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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 240 sq km
land: 240 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Cook Islands:People

Population: 19,989 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.14 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 73.1 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.19 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cook Islander(s)
adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European
7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA

@Cook Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

National capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New
Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner
Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of New Zealand
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey A. HENRY (since 1
February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February
1989)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
responsible to Parliament
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the queen's
representative is appointed by the queen; the New Zealand high
commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following
legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most
seats usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-Cook
Islands Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Democratic Alliance Party 2
note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but
has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Democratic Alliance Party, Norman
GEORGE

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars
(one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations, the
Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the
country from foreign markets, lack of natural resources, periodic
devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure.
Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of
copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to
fruit-processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are made
up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid,
overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In 1996, the government declared
bankruptcy, citing a $120 million public debt. Efforts to exploit
tourism potential and expanding the mining and fishing industries have
not been enough to adequately deal with the financial crisis. In an
effort to stem further erosion of the economy, the government slashed
public service salaries by 50%, condensed the number of government
ministries from 52 to 22, reduced the number of civil servants by more
than half, began selling government assets, and closed all overseas
diplomatic posts except for the one in New Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$79 million (1994 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,000 (1994 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 6%
services: 77% (FY90/91)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 2.6% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
total: 6,601 (1993)
by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry
15%, other 4% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 15 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 775 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans,
pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee

Exports:
total value: $4.2 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: copra, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee; fish;
pearls and pearl shells; clothing
partners: NZ 80%, Japan, Hong Kong (1993)

Imports:
total value: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods
partners: NZ 49%, Italy, Australia (1993)

Debt-external: $160 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: roughly $16 million annually, 1985-95, with New Zealand
furnishing 88% of the total

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1-1.7283 (January
1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994),
1.8495 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications

Telephones: 4,180 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
fiber-optic cable
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 13,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 studio and 8 low-powered repeaters
achieve good coverage on the island of Rarotonga

Televisions: 3,500 (1995 est.)

@Cook Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 187 km
paved: 35 km
unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Cook Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in
consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

@Cook Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CORAL SEA ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: less than 3 sq km
land: less than 3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
important

Area-comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones

Environment-current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of the
Environment, Sport and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: no economic activity

Communications

Communications-note: there are automatic weather relay stations on
many of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Coral Sea Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the
activities of visitors

@Coral Sea Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 51,100 sq km
land: 50,660 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Isla del Coco

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 639 km
border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May
to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes

Environment-current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the
clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

Population: 3,604,642 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 620,496; female 591,299)
15-64 years: 61% (male 1,120,118; female 1,093,099)
65 years and over: 5% (male 82,893; female 96,737) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.95% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 22.89 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.15 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.93 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 78.48 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Costa Rican(s)
adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Amerindian 1%,
Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.8%
male: 94.7%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form: Costa Rica
local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Government type: democratic republic

National capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel Angel RODRIGEUZ (since 8 May 1998);
First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice
President Elizabeth ODIO (since 8 May 1998); note-president is both
the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May
1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL (since 8 May 1998), Second
Vice President Elizabeth ODIO (since 8 May 1998); note-president is
both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February 1998
(next to be held NA February 2002)
election results: Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent of
vote-Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES (PLN)
44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held NA February
2002)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PUSC 27,
PLN 23, minority parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected
for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC
[Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ Echeverria]; National Liberation Party or PLN
[Jose Miguel CORRALES Bolanos]; National Integration Party or PIN
[Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge
GONZALEZ Marten]; People United Party or PPU [Norma VARGAS Duarte];
National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL
Benavides]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Vladimir DE LA CRUZ de
Lemos]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Federico MALAVASI Calvo];
Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Sherman Thomas JACKSON]; New
Democratic Party or PDN [Rodrigo GUTIERREZ Schwanhauser]; National
Rescue Party or PRN [Marina VOLIO Brenes]; Democratic Party or PD
[Alvaro GONZALEZ Espinoza]; Independent Party or PI [Yolanda GUTIERREZ
Ventura]
note: mainly a two-party system-PUSC and PLN; small parties share only
5% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Confederated
Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Authentic
Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party
affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for
Economic Development or ANFE; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL
(rightwing militants); National Association of Educators or ANDE;
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP

International organization participation: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UN
Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jose THOMPSON
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio,
San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa
consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD
embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone: [506] 220-3939
FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk
on the hoist side of the red band

@Costa Rica:Economy

Economy-overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive
economy depends especially on tourism and the export of bananas,
coffee, and other agricultural products. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social
safety net has been put in place. Recent trends, however, have been
disappointing. Economic growth slipped from 4.3% in 1994 to 2.5% in
1995, and to 0.9% in 1996, and then rebounded in 1997 to 3%. Inflation
rose to 22.5% in 1995 from 13.5% in 1994, receded to 17.5% in 1996,
then dropped to 11.2% in 1997. Unemployment appears moderate at 5.7%,
but substantial underemployment continues. Furthermore, substantial
government deficits have undermined efforts to maintain the quality of
social services. The government thus faces a formidable set of
problems: to curb inflation, reduce the deficit, encourage domestic
savings, and improve public sector efficiency while increasing the
role of the private sector, all this in harmony with IMF agreements.
One important positive development-the infusion of more than $200
million in 1997 by microchip giant Intel and the anticipated
attraction of other high-tech firms to Costa Rica will help stimulate
growth and employment over the next several years.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$19.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$5,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 24%
services: 58% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 11.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 868,300
by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services
33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1997 est.); much underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity-capacity: 1.094 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.53 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,323 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; beef; timber (depletion of forest resources has resulted in
declining timber output)

Exports:
total value: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK,
France

Imports:
total value: $3.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
petroleum
partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

Debt-external: $3.2 billion (October 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1-243.55 (December
1997), 232.60 (1997), 207.69 (1996), 179.73 (1995), 157.07 (1994),
142.17 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
domestic: NA
international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railways:
total: 950 km
narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)
note: the entire system was shut down in June 1995 because of
insolvency; most of system maintained in good order to facilitate
transfer in 1997 to private sector concessionaires

Highways:
total: 35,597 km
paved: 6,051 km
unpaved: 29,546 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 158 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 6 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 131
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 100 (1997 est.)

@Costa Rica:Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public
Security Force (Fuerza Publica); note-during 1996, the Ministry of
Public Security reorganized and eliminated the Civil Guard, Rural
Assistance Guard, and Frontier Guards as separate entities; they are
now under the Ministry and operate on a geographic command basis
performing ground security, law enforcement, counternarcotics, and
national security (border patrol) functions; the constitution
prohibits armed forces

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 964,405 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 646,873 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 35,513 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $55 million (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2% (1995)

@Costa Rica:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots

______________________________________________________________________

COTE D'IVOIRE

@Cote d'Ivoire:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 322,460 sq km
land: 318,000 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 3,110 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
seasons-warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May),
hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
bauxite, copper

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 41%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment-current issues: deforestation (most of the country's
forests-once the largest in West Africa-have been cleared by the
timber industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and
agricultural effluents

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Cote d'Ivoire:People

Population: 15,446,231 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 3,629,286; female 3,590,782)
15-64 years: 51% (male 4,049,355; female 3,842,508)
65 years and over: 2% (male 170,120; female 164,180) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.41% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 42.15 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.12 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: of the more than 350,000 refugees that fled to Cote d'Ivoire
since 1989 to escape the civil war in Liberia, only about 210,000
remained in Cote d'Ivoire according to a 1997 census

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.95 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.24 years
male: 44.73 years
female: 47.8 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.97 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ivorian(s)
adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni,
foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million),
non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to
300,000)

Religions: Muslim 60%, Christian 12%, indigenous 25% (some of these
are also numbered among the Christians and Muslims)

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most
widely spoken

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.1%
male: 49.9%
female: 30% (1995 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established
1960

National capital: Yamoussoukro
note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
remains the administrative center; the US, like other countries,
maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements,
singular-departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope,
Agboville, Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou,
Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa,
Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa,
Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono,
Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela,
Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi,
Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
note: Cote d'Ivoire may have a new administrative structure consisting
of 56 departments; the following additional departments have been
reported but not yet confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names
(BGN); Adiake', Ale'pe', Dabon, Grand Bassam, Jacqueville, Tiebussan

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last
time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993);
note-succeeded to the presidency following the death of President
Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who had served continuously since November
1960
head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
December 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 22 October 1995 (next to be held October 2000);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Henri Konan BEDIE elected president; percent of
vote-Henri Konan BEDIE 96%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (175 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: elections last held 27 November 1995 (next to be held
November 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-PDCI
150, RDR 13, FPI 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire
or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Djeny
KOBINA]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian
Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Ivorian Socialist Party or PSI
[Morifere BAMBA]; over 20 smaller parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Koffi Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lannon WALKER
embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
telephone: [225] 21 09 79
FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side),
white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and
has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also
similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and
red; design was based on the flag of France

@Cote d'Ivoire:Economy

Economy-overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers
and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil. Consequently, the
economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices
for these products and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
government to diversify the economy, it is still largely dependent on
agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly 85% of the
population. After several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian
economy began a comeback in 1994, due to improved prices for cocoa and
coffee, growth in nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples
and rubber, limited trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and
gas discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling
by multilateral lenders and France. The 50% devaluation of Franc Zone
currencies on 12 January 1994 caused a one-time jump in the inflation
rate to 26% in 1994, but the rate fell to 7% in 1996 and an estimated
3.4% in 1997. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms
led to a jump in growth rates-6.5% in GDP in 1996 and again in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$25.8 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 6.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,700 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 20%
services: 49% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $2.4 billion
expenditures: $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $600
million (1996 est.)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining,
automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials,
electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (first half of 1996)

Electricity-capacity: 1.173 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 1.875 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 127 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels,
corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar; cotton, rubber;
timber

Exports:
total value: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: cocoa 36%, coffee 22%; tropical woods 4%, petroleum,
cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish
partners: France 18%, Germany 8%, Italy 8%, Netherlands 8%, Burkina
Faso, Mali, US, UK

Imports:
total value: $3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel, transport
equipment
partners: France 32%, Nigeria 20%, US 6%, Ghana, Germany, Italy

Debt-external: $16.1 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $552 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 87,700 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but operating
well below capacity
domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Transportation

Railways:
total: 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 50,400 km
paved: 4,889 km
unpaved: 45,511 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
lagoons

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine:
total: 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200 GRT/1,500 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 9 (1997 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 3,583,410 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 1,866,896 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 172,000 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $140 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1993)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local
consumption; minor transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin
American cocaine destined for Europe

______________________________________________________________________

CROATIA

@Croatia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 56,538 sq km
land: 56,410 sq km
water: 128 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
Montenego), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and
islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment-current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants)
and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution
from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and
destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification

Geography-note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

Population: 4,671,584 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 411,022; female 389,354)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,591,716; female 1,592,485)
65 years and over: 15% (male 262,471; female 424,536) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.45 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.75 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 77.28 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian,
Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 95% (1991 est.)

@Croatia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

National capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija-singular):
Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac,
Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje,
Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik,
Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin,
Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since 7 November
1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992),
Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October
1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK
(since November 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of
vote-Franjo TUDJMAN 61%, Zdravko TOMAC 21%, Vlado GOTOVAC 18%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House
of Districts or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats-63 directly elected by
popular vote, 5 presidentially appointed; members serve four-year
terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Districts-last held 13 April 1997 (next to be held
NA 2001); House of Representatives-last held 29 October 1995 (next to
be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Districts-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party - HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2,
SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note-in some districts certain
parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of
Representatives-percent of vote by party - HDZ 45.23%,
HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats
by party-HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS 2,
HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms
by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House
of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for
eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is
elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ
[Franjo TUDJMAN, president]; Croatian Democratic Independents or HND
[Stjepan MESIC, president]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS
[Drazen BUDISA, president]; Liberal Party or LP [Vlado GOTOVAC,
president]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN];
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Party of
Rights 1861 or HSP 1861 [Dobrislav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasants' Party
or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Radimir CACIC,
president]; Serbian National Party or SNS [Milan DJUKIC]; Action of
the Social Democrats of Croatia or ASH [Silvije DEGEN]; Croatian
Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA, president];
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Slanvonsko-Baranja
Croatian Party or SBHS [Damir JURIC]; Primorje Gorski Kotar Alliance;
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC];
Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Semso TANKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00
FAX: [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian
coat of arms (red and white checkered)

@Croatia:Economy

Economy-overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic
of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from:
the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage
during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines,
buildings, and houses; the large refugee and displaced population,
both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties.
Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil
industries, would help restore the economy. The government has been
successful in some reform efforts-partially macroeconomic
stabilization policies-and it has normalized relations with its
creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of large
state enterprises and with bank reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$22.7 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4.4% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,500 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 24%
services: 64% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.444 million (1995)
by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%, government
19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 15.9% (yearend 1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.3 billion
expenditures: $6.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $78.5
million (1997 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood
products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum
and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1995)

Electricity-capacity: 3.593 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 7.15 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 2,315 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock
breeding, dairy farming

Exports:
total value: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1997)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous
manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw
materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7%
(1993)
partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $9.1 billion (c.i.f., 1997)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and
lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%,
beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)
partners: Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Debt-external: $5.904 billion (October 1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given Croatia
$100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1-6.369 (January 1998), 6.101
(1997), 5.434 (1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)

@Croatia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (769 km electrified)
note: some lines remain inoperative or not in use; disrupted by
territorial dispute (1997)

Highways:
total: 27,247 km
paved: 22,206 km (including 318 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,041 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; Sava blocked by downed
bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310
km (1992); note-under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik,
Split, Zadar

Merchant marine:
total: 72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 793,114 GRT/1,187,908 DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 31, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk
5, container 5, liquefied gas 1, multi-function large load carrier 3,
oil tanker 2, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea
passenger 5
note: Croatia owns an additional 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
2,057,523 DWT operating under the registries of Malta, Liberia,
Cyprus, Panama, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1997 est.)

Airports: 71 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 51
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 42 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1997 est.)

@Croatia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 1,191,191 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 945,746 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 33,736 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.5 billion (1997)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 8.2% (1997)

@Croatia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic
Serbs during the ethnic conflict, was returned to Croatian control by
the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia on 15 January
1998; Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral
issue dating from WWII over property and ethnic minority rights;
significant progress has been made with Slovenia toward resolving a
maritime border dispute over direct access to the sea in the Adriatic;
Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka
Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka
Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the
UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest
Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime
shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________

CUBA

@Cuba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 110,860 sq km
land: 110,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 29 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains
in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 27%
forests and woodland: 24%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
other year); droughts are common

Environment-current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting
threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Marine
Life Conservation

Geography-note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

Population: 11,050,729 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 1,247,339; female 1,182,612)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,795,310; female 3,777,454)
65 years and over: 9% (male 490,883; female 557,131) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.42% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 13.13 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.89 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.64 years
male: 73.29 years
female: 78.13 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming
power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 96.2%
female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

@Cuba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias,
singular-provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1
January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the
Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February
1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since
2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and
First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz
(since 2 December 1976); note-the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
head of government: President of the Council of State and President of
the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council
of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen.
Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note-the president is both
the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council
of State, appointed by the National Assembly
note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by
the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next to be held NA)
election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of
legislative vote-NA; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent
of legislative vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or
Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly from
slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote-NA; seats-PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular),
president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the
National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party-Cuban Communist Party or PCC
[Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note-Cuba has an Interests
Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Fernando
REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy,
2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202)
797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note-the US has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Michael G. KOZAK; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and
M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 and
33-3543 through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700;
protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba:Economy

Economy-overview: The state plays the primary role in the economy and
controls practically all foreign trade. The government has undertaken
several reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase
labor incentives, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer
goods, and services. The liberalized agricultural markets introduced
in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell above-quota
production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal consumption
alternatives and reduced black market prices. Government efforts to
lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink the money
supply caused the semi-official exchange rate for the Cuban peso to
move from a peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to 23 to
the dollar by yearend 1997. New taxes introduced in 1996 helped drive
down the number of self-employed workers from 208,000 in January 1996
to 176,000 by September 1997. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP
declined by 35% during 1989-93, the result of lost Soviet aid and
domestic inefficiencies. The drop in GDP apparently halted in 1994,
when Cuba reported 0.7% growth, followed by increases of 2.5% in 1995
and 7.8% in 1996. Growth slowed again in 1997, to 2.5%, in part due to
a poor sugar harvest. Export earnings declined 3% in 1997, to $1.9
billion, the result of lower sugar export volume and lower world
prices for nickel and sugar. Imports remained unchanged in 1997 at
$3.2 billion. Tourism plays a key role in foreign currency earnings.
The disparity between those at the top of the ladder and those at the
bottom has increased markedly in the past 10 years. Living standards
for the average Cuban remain at a depressed level compared with 1990.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$16.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,540 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.6%
industry: 34.8%
services: 57.6% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 4.5 million economically active population (1996 est.)
by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture
20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications
7% (June 1990)
note: state sector 76%, non-state sector 24% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 3.988 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 10.105 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 924 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice,
potatoes and other tubers, beans; livestock

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, shellfish, medical products,
citrus, coffee
partners: Russia 18%, Netherlands 14% Canada 13% (1997 est.)

Imports:
total value: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners: Spain 14%, Russia 12%, Mexico 9% (1997 est.)

Debt-external: $10.5 billion (convertible currency, 1996); another $20
billion owed to Russia (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $46 million (1997 est.)

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1-1.0000 (non-convertible,
official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 229,000

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone systems
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station-1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean
region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 1

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)

@Cuba:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,677 km
standard gauge: 4,677 km 1.435-m gauge (132 km electrified)
note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways:
total: 27,700 km
paved: 15,484 km
unpaved: 12,216 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 91,981 GRT/126,416 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 1,
refrigerated cargo 6
note: Cuba owns an additional 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
463,155 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Cyprus, Malta,
and Belize (1997 est.)

Airports: 171 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 77
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 36 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 94
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 61 (1997 est.)

@Cuba:Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground
forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); The

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