditures: $53.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994-95 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 9,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 10 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,316 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep farming, small
dairy herds

Exports:
total value: $7.6 million (1995)
commodities: wool, hides, meat
partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports:
total value: $24.7 million (1995)
commodities: fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing
partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan (1992)

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: UK, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments totaled $18 million
(1993-94)

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (F) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (F) per US$1-0.6115 (January 1998),
0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658
(1993); note-the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 1,180 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB
radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points
on both islands
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Televisions: NA

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 348 km
paved: 83 km
unpaved: 265 km

Ports and harbors: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Military

Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army,
Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claimed by Argentina

______________________________________________________________________

FAROE ISLANDS

(part of the Kingdom of Denmark)

@Faroe Islands:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1,399 sq km
land: 1,399 sq km
water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area-comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one
uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically
located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic;
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

Population: 41,834 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 4,971; female 4,777)
15-64 years: 62% (male 13,896; female 12,034)
65 years and over: 15% (male 2,759; female 3,397) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.72% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.08 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.84 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -21.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.43 years
male: 75.53 years
female: 81.45 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.36 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA
note: similar to Denmark proper

@Faroe Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Faroe Islands
local long form: none
local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1948

Government type: NA

National capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark;
self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bente KLINTE, chief administrative
officer (since NA)
head of government: Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since NA May
1998)
cabinet: Landsstyri elected by the Faroese Parliament
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; high commissioner
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister
by the Faroese Parliament; election last held NA 1994 (next to be held
NA 1998)
election results: Edmund JOENSEN elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - 23.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32
seats; members are elected on a proportional basis from the seven
constituencies to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held by NA July 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-Republicans 23.8%, People's
Party 21.3%, Social Democrats 21.9%, Coalition Party (Union Party,
Labor Front, Home Rule Party) 15%; seats by party-Republicans 8,
People's Party 8, Social Democrats 7, Coalition Party 6, other parties
3
note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 21
September 1994 (next to be held by September 1998); results-percent of
vote by party - Unionist Party 22.5%, People's Party 21.7%; seats by
party-Unionist Party 1, People's Party 1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Joannes
EIDESGAARD]; Workers' Party [Alis JACOBSEN]; Home Rule Party [Helena
Dam A NEYSTABO]; Unionist Party [Edmund JOENSEN]; Republican Party
[Heini O. HEINESEN]; Center Party [Tordur NICLASEN]; Christian
People's Party [Niels Pauli DANIELSEN]; People's Party [Arnfinn
KALLSBERG]

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: The Faroese economy in 1995 and 1996 saw a
noticeable upturn after several years of decline brought on by a drop
in fish catches and declining prices and by over-spending by the
Faroese Home Rule Government (FHRG). In the early 1990s, property
values plummeted, and the FHRG had to bail out and merge the two
largest Faroese banks. Fishing is now improving; wage costs are
increasing; the FHRG's budget is almost in balance; and the large
foreign debt has come down significantly. Nevertheless, the total
dependence on fishing makes the Faroese economy extremely vulnerable,
and the reduction in the foreign debt is at the cost of low
investment. Oil finds close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits
in the immediate Faroese area, which may lay the basis for an eventual
economic rebound. The Faroese are supported by a substantial annual
subsidy from Denmark.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$800 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$16,300 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 16%
services: 64% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 20,345 (1995 est.)
by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

Unemployment rate: 11% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $467 million
expenditures: $468 million, including capital expenditures of $11
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 91,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 200 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 4,092 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon
farming; fish

Exports:
total value: $362 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: fish and fish products 92%, animal feedstuffs, transport
equipment (ships)
partners: Denmark 22.2%, UK 25.8%, Germany 9.7%, France 8.3%, Norway
6.2%, US 2.0%

Imports:
total value: $315.6 (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 17.0%, consumer goods
33%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 26.9%, fuels 11.4%, fish and
salt 6.7%
partners: Denmark 34.5%, Norway 15.9%, UK 8.4% Germany 7.8%, Sweden
5.8%, US 1.5%

Debt-external: $767 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $150
million (1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1-6.916 (January 1998),
6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1966), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 26,000 of which about 3,500 are mobile telephones (1996)

Telephone system: good international communications; good domestic
facilities
domestic: digitalization to be completed in 1998
international: satellite earth stations-1 Orion; 1 optical fiber
submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 13), shortwave 0

Radios: 11,800 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 45)

Televisions: 11,600 (1996 est.)

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 458 km
paved: 450 km
unpaved: 8 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik, Fuglafjorour

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,853 GRT/13,481 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Faroe Islands:Military

Military branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark

@Faroe Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

FIJI

@Fiji:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 18,270 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

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