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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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Europe; minor cannabis producer

______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 48,730 sq km
land: 48,380 sq km
water: 350 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 275 km
border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)

Environment-current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea
damages coral reefs; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 7,998,766 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 1,435,698; female 1,382,377)
15-64 years: 60% (male 2,452,310; female 2,379,991)
65 years and over: 5% (male 165,602; female 182,788) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.42 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.73 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 44.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.73 years
male: 67.53 years
female: 72.04 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.1%
male: 82%
female: 82.2% (1995 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: republic

National capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco,
Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte
Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago,
Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age
note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996;
runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)
election results: President FERNANDEZ elected to his first term;
percent of vote-Leonel FERNANDEZ (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA
Gomez (PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 30 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998);
Chamber of Deputies-last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA May
1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-PRSC 15, PLD 1, PRD 14; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party - PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
a Council made up of legislative and executive members with the
president presiding

Political parties and leaders:
major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo]; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Lidio CADET];
Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Jose Franciso PENA Gomez];
Independent Revolutionary Party or PRI
minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC [Juan Rene
BEAUCHAMPS Javier]; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD
[Andres Van Der HORST]; Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD [Elias
WESSIN Chavez]; National Progressive Force or FNP [Pelegrin CASTILLO];
Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert]; Dominican
Communist Party or PCD [Narciso ISA Conde]; Dominican Workers' Party
or PTD [Ivan RODRIGUEZ]; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union or UPA
[Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini]; Alliance for Democracy Party or APD
[Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA];
Democratic Union or UD [Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert]
note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain
individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo VEGA Boyrie
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280, 6281
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041
telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171, 221-8100
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges,
divides the flag into four rectangles-the top ones are blue (hoist
side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small
coat of arms is at the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic:Economy

Economy-overview: Economic reforms launched in late 1994 contributed
to exchange rate stabilization, reduced inflation, and strong GDP
growth in 1995-96. In 1996, there was increased mineral and petroleum
exploration, and a new investment law that allows for repatriation of
capital dividends has drawn more investment to the island. Upon coming
to power in August 1996, President FERNANDEZ nevertheless inherited a
trouble-ridden economy hampered by a pressured peso, a large external
debt, nearly bankrupt state-owned enterprises, and a manufacturing
sector hindered by daily power outages. In December, FERNANDEZ
presented a bold economic reform package-including such reforms as the
devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in sales
taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline prices-in an
attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can compete
internationally. Even though reforms are moving ahead at a slow pace,
the economy grew vigorously in 1997, with tourism and
telecommunications leading the advance. The government is working to
increase electric generating capacity, a key to continued economic
growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$38.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 22%
services: 63% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10.9% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation: agriculture 50%, services and government 32%, industry
18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2 billion
expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $994
million (1996 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.447 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 6.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 865 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice,
beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, meat,
eggs

Exports:
total value: $815 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners: US 45%, EU 34%, Canada, Japan, Puerto Rico (1995)

Imports:
total value: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals
partners: US 44%, EU 16%, Venezuela 11%, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico,
Japan (1995)

Debt-external: $3.6 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $21 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1-14.332 (December 1997),
14.265 (1997), 13.775 (1996), 13.597 (1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.676
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
radio relay network
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station-1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 757 km
standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway); 240
km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m,
1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
total: 12,600 km
paved: 6,224 km
unpaved: 6,376 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 15 (1997 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,119,278 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,332,971 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 80,784 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $116 million (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1994)

@Dominican Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US through Puerto Rico

______________________________________________________________________

ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 56%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,336,572 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 2,253,920; female 2,175,402)
15-64 years: 60% (male 3,636,637; female 3,725,766)
65 years and over: 4% (male 254,432; female 290,415) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 23.16 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.8 years
male: 69.19 years
female: 74.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 55%, Amerindian
25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 92%
female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

National capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo,
Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los
Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February
1997); Vice President Pedro AGUAYO (since 1 April 1998); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February
1997); Vice President Pedro AGUAYO (since 1 April 1998); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
note: in an unusual, out of cycle change in executive power, Congress
on 11 February 1997 elected then Congress President ALARCON to be
Interim President until August 1998 after ousting former President
BUCARAM because of "mental incapacity"; ARTEAGA remained vice
president until March 1998
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 19 May 1996;
runoff election held 7 July 1996; note-because of the February 1997
unusual change in executive power, the next presidential elections
will take place 31 May 1998
election results: runoff election; percent of vote-Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz 54%, Jaime NEBOT 46%; note-in February 1997, Congress elected
ALARCON to be Interim President until August 1998, with 57 of 82
Congressmen voting in favor of him

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
(82 seats; 12 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to
serve four-year terms; 70 members are popularly elected by province
for two-year terms)
elections: last held 19 May 1996 (next to be held 31 May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PSC 27,
PRE 19, DP 12, P-NP 8, ID 4, FRA 3, MPD 2, PCE 2, CFP 1, independents
and other 4; note - defections by members of congress are commonplace,
resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the
various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Center-Right parties: Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT
Saadi, president]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Freddy BRAVO]
Center-Left parties: Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos,
leader]; Popular Democracy or DP [Jamil MAHUAD, leader]; Radical
Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosista Party or
PRE [Abdala BUCARAM, leader]
Leftist parties: Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [leader NA]
Populist parties: Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz,
director]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM,
leader]; Popular Revolutionary Action or APRE [Frank VARGAS Passos,
leader]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Freddy EHLERS]
Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Juan Jose
CASTELLO, leader]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
MINUGUA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto Federico MASPONS GUZMAN
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Newark

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie ALEXANDER
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre and Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone: [593] (2) 562-890
FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center
of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does
not bear a coat of arms

@Ecuador:Economy

Economy-overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. As an exporter of primary products such as oil,
bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a
substantial domestic impact. Growth has been uneven in recent years as
the government has repeatedly initiated ill-conceived fiscal
stabilization measures. The populist government of Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz proposed a major currency reform in 1996, but popular discontent
with new austerity measures and rampant official corruption undermined
his government's position. Congress replaced BUCARAM with Fabian
ALARCON in February 1997. ALARCON has adopted a minimalist economic
program that puts off major decisions until the next elected
government takes office in August 1998. Ecuador joined the World Trade
Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its
accession commitments. Growth slowed to 2.0% in 1996, due to a lack of
investment caused by political uncertainty and high domestic interest
rates, but economic activity picked up in 1997. Exports and economic
growth in 1998 may be adversely affected by lower world oil prices
and, to a smaller extent, by El Nino.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$53.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 37%
services: 51% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 31% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.2 million
by occupation: agriculture 29%, manufacturing 18%, commerce 15%,
services and other activities 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.9% with widespread underemployment (August 1997
est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.6 billion (1997)
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 2.754 million kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 9.27 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 600 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc,
plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products;
balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports:
total value: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: petroleum 30%, bananas 26%, shrimp 16%, cut flowers 2%,
fish 1.9%
partners: US 39%, Latin America 25%, EU countries 22%, Asia 12%

Imports:
total value: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery,
chemicals
partners: US 32%, EU 19%, Latin America 35%, Asia 11%

Debt-external: $12.5 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $153 million (1993)
note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other
countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1-4,498.0 (January 1998), 3,988.3
(1997), 3,189.5 (1996), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 965 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 43,249 km
paved: 5,752 km
unpaved: 37,497 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,423 GRT/137,272 DWT
ships by type: liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 3
(1997 est.)

Airports: 183 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 52
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 18 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 131
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 90 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Ecuador:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana),
National Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,168,489 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,139,516 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 127,810 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $411 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.1% (1997)

@Ecuador:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: three sections of the boundary with Peru are
in dispute

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca
originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of
coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit
narcotics; important money-laundering hub

______________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment-current issues: agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below
Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the
only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining
natural resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between
Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal,
shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size,
and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle
Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 66,050,004 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 12,173,882; female 11,637,239)
15-64 years: 60% (male 20,108,426; female 19,718,302)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,074,271; female 1,337,884) (July 1998
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.86% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.31 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 8.41 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.23 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.07 years
male: 60.09 years
female: 64.14 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.41 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.4%
male: 63.6%
female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

National capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat,
singular-muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al
Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al
Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash
Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat,
Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4
January 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year
term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular
referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993 (next to be
held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly
or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10
appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the
Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura-which functions only in a
consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly-last held 29 November 1995 (next to be
held NA 2000); Advisory Council-last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held
NA)
election results: People's Assembly-percent of vote by party-NDP 72%,
independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party-NDP 317, independents
114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1, Liberals 1;
Advisory Council-percent of vote by party-NDP 99%, independents 1%;
seats by party-NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal
opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ
AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party (SLP), Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid MUHI AL-DIN; Socialist
Liberal Party, Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party,
Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr
al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), leader NA; Nasserist Arab
Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar
AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad
'ABDAL-'AL
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade
unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer),
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM,
OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed MAHER al-Sayed
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel KURTZER
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 3557371
FAX: [20] (2) 3573200
branch office: Alexandria

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden
eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the
country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria
that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three
green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered
in the white band

@Egypt:Economy

Economy-overview: At the end of the 1980s, Egypt faced problems of low
productivity and poor economic management, compounded by the adverse
social effects of excessive population growth, high inflation, and
massive urban overcrowding. In the face of these pressures, in 1991
Egypt undertook wide-ranging macroeconomic stabilization and
structural reform measures. This reform effort has been supported by
three successive IMF arrangements, the last of which was concluded in
October 1996. Egypt's reform efforts-and its participation in the Gulf
war coalition-also led to massive debt relief under the Paris Club
arrangements. Although the pace of reform has been uneven and slower
than envisaged under the IMF programs, substantial progress has been
made in improving macroeconomic performance. Budget deficits have been
slashed while foreign reserves in 1997 were at an all-time high. And
Egypt has been moving toward a more decentralized, market-oriented
economy. These economic reforms and growing investment opportunities
have prompted increasing foreign investment, but incoming capital has
largely been concentrated in stock market portfolio flows. Egypt's
economy also has been hit by a sharp downturn in tourism-a key foreign
exchange and job producing sector-following the 17 November 1997
massacre of foreign tourists at Luxor. Although Egypt will probably
regain these revenues over time, the slump in tourism is likely to
slow the GDP growth rate in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$267.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 5.2% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,400 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 32%
services: 51% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 4.9% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 17.4 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, services, including government 38%,
industry 22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $19.2 billion
expenditures: $19.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $4
billion (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 13.04 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 48.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 778 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch
about 140,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., FY96/97 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw
cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports:
total value: $15.5 billion (c.i.f., FY96/97 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
partners: US, EU, Japan

Debt-external: $30.5 billion (1996/97 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.713 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (E) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (E) per US$1-3.4 (November 1994),
3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992); market rate-3.3880
(January 1998), 3.3880 (1997), 3.3880 (1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910
(1994), 3.3718 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 2.2 million (1993)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate
for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and
Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables;
tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel;
participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 41

Televisions: 5 million (1993 est.)

@Egypt:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,751 km
standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
double track)

Highways:
total: 64,000 km
paved: 49,984 km
unpaved: 14,016 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo
Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5
km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up
to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total: 161 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,225,989 GRT/1,899,818
DWT
ships by type: bulk 24, cargo 60, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker
15, passenger 42, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15,
short-sea passenger 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 89 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 70
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 19
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Egypt:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 17,350,925 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 11,247,896 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 683,868 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)

@Egypt:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
a barren area of 20,580 sq km

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for
Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon
and Syria

______________________________________________________________________

EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 21,040 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
water: 320 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 29%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography-note: smallest Central American country and only one without
a coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

Population: 5,752,067 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 1,088,579; female 1,042,087)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,575,806; female 1,748,250)
65 years and over: 5% (male 135,556; female 161,789) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.57% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 26.71 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.32 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.66 years
male: 66.31 years
female: 73.17 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 94%, Amerindian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the
country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.5%
male: 73.5%
female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Government type: republic

National capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan,
La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador,
Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
note: Legislative Assembly passed landmark judicial reforms in 1996

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994);
Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note-the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June
1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 20 March 1994,
with a run-off election held 24 April 1994 (next to be held NA March
1999)
election results: Armando CALDERON Sol elected president; percent of
vote-Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas
(CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%;
because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was held
and the results were as follows-Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 68.35%,
Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%,
PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%,
other 0.8%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 9, PDC 8, PRSC 3,
CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1, independent 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by
the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance or ARENA
[Alfredo CRISTIANI]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN
[Facundo GUARDADO, general coordinator]; Christian Democratic Party or
PDC [Ronal UMANA, secretary general; title in dispute]; National
Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general];
Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general];
Popular Labor Party or PPL [Jose VILANOVA, secretary general]; Liberal
Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; Social
Christian Union or USC (formed by union of the PRSC, MU, and MSN)
[Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]; Democratic Party or PD [Ana Guadeloupe
MARTINEZ, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
labor organizations: National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers
(CNTS)National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS); Federation of the
Construction Industry, Similar, Transport and other activities
(FESINCONTRANS); Salvadoran Workers Central (CTS); Port Industry Union
of El Salvador (SIPES); Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador
(SIES); Workers Union of Electrical Corporation (STCEL)
business organizations: Salvadoran Industrial Association
(ASI)Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association (ASIC); National
Association of Small Enterprise (ANEP)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rene A. LEON
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San
Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
telephone: [503] 278-4444
FAX: [503] 278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of
Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white
band-it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to
the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band

@El Salvador:Economy

Economy-overview: In 1997 the government emphasized a fixed exchange
rate, along with conservative monetary and fiscal policies to promote
foreign investment. Inflation fell to an unprecedented low of 2%.
Exports reached a record level and were the main engine of growth.
Productivity in other sectors remained weaker, however. For the last
few years, El Salvador has experienced sizable deficits in both its
trade and its fiscal accounts. The trade deficit has been offset by
remittances from the large number of Salvadorans living abroad and
from external aid. The deficit is expected to increase in 1998 as
imports continue to rise. San Salvador is stepping up its
privatization efforts in 1998 to increase revenues. Late in 1997 the
legislative assembly approved a privatization law that will facilitate
the sale of the state-owned telephone company sometime in 1998. The
government also plans to privatize pension funds later in the year.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$17.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$3,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 24%
services: 61% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 2.26 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.75 billion
expenditures: $1.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $317
million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals,
fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 900,000 kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 3.5 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 603 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture-products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed,
cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Exports:
total value: $1.96 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: coffee, sugar; shrimp; textiles
partners: US, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica, Honduras

Imports:
total value: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels
partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Japan

Debt-external: $2.6 billion (yearend 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $763 million (1996)
note: US has committed $280 million in economic assistance to El
Salvador for 1995-97 (excludes military aid)

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of period)-8.755
(January 1998-1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670 (1993)
note: as of 1 June 1990, the rate is based on the average of the
buying and selling rates, set on a weekly basis, for official receipts
and payments, imports of petroleum, and coffee exports; prior to that
date, a system of floating was in effect

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 350,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 80, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.5 million (1997 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 700,000 (1997 est.)

@El Salvador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 602 km (single track; note-some sections abandoned, unusable,
or operating at reduced capacity)
narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 9,977 km
paved: 1,985 km (including 266 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,992 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union,
Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 88 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 84
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 66 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@El Salvador:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,362,504 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 864,419 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 65,130 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $104 million (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 0.9% (1997)

@El Salvador:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly
resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
decision; the presidents of Honduras and El Salvador signed in January
1998 an agreement allowing citizens in the 1992 demarcated areas to
choose Honduran or Salvadoran citizenship; the two countries also
agreed to a final demarcation of the border within one year; the
agreement awaits ratification by the legislative assemblies of both
countries; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for
local consumption

______________________________________________________________________

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28,050 sq km
land: 28,050 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 539 km
border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Malabo 3,008 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of
gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms

Environment-current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: insular and continental regions rather widely
separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

Population: 454,001 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 97,993; female 97,470)
15-64 years: 53% (male 114,960; female 126,453)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,597; female 9,528) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.56% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.9 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 13.32 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 93.45 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.93 years
male: 51.61 years
female: 56.31 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.06 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
(primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan
practices

Languages: Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English,
Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.5%
male: 89.6%
female: 68.1% (1995 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
former: Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Government type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

National capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur,
Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: approved by national referendum 17 November 1991;
emended January 1995

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since April
1996); First Vice Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs Miguel OYONO
(since January 1998); Second Vice Prime Minister for Internal Affairs
Demetrio Elo NDONG NGEFUMU (since January 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term;
election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003)
election results: President OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected without
opposition; percent of popular vote-98%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Peoples Representatives or
Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PDGE 68,
CSDP 6, UDS 5, CLD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Brig.
Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]
opposition parties: Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS
[Santiago OBAMA, president; Placido Miko ABOGO, secretary-general];
Democratic Social Union or UDS [Camelo MODU, general secretary];
Liberal Democratic Convention or CLD [Alfonso Nsue MIFUMU, president];
Liberal Party or PL [Santos PASCUAL]; National Democratic Union or
UDENA [Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president]; National Movement of the
Liberation of Equatorial Guinea or MONALIGE [Dr. Aldolfo Obrang BIKO,
president]; Party of the Social Democratic Coalition or PCSD
[Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinator]; Party of Progress
or PP [Mocache MEINGA, interim chairman]; Popular Action of Equatorial
Guinea or APGE [Casiano Masi Edu]; Popular Union or UP [Juan BITUI,
president]; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Basilio
Ava Eworo and Domingo ABUY]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP
[Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president]; Social Democratic and Popular
Convergence or CSDP [Secundino Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary];
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga
Alene, general secretary]; Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea or
PSGE [Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE
chancery: Suite 405, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 393-0525
FAX: [1] (202) 393-0348

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations
with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde,
Cameroon

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six
yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea:Economy

Economy-overview: The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves
have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Farming,
forestry, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Subsistence
farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea
counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the
deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has
diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. A number of aid
programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off
since 1993 because of the government's gross corruption and
mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned by government
officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural resources
include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. The
country responded favorably to the devaluation of the CFA franc in
January 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$660 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 46%
industry: 33%
services: 21% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 6% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $47 million
expenditures: $43 million, including capital expenditures of $7
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 5,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 20 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 48 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca),
bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc; livestock; timber

Exports:
total value: $197 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum, timber, cocoa
partners: US 34%, Japan 17%, Spain 13%, China 13%, Nigeria

Imports:
total value: $248 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners: Cameroon 40%, Spain 18%, France 14%, US 8%

Debt-external: $254 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
African and European countries; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,820 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 2,820 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,766 GRT/84,780 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1997
est.)

Airports: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower-availability:

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