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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 12 out of 51

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Border Guard (TGF), which is controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower-military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,060,954
females age 15-49: 3,010,932 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,898,351
females: 1,861,976 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 67,200
females: 63,716 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: roughly 4% (1995 est.)

Military-note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

@Cuba:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: territory serves as lesser transshipment zone for
cocaine bound for the US

______________________________________________________________________

CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 9,250 sq km (note-3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot area)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area-comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 13%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment-current issues: water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall; sea water
intrusion to island's largest aquifier; increased salinization in the
north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal
degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Cyprus:People

Population: 748,982 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 94,006; female 89,256)
15-64 years: 65% (male 245,739; female 241,935)
65 years and over: 10% (male 33,989; female 44,057) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.69% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.93 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.79 years
male: 74.62 years
female: 79.07 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek
Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area),
Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7%
of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of the
other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the other
ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91% (1987 est.)

@Cyprus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
separation was further solidified following the Turkish intervention
in July 1974 following a Greek junta-based coup attempt, which gave
the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots
control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November
1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence
and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC),
which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for
the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new
federal system of government

National capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish Cypriot area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note-Turkish Cypriot area administrative
divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and
small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975
from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
note: Turkish Cypriot area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State
of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area
passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government;
post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February
1993); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and
vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003)
election results: Glafcos CLERIDES elected president; percent of
vote-Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot
area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for a
five-year term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be
held NA April 2000); results-Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU
37.5%; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot
area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet)
in the Turkish Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral-Greek Cypriot area: House of
Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats of which only 56
assigned to the Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly
of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Greek area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held May
2001); Turkish area: last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held
December 1998)
election results: Greek area: House of Representatives-percent of vote
by party-DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO 16.4%, EDEK 8.1%,
KED 3.7%, others 4.1%; seats by party-DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 19,
DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic-percent
of vote by party-UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others
3.4%; seats by party-UBP (conservative) 17, DP 15, CTP 13, TKP 5; as
of 13 May 1997, seats by party-UBP 18, DP 13, CTP 13, TKP 5,
independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme
Council of Judicature
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Restorative Party
of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios
CHRISTOFIAS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS];
Democratic Party or DIKO [Spyros KYPRIANOU]; United Democratic Union
of Cyprus or EDEK [Vassos LYSSARIDIS]; Eurodemocratic Renewal Movement
[Alexis GALANOS]; United Democrats Movement or EDI (formerly Free
Democrats Movement or KED) [George VASSILIOU]; New Horizons [Nikolaos
KOUTSOU, secretary general]; Ecologists [Yeoryios PERDHIKIS]; Turkish
Cypriot area: National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Communal
Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Republican Turkish Party or
CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]; Unity and Sovereignty Party or BEP [Arif Salih
KIRDAG]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTASH]; National Birth
Party or UDP [Enuer EMIN]; New Cyprus Party of YKP [Alpay DURDURAN];
Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or
PEO (Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK
(pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen;
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andros A. NIKOLAIDES
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet
ERDENGIZ, office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1]
(202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth C. BRILL
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836
telephone: [357] (2) 776400
FAX: [357] (2) 780944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
(the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities
note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top
and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white
field

@Cyprus:Economy

Economy-overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous,
but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 22% to
GDP and employs 25% of the labor force, while the service sector
contributes 73% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. Erratic
growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to
swings in tourist arrivals, caused by political instability on the
island and fluctuations in economic conditions in Western Europe. The
Turkish Cypriot economy has about one-third the per capita GDP of the
south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much
difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have
hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on
agriculture and government service, which together employ about half
of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has
suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. To compensate for
the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to
nearly every sector. In January 1997, Turkey signed a $250 million
economic cooperation accord with the Turkish Cypriot area to support
tourism, education, and industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$11.19 billion (Greek Cypriot area:
purchasing power parity-$9.75 billion; Turkish Cypriot area:
purchasing power parity - $1.44 billion) (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.4% (Greek Cypriot area: 2.5%; Turkish Cypriot
area: 1.7%) (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$13,500 (Greek Cypriot area:
purchasing power parity-$15,000; Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing
power parity-$8,000) (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.4%;
industry 22.4%; services 73.2% (1996); Turkish Cypriot area:
agriculture 10%; industry 24.6%; services 65.4% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: Greek Cypriot area: 3.5% (1997
est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 87.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: Greek Cypriot area: 299,700
by occupation: services 62%, industry 25%, agriculture 13% (1995)
total: Turkish Cypriot area: 76,500 (1996)
by occupation: services 66%, industry 11%, agriculture 23% (1995)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.3% (1997 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 6.4% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: Greek Cypriot area-$2.9 billion, Turkish Cypriot area-$171
million
expenditures: Greek Cypriot area-$3.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $345 million, Turkish Cypriot area-$306 million,
including capital expenditures of $56.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: -4% (1996);
Turkish Cypriot area: 5.1% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 666,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 2.6 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 3,530 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes,
olives, vegetables

Exports:
total value: Greek Cypriot area: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes
partners: Russia 19.1%, Bulgaria 16.4%, UK 11.3%, Greece 6.3%, Germany
4.8%
total value: Turkish Cypriot area: $70.5 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles
partners: Turkey 48.2%, UK 21.3%, other EU 13.7%

Imports:
total value: Greek Cypriot area: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed
grains, machinery
partners: US 17.8%, UK 11.9%, Italy 9.7%, Germany 7.5%, Greece 7.6%
total value: Turkish Cypriot area: $318.4 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
partners: Turkey 55.3%, UK 13.8%, other EU 11.6%

Debt-external: Greek Cypriot area: $1.56 billion (1997)

Economic aid: Greek Cypriot area: recipient-$187 million (1990-94) in
grants; Turkish Cypriot area: recipient-$700 million (1990-97) from
Turkey in grants and loans that are usually forgiven

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100
kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$-0.5326 (January 1998), 0.5135
(1997), 0.4663 (1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993);
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1-187,477 (November 1997), 81,405 (1996),
45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: Greek Cypriot area: 367,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 80,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish
Cypriot areas
domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
submarine cables; satellite earth stations-3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 4, FM 36, shortwave
1, Turkish Cypriot area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 500,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot area:
130,000 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 8 (repeaters 34);
Turkish Cypriot area: 2

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 300,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 90,000 (1996 est.)

@Cyprus:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,415 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km
paved: Greek Cypriot area: 5,947 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km
unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,468 km (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 980 km

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,
Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine:
total: 1,533 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,330,565
GRT/37,272,825 DWT
ships by type: bulk 471, cargo 568, chemical tanker 23, combination
bulk 48, combination ore/oil 12, container 139, liquefied gas tanker
5, oil tanker 142, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo
54, roll-on/roll-off cargo 42, short-sea passenger 16, specialized
tanker 3, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 45 countries
among which are Greece 673, Germany 159, Russia 57, Latvia 28,
Netherlands 25, Japan 24, Cuba 22, China 18, Belgium 17, and Poland
14; Cyprus owns 78 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
2,623,560 DWT that operate under the registries of Antigua and
Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Hong Kong,
Liberia, Malta, Panama, and Philippines (1997 est.)

Airports: 15 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1997 est.)

@Cyprus:Military

Military branches: Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National Guard
(GCNG; includes air and naval elements); Hellenic Forces Regiment on
Cyprus (ELDYK); Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish
Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), Turkish Forces Regiment on Cyprus
(KTKA), Turkish mainland army units

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 192,389 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 132,252 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 6,220 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $405 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 5.4% (1996)

@Cyprus:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two
de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the
internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the island's
land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are
separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK
sovereign base areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and
container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some
cocaine transits as well

______________________________________________________________________

CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 78,703 sq km
land: 78,645 sq km
water: 58 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of
very hilly country

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment-current issues: air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography-note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

Population: 10,286,470 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 907,744; female 864,202)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,555,822; female 3,548,548)
65 years and over: 14% (male 541,031; female 869,123) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.11% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 8.96 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 10.92 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.79 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.11 years
male: 70.75 years
female: 77.65 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy
0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy:
definition: age NA and over can read and write
total population: 99% (est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Czech Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika

Data code: EZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj-singular); Jihocesky,
Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky,
Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring
it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Josef TOSOVSKY (since 16 December
1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Josef LUX (since NA June 1992), Jaroslav
SEDIVY (since NA January 1998), Jiri SKALICKY (since NA June 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav HAVEL elected president; percent of
parliamentary vote-NA; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of 81 votes in the
Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies (second
round of voting)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve staggered two-, four-, and six-year terms) and the Chamber of
Deputies or Snemovna Poslancu (200 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 15-16 and 22-23 November 1996 (next to be
held NA November 1998-to replace/re-elect 20 senators serving two-year
terms); Chamber of Deputies-last held 31 May-1 June 1996 (early
elections to be held NA June 1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-governing coalition (ODS 32, KDU-CSL 13, ODA 7), opposition
(CSSD 25, KCSM 2, DEU 1, independent 1); Chamber of Deputies-percent
of vote by party-NA; seats by party - governing coalition (ODS 68,
KDU-CSL 18, ODA 13), opposition (CSSD 61, KCSM 22, SPR-RSC 18)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are
appointed by the president for life; Constitutional Court, chairman
and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for life

Political parties and leaders: Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav
KLAUS, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jiri SKALICKY,
chairman]; Christian Democratic Union-Czech People's Party or KDU-CSL
[Josef LUX, chairman]; Czech Social Democrats or CSSD-left opposition
[Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Communist Party or KSCM - left opposition
[Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Assembly for the Republic or
SPR-RSC-extreme right radical [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]; Democratic
Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]
note: the governing coalition resigned in November 1997; a caretaker
government, led by Prime Minister Josef TOSOVSKY, was appointed by
President HAVEL in December 1997; new general elections will most
likely be held in June 1998; there are three new parties that have not
been voted into office, but were created in the wake of Prime Minister
KLAUS' resignation: Freedom Union or US [Jan RUML, chairman],
Conservative Consensus Party [Ivan MASEK and Cestmir HOFHANZL], and
Party of the Democratic Center [Josef WAGNER, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade
Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksandr VONDRA
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9101, 9102
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jenonne R. WALKER
embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: Unit 28129, APO AE 09114; State pouch: American
Embassy Prague, Washington, DC 20521-5630
telephone: [420] (2) 5732-0663, 5731-3814
FAX: [420] (2) 5732-0584

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost
identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic:Economy

Economy-overview: Political and financial crises in 1997 shattered the
Czech Republic's image as one of the most stable and prosperous of
post-Communist states. Delays in enterprise restructuring and failure
to develop a well-functioning capital market played major roles in
Czech economic troubles, which culminated in a currency crisis in May.
The currency was forced out of its fluctuation band as investors
worried that the current account deficit, which reached about 8% of
GDP in 1996, would become unsustainable. After expending $3 billion in
vain to support the currency, the central bank let it float. The
growing current account imbalance reflected a surge in domestic demand
and poor export performance, as wage increases outpaced productivity.
The government was forced to introduce two austerity packages later in
the spring which cut government spending by 2.5% of GDP. A tough 1998
budget continues the painful medicine. These problems were compounded
in the summer of 1997 by unprecedented flooding which inundated much
of the eastern part of the country. Czech difficulties in 1997
contrast with earlier achievements of strong GDP growth, a balanced
budget, and inflation and unemployment that were among the lowest in
the region. The Czech economy's transition problems continue to be too
much direct and indirect government influence on the privatized
economy, the sometimes ineffective management of privatized firms, and
a shortage of experienced financial analysts for the banking system.
Prague forecasts a balanced budget, 2.2% GDP growth, 5.2%
unemployment, and 10% inflation for 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$111.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$10,800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 40.6%
services: 54.4% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 10% (1997)

Labor force:
total: 5.124 million (1997)
by occupation: industry 33.1%, agriculture 6.9%, construction 9.1%,
transport and communications 7.2%, services 43.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $14.2 billion
expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal,
motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 13.85 million kW (1994)

Electricity-production: 53.285 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 5,069 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:
total value: $21.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 32.7%, manufactured goods 28.8%,
raw materials and fuel 9.2%, food 4.1% (1996)
partners: EU 60.9%, CEFTA 21.4%, Slovakia 13.9%, EFTA 1.7% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $27.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 38.2%, manufactured goods 19.3%,
raw materials and fuels 12.4%, and food 5.6% (1996)
partners: EU 61.1%, CEFTA 16.3%, Slovakia 11.8%, EFTA 2.2% (1996)

Debt-external: $20.7 billion (1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1-35.357 (January 1998), 31.698
(1997), 27.145 (1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993)
note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Czech Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 9,440 km
standard gauge: 9,344 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,688 km electrified
at three voltages; 1,885 km double track)
narrow gauge: 96 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 55,489 km
paved: 55,489 km (including 423 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 110,233 GRT/192,998 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3 under Maltese flag, cargo 2 under the Cypriot
flag (1997 est.)

Airports: 66 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 13 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 16 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Czech Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Civil Defense

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 2,699,023 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 2,056,386 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 78,188 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.22 billion (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.2% (1996)

@Czech Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600 sq
km of territory in the Czech Republic confiscated from its royal
family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not
go back before February 1948, when the communists seized power;
individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property
confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II;
unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of former
Czechoslovak federal property

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic
consumption-especially of locally produced synthetic drugs-on the rise

______________________________________________________________________

DENMARK

@Denmark:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,394 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area-comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 68 km
border countries: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 4 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone,
stone, gravel and sand

Land use:
arable land: 60%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
(e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment-current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle
and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the
North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal
wastes and pesticides

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography-note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population
lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

Population: 5,333,617 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 496,886; female 471,891)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,807,384; female 1,760,353)
65 years and over: 15% (male 330,385; female 466,718) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 12.18 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.08 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.31 years
male: 73.64 years
female: 79.12 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German
(small minority)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Denmark:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark-14 counties (amter,
singular-amt) and 2 kommunes*; (stad); Arhus, Bornholm,
Fredericksberg*, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavn*,
Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom,
Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg
note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which
are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative
divisions

Independence: in 10th century first organized as a unified state; in
1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major
overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a
female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the queen (born 26 May
1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25
January 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the queen
elections: none; the queen is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats;
members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-progovernment parties: Social Democrats 65, Socialist People's
Party 13, Radical Liberal Party 7, Unity Party 5; opposition: Progress
Party 42, Conservative People's Party 16, Danish People's Party 13,
Center Democrats 8, other parties 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch
for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup
RASMUSSEN]; Conservative Party [Torben RECHENDORFF]; Liberal Party
[Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN];
Progress Party [Kirsten JAKOBSEN]; Center Democratic Party [Mimi
JAKOBSEN]; Social Liberal Party [Marianne JELVED]; Unity Party [none];
Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Radical Liberal Party
[Margrethe VESTAGER]; Conservative People's Party [Torben RECHENDORFF]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP,
UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44
FAX: [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side,
and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark:Economy

Economy-overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features
high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry,
extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards,
and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of
food. The center-left coalition government will concentrate on
reducing the persistently high unemployment rate and the budget
deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. The coalition
also vows to maintain a stable currency. The coalition has lowered
marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax revenues; boosted
industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms and
increased research and development funds; and improved welfare
services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime
Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms focus on adapting Denmark to the criteria
for European integration by 1999; Copenhagen has won from the European
Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European Monetary Union (EMU).
Denmark is, in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into
the EMU on time. Growth may fall off slightly to 2.8% in 1998, and
inflation may rise to 2.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$122.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$23,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 27%
services: 69% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2,895,950
by occupation: private services 40%, government services 30%,
manufacturing and mining 19%, construction 6%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $62.1 billion
expenditures: $66.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 10.604 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 34.244 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 6,432 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; meat, dairy
products; fish

Exports:
total value: $48.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and instruments 25%, meat and meat products,
fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, chemicals
partners: Germany 22.5%, Sweden 9.7%, UK 7.9%, Norway 5.9%, France
5.4%, Netherlands 4.4%, US 4.0% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $43.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum 25%, chemicals, grain
and foodstuffs, textiles, paper
partners: Germany 21.7%, Sweden 11.7%, Netherlands 7.0%, UK 6.6%,
France 5.2%, Norway 4.9%, US 4.7%, Japan 3.5%, FSU 1.7% (1995)

Debt-external: $44 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.34 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1-6.916 (January 1998),
6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4.025 million (1995 est.), of which 822,000 are mobile
telephones

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form
trunk network, four cellular radio communications systems
international: 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with
Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe
Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations-6 Intelsat, 10
Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note-the
Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share
the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for world-wide
Inmarsat access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 50 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 3 million (1996 est.)

@Denmark:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,358 km (510 km privately owned and operated)
standard gauge: 3,358 km 1.435-m gauge (440 km electrified; 760 km
double track) (1996)

Highways:
total: 71,600 km
paved: 71,600 km (including 880 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports and harbors: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia,
Grena, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
total: 327 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,972,331 GRT/6,894,091
DWT
ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 118, chemical tanker 16, container 76,
liquefied gas tanker 24, livestock carrier 6, oil tanker 25, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 14, roll-on/roll-off cargo 22, short-sea
passenger 9, specialized tanker 2
note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register (1997 est.)

Airports: 118 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 90
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 82 (1997 est.)

@Denmark:Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish
Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,324,150 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,137,563 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 32,918 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2.9 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.6% (1997 est.)

@Denmark:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

______________________________________________________________________

DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 22,000 sq km
land: 21,980 sq km
water: 20 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 508 km
border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Asal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment-current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
Ethiopia; mostly wasteland

@Djibouti:People

Population: 440,727 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 94,399; female 94,154)
15-64 years: 55% (male 127,190; female 113,582)
65 years and over: 2% (male 5,877; female 5,525) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 41.75 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 14.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.07 years
male: 49.06 years
female: 53.15 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.94 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.2%
male: 60.3%
female: 32.7% (1995 est.)

@Djibouti:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular-cercle); 'Ali
Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a six-year term;
election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: President HASSAN GOULED reelected; percent of
vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (65 seats; members are elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-RPP 65; note-RPP (the
ruling party) dominated

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Hassan GOULED
Aptidon]
other parties: Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Mohamed Jama ELABE];
Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of
Unity and Democracy or FRUD, and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lange SCHERMERHORN
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a red five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is based on service activities connected
with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone
in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital
city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall
limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be
imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the
region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has
few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore,
heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of
payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of
40% to 50% continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption
dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because of
recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including
immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic
difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term
external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of
foreign aid donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$520 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 0.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 20%
services: 77% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 282,000
by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $156 million
expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 85,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 180 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 427 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports:
total value: $39.6 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit) (1995)
partners: Ethiopia 45%, Somalia, Yemen, Saudi Arabia (1996)

Imports:
total value: $200.5 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products (1995)
partners: France, Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Thailand (1996)

Debt-external: $276 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1-177.721 (fixed rate
since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are
adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying
areas of the country
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles,
Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian
Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay
telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 17,000 (1993 est.)

@Djibouti:Transportation

Railways:
total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge
note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to
revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals

Highways:
total: 2,890 km
paved: 364 km
unpaved: 2,526 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 11 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@Djibouti:Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
Force), National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite),
National Police Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 104,450 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 61,319 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $26 million (1989)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Djibouti:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICA

@Dominica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 750 sq km
land: 750 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 67%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Dominica:People

Population: 65,777 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 8,987; female 8,826)
15-64 years: 63% (male 21,231; female 20,464)
65 years and over: 10% (male 2,572; female 3,697) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.33% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 17.35 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 6.29 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -24.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.04 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.8 years
male: 74.94 years
female: 80.8 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none
2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 94% (1970 est.)

@Dominica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October
1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June
1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October
1998); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO elected president; percent
of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1995; byelections held 13 August 1996
(next to be held by October 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-UWP 12,
DLP 5, DFP 4

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Saint
Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over
the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVARIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Rosie DOUGLAS]; United Workers
Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag description: green with a centered cross of three equal bands-the
vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white-the horizontal
part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of
the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10
green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the
10 administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is
highly vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 26% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out
one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The government is attempting
to develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the
island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$208 million (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.7% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,500 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 1.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 25,000
by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services
28% (1984)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $77 million
expenditures: $78 million, including capital expenditures of $22
million (FY95/96)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -0.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 8,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 37 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 448 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts;
forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Exports:
total value: $51.8 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: bananas 50%, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit,
oranges
partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $98.1 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food,
chemicals
partners: US 41%, Caricom 25%, UK 13%, Netherlands, Canada

Debt-external: $110 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1-2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fully automatic network
international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)

@Dominica:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 780 km
paved: 393 km
unpaved: 387 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Dominica:Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Dominica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and

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