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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Part 10 out of 51

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Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA
note: external telephone and telex services are provided by Intelsat
satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 350 (1992)

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Christmas Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Christmas Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

CLIPPERTON ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 7 sq km
land: 7 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment-current issues: NA

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Clipperton Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Clipperton Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Clipperton
former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Clipperton Island:Economy

Economy-overview: Although 115 species of fish have been identified in
the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic
activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Clipperton Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territory of Australia)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands
@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 14 sq km
land: 14 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area-comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine
months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year

Environment-current issues: fresh water resources are limited to
rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms
and other vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:People

Population: 637 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Cocos Islander(s)
adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

National capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator (acting) Maureen ELLIS (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
(NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Economy

Economy-overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole
cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners.
Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$NA

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
note: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction
workers, stevedores, and lighterage worker operations; tourism employs
others

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: NA kW

Electricity-production: NA kWh

Electricity-consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture-products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA
commodities: copra
partners: Australia

Imports: $NA
commodities: foodstuffs
partners: Australia

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1-1.5281 (January
1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994),
1.4704 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA
type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: intermittent television service via satellite

Televisions: NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1997 est.)

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Area-comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 7,408 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 39%
forests and woodland: 48%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of
pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
emissions

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography-note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

Population: 38,580,949 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 6,474,927; female 6,321,404)
15-64 years: 62% (male 11,725,078; female 12,333,982)
65 years and over: 5% (male 780,486; female 945,072) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 24.93 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.06 years
male: 66.15 years
female: 74.11 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 91.2%
female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

@Colombia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
structure

National capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos,
singular-departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital);
Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Distrito Capital de Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,
Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August 1994);
note-the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August
1994); note-the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held May 1998); vice
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new
procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents
by newly elected presidents
election results: Ernesto SAMPER Pizano elected president; percent of
vote-no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote, therefore,
a run-off election to select a president from the two leading
candidates was held 19 June 1994; percent of vote-Ernesto SAMPER
Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative
Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE Lombana elected
vice president; percent of vote-NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de
Representantes (161 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate-last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held March
1998); House of Representatives-last held 13 March 1994 (next to be
held March 1998)
election results: Senate-percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC and NDF) 31, other
12; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party-NA; seats by
party-Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC and NDF) 53,
AD/M-19 2, other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical),
highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from the nominees
of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms; Council of
State, highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from
the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms;
Constitutional Court, guards integrity and supremacy of the
constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the
constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party or PL [Emilio LEBOLO
Castellanos]; Conservative Party or PC [Hugo ESCOBAR Sierra]; New
Democratic Force or NDF [Andres PASTRANA Arango]; Democratic Alliance
M-19 or AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident
liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political
party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and
Colombian Communist Party (PCC)

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups
active in Colombia-Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC; and
National Liberation Army or ELN

International organization participation: AG, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-
3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MINUGUA, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Carlos ESGUERRA Portocarrero
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Washington, DC
consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, No. 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
mailing address: APO AA 34038
telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top,
double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is
longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the
center

@Colombia:Economy

Economy-overview: Columbia is recovering from a short recession that
began in late 1996 - resulting from tight monetary policy to drive
down inflation, declining business confidence related to President
SAMPER's political difficulties, and a slowdown in exports stemming
from an appreciation of the peso and a recession in neighboring
Venezuela. Although 1997's 3.1% GDP growth rate represented an
improvement over 1996, it ranked among the lowest in Latin America and
was substantially lower than the average annual growth rate exceeding
4% that Colombia posted for several decades prior to SAMPER's
election. Colombia's next president will inherit a variety of economic
problems. Most notably, the unemployment rate is at its highest level
this decade, risks for the export sector and foreign investors are
rising as a result of increasing guerrilla violence and a volatile
exchange rate, and the fiscal deficit has more than tripled since
1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$231.1 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$6,200 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 26%
services: 55% (1996)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 17.7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 16.8 million (1997 est.)
by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $26 billion (1996 est.)
expenditures: $30 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: -1.2% (1996)

Electricity-capacity: 10.781 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 47 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,307 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products;
shrimp farming

Exports:
total value: $11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports:
total value: $13.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)
commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer
goods, chemicals, paper products
partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)

Debt-external: $17.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $30 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1-1345.0 (February
1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69 (1996), 912.83 (1995), 844.84 (1994),
863.06 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.89 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite
system with 11 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations-2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 413 (licensed), FM 217 (licensed),
shortwave 28

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 5.5 million (1993 est.)

@Colombia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,386 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to
maritime port at Bahia Portete)
narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (1,830 km in use) (1995)

Highways:
total: 107,000 km
paved: 12,733 km
unpaved: 94,267 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia,
Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,775 GRT/94,677 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 8, container 1, multi-function large load
carrier 2, oil tanker 3 (1997 est.)

Airports: 1,136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 86
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 7 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 1,050
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 348
under 914 m: 636 (1997 est.)

@Colombia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 10,229,023 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 6,862,893 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 352,204 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $2 billion (1995)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.8% (1995)

@Colombia:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in
the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
cultivation of coca in 1997-79,500 hectares, an 18% increase over
1996; potential production of cocaine in 1997-125 metric tons, a 14%
increase over 1996; cultivation of opium in 1997-6,600 hectares, a 5%
increase over 1996; potential production of opium in 1997-66 metric
tons, a 5% increase over 1996; the world's largest processor of coca
derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other
international drug markets; active aerial eradication program seeks to
virtually eliminate coca and opium crops

______________________________________________________________________

COMOROS

Introduction

Historical perspective: Comoros has had difficulty in achieving
political stability, having endured 18 coups or attempted coups since
receiving independence from France in 1975. Most recently, in August
1997, the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence
from Comoros. An attempt in September 1997 by the government to
reestablish control over the rebellious islands by force failed, and
presently the Organization of African Unity is brokering negotiations
to effect a reconciliation.

@Comoros:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,170 sq km
land: 2,170 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low
hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to
April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment-current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from
crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel

@Comoros:People

Population: 545,528 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 116,345; female 115,886)
15-64 years: 54% (male 146,655; female 150,612)
65 years and over: 3% (male 7,644; female 8,386) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 40.52 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 9.52 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 84.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.36 years
male: 57.95 years
female: 62.84 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.48 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Comoran(s)
adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.3%
male: 64.2%
female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

@Comoros:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Government type: independent republic

National capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (since 16 March
1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Nourdine BOURHANE (since 6 December
1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; share of
vote-64%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15
seats; members selected by regional councils for six-year terms) and a
Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to be held NA
December 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-NA; seats by party-RND 39,
RND candidate running as independent 1, FNJ 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes, two members are
appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal
Assembly, one by the Council of each island, and former presidents of
the republic

Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement National pour le
Development or RND [Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim], party of the government;
Front National pour la Justice or FNJ, Islamic party in opposition
note: under a new constitution ratified in October 1996, a two party
system was established; President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim called for
all parties to dissolve and join him in creating the RND; the
constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats in the
Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in
opposition, but if no party accomplishes that the second most
successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December
1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed DJABIR (ambassador to the US and
Canada and permanent representative to the UN)
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and
Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the
field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed
stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the
four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali,
Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France,
but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is
described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

@Comoros:Economy

Economy-overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is
made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a
young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources.
The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a
subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the
economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force,
and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient
in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of
imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and
technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial
enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to
promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate.
Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP
growth is to be maintained in the late 1990s.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$400 million (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$685 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 14%
services: 46% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 144,500 (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $55 million
expenditures: $71 million, including capital expenditures of $15
million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 9,750 kW (1996)

Electricity-production: 31 million kWh (1996)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 38 kWh (1996)

Agriculture-products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports:
total value: $11.4 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
partners: France 54%, Germany 18%, US 18%

Imports:
total value: $70 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum
products, cement, transport equipment
partners: France 60%, South Africa 10%, Kenya 5%, Singapore 4%

Debt-external: $219 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1-456.27 (January 1998),
437.75 (1997), 383.66 (1996), 374.36 (1995), 416.40 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75
per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed
since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 200 (1993 est.)

@Comoros:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 880 km
paved: 673 km
unpaved: 207 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudu

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Comoros:Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 129,095 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 76,991 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $3 million (1994 est.)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Comoros:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: claims French-administered Mayotte

______________________________________________________________________

CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Geography

Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,345,410 sq km
land: 2,267,600 sq km
water: 77,810 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of US

Land boundaries:
total: 10,271 km
border countries: Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km,
Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and
drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands;
north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Margherita Peak (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and
gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium,
radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential, timber

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 77%
other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Environment-current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations;
water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in mid-1994 were
responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife
poaching in the eastern part of the country (most of those refugees
were repatriated in November and December 1996)

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography-note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that
controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic
Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern
highlands

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:People

Population: 49,000,511 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 11,829,386; female 11,766,829)
15-64 years: 49% (male 11,778,121; female 12,339,837)
65 years and over: 3% (male 557,095; female 729,243) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.99% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 46.77 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 15.2 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)
note: in 1994, about a million refugees fled into Zaire (now called
Democratic Republic of the Congo), to escape the fighting between the
Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda and Burundi; the outbreak of widespread
fighting between rebels and government forces in October 1996 spurred
about 875,000 refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early
1997; additionally, Democratic Republic of the Congo is host to about
200,000 Angolan, about 110,000 Burundi, about 100,000 Sudanese, about
15,000 Ugandan, and about 18,000 Republic of the Congo refugees

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49.31 years
male: 47.27 years
female: 51.4 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.51 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority
are Bantu; the four largest tribes-Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and
the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim
10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade
language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo,
Tshiluba

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French, Lingala,
Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 77.3%
male: 86.6%
female: 67.7% (1995 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

Data code: CG

Government type: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to
representative government

National capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces, singular-province)
and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur,
Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema,
Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: anniversary of independence from Belgium, 30 June
(1960)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February
1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in
April 1994; following successful rebellion the new government
announced on 29 May 1997 a two-year time table of constitutional
reform

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note-the
president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997);
note-the president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: National Executive Council; KABILA's cabinet was appointed by
him and has no prime minister
elections: before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president
was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held
29 July 1984 (next was to be held in May 1997); formerly, the prime
minister was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note-the
term of the former government expired in 1991, elections were not
held, and former president MOBUTU continued in office until his
government was militarily defeated by KABILA on 17 May 1997
election results: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected
president in 1984 without opposition
note: Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was president
from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 16 May 1997 when his
government was overturned militarily by Laurent Desire KABILA, who
immediately assumed governing authority; in his 29 May 1997 inaugural
address, President KABILA announced a two-year time table for
political reform leading to elections by April 1999

Legislative branch: legislative activity has been suspended pending
the establishment of KABILA's promised constitutional reforms and the
elections to be held by April 1999
elections: the country's first multi-party presidential and
legislative elections had been scheduled for May 1997 but were not
held; instead KABILA overthrew the MOBUTO government and seized
control of the country

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January
1991-Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR; other parties include
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa
Mulumba]; Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO];
Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI [Gabriel
KYUNGU wa Kumwunzu]; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]
note: President KABILA, who has banned political party activity
indefinitely, currently leads the Alliance of Democratic Forces for
the Liberation of Congo-Zaire or AFDL

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires ad interim Tambo A. Kabila MUKENDI
chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691
FAX: [1] (202) 686-3631

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828
telephone: [243] (12) 21533 through 21535, 21104; [243] (88) 43604
through 43608
FAX: [243] (88) 43805, 43467

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in
the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed
stars along the hoist side

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy of Democratic Republic of the Congo-a
nation endowed with vast potential wealth-has declined significantly
since the mid-1980s. The new government has instituted a tight fiscal
policy that has curbed inflation and currency depreciation. Plans are
underway to introduce a new national currency. Most formal
transactions are conducted in hard currency but a barter economy
flourishes in all but the largest cities. Most individuals and
families survive through subsistence farming or petty trade.
International investors show renewed interest, especially in the
mining and telecommunications sectors. However, poor infrastructure,
an uncertain legal framework, corruption and lack of transparency in
government economic policy remain a brake on investment and growth. A
number of IMF and World Bank missions have met with the new government
to help it develop a coherent economic plan.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$18 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$400 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 59%
industry: 15%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 14.51 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 16%, services 19% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $269 million
expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24
million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including
textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages),
cement, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 2.831 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 5.22 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 95 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine,
cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood
products

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil
partners: Belgium, US, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa

Imports:
total value: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery,
transport equipment, fuels
partners: Belgium, South Africa, US, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

Debt-external: $13.8 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: new zaires (Z) per US$1-115,000 (January 1998), 83,764
(October 1996), 7,024 (1995), 1,194 (1994), 3 (1993)
note: on 22 October 1993 the new zaire, equal to 3,000,000 old zaires,
was introduced

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 34,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in
and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth
stations
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.87 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 55,000 (1992 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,138 km (1995); note-severely reduced route-distance in use
because of damage to facilities by civil strife
narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 145,000 km
paved: 2,500 km
unpaved: 142,500 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and
unconnected lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu,
Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 234 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 210
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 96
under 914 m: 94 (1997 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 10,543,138 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 5,366,937 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: Democratic Republic of the
Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite
segment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has
been settled; long segment of the boundary with Republic of the Congo
along the Congo river is indefinite (no division of the river or its
islands has been made)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
consumption

______________________________________________________________________

CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

@Congo, Republic of the:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 342,000 sq km
land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 5,504 km
border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon
1,903 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 29%
forests and woodland: 62%
other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonal flooding

Environment-current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions;
water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not
potable; deforestation

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone
Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography-note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

@Congo, Republic of the:People

Population: 2,658,123 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 569,382; female 563,327)
15-64 years: 54% (male 700,507; female 734,447)
65 years and over: 3% (male 36,383; female 54,077) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 38.5 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.45 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.07 years
male: 45.29 years
female: 48.89 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.98 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans
NA%; note - Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the
1997 civil war; may be half of that in 1998, following the widespread
destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca
trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo
has the most users)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.9%
male: 83.1%
female: 67.2% (1995 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Data code: CF

Government type: republic

National capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular-region) and 1
commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992 but
is now being redrafted by President SASSOU-NGUESSO

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (inaugurated on 25
October 1997)
head of government: prime minister (vacant) appointed from the
majority party by the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice
of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997
but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new
constitution which will change term to seven years)
election results: Pascal LISSOUBA elected president; percent of
vote-Pascal LISSOUBA 61%, Bernard KOLELAS 39%

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consists of an Assemblee
Nationale or National Assembly (125 seats, members are elected by
direct popular vote for five-year terms) and a Senat or Senate (60
seats, members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms);
note-the National Assembly which was elected on 3 October 1993 was
dissolved; it has been replaced by a transitional advisory parliament
of 75 members named by the National Reconciliation Forum of January
1998
elections: National Assembly-last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held
NA); Senate - last held November 1996 (next to be held NA)
election results: National Assembly-percent of vote by party-NA; seats
by party - UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3; Senate-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party-UPADS 23, MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2,
others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many
political parties are Congolese Labor Party or PCT [Denis
SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and Development
or RDD [Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO, president]; Association for Democracy
and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development
or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA, leader]; Pan-African Union for Social
Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI, leader]; Union of Democratic
Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO, leader]; Union for Democratic Renewal
or URD; Union for Development and Social Progress or UDPS
[Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Union of Congolese Socialist
Youth or UJSC; Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; Revolutionary
Union of Congolese Women or URFC; General Union of Congolese Pupils
and Students or UGEEC

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Serge
MONBOULI
chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Aubrey HOOKS
embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone: [242] 83 20 70
FAX: [242] 83 63 38
note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the
Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des
Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo, Republic of the:Economy

Economy-overview: The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and
handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support
services, and a government characterized by budget problems and
overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing about 90% of government revenues and exports. In
the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to
finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5%
annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. Subsequently, falling
oil prices cut GDP growth by half. Moreover, the government has
mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to
the government's shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation
of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994
but inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continue
with the support of international organizations, notably the World
Bank and the IMF.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$5.25 billion (1996 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,000 (1996 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 35.2%
services: 53.4% (1993)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $870 million
expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing,
sugar milling, palm oil, soap, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 118,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 438 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 220 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: cassava (tapioca) accounts for 90% of food
output, sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest
products

Exports:
total value: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: crude oil 90%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee,
diamonds
partners: Belgium-Luxembourg 24.3%, Taiwan 20.2%, US 14.9%, Italy
14.8% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $670 million (f.o.b. 1995)
commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital equipment,
construction materials, foodstuffs, petroleum products
partners: France 31.2%, Netherlands 24.6%, Italy 11.4%, US 6.9% (1995
est.)

Debt-external: $5.3 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1-608.36 (January 1998),
583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16
(1993)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 18,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: services barely adequate for government use; key
exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; inter-city
lines frequently out-of-order
domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
coaxial cable
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 8,500 (1993 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Transportation

Railways:
total: 795 km (includes 285 km private track)
narrow gauge: 795 km 1.067-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 12,800 km
paved: 1,242 km
unpaved: 11,558 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of
commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for
local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,918 GRT/4,100 DWT
(1997 est.)

Airports: 37 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Police

Military manpower-military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 623,924 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 317,997 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 27,354 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $110 million (1993)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 3.8% (1993)

@Congo, Republic of the:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: long segment of the boundary with Democratic
Republic of the Congo along the Congo River is indefinite (no division
of the river or its islands has been made)

______________________________________________________________________

COOK ISLANDS

(self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

@Cook Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about

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