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The World Factbook 1998 by The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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time in the future.

The World Factbook 1998

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Countries are listed in alphabetical order. Notes and
appendixes follow the country listings.

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway
Oman
Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands
Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Notes and Definitions
Appendixes
Appendix A: Abbreviations
Appendix B: United Nations System
Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups
Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements
Appendix E: Weights and Measures
Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes
Appendix H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
History
Contributors and Copyright Information
Purchase Information

______________________________________________________________________

AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 647,500 sq km
land: 647,500 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,529 km
border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc,
barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious
stones

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
flooding

Environment-current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing;
deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for
fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography-note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 24,792,375 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 5,425,510; female 5,216,954)
15-64 years: 54% (male 6,978,549; female 6,494,253)
65 years and over: 3% (male 357,780; female 319,329) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.21% (1998 est.)
note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees

Birth rate: 42.37 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 17.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 143.63 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.83 years
male: 47.35 years
female: 46.29 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor
ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
(primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily
Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31.5%
male: 47.2%
female: 15% (1995 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan; note-the
self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic
Emirate of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form: Afghanestan
former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: transitional government

National capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular-velayat);
Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika,
Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign
affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance
Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions
tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the
Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban
movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning
government at this time, and the country remains divided among
fighting factions
note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government
of Afghanistan; the UN has deferred a decision on credentials and the
Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant
until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations
among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along
ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and
approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately
ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have
their stronghold in the ethnically diverse north-General DOSTAM's
National Islamic Movement controls several northcentral provinces and
Commander MASOOD controls the ethnic Tajik majority areas of the
northeast

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are
local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement),
Mohammad OMAR; United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan
[comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement),
Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin
RABBANI and Ahmad Shah MASOOD; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction
(Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI]; other smaller parties are
Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction;
Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction;
Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the
Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF;
Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad
Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan
National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI;
Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI;
Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar
AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent
traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar,
Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National
Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan (CUNUA), Ishaq GAILANI; Writers
Union of Free Afghanistan (WUFA), A. Rasul AMIN; Mellat (Social
Democratic Party), leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
note: embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has
been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem
features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and
below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder
Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed
scimitars
note: the Taliban uses a plain white flag

@Afghanistan:Economy

Economy-overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and
goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political
and military upheavals during more than 18 years of war, including the
nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
1989). During the war one-third of the population fled the country,
with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6
million refugees. Now, only 750,000 registered Afghan refugees remain
in Pakistan and about 1.2 million in Iran. Another 1 million have
probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Gross
domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 18 years
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport. Much of the population continues to suffer from
insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation
remains a serious problem throughout the country, with one estimate
putting the rate at 240% in Kabul in 1996. Numerical data are likely
to be either unavailable or unreliable.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$19.3 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$800 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 53%
industry: 28.5%
services: 18.5% (1990)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 240% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.1 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%,
construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
coal, copper

Electricity-capacity: 494,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 655 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 37 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool, mutton

Exports:
total value: $80 million (1996 est.)
commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports:
total value: $150 million (1996 est.)
commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea,
Germany

Debt-external: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; about $45 million in UN aid plus additional bilateral
aid and aid in kind (1997)
note: US provided $450 million in bilateral assistance (1985-93); US
continues to contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN
programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide
range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1-17,000 (December 1996), 7,000
(January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991);
note-these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than
the official exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the
dollar until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally
became fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar on April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Communications

Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service
international: satellite earth stations-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.8 million (1996 est.); note-about 60% of families own a
radio

Television broadcast stations: NA
note: one television station run by Jumbesh faction provides
intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 24.6 km
broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad
transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways:
total: 21,000 km
paved: 2,793 km
unpaved: 18,207 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to
about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products-Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to
Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 44 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 33
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 10 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1997 est.)

@Afghanistan:Military

Military branches: NA; note-the military does not exist on a national
basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces,
National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi),
and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the
various groups

Military manpower-military age: NA years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: NA

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: NA

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: NA%

@Afghanistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by some
factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's seat at
the UN

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest illicit opium producer after
Burma (cultivation in 1997-39,150 hectares, a 3% increase over 1996;
potential production in 1997-1,265 metric tons, a 3% increase over
1996) and a major source of hashish

______________________________________________________________________

ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 28,750 sq km
land: 27,400 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia,
173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
southwestern coast

Environment-current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,330,754 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 572,430; female 532,917)
15-64 years: 61% (male 941,076; female 1,086,541)
65 years and over: 6% (male 82,184; female 115,606) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.97% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 21.35 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 7.45 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.64 years
male: 65.58 years
female: 71.94 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1%
(official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 72%
male: 80%
female: 63% (1955 est.)

@Albania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular-rreth);
Berat, Bulquize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Dibre (Peshkopi), Durres,
Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje
(Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Lac, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje,
Malesia e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite
(Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar
(Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by
popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24
July 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 24 July 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
approved by the president
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly
vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2,
invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some
by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party-PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD
2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK
1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party-PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK
3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS
(formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman];
Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Albanian Republican Party or PR
[Fatmir MEHDIU]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI];
Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; National
Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Hysen SELFO]; Movement of Legality
Party or PLL [Guri DUROLLARI]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet
BEQIRI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; PBSD;
Democratic Party of the Right or PDD [Petrit KALAKULA]; Democratic
Alliance or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Social Democratic Union Party or USdS
[Teodor LACO]; Albanian United Right or DBSH

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marisa R. LINO (15 July 1996)
embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirana
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

Economy-overview: An extremely poor country by European standards,
Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market
economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression
accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in
1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain
stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to
renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which
exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early
1997-which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of
Albania's adult population - triggered severe social unrest which led
to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and an
8% drop in GDP. The new government installed in July 1997 has taken
strong measures to restore public order and to revive economic
activity and trade. The economy continues to be bolstered by
remittances of some 20% of the labor force which works abroad, mostly
in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset
the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized
in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$4.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: -8% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$1,370 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 21%
services: 23% (1995)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 40% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers
and 261,000 domestically unemployed)
by occupation: agriculture (nearly all private) 49.5%, private sector
22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry
7.8%); note-includes only those domestically employed

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but likely to be as
high as 28%

Budget:
revenues: $624 million
expenditures: $996 million, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity-capacity: 1.892 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 4.435 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,314 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Exports:
total value: $228 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners: Italy, Greece, Germany, Belgium, US

Imports:
total value: $879 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

Debt-external: $645 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: $630 million pledged 1997

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1-152.28 (January 1998), 148.93
(1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995), 94.62 (1994), 102.06 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system:
domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
to build fences
international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave
radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 670 km
standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 18,000 km
paved: 5,400 km
unpaved: 12,600 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid,
and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,582 GRT/54,832
DWT (1997 est.)

Airports: 9 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Albania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 749,633 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 609,986 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 32,367 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $42 million (1996)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.5% to 2.0% (1996)

@Albania:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: the Albanian Government supports protection of
the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has
downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional
cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from
Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector
jobs and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and
cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium
and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking
organizations active in Central and Eastern Europe

______________________________________________________________________

ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 2%
other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud
slides

Environment-current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other
poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage,
petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading
to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in
particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography-note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 30,480,793 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 5,923,087; female 5,709,614)
15-64 years: 58% (male 8,931,896; female 8,752,014)
65 years and over: 4% (male 542,012; female 622,170) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.14% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.51 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.93 years
male: 67.78 years
female: 70.12 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.38 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.6%
male: 73.9%
female: 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Shabiyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

National capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular-wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note-referendum
approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into law 7
December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31
January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December
1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Liamine ZEROUAL elected president; percent of
vote-Liamine ZEROUAL 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the
Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by
the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve
six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision of
November 1996)
elections: National People's Assembly-last held 5 June 1997 (next to
be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of
Nations-last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: National People's Assembly-percent of vote by
party-NA%; seats by party-RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement 34,
FFS 20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for
Democracy and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11;
Council of Nations-percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party-RND
80, FLN 10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the
president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed
April 1992), Ali BENHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile
in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem BENHAMOUDA,
secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED,
secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Movement of a Peaceful
Society (MSP or Hamas), Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture
and Democracy (RCD), Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal
Party (PRA), Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman; Nahda Movement (Al Nahda),
Abdallah DJABALLAH, president; Democratic National Rally (RND),
Abdelkader BENSALAH, chairman; Movement for Democracy in Algeria
(MDA), Ahmed Ben BELLA; Workers Party (PT), Louisa HANOUN; Republican
Progressive Party, Khadir DRISS; Union for Democracy and Freedoms,
Mouley BOUKHALAFA; Liberal Social Party, Ahmed KHELIL
note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989
and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new
party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ramtane LAMAMRA
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron HUME
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the
state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

Economy-overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of
GDP, and almost all export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest
reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to
reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world
began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country
into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a
comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization
and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite
substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the reform
drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In
September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the
resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process.
Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year
standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year
signed onto a three-year extended fund facility. Progress on economic
reform, a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995, and oil and gas sector
expansion have contributed to a recovery since 1995. Investments in
developing hydrocarbon resources are likely to maintain growth and
export earnings. Continuing but gradual government efforts to attract
foreign and domestic investment outside that sector seek to diversify
the economy and tackle problems of high unemployment and falling
living standards, problems as yet untouched by the macroeconomic
turnaround.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$120.4 billion (1997 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$4,000 (1997 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 50%
services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate-consumer price index: 7% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.8 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and
public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%,
transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.7 billion
expenditures: $13.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.1
million (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 6.007 million kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 19.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 630 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports:
total value: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners: Italy 18.8%, US 14.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 8%, Germany 7.9%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $10 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods
partners: France 29%, Spain 10.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 8%, Germany 5.6%
(1995 est.)

Debt-external: $33 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $420 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1-58.969 (January 1998),
57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345
(1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth
stations are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations-2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1
Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,772 km
standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways:
total: 102,424 km
paved: 70,570 km (including 608 km of expressways)
unpaved: 31,854 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 928,965 GRT/1,094,104 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
tanker 11, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea
passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1997 est.)

Airports: 136 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 50
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 86
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 19 (1997 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1997 est.)

@Algeria:Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial
Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower-military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 7,949,708 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-fit for military service:
males: 4,871,931 (1998 est.)

Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 347,952 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures-dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1994)

Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 2.7% (1994)

@Algeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya

______________________________________________________________________

AMERICAN SAMOA

(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 199 sq km
land: 199 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area-comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry
season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 70%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment-current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; the
water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the
past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Environment-international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography-note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas
and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 62,093 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 12,575; female 11,824)
15-64 years: 56% (male 17,513; female 17,477)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,364; female 1,340) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.74% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 27.31 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 4.03 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.47 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.23 years
male: 70.95 years
female: 79.77 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.72 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American Samoan(s)
adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other
5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English
note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa
abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US;
administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Government type: NA

National capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no
first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government,
but there are three political districts

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997)
and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997)
cabinet: NA
elections: governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November
1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor of American Samoa;
percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID
(independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of
the House of Representatives (21 seats-20 of which are elected by
popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains
Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats;
members are elected from local chiefs who serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives-last held 5 November 1996 (next to
be held NA November 1998); Senate-last held 3 November 1996 (next to
be held 7 November 2000)
election results: House of Representatives-percent of vote by
party-NA; seats by party - NA; Senate-percent of vote by party-NA;
seats by party-NA
note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held
NA November 1998); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat)
reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices are
appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party; Republican Party

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is
based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and
white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two
traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Economy-overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which
more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is
strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts the
great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing
plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the
primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to
American Samoa's economic well-being. According to one observer,
attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are
restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and
its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, may be held
back in 1998 by the financial difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity-$150 million (1995 est.)

GDP-real growth rate: NA%

GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity-$2,600 (1995 est.)

GDP-composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate-consumer price index: NA %

Labor force:
total: 14,400 (1990)
by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million in
grant revenue)
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity-capacity: 33,000 kW (1995)

Electricity-production: 105 million kWh (1995)

Electricity-consumption per capita: 1,830 kWh (1995)

Agriculture-products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit,
yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports:
total value: $318 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: canned tuna 93%
partners: US 99.6%

Imports:
total value: $418 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products
7%, machinery and parts 6%
partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

Debt-external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: important financial support from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular phone
services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
international: satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 12,000 (1994 est.)

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 350 km
paved: 150 km
unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1997 est.)

Airports-with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1997 est.)

Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1997 est.)

@American Samoa:Military

Military-note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@American Samoa:Transnational Issues

Disputes-international: none

______________________________________________________________________

ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 450 sq km
land: 450 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area-comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 125 km
border countries: France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 56%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment-current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion

Environment-international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography-note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 64,716 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14% (male 4,819; female 4,474)
15-64 years: 73% (male 25,448; female 22,028)
65 years and over: 13% (male 4,041; female 3,906) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 10.48 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.09 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 83.45 years
male: 80.54 years
female: 86.54 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA

@Andorra:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that
retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are
the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are
represented locally by officials called veguers

National capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular-parroquia);
Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia
de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) and
Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31
January 1971); note-each coprince is represented by a veguer (French:
Jean-Pierre COURTOIS; Spanish: Francesc BADIA Battalla)
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
(since 21 December 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council designated by the executive council
president
elections: executive council president elected by the General Council
and formally appointed by the coprinces; election last held 16
February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
president; percent of General Council vote-NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or
Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct
popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to
represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held February 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party-UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%, ND
7%, other 8%; seats by party-UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) two
civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge appointed by
the coprinces alternately; Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo
de Urgel (Spain); Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal des Cortes
presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the veguers,

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