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The Virginia Housewife by Mary Randolph

Part 2 out of 4

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TO MAKE PASTE FOR THE PIE.

Pour half a pound of butter or dripping, boiling hot, into a quart of
flour, add as much water as will make it a paste, work it and roll it
well before you use it. It is quite a savoury paste.

* * * * *

BOLOGNA SAUSAGES.

Take one pound of bacon--fat and lean, one ditto veal, do., pork, do.,
suet, chop all fine, season highly: fill the skins, prick and boil them
an hour, and hang them to dry--grated bread or boiled rice may be added:
clean the skins with salt and vinegar.

* * * * *

FISH.

TO CURE HERRINGS.

The best method for preserving herrings, and which may be followed with
ease, for a small family, is to take the brine left of your winter stock
for beef, to the fishing place, and when the seine is hauled, to pick
out the largest herrings, and throw them alive into the brine; let them
remain twenty-four hours, take them out and lay them on sloping planks,
that the brine may drain off; have a tight barrel, put some coarse alum
salt at the bottom, then put in a layer of herrings--take care not to
bruise them; sprinkle over it alum salt and some saltpetre, then fish,
salt, and saltpetre, till the barrel is full; keep a board over it.
Should they not make brine enough to cover them in a few weeks, you must
add some, for they will be rusty if not kept under brine. The proper
time to salt them is when they are quite fat: the scales will adhere
closely to a lean herring, but will be loose on a fat one--the former is
not fit to be eaten. Do not be sparing of salt when you put them up.
When they are to be used, take a few out of brine, soak them an hour or
two, scale them nicely, pull off the gills, and the only entrail they
have will come with them; wash them clean and hang them up to dry. When
to be broiled, take half a sheet of white paper, rub it over with
butter, put the herring in, double the edges securely, and broil without
burning it. The brine the herrings drink before they die, has a
wonderful effect in preserving their juices: when one or two years old,
they are equal to anchovies.

* * * * *

TO BAKE STURGEON.

Get a piece of sturgeon with the skin on, the piece next to the tail,
scrape it well, cut out the gristle, and boil it about twenty minutes to
take out the oil; take it up, pull off the large scales, and when cold,
stuff it with forcemeat, made of bread crumbs, butter, chopped parsley,
pepper and salt, put it in a Dutch oven just large enough to hold it,
with a pint and a half of water, a gill of red wine, one of mushroom
catsup, some salt and pepper, stew it gently till the gravy is reduced
to the quantity necessary to pour over it; take up your sturgeon
carefully, thicken the gravy with a spoonful of butter rubbed into a
large one of brown flour;--see that it is perfectly smooth when you put
it in the dish.

* * * * *

TO MAKE STURGEON CUTLETS.

The tail piece is the best; skin it and cut off the gristle, cut it into
slices about half an inch thick, sprinkle over them pepper and salt,
dredge them with flour, and fry them a nice light brown; have ready a
pint of good gravy, seasoned with catsup, wine, and a little pounded
cloves, and thickened with brown flour and butter; when the cutlets are
cold, put them into the gravy and stew them a few minutes; garnish the
dish with nice forcemeat balls and parsley fried crisp.

* * * * *

STURGEON STEAKS.

Cut them as for the cutlets, dredge them, and fry them nicely; dish them
quickly lest they get cold; pour over melted butter with chopped
parsley, and garnish with fried parsley.

* * * * *

TO BOIL STURGEON.

Leave the skin on, which must be nicely scraped, take out the gristle,
rub it with salt, and let it lie an hour, then put it on in cold water
with some salt and a few cloves of garlic; it must be dredged with flour
before it is put into the water, skim it carefully, and when dished,
pour over it melted butter with chopped parsley, a large spoonful of
mushroom catsup, one of lemon pickle, and one of pepper vinegar; send
some of it to table in a sauce boat;--the sturgeon being a dry fish,
rich sauce is necessary.

* * * * *

TO BAKE A SHAD.

The shad is a very indifferent fish unless it be large and fat; when you
get a good one, prepare it nicely, put some forcemeat inside, and lay it
at full length in a pan with a pint of water, a gill of red wine, one of
mushroom catsup, a little pepper, vinegar, salt, a few cloves of garlic,
and six cloves: stew it gently till the gravy is sufficiently reduced;
there should always be a fish-slice with holes to lay the fish on, for
the convenience of dishing without breaking it; when the fish is taken
up, slip it carefully into the dish; thicken the gravy with butter and
brown flour, and pour over it.

* * * * *

TO BOIL A SHAD.

Get a nice fat shad, fresh from the water, that the skin may not crack
in boiling, put it in cold water on a slice, in a kettle of proper
length, with a wine glass of pale vinegar, salt, a little garlic, and a
bundle of parsley; when it is done, drain all the water from the fish,
lay it in the dish, and garnish with scraped horse-radish; have a sauce
boat of nice melted butter, to mix with the different catsups, as taste
shall direct.

* * * * *

TO ROAST A SHAD.

Fill the cavity with good forcemeat, sew it up, and tie it on a board of
proper size, cover it with bread crumbs, with some salt and pepper, set
it before the fire to roast; when done on one side, turn it, tie it
again, and when sufficiently done, pull out the thread, and serve it up
with butter and parsley poured over it.

* * * * *

TO BROIL A SHAD.

Separate one side from the back-bone, so that it will lie open without
being split in two; wash it clean, dry it with a cloth, sprinkle some
salt and pepper on it, and let it stand till you are ready to broil it;
have the gridiron hot and well greased, broil it nicely, and pour over
it melted butter.

* * * * *

TO BOIL ROCK FISH.

The best part of the rock is the head and shoulders--clean it nicely,
put it into the fish kettle with cold water and salt, boil it gently and
skim it well; when done, drain off the water, lay it in the dish, and
garnish with scraped horse-radish; have two boats of tatter nicely
melted with chopped parsley, or for a change, you may have anchovy
butter; the roe and liver should be fried and served in separate dishes.
If any of the rock be left, it will make a delicious dish next
day;--pick it in small pieces, put it in a stew pan with a gill of
water, a good lump of butter, some salt, a large spoonful of lemon
pickle, and one of pepper vinegar--shake it over the fire till perfectly
hot, and serve it up. It is almost equal to stewed crab.

* * * * *

TO FRY PERCH.

Clean the fish nicely, but do not take out the roes, dry them on a
cloth, sprinkle some salt, and dredge them with flour, lay them
separately on a board; when one side is dry, turn them, sprinkle salt
and dredge the other side; be sure the lard boils when you put the fish
in, and fry them with great care; they should be a yellowish brown when
done. Send melted butter or anchovy sauce in a boat.

* * * * *

TO PICKLE OYSTERS.

Select the largest oysters, drain off their liquor, and wash them in
clean water; pick out the pieces of shells that may be left, put them in
a stew pan with water proportioned to the number of oysters, some salt,
blades of mace, and whole black pepper; stew them a few minutes, then
put them in a pot, and when cold, add as much pale vinegar as will give
the liquor an agreeable acid.

* * * * *

TO MAKE A CURRY OF CATFISH.

Take the white channel catfish, cut off their heads, skin and clean
them, cut them in pieces four inches long, put as many as will be
sufficient for a dish into a stew pan with a quart of water, two onions,
and chopped parsley; let them stew gently till the water is reduced to
half a pint, take the fish out and lay them on a dish, cover them to
keep them hot, rub a spoonful of butter into one of flour, add a large
tea-spoonful of curry powder, thicken the gravy with it, shake it over
the fire a few minutes, and pour it over the fish; be careful to have
the gravy smooth.

* * * * *

TO DRESS A COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.

Take out the gills and the blood from the bone, wash the head very
clean, rub over it a little salt, then lay it on your fish plate; throw
in the water a good handful of salt, with a glass of vinegar, then put
in the fish, and let it boil gently half an hour; if it is a large one,
three quarters; take it up very carefully, strip the skin nicely off,
set it before a brisk fire, dredge it all over with flour, and baste it
well with butter; when the froth begins to rise, throw over it some very
fine white bread crumbs; you must keep basting it all the time to make
it froth well; when it is a fine light brown, dish it up, and garnish it
with a lemon cut in slices, scraped horse-radish, barberries, a few
small fish fried and laid around it, or fried oysters--cut the roe and
liver in slices, and lay over it a little of the lobster out of the
sauce in lumps, and then serve it up.

* * * * *

TO MAKE SAUCE FOR THE COD'S HEAD.

Take a lobster, if it be alive, stick a skewer in the rent of the tail,
(to keep the water out,) throw a handful of salt in the water; when it
boils, put in the lobster, and boil it half an hour; if it has spawn on
it, pick them off, and pound them exceedingly fine in a marble mortar,
and put them into half a pound of good melted butter, then take the meat
out of the lobster, pull it in bits, and put it in your butter, with a
meat spoonful of lemon pickle, and the same of walnut catsup, a slice of
lemon, one or two slices of horse-radish, a little beaten mace, salt and
cayenne to your taste; boil them one minute, then take out the
horse-radish and lemon, and serve it up in your sauce boat.

N.B. If you cannot get lobsters, you may make shrimp, cockle, or muscle
sauce, the same way; if there can be no shell fish got, you then may add
two anchovies cut small, a spoonful of walnut liquor, a large onion
stuck with cloves--strain and put it in the sauce boat.

* * * * *

TO DRESS A SALT COD.

Steep your salt fish in water all night, with a glass of vinegar; it
will take out the salt, and make it taste like fresh fish; the next day
boil it; when it is enough take off the skin, pull it in fleaks into
your dish, then pour egg sauce over it, or parsnips boiled and beat
fine, with butter and cream; send it to the table on a water plate, for
it will soon grow cold.

* * * * *

MATELOTE OF ANY KIND OF FIRM FISH.

Cut the fish in pieces six inches long, put it in a pot with onion,
parsley, thyme, mushrooms, a little spice, pepper and salt--add red wine
and water enough for gravy, set it on a quick fire and reduce it
one-third, thicken with a spoonful of butter and two of flour; put it in
a dish with bits of bread fried in butter, and pour the gravy over it.

* * * * *

CHOWDER, A SEA DISH.

Take any kind of firm fish, cut it in pieces six inches long, sprinkle
salt and pepper over each piece, cover the bottom of a small Dutch oven
with slices of salt pork about half boiled, lay in the fish, strewing a
little chopped onion between; cover with crackers that have been soaked
soft in milk, pour over it two gills of white wine, and two of water;
put on the top of the oven, and stew it gently about an hour; take it
out carefully, and lay it in a deep dish; thicken the gravy with a
little flour and a spoonful of butter, add some chopped parsley, boil it
a few minutes, and pour it over the fish--serve it up hot.

* * * * *

TO PICKLE STURGEON.

The best sturgeons are the small ones, about four feet long without the
head, and the best part is the one near the tail. After the sturgeon is
split through the back bone, take a piece with the skin on, which is
essential to its appearance and goodness, cut off the gristle, scrape
the skin well, wash it, and salt it--let it lie twenty-four hours, wipe
off the salt, roll it, and tie it around with twine, put it on in a good
deal of cold water, let it boil till you can run a straw easily into the
skin, take it up, pull off the large scales, and when cold, put it in a
pot, and cover it with one part vinegar, and two of salt and water; keep
it closely stopped, and when served, garnish with green fennel.

* * * * *

TO CAVEACH FISH.

Cut the fish in pieces the thickness of your hand, wash it and dry it in
a cloth, sprinkle on some pepper and salt, dredge it with flour, and fry
it a nice brown; when it gets cold, put it in a pot with a little
chopped onion between the layers, take as much vinegar and water as will
cover it, mix with it some oil, pounded mace, and whole black pepper,
pour it on, and stop the pot closely. This is a very convenient article,
as it makes an excellent and ready addition to a dinner or supper. When
served up, it should be garnished with green fennel, or parsley.

* * * * *

TO DRESS COD FISH.

Boil the fish tender, pick it from the bones, take an equal quantity of
Irish potatos, or parsnips boiled and chopped, and the same of onions
well boiled; add a sufficiency of melted butter, some grated nutmeg,
pepper, and salt, with a little brandy or wine; rub them in a mortar
till well mixed; if too stiff, liquify it with cream or thickened milk,
put paste in the bottom of a dish, pour in the fish, and bake it. For
change, it may be baked in the form of patties.

* * * * *

COD FISH PIE.

Soak the fish, boil it and take off the skin, pick the meat from the
bones, and mince it very fine; take double the quantity of your fish, of
stale bread grated; pour over it as much new milk, boiling hot, as will
wet it completely, add minced parsley, nutmeg, pepper, and made mustard,
with as much melted butter as will make it sufficiently rich; the
quantity must be determined by that of the other ingredients--beat these
together very well, add the minced fish, mix it all, cover the bottom of
the dish with good paste, pour the fish in, put on a lid and bake it.

* * * * *

TO DRESS ANY KIND OF SALTED FISH.

Take the quantity necessary for the dish, wash them, and lay them in
fresh water for a night; then put them on the tin plate with holes, and
place it in the fish kettle--sprinkle over it pounded cloves and pepper,
with four cloves of garlic; put in a bundle of sweet herbs and parsley,
a large spoonful of tarragon, and two of common vinegar, with a pint of
wine; roll one quarter of a pound of butter in two spoonsful of flour,
cut it in small pieces, and put it over the fish--cover it closely, and
simmer it over a slow fire half an hour; take the fish out carefully,
and lay it in the dish, set it over hot water, and cover it till the
gravy has boiled a little longer--take out the garlic and herbs, pour it
over the fish, and serve it up. It is very good when eaten cold with
salad, garnished with parsley.

* * * * *

TO FRICASSEE COD SOUNDS AND TONGUES.

Soak them all night in fresh water, take off the skins, cut them in two
pieces, and boil them in milk and water till quite tender, drain them in
a colander, and season with nutmeg, pepper, and a little salt--take as
much new milk as will make sauce for it, roll a good lump of butter in
flour, melt it in the milk, put the fish in, set it over the fire, and
stir it till thick enough, and serve it up.

* * * * *

AN EXCELLENT WAY TO DRESS FISH.

Dredge the fish well with flour, sprinkle salt and pepper on them, and
fry them a nice brown; set them by to get cold; put a quarter of a pound
of butter in a frying pan; when it boils, fry tomatos with the skins
taken off, parsley nicely picked, and a very little chopped onion; when
done, add as much water as will make sauce for the fish--season it with
pepper, salt, and pounded cloves; add some wine and mushroom catsup, put
the fish in, and when thoroughly heated, serve it up.

* * * * *

FISH A-LA-DAUB.

Boil as many large white perch as will be sufficient for the dish; do
not take off their heads, and be careful not to break their skins; when
cold, place them in the dish, and cover them with savoury jelly broken.
A nice piece of rock-fish is excellent done in the same way.

* * * * *

FISH IN JELLY.

Fill a deep glass dish half full of jelly--have as many small
fish-moulds as will lie conveniently in it fill them with blanc mange;
when they are cold, and the jelly set, lay them on it, as if going in
different directions; put in a little more jelly, and let it get cold,
to keep the fish in their places--then fill the dish so as to cover
them. The jelly should be made of hog's feet, very light coloured, and
perfectly transparent.

* * * * *

TO MAKE EGG SAUCE FOR A SALT COD.

Boil four eggs hard, first half chop the white, then put in the yelks,
and chop them both together, but not very small; put them into half a
pound of good melted butter, and let it boil up--then pour it on the
fish.

* * * * *

TO DRESS COD SOUNDS.

Steep your sounds as you do the salt cod, and boil them in a large
quantity of milk and water; when they are very tender and white, take
them up, and drain the water out and skin them; then pour the egg sauce
boiling hot over them, and serve them up.

* * * * *

TO STEW CARP.

Gut and scale your fish, wash and dry them well with a clean cloth,
dredge them with flour, fry them in lard until they are a light brown,
and then put them in a stew pan with half a pint of water, and half a
pint of red wine, a meat spoonful of lemon pickle, the same of walnut
catsup, a little mushroom powder and cayenne to your taste, a large
onion stuck with cloves, and a slick of horse-radish; cover your pan
close up to keep in the steam; let them stew gently over a stove fire,
till the gravy is reduced to just enough to cover your fish in the dish;
then take the fish out, and put them on the dish you intend for the
table, set the gravy on the fire, and thicken it with flour, and a large
lump of butter; boil it a little, and strain it over your fish; garnish
them with pickled mushrooms and scraped horse-radish, and send them to
the table.

* * * * *

TO BOIL EELS.

Clean the eels, and cut off their heads, dry them, and turn them round
on your fish plate, boil them in salt and water, and make parsley sauce
for them.

* * * * *

TO PITCHCOCK EELS.

Skin and wash your eels, then dry them with a cloth, sprinkle them with
pepper, salt, and a little dried sage, turn them backward and forward,
and skewer them; rub a gridiron with beef suet, broil them a nice brown,
put them on a dish with good melted butter, and lay around fried
parsley.

* * * * *

TO BROIL EELS.

When you have skinned and cleansed your eels as before, rub them with
the yelk of an egg, strew over them bread crumbs, chopped parsley, sage,
pepper, and salt; baste them well with butter, and set them in a
dripping pan; serve them up with parsley and butter for sauce.

* * * * *

TO SCOLLOP OYSTERS.

When the oysters are opened, put them in a bowl, and wash them out of
their own liquor; put some in the scollop shells, strew over them a few
bread crumbs, and lay a slice of butter on them, then more oysters,
bread crumbs, and a slice of butter on the top; put them into a Dutch
oven to brown, and serve them up in the shells.

* * * * *

TO FRY OYSTERS.

Take a quarter of a hundred of large oysters, wash them and roll them in
grated bread, with pepper and salt, and fry them a light brown; if you
choose, you may add a little parsley, shred fine. They are a proper
garnish for calves' head, or most made dishes.

* * * * *

TO MAKE OYSTER LOAVES.

Take little round loaves, cut off the tops, scrape out all the crumbs,
then put the oysters into a stew pan with the crumbs that came out of
the loaves, a little water, and a good lump of butter; stew them
together ten or fifteen minutes, then put in a spoonful of good cream,
fill your loaves, lay the bit of crust carefully on again, set them in
the oven to crisp. Three are enough for a side dish.

* * * * *

POULTRY, &c.

TO ROAST A GOOSE.

Chop a few sage leaves and two onions very fine, mix them with a good
lump of butter, a tea-spoonful of pepper, and two of salt, put it in the
goose, then split it, lay it down, and dust it with flour; when it is
thoroughly hot, baste it with nice lard; if it be a large one, it will
require an hour and a half, before a good clear fire; when it is enough,
dredge and baste it, pull out the spit, and pour in a little boiling
water.

* * * * *

TO MAKE SAUCE FOR A GOOSE.

Pare, core and slice some apples; put them in a sauce pan, with as much
water as will keep them from burning, set them over a very slow fire,
keep them closely covered till reduced to a pulp, then put in a lump of
butter, and sugar to your taste, beat them well, and send them to the
table in a china bowl.

* * * * *

TO BOIL DUCKS WITH ONION SAUCE.

Scald and draw your ducks, put them in warm water for a few minutes,
then take them out and put them in an earthen pot; pour over them a pint
of boiling milk, and let them lie in it two or three hours; when you
take them out, dredge them well with flour, and put them in a copper of
cold water; put on the cover, let them boil slowly twenty minutes, then
take them out, and smother them with onion sauce.

* * * * *

TO MAKE ONION SAUCE.

Boil eight or ten large onions, change the water two or three times
while they are boiling; when enough, chop them on a board to keep them a
good colour, put them in a sauce pan with a quarter of a pound of butter
and two spoonsful of thick cream; boil it a little, and pour it over the
ducks.

* * * * *

TO ROAST DUCKS.

When you have drawn the ducks, shred one onion and a few sage leaves,
put them into the ducks with pepper and salt, spit and dust them with
flour, and baste them with lard; if your fire be very hot, they will
roast in twenty minutes; and the quicker they are roasted, the better
they will taste. Just before you take them from the spit, dust them with
flour and baste them. Get ready some gravy made of the gizzards and
pinions, a large blade of mace, a few pepper corns, a spoonful of
catsup, a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle; strain it and pour it on the
ducks, and send onion sauce in a boat.

* * * * *

TO BOIL A TURKEY WITH OYSTER SAUCE.

Grate a loaf of bread, chop a score or more of oysters fine, add nutmeg,
pepper and salt to your taste, mix it up into a light forcemeat with a
quarter of a pound of butter, a spoonful or two of cream, and three
eggs; stuff the craw with it, and make the rest into balls and boil
them; sew up the turkey, dredge it well with flour, put it in a kettle
of cold water, cover it, and set it over the fire; as the scum begins to
rise, take it off, let it boil very slowly for half an hour, then take
off your kettle and keep it closely covered; if it be of a middle size,
let it stand in the hot water half an hour, the steam being kept in,
will stew it enough, make it rise, keep the skin whole, tender, and very
white; when you dish it, pour on a little oyster sauce, lay the balls
round, and serve it up with the rest of the sauce in a boat.

N.B. Set on the turkey in time, that it may stew as above; it is the
best way to boil one to perfection. Put it over the fire to heat, just
before you dish it up.

* * * * *

TO MAKE SAUCE FOR A TURKEY.

As you open the oysters, put a pint into a bowl, wash them out of their
own liquor, and put them in another bowl; when the liquor has settled,
pour it off into a sauce pan with a little white gravy, and a
tea-spoonful of lemon pickle--thicken it with flour and a good lump of
butter; boil it three or four minutes, put in a spoonful of good cream,
add the oysters, keep shaking them over the fire till they are quite
hot, but don't let them boil, for it will make them hard and appear
small.

* * * * *

TO ROAST A TURKEY.

Make the forcemeat thus: take the crumb of a loaf of bread, a quarter of
a pound of beef suet shred fine, a little sausage meat or veal scraped
and pounded very fine, nutmeg, pepper, and salt to your taste; mix it
lightly with three eggs, stuff the craw with it, spit it, and lay it
down a good distance from the fire, which should be clear and brisk;
dust and baste it several times with cold lard; it makes the froth
stronger than basting it with the hot out of the dripping pan, and makes
the turkey rise better; when it is enough, froth it up as before, dish
it, and pour on the same gravy as for the boiled turkey, or bread sauce;
garnish with lemon and pickles, and serve it up; if it be of a middle
size, it will require one hour and a quarter to roast.

* * * * *

TO MAKE SAUCE FOR A TURKEY.

Cut the crumb of a loaf of bread in thin slices, and put it in cold
water with a few pepper corns, a little salt and onion--then boil it
till the bread is quite soft, beat it well, put in a quarter of a pound
of butter, two spoonsful of thick cream, and put it in the dish with the
turkey.

* * * * *

TO BOIL FOWLS.

Dust the fowls well with flour, put them in a kettle of cold water,
cover it close, set it on the fire; when the scum begins to rise, take
it off, let them boil very slowly for twenty minutes, then take them
off, cover them close, and the heat of the water will stew them enough
in half an hour; it keeps the skin whole, and they will be both whiter
and plumper than if they had boiled fast; when you take them up, drain
them, and pour over them white sauce or melted butter.

* * * * *

TO MAKE WHITE SAUCE FOR FOWLS.

Take a scrag of veal, the necks of fowls, or any bits of mutton or veal
you have; put them in a sauce pan with a blade or two of mace, a few
black pepper corns, one anchovy, a head of celery, a bunch of sweet
herbs, a slice of the end of a lemon; put in a quart of water, cover it
close, let it boil till it is reduced to half a pint, strain it, and
thicken it with a quarter of a pound of butter mixed with flour, boil it
five or six minutes, put in two spoonsful of pickled mushrooms, mix the
yelks of two eggs with a tea cup full of good cream and a little
nutmeg--put it in the sauce, keep shaking it over the fire, but don't
let it boil.

* * * * *

FRICASSEE OF SMALL CHICKENS.

Take off the legs and wings of four chickens, separate the breasts from
the backs, cut off the necks and divide the backs across, clean the
gizzards nicely, put them with the livers and other parts of the
chicken, after being washed clean, into a sauce pan, add pepper, salt,
and a little mace, cover them with water, and stew them till
tender--then take them out, thicken half a pint of the water with two
table spoonsful of flour rubbed into four ounces of butter, add half a
pint of new milk, boil all together a few minutes, then add a gill of
white wine, stirring it in carefully that it may not curdle; put the
chickens in, and continue to shake the pan until they are sufficiently
hot, and serve them up.

* * * * *

TO ROAST LARGE FOWLS.

Take the fowls when they are ready dressed, put them down to a good
fire, dredge and baste them well with lard; they will be near an hour in
roasting; make a gravy of the necks and gizzards, strain it, put in a
spoonful of brown flour; when you dish them, pour on the gravy, and
serve them up with egg sauce in a boat.

* * * * *

TO MAKE EGG SAUCE.

Boil four eggs for ten minutes, chop half the whites, put them with the
yelks, and chop them both together, but not very fine; put them into a
quarter of a pound of good melted butter, and put it in a boat.

* * * * *

TO BOIL YOUNG CHICKENS.

Put the chickens in scalding water; as soon as the feathers will slip
off, take them out, or it will make the skin hard and break: when you
have drawn them, lay them in skimmed milk for two hours, then truss and
dust them well with flour, put them in cold water, cover them close, set
them over a very slow fire, take off the scum, let them boil slowly for
five or six minutes, take them off the fire, keep them closely covered
in the water for half an hour, it will stew them enough; when you are
going to dish them, set them over the fire to make them hot, drain them,
and pour over white sauce made the same way as for the boiled fowls.

* * * * *

TO ROAST YOUNG CHICKENS.

When you kill young chickens, pluck them very carefully, truss and put
them down to a good fire, dredge and baste them with lard; they will
take a quarter of an hour in roasting; froth them up, lay them on the
dish, pour butter and parsley on, and serve them up hot.

* * * * *

FRIED CHICKENS.

Cut them up as for the fricassee, dredge them well with flour, sprinkle
them with salt, put them into a good quantity of boiling lard, and fry
them a light brown; fry small pieces of mush and a quantity of parsley
nicely picked, to be served in the dish with the chickens; take half a
pint of rich milk, add to it a small bit of butter, with pepper, salt,
and chopped parsley; stew it a little, and pour it over the chickens,
and then garnish with the fried parsley.

* * * * *

TO ROAST WOODCOCKS OR SNIPES.

Pluck, but do not draw them, put them on a small spit, dredge and baste
them well with lard, toast a few slices of bread, put them on a clean
plate, and set it under the birds while they are roasting; if the fire
be good, they will take about ten minutes; when you take them from the
spit, lay them upon the toasts on the dish, pour melted butter round
them, and serve them up.

* * * * *

TO ROAST WILD DUCKS OR TEAL.

When the ducks are ready dressed, put in them a small onion, pepper,
salt, and a spoonful of red wine; if the fire be good, they will roast
in twenty minutes; make gravy of the necks and gizzards, a spoonful of
red wine, half an anchovy, a blade or two of mace, one onion, and a
little cayenne pepper; boil it till it is wasted to half a pint, strain
it through a hair sieve, and pour it on the ducks--serve them up with
onion sauce in a boat; garnish the dish with raspings of bread.

* * * * *

TO BOIL PIGEONS.

Scald the pigeons, draw them, take the craw out, wash them in several
waters, cut off the pinions, turn the legs under the wings, dredge them,
and put them in soft cold water; boil them slowly a quarter of an hour,
dish them up, pour over them good melted butter, lay round a little
brocoli in bunches, and send butter and parsley in a boat.

* * * * *

TO ROAST PIGEONS.

When you have dressed your pigeons as before, roll a good lump of butter
in chopped parsley, with pepper and salt, put it in your pigeons, spit,
dust and baste them; if the fire be good, they will roast in twenty
minutes; when they are through, lay round them bunches of asparagus,
with parsley and butter for sauce.

* * * * *

TO ROAST PARTRIDGES OR ANY SMALL BIRDS.

Lard them with slips of bacon, put them on a skewer, tie it to the spit
at both ends, dredge and baste them, let them roast ten minutes, take
the grated crumb of half a loaf of bread, with a piece of butter, the
size of a walnut, put it in a stew pan, and shake it over a gentle fire
till it is of a light brown, lay it between your birds, and pour over
them a little melted butter.

* * * * *

TO BROIL RABBITS.

When you have cased the rabbits, skewer them with their heads straight
up, the fore-legs brought down, and the hind-legs straight; boil them
three quarters of an hour at least, then smother them with onion sauce,
made the same as for boiled ducks, and serve them up.

* * * * *

TO ROAST RABBITS.

When you have cased the rabbits, skewer their heads with their mouths
upon their backs, stick their fore-legs into their ribs, skewer the
hind-legs doubled, then make a pudding for them of the crumb of half a
loaf of bread, a little parsley, sweet marjoram and thyme, all shred
fine, nutmeg, salt and pepper to your taste, mix them up into a light
stuffing, with a quarter of a pound of butter, a little good cream, and
two eggs; put it into the body, and sew them up; dredge and baste them
well with lard, roast them near an hour, serve them up with parsley and
butter for sauce, chop the livers, and lay them in lumps round the edge
of the dish.

* * * * *

TO STEW WILD DUCKS.

Having prepared the fowls, rub the insides with salt, pepper, and a
little powdered cloves; put a shallot or two with a lump of butter in
the body of each, then lay them in a pan that will just hold them,
putting butter under and over them, with vinegar and water, and add
pepper, salt, lemon peel, and a bunch of sweet herbs; then cover the pan
close, and let them stew till done--pass the liquor through a sieve,
pour it over the ducks, and serve them up hot, with a garnish of lemon
sliced, and raspings of bread fried. The same way may teal, &c. be
dressed.

* * * * *

TO DRESS DUCKS WITH JUICE OF ORANGES.

The ducks being singed, picked, and drawn, mince the livers with a
little scraped bacon, some butter, green onions, sweet herbs and
parsley, seasoned with salt, pepper, and mushrooms; these being all
minced together, put them into the bodies of the ducks, and roast them,
covered with slices of bacon, and wrapped up in paper; then put a little
gravy, the juice of an orange, a few shallots minced, into a stew pan,
and shake in a little pepper; when the ducks are roasted, take off the
bacon, dish them, and pour your sauce with the juice of oranges over
them, and serve them up hot.

* * * * *

TO DRESS DUCKS WITH ONIONS.

Stuff the ducks as before, cut the roots off small onions, blanch them
in scalding water, then pick and put them into a stew pan with a little
gravy, set them over a gentle fire, and let them simmer; when they are
done, thicken them with cream and flour, and when the ducks are roasted,
dish them, pour the ragout of onions over, and serve them up hot.

* * * * *

TO ROAST A CALF'S HEAD.

Wash and pick the head very nicely; having taken out the brains and
tongue, prepare a good quantity of forced meat, with veal and suet well
seasoned; fill the hole of the head with this forced meat, skewer and
tie it together upon the spit, and roast it for an hour and a half. Beat
up the brains with a little sage and parsley shred fine, a little salt,
and the yelks of two or three eggs; boil the tongue, peel, and cut it
into large dice, fry that with the brains, also some of the forced meat
made up into balls, and slices of bacon. Let the sauce be strong gravy,
with oysters, mushrooms, capers, and a little white wine thickened.

* * * * *

TO MAKE A DISH OF CURRY AFTER THE EAST INDIAN MANNER.

Cut two chickens as for fricassee, wash them clean, and put them in a
stew pan with as much water as will cover them; sprinkle them with a
large spoonful of salt, and let them boil till tender, covered close all
the time, and skim them well; when boiled enough, take up the chickens,
and put the liquor of them into a pan, then put half a pound of fresh
butter in the pan, and brown it a little; put into it two cloves of
garlic, and a large onion sliced, and let these all fry till brown,
often shaking the pan; then put in the chickens, and sprinkle over them
two or three spoonsful of curry powder; then cover the pan close, and
let the chickens do till brown, often shaking the pan; then put in the
liquor the chickens were boiled in, and let all stew till tender; if
acid is agreeable squeeze the juice of a lemon or orange in it.

* * * * *

DISH OF RICE TO BE SERVED UP WITH THE CURRY, IN A DISH BY ITSELF.

Take half a pound of rice, wash it clean in salt and water--then put it
into two quarts of boiling water, and boil it briskly twenty minutes;
strain it through a colander and shake it into a dish, but do not touch
it with your fingers nor with a spoon.

Beef, veal, mutton, rabbits, fish, &c. may be curried and sent to table
with or without the dish of rice.

Curry powder is used as a fine flavoured seasoning for fish, fowls,
steaks, chops, veal cutlets, hashes, minces, alamodes, turtle soup, and
in all rich dishes, gravies, sauce, &c. &c.

* * * * *

OCHRA AND TOMATOS.

Take an equal quantity of each, let the ochra be young, slice it, and
skin the tomatos; put them into a pan without water, add a lump of
butter, an onion chopped fine, some pepper and salt, and stew them one
hour.

* * * * *

GUMBO--A WEST INDIA DISH.

Gather young pods of ochra, wash them clean, and put them in a pan with
a little water, salt and pepper, stew them till tender, and serve them
with melted butter. They are very nutritious, and easy of digestion.

* * * * *

PEPPER POT.

Boil two or three pounds of tripe, cut it in pieces, and put it on the
fire with a knuckle of veal, and a sufficient quantity of water; part of
a pod of pepper, a little spice, sweet herbs according to your taste,
salt, and some dumplins; stew it till tender, and thicken the gravy with
butter and flour.

* * * * *

SPANISH METHOD OF DRESSING GIBLETS.

Take the entrails of fat full grown fowls, empty them of their
contents--open them with a sharp knife, scrape off the inner coat; wash
them clean, and put them on to boil with the liver, gizzard, and other
giblets; add salt, pepper, and chopped onion--when quite tender, set
them by to cool; put some nice dripping or butter in a pan, when it
boils put the giblets, add salt, fry them a nice brown; when nearly
done, break six eggs in a bowl, beat them a little, pour them over the
giblets, stir them for a few minutes, and serve them up.

* * * * *

PASTE FOR MEAT DUMPLINS.

Chop half a pound of suet very fine--add one and a quarter pound of
flour, and a little salt--mix it up with half a pint of milk, knead it
till it looks light; take a bowl of proper size, rub the inside with
butter, roll out the paste and lay it in; parboil beef steaks,
mutton-chops, or any kind of meat you like; season it and lay it in the
bowl--fill it with rich gravy, close the paste over the top--get a very
thick cloth that will keep out the water; wet and flour it, place it
over the top of the bowl--gather it at bottom and tie it very securely;
the water must boil when you put it in--when done, dip the top in cold
water for a moment, that the cloth may not stick to the paste; untie and
take it off carefully--put a dish on the bowl and turn it over--if
properly made, it will come out without breaking; have gravy in a boat
to eat with it.

* * * * *

TO MAKE AN OLLO--A SPANISH DISH.

Take two pounds beef, one pound mutton, a chicken, or half a pullet, and
a small piece of pork; put them into a pot with very little water, and
set it on the fire at ten o'clock, to stew gently; you must sprinkle
over it an onion chopped small, some pepper and salt, before you pour in
the water; at half after twelve, put into the pot two or three apples or
pears, peeled and cut in two, tomatos with the skin taken off, cimblins
cut in pieces, a handful of mint chopped, lima beans, snaps, and any
kind of vegetable you like; let them all stew together till three
o'clock; some cellery tops cut small, and added at half after two, will
improve it much.

* * * * *

ROPA VEIJA--SPANISH.

Peel the skin from ripe tomatos, put them in a pan with a spoonful of
melted butter, some pepper and salt, shred cold meat or fowl; put it in,
and fry it sufficiently.

* * * * *

CHICKEN PUDDING, A FAVOURITE VIRGINIA DISH.

Beat ten eggs very light, add to them a quart of rich milk, with a
quarter of a pound of butter melted, and some pepper and salt; stir in
as much flour as will make a thin good batter; take four young chickens,
and after cleaning them nicely, cut off the legs, wings, &c. put them
all in a sauce pan, with some salt and water, and a bundle of thyme and
parsley, boil them till nearly done, then take the chicken from the
water and put it in the batter pour it in a dish, and bake it; send nice
white gravy in a boat.

* * * * *

TO MAKE POLENTA.

Put a large spoonful of butter in a quart of water, wet your corn meal
with cold water in a bowl, add some salt, and make it quite smooth, then
put it in the buttered water when it is hot, let it boil, stirring it
continually till done; as soon as you can handle it, make it into a
ball, and let it stand till quite cold--then cut it in thin slices, lay
them in the bottom of a deep dish so as to cover it, put on it slices of
cheese, and on that a few bits of butter; then mush, cheese and butter,
until the dish is full; put on the top thin slices of cheese and butter,
put the dish in a quick oven; twenty or thirty minutes will bake it.

* * * * *

MACARONI.

Boil as much macaroni as will fill your dish, in milk and water, till
quite tender; drain it on a sieve sprinkle a little salt over it, put a
layer in your dish then cheese and butter as in the polenta, and bike it
in the same manner.

* * * * *

MOCK MACARONI.

Break some crackers in small pieces, soak them in milk until they are
soft; then use them as a substitute for macaroni.

* * * * *

TO MAKE CROQUETS.

Take cold fowl or fresh meat of any kind, with slices of ham, fat and
lean--chop them together very fine, add half as much stale bread grated,
salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, a
table-spoonful of catsup, and a lump of butter; knead all well together
till it resembles sausage meat, make them in cakes, dip them in the yelk
of an egg beaten, cover them thickly with grated bread, and fry them a
light brown.

* * * * *

TO MAKE VERMECELLI.

Beat two or three fresh eggs quite light, make them into a stiff paste
with flour, knead it well, and roll it out very thin, cut it in narrow
strips, give them a twist, and dry them quickly on tin sheets. It is an
excellent ingredient in most soups, particularly those that are thin.
Noodles are made in the same manner, only instead of strips they should
be cut in tiny squares and dried. They are also good in soups.

* * * * *

COMMON PATTIES.

Take some veal, fat and lean, and some slices of boiled ham, chop them
very fine, and season it with salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, and a small
quantity of parsley and thyme minced very fine; with a little gravy make
some paste, cover the bottoms of small moulds, fill them with the meat,
put thin lids on, and bake them crisp; five is enough for a side dish.

* * * * *

EGGS IN CROQUETS.

Boil eighteen eggs, separate the yelks and whites, and cut them in dice;
pour over them a sauce a-la-creme, _(see sauce a-la-creme,)_ add a
little grated bread, mix all well together, and let it get cold; put in
some salt and pepper, make them into cakes, cover them well on both
sides with grated bread, let them stand an hour, and fry them a nice
brown; dry them a little before the fire, and dish them while quite hot.

* * * * *

OMELETTE SOUFFLE.

Break six eggs, beat the yelks and whites separately till very light,
then mix them, add four table spoonsful of powdered sugar, and a little
grated lemon peel; put a quarter of a pound of butter in a pan; when
melted, pour in the eggs and stir them; when they have absorbed the
butter, turn it on a plate previously buttered, sprinkle some powdered
sugar, set it in a hot Dutch oven, and when a little brown, serve it up
for a desert.

* * * * *

FONDUS.

Put a pint of water, and a lump of butter the size of an egg, into a
sauce pan; stir in as much flour as will make a thick batter, put it on
the fire, and stir it continually till it will not stick to the pan; put
it in a bowl, add three quarters of a pound of grated cheese, mix it
well, then break in two eggs, beat them well, then two more until you
put in six; when it looks very light, drop it in small lumps on buttered
paper, bake it in a quick oven till of a delicate brown; you may use
corn meal instead of flour for a change.

* * * * *

A NICE TWELVE O'CLOCK LUNCHEON.

Cut some slices of bread tolerably thick, and toast them slightly; bone
some anchovies, lay half of one on each toast, cover it well with grated
cheese and chopped parsley mixed; pour a little melted butter on, and
brown it with a salamander; it must be done on the dish you send it to
table in.

* * * * *

EGGS A-LA-CREME.

Boil twelve eggs just hard enough to allow you to cut them in
slices--cut some crusts of bread very thin, put them in the bottom and
round the sides of a moderately deep dish, place the eggs in, strewing
each layer with the stale bread grated, and some pepper and salt.

* * * * *

SAUCE A-LA-CREME, FOR THE EGGS.

Put a quarter of a pound of butter, with a large table-spoonful of flour
rubbed well into it in a sauce pan; add some chopped parsley, a little
onion, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and a gill of cream; stir it over the fire
until it begins to boil, then pour it over the eggs, cover the top with
grated bread, set it in a Dutch oven with a heated top, and when a light
brown, send it to table.

* * * * *

CABBAGE A-LA-CREME.

Take two good heads of cabbage, cut out the stalks, boil it tender, with
a little salt in the water--have ready one large spoonful of butter, and
a small one of flour rubbed into it, half a pint of milk, with pepper
and salt; make it hot, put the cabbage in after pressing out the water,
and stew it till quite tender.

* * * * *

TO MAKE AN OMELETTE.

Break six or eight eggs in a dish, beat them a little, add parsley and
chives chopped small, with pepper and salt; mix all well together, put a
piece of butter in a pan, let it melt over a clear fire till nearly
brown; pour in the eggs, stir it in, and in a few minutes it will be
done sufficiently; double it, and dish it quite hot.

* * * * *

OMELETTE--ANOTHER WAY.

Break six eggs, leave out half the whites--beat them with a fork, and
add some salt and chopped parsley; take four ounces of fresh butter, cut
half of it in small pieces, put them in the omelette, put the other half
in a small frying pan; when melted, pour in the eggs; stir till it
begins to set, then turn it up round the edges; when done, put a plate
on and turn the pan up, that it may not break--the omelette must be
thick, and great care must be taken in frying; instead of parsley, you
may use any kind of sweet herb or onion chopped fine, anchovy minced,
rasped beef, ham or tongue.

* * * * *

GASPACHO--SPANISH

Put some soft biscuit or toasted bread in the bottom of a sallad bowl,
put in a layer of sliced tomatos with the skin taken off, and one of
sliced cucumbers, sprinkled with pepper, salt, and chopped onion; do
this until the bowl is full; stew some tomatos quite soft, strain the
juice, mix in some mustard, oil, and water, and pour over it; make it
two hours before it is eaten.

* * * * *

EGGS AND TOMATOS.

Peel the skins from a dozen large tomatos, put four ounces of butter in
a frying pan, add some salt, pepper, and a little chopped onion; fry
them a few minutes, add the tomatos, and chop them while frying; when
nearly done, break in six eggs, stir them quickly, and serve them up.

* * * * *

TO FRICASSEE EGGS.

Boil six eggs for five minutes, lay them in cold water, peel them
carefully, dredge them lightly with flour, beat one egg light, dip the
hard eggs in, roll them in bread crumbs, seasoned with pepper, salt, and
grated nutmeg; cover them well with this, and let them stand some time
to dry--fry them in boiling lard, and serve them up with any kind of
rich, well seasoned gravy, and garnish with crisped parsley.

* * * * *

SAUCES.

FISH SAUCE, TO KEEP A YEAR.

Chop twenty-four anchovies, bones and all, two shallots, a handful of
scraped horse radish, four blades of mace, one quart of white wine, one
pint of anchovy liquor, one pint of claret, twelve cloves, and twelve
pepper corns; boil them together till reduced to a quart, then strain it
off into a bottle for use Two spoonsful will be sufficient for a pound
of butter.

* * * * *

SAUCE FOR WILD FOWL.

Take a gill of claret, with as much water, some grated bread, three
heads of shallots, a little whole pepper, mace, grated nutmeg, and salt;
let them stew over the fire, then beat it up with butter, and put it
under the wild fowl, which being a little roasted, will afford gravy to
mix with this sauce.

* * * * *

SAUCE FOR BOILED RABBITS.

Boil the livers, and shred them very small, chop two eggs not boiled
very hard, a large spoonful of grated white bread, some broth, sweet
herbs, two spoonsful of white wine, one of vinegar, a little salt, and
some butter; stir all together, and take care the butter does not oil.

* * * * *

GRAVY.

Take a rasher or two of bacon, and lay it at the bottom of a stew pan,
putting either veal, mutton, or beef, cut in slices, over it; then add
some sliced onions, turnips, carrots, celery, a little thyme, and
alspice. Put in a little water, and set it on the fire, stewing till it
be brown at the bottom, which you will know from the pan's hissing; then
pour boiling water over it, and stew it an hour and a half; but the time
must be regulated by the quantity. Season it with salt and pepper.

* * * * *

FORCEMEAT BALLS.

Take half a pound of veal, and half a pound of suet cut fine, and beat
in a marble mortar or wooden bowl; add a few sweet herbs shred fine, a
little mace pounded fine, a small nutmeg grated, a little lemon peel,
some pepper and salt, and the yelks of two eggs; mix them well together,
and make them into balls and long pieces--then roll them in flour, and
fry them brown. If they are for the use of white sauce, do not fry them,
but put them in a sauce-pan of hot water and let them boil a few
minutes.

* * * * *

SAUCE FOR BOILED DUCKS OR RABBITS.

Pour boiled onions over your ducks, or rabbits, prepared in this manner:
peel some onions, and boil them in plenty of water; then change the
first water, and boil them two hours: take them up and put them in a
colander to drain, and afterwards chop them on a board; then put them in
a sauce-pan, sprinkle a little flour over them, and put in a large piece
of butter, with a little milk or cream. Set them over the fire, and when
the butter is melted, they will be done enough. This is a good sauce for
mutton also.

* * * * *

LOBSTER SAUCE.

Boil a little mace, and whole pepper, long enough to take out the strong
taste of the spice; then strain it off, and melt three quarters of a
pound of butter in it. Cut the lobster in very small pieces, and stew it
till it is tender.

* * * * *

SHRIMP SAUCE.

Wash half a pint of shrimps very clean--mince and put them in a
stew-pan, with a spoonful of anchovy liquor, and a pound of thick melted
butter; boil it up for five minutes, and squeeze in half a lemon. Toss
it up, and put it in a sauce-boat.

* * * * *

OYSTER SAUCE FOR FISH.

Scald a pint of oysters, and strain them through a sieve; then wash some
more in cold water, and take off their beards; put them in a stew-pan,
and pour the liquor over them; then add a large spoonful of anchovy
liquor, half a lemon, two blades of mace, and thicken it with butter
rolled in flour. Put in half a pound of butter, and boil it till it is
melted--take out the mace and lemon, and squeeze the lemon juice into
the sauce; boil it, and stir it all the time, and put it in a boat.

* * * * *

CELERY SAUCE.

Wash and pare a large bunch of celery very clean cut it into little
bits, and boil it softly till it is tender; add half a pint of cream,
some mace, nutmeg, and a small piece of butter rolled in flour; then
boil it gently. This is a good sauce for roasted or boiled fowls,
turkeys, partridges, or any other game.

* * * * *

MUSHROOM SAUCE.

Clean and wash one quart of fresh mushrooms, cut them in two, and put
them into a stew-pan, with a little salt, a blade of mace, and a little
butter; stew them gently for half an hour, and then add half a pint of
cream, and the yelks of two eggs beat very well--keep stirring it till
it boils up. Put it over the fowls or turkies--or you may put it on a
dish with a piece of fried bread first buttered--then toasted brown, and
just dipped into boiling water. This is very good sauce for white fowls
of all kinds.

* * * * *

COMMON SAUCE.

Plain butter melted thick, with a spoonful of walnut pickle or catsup,
is a very good sauce; but you may put as many things as you choose into
sauces.

* * * * *

TO MELT BUTTER.

Nothing is more simple than this process, and nothing so generally done
badly. Keep a quart tin sauce-pan, with a cover to it, exclusively for
this purpose; weigh one quarter of a pound of good butter; rub into it
two tea-spoonsful of flour; when well mixed, put it in the sauce-pan
with one table-spoonful of water, and a little salt; cover it, and set
the sauce-pan in a larger one of boiling water; shake it constantly till
completely melted, and beginning to boil. If the pan containing the
butter be set on coals, it will oil the butter and spoil it. This
quantity is sufficient for one sauce-boat. A great variety of delicious
sauces can be made, by adding different herbs to melted butter, all of
which are excellent to eat with fish, poultry, or boiled butchers' meat.
To begin with parsley--wash a large bunch very clean, pick the leaves
from the stems carefully, boil them ten minutes in salt and water, drain
them perfectly dry, mince them exceedingly fine, and stir them in the
butter when it begins to melt. When herbs are added to butter, you must
put two spoonsful of water instead of one. Chervil, young fennel,
burnet, tarragon, and cress, or pepper-grass, may all be used, and must
be prepared in the same manner as the parsley.

* * * * *

CAPER SAUCE.

Is made by mixing a sufficient quantity of capers, and adding them to
the melted butter, with a little of the liquor from the capers; where
capers cannot be obtained, pickled nasturtiums make a very good
substitute, or even green pickle minced and put with the butter.

* * * * *

OYSTER CATSUP.

Get fine fresh oysters, wash them in their own liquor, put them in a
marble mortar with salt, pounded mace, and cayenne pepper, in the
proportions of one ounce salt, two drachms mace, and one of cayenne to
each pint of oysters; pound them together, and add a pint of white wine
to each pint; boil it some minutes, and rub it through a sieve; boil it
again, skim it, and when cold, bottle, cork, and seal it. This
composition gives a fine flavour to white sauces, and if a glass of
brandy be added, it will keep good for a considerable time.

* * * * *

CELERY VINEGAR.

Pound two gills of celery seed, put it into a bottle ind fill it with
strong vinegar; shake it every day for a fortnight, then strain it, and
keep it for use. It will impart a pleasant flavour of celery to any
thing with which it is used. A very delicious flavour of thyme may be
obtained, by gathering it when in full perfection; it must be picked
from the stalks, a large handful of it put into a jar, and a quart of
vinegar or brandy poured on it; cover it very close--next day, take all
the thyme out, put in as much more; do this a third time; then strain
it, bottle and seal it securely. This is greatly preferable to the dried
thyme commonly used, during the season when it cannot be obtained in a
fresh state. Mint may be prepared in the same way. The flavour of both
these herbs must be preserved by care in the preparation: if permitted
to stand more than twenty hours in the liquor they are infused in, a
coarse and bitter taste will be extracted, particularly from mint.

* * * * *

VEGETABLES.

TO DRESS SALAD.

To have this delicate dish in perfection, the lettuce, pepper grass,
chervil, cress, &c. should be gathered early in the morning, nicely
picked, washed, and laid in cold water, which will be improved by adding
ice; just before dinner is ready to be served, drain the water from your
salad, cut it into a bowl, giving the proper proportions of each plant;
prepare the following mixture to pour over it: boil two fresh eggs ten
minutes, put them in water to cool, then take the yelks in a soup plate,
pour on them a table spoonful of cold water, rub them with a wooden
spoon until they are perfectly dissolved; then add two spoonsful of oil:
when well mixed, put in a tea-spoonful of salt, one of powdered sugar,
and one of made mustard; when all these are united and quite smooth,
stir in two table spoonsful of common, and two of tarragon vinegar; put
it over the salad, and garnish the top with the whites of the eggs cut
into rings, and lay around the edge of the bowl young scallions, they
being the most delicate of the onion tribe.

* * * * *

TO BOIL POTATOS.

Wash them, but do not pare or cut them, unless they are very large; fill
a sauce-pan half full of potatos of equal size, (or make them so by
dividing the large ones,) put to them as much cold water as will cover
them about an inch; they are sooner boiled, and more savoury, than when
drowned in water; most boiled things are spoiled by having too little
water, but potatos are often spoiled by having too much; they must
merely be covered, and a little allowed for waste in boiling, so that
they must be just covered when done. Set them on a moderate fire till
they boil, then take them off, and set them by the fire to simmer
slowly, till they are soft enough to admit a fork; (place no dependence
on the usual test of their skin's cracking, which, if they are boiled
fast, will happen to some potatos when they are not half done, and the
inside is quite hard,) then pour off the water, (if you let the potatos
remain in the water a moment after they are done enough, they will
become waxy and watery,) uncover the sauce-pan, and set it at such a
distance from the fire as will secure it from burning; their superfluous
moisture will evaporate, and the potatos will be perfectly dry and
mealy. You may afterwards place a napkin, folded up to the size of the
sauce-pan's diameter, over the potatos, to keep them dry and mealy till
wanted, this method of managing potatos, is, in every respect, equal to
steaming them, and they are dressed in half the time.

* * * * *

TO FRY SLICED POTATOS.

Peel large potatos, slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or cut
them in shavings round and round, as you would peel a lemon; dry them
well in a clean cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care that
your fat and frying-pan are quite clean; put it on a quick fire, watch
it, and as soon as the lard boils and is still, put in the slices of
potatos, and keep moving them till they are crisp; take them up, and lay
them to drain on a sieve; send them up with very little salt sprinkled
on them.

* * * * *

POTATOS MASHED.

When the potatos are thoroughly boiled, drain and dry them perfectly,
pick out every speck, and rub them through a colander into a clean
stew-pan; to a pound of potatos put half an ounce of butter, and a
table-spoonful of milk; do not make them too moist; mix them well
together. When the potatos are getting old and specked, and in frosty
weather, this is the best way of dressing them--you may put them into
shapes, touch them over with yelk of egg, and brown them very slightly
before a slow fire.

* * * * *

POTATOS MASHED WITH ONIONS.

Prepare some onions by putting them through a sieve, and mix them with
potatos; in proportioning the onions to the potatos, you will be guided
by your wish to have more or less of their flavour.

* * * * *

TO ROAST POTATOS.

Wash and dry your potatos, (all of a size,) and put them in a tin Dutch
oven, or cheese toaster; take care not to put them too near the fire, or
they will get burned on the outside before they are warmed through.
Large potatos, will require two hours to roast them. To save time and
trouble, some cooks half boil them first.

* * * * *

TO ROAST POTATOS UNDER MEAT.

Half boil large potatos, drain the water from them, and put them into an
earthen dish or small tin pan, under meat that is roasting, and baste
them with some of the dripping; when they are browned on one side, turn
them and brown the other; send them up around the meat, or in a small
dish.

* * * * *

POTATO BALLS.

Mix mashed potatos with the yelk of an egg, roll them into balls, flour
them, or cover them with egg and bread crumbs, fry them in clean
dripping, or brown them in a Dutch oven. They are an agreeable vegetable
relish, and a supper dish.

* * * * *

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.

Are boiled and dressed in the various ways we have just before directed
for potatos. They should be covered with thick melted butter, or a nice
white or brown sauce.

* * * * *

CABBAGE.

Pick cabbages very clean, and wash them thoroughly; then look them
carefully over again; quarter them if they are very large; put them into
a sauce pan with plenty of boiling water; if any skum rises, take it
off, put a large spoonful of salt into the sauce pan, and boil 'them
till the stalks feel tender. A young cabbage will take about twenty
minutes, or half an hour; when full grown, nearly an hour; see that they
are well covered with water all the time, and that no or smoke arises
from stirring the fire. With careful management, they will look as
beautiful when dressed as they did when growing. It will much ameliorate
the flavour of strong old cabbages, to boil them in two waters, _i.e._
when they are half done, to take them out, and put them into another
sauce pan of boiling water.

* * * * *

SAVOYS.

Are boiled in the same manner; quarter them when you send them to table.

* * * * *

SPROUTS AND YOUNG GREENS.

The receipt written for cabbages will answer as well for sprouts, only
they will be boiled enough in fifteen minutes.

* * * * *

ASPARAGUS.

Set a stew-pan with plenty of water on the fire, sprinkle a handful of
salt in it, let it boil, and skim it; then put in the asparagus prepared
thus: scrape all the stalks till they are perfectly clean; throw them
into a pan of cold water as you scrape them; when they are all done, tie
them in little bundles, of a quarter of a hundred each, with bass, if
you can get it, or tape; cut off the stalks at the bottom, that they may
be all of a length; when they are tender at the stalk, which will be in
from twenty to thirty minutes, they are done enough. Great care must be
taken to watch the exact time of their becoming tender; take them just
at that instant, and they will have their true flavour and colour; a
minute or two more boiling destroys both. While the asparagus is
boiling, toast a slice of a loaf of bread, about a half an inch thick;
brown it delicately on both sides; dip it lightly in the liquor the
asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle of a dish; pour some
melted butter on the toast, and lay the asparagus upon it; let it
project beyond the asparagus, that the company may see there is a toast.
Do not pour butter over them, but send some in a boat.

* * * * *

SEA-KALE.

Is tied up in bundles, and dressed in the same way as asparagus.

* * * * *

TO SCOLLOP TOMATOS.

Peel off the skin from large, full, ripe tomatos--put a layer in the
bottom of a deep dish, cover it well with bread grated fine; sprinkle on
pepper and salt, and lay some bits of butter over them--put another
layer of each, till the dish is full--let the top be covered with crumbs
and butter--bake it a nice brown.

* * * * *

TO STEW TOMATOS.

Take off the skin, and put them in a pan with salt, pepper, and a large
piece of butter--stew them till sufficiently dry.

* * * * *

CAULIFLOWER.

Choose those that are close and white, and of a middle size--trim off
the outside leaves, cut off the stalk flat at the bottom, let them lie
in salt and water an hour before you boil them. Put them in boiling
water, with a handful of salt in it--skim it well, and let it boil
slowly till done, which a small one will be in fifteen minutes, a large
one in twenty--and take it up the moment it is enough: a few minutes
longer boiling will spoil it.

* * * * *

RED BEET ROOTS.

Are not so much used as they deserve to be; they are dressed in the same
way as parsnips, only neither scraped nor cut till after they are
boiled; they will take from an hour and a half to three hours in
boiling, according to their size; to be sent to the table with salt
fish, boiled beef, &c. When young, small and juicy, it is a very good
variety, an excellent garnish, and easily converted into a very cheap
and pleasant pickle.

* * * * *

PARSNIPS.

Are to be cooked just in the same manner as carrots; they require more
or less time, according to their size; therefore match them in size, and
you must try them by thrusting a fork into them as they are in the
water; when this goes easily through, they are done enough: boil them
from an hour to two hours, according to their size and freshness.
Parsnips are sometimes sent up mashed in the same way as turnips.

* * * * *

CARROTS.

Let them be well washed and scraped--an hour is enough for young spring
carrots; grown carrots will take from an hour and a half to two hours
and a half. The best way to try if they are done enough, is to pierce
them with a fork.

* * * * *

TURNIPS.

Peel off half an inch of the stringy outside--full grown turnips will
take about an hour and a half gentle boiling; try them with a fork, and
when tender, take them up, and lay them on a sieve till the water is
thoroughly drained from them; send them up whole; to very young turnips,
leave about two inches of green top; the old ones are better when the
water is changed as directed for cabbage.

* * * * *

TO MASH TURNIPS.

When they are boiled quite tender, squeeze them as dry as possible--put
them into a sauce pan, mash them with a wooden spoon, and rub them
through a colander; add a little bit of butter, keep stirring them till
the butter is melted and well mixed with them, and they are ready for
table.

* * * * *

TURNIP TOPS.

Are the shoots which grow out, (in the spring.) from the old turnip
roots. Put them in cold water an hour before they are dressed; the more
water they are boiled in, the better they will look; if boiled in a
small quantity of water, they will taste bitter; when the water boils,
put in a small handful of salt, and then your vegetables; they are still
better boiled with bacon in the Virginia style: if fresh and young, they
will be done in about twenty minutes--drain them on the back of a sieve,
and put them under the bacon.

* * * * *

FRENCH BEANS.

Cut off the stalk end first, and then turn to the point and strip off
the strings; if not quite fresh, have a bowl of spring water, with a
little salt dissolved in it, standing before you; as the beans are
cleansed and trimmed, throw them in; when all are done, put them on the
fire in boiling water, with some salt in it; when they have boiled
fifteen or twenty minutes, take one out and taste it; as soon as they
are tender, take them up, and throw them into a colander to drain. To
send up the beans whole, when they are young, is much the best method,
and their delicate flavour and colour is much better preserved. When a
little more grown, they must be cut lengthwise in thin slices after
stringing; and for common tables, they are split, and divided across;
but those who are nice, do not use them at such a growth as to require
splitting.

* * * * *

ARTICHOKES.

Soak them in cold water, wash them well, then put them into plenty of
boiling water, with a handful of salt, and let them boil gently till
they are tender, which will take an hour and a half, or two hours: the
surest way to know when they are done enough, is to draw out a leaf;
trim them, and drain them on a sieve, and send up melted butter with
them, with some put into small cups, so that each guest may have one.

* * * * *

BROCOLI.

The kind which bears flowers around the joints of the stalks, must be
cut into convenient lengths for the dish; scrape the skin from the
stalk, and pick out any leaves or flowers that require to be removed;
tie it up in bunches, and boil it as asparagus; serve it up hot, with
melted butter poured over it. The brocoli that heads at the top like
cauliflowers, must be dressed in the same manner as the cauliflower.

* * * * *

PEAS.

To have them in perfection, they must be quite young, gathered early in
the morning, kept in a cool place, and not shelled until they are to be
dressed; put salt in the water, and when it boils, put in the peas; boil
them quick twenty or thirty minutes, according to their age; just before
they are taken up, add a little mint chopped very fine; drain all the
water from the peas, put in a bit of butter, and serve them up quite
hot.

* * * * *

PUREE OF TURNIPS.

Pare a dozen large turnips, slice them, and put them into a stew-pan,
with four ounces of butter and a little salt; set the pan over a
moderate fire, turn them often with a wooden spoon; when they look
white, add a ladle full of veal gravy, stew them till it becomes thick;
skim it, and pass it through a sieve; put the turnips in a dish, and
pour the gravy over them.

* * * * *

RAGOUT OF TURNIPS.

Peel as many small turnips as will fill a dish; put them into a stew pan
with some butter and a little sugar, set them over a hot stove, shake
them about, and turn them till they are a good brown; pour in half a
pint of rich high seasoned gravy; stew the turnips till tender, and
serve them with the gravy poured over them.

* * * * *

RAGOUT OF FRENCH BEANS, SNAPS, STRING BEANS.

Let them be young and fresh gathered, string them, and cut them in long
thin slices; throw them in boiling water for fifteen minutes; have ready
some well seasoned brown gravy, drain the water from the beans, put them
in the gravy, stew them a few minutes, and serve them garnished with
forcemeat balls; there must not be gravy enough to float the beans.

* * * * *

MAZAGAN BEANS.

This is the smallest and most delicate species of the Windsor bean.
Gather them in the morning, when they are full grown, but quite young,
and do not shell them till you are going to dress them. Put them into
boiling water, have a small bit of middling, (flitch,) of bacon, well
boiled--take the skin off, cover it with bread crumbs, and toast it; lay
this in the middle of the dish, drain all the water from the beans--put
a little butter with them, and pour them round the bacon. When the large
Windsor beans are used, it is best to put them into boiling water until
the skins will slip off, and then make them into a puree as directed for
turnips--they are very coarse when plainly dressed.

* * * * *

LIMA, OR SUGAR BEANS.

Like all other spring and summer vegetables, they must be young and
freshly gathered: boil them till tender, drain them, add a little
butter, and serve them up. These beans are easily preserved for winter
use, and will be nearly as good as fresh ones. Gather them on a dry day,
when full grown, but quite young: have a clean and dry keg, sprinkle
some salt in the bottom, put in a layer of pods, containing the beans,
then a little salt--do this till the keg is full; lay a board on with a
weight, to press them down; cover the keg very close, and keep it in a
dry, cool place--they should be put up as late in the season, as they
can be with convenience. When used, the pods must be washed, and laid in
fresh water all night; shell them next day, and keep them in water till
you are going to boil them; when tender, serve them up with melted
butter in a boat. French beans (snaps) may be preserved in the same
manner.

* * * * *

TURNIP ROOTED CABBAGE.

The cabbage growing at the top is not good; cut the root in slices an
inch thick, peel off the rind, and boil the slices in a large quantity
of water, till tender, serve it up hot, with melted butter poured over
it.

* * * * *

EGG PLANT.

The purple ones are best; get them young and fresh; pull out the stem,
and parboil them to take off the bitter taste; cut them in slices an
inch thick, but do not peel them; dip them in the yelk of an egg, and
cover them with grated bread, a little salt and pepper--when this has
dried, cover the other side the same way--fry them a nice brown. They
are very delicious, tasting much like soft crabs. The egg plant may be
dressed in another manner: scrape the rind and parboil them; cut a slit
from one end to the other, take out the seeds, fill the space with a
rich forcemeat, and stew them in well seasoned gravy, or bake them, and
serve up with gravy in the dish.

* * * * *

POTATO PUMPKIN.

Get one of a good colour, and seven or eight inches in diameter; cut a
piece off the top, take out all the seeds, wash and wipe the cavity,
pare the rind off, and fill the hollow with good forcemeat--put the top
on, and set it in a deep pan, to protect the sides; bake it in a
moderate oven, put it carefully in the dish without breaking, and it
will look like a handsome mould. Another way of cooking potato pumpkin
is to cut it in slices, pare off the rind, and make a puree as directed
for turnips.

* * * * *

SWEET POTATO.

Take those that are nearly of the same size, that they may be done
equally--wash them clean, but do not peel them--boil them till tender,
drain the water off, and put them on tin sheets in a stove for a few
minutes to dry.

* * * * *

SWEET POTATOS STEWED.

Wash and wipe them, and if they be large, cut them in two lengths; put
them at the bottom of a stew pan, lay over some slices of boiled ham;
and on that, one or two chickens cut up with pepper, salt, and a bundle
of herbs; pour in some water, and stew them till done, then take out the
herbs, serve the stew in a deep dish--thicken the gravy, and pour over
it.

* * * * *

SWEET POTATOS BROILED.

Cut them across without peeling, in slices half an inch thick, broil
them on a griddle, and serve them with butter in a boat.

* * * * *

SPINACH.

Great care must be used in washing and picking it clean; drain it, and
throw it into boiling water--a few minutes will boil it sufficiently:
press out all the water, put it in a stew pan with a piece of butter,
some pepper and salt--chop it continually with a spoon till it is quite
dry: serve it with poached eggs or without, as you please.

* * * * *

SORREL.

Is dressed as the spinach; and if they be mixed in equal proportions,
improve each other.

* * * * *

CABBAGE PUDDING.

Get a fine head of cabbage, not too large; pour boiling water on, and
cover it till you can turn the leaves back, which you must do carefully;
take some of those in the middle of the head off, chop them fine, and
mix them with rich forcemeat; put this in, and replace the leaves to
confine the stuffing--tie it in a cloth, and boil it--serve it up whole,
with a little melted butter in the dish.

* * * * *

SQUASH OR CIMLIN.

Gather young squashes, peel, and cut them in two; take out the seeds,
and boil them till tender; put them into a colander, drain off the
water, and rub them with a wooden spoon through the colander; then put
them into a stew pan, with a cup full of cream, a small piece of butter,
some pepper and salt--stew them, stirring frequently until dry. This is
the most delicate way of preparing squashes.

* * * * *

WINTER SQUASH.

The crooked neck of this squash is the best part. Cut it in slices an
inch thick, take off the rind, and boil them with salt in the water;
drain them well before they are dished, and pour melted butter
over--serve them up very hot.

The large part, containing the seeds, must be sliced and pared--cut it
in small pieces, and stew it till soft, with just water enough to cover
it; pass it through a sieve and stew it again, adding some butter,
pepper, and salt; it must be dry, but not burnt. It is excellent when
stewed with pork chops.

* * * * *

FIELD PEAS.

There are many varieties of these peas; the smaller kind are the most
delicate. Have them young and newly gathered, shell and boil them
tender; pour them in a colander to drain; put some lard in a frying pan;
when it boils, mash the peas, and fry them in a cake of a light brown;
put it in the dish with the crust uppermost--garnish with thin bits of
fried bacon. They are very nice when fried whole, so that each pea is
distinct from the other; but they must be boiled less, and fried with
great care. Plain boiling is a very common way of dressing them.

* * * * *

CABBAGE WITH ONIONS.

Boil them separately, and mix them in the proportions you like; add
butter, pepper, and salt, and either stew them, or fry them in a cake.

* * * * *

SALSIFY.

Scrape and wash the roots, put them into boiling water with salt; when
done, drain them, and place them in the dish without cutting them up.
They are a very excellent vegetable, but require nicety in cooking;
exposure to the air, either in scraping, or after boiling, will make
them black.

* * * * *

STEWED SALSIFY.

Half boil it, cut it up, and put it in a stew pan, with a very little
water, and a spoonful of butter; stew them dry, and serve them up. For
change, you may, after stewing, cut them in scollop shells with grated
bread, and bake them; or make them into cakes, and fry them. They are
delicious in whatever way they can be dressed.

* * * * *

STEWED MUSHROOMS.

Gather grown mushrooms, but such as are young enough to have red gills;
cut off that part of the stem which grew in the earth--wash them
carefully, and take the skin from the top; put them into a stew pan with
some salt, but no water--stew them till tender, and thicken them with a
spoonful of butter, mixed with one of brown flour; red wine may be
added, but the flavour of the mushroom is too delicious to require aid
from any thing.

* * * * *

BROILED MUSHROOMS.

Prepare them as above directed--broil them on a griddle, and when done,
sprinkle pepper and salt on the gills, and put a little butter on them.

* * * * *

TO BOIL RICE.

Put two cups full of rice in a bowl of water, rub it well with the hand,
and pour off the water; do this until the water ceases to be
discoloured; then put the rice into two and a half cups of cold water;
add a tea-spoonful of salt, cover the pot close, and set it on a brisk
fire; let it boil ten minutes, pour off the greater part of the water,
and remove the pot to a bed of coals, where it must remain a quarter of
an hour to soak and dry.

* * * * *

RICE JOURNEY, OR JOHNNY CAKE.

Boil a pint of rice quite soft, with a tea-spoonful of salt; mix with it
while hot a large spoonful of butter, and spread it on a dish to cool;
when perfectly cold, add a pint of rice flour and half a pint of
milk--beat them all together till well mingled. Take the middle part of
the head of a barrel, make it quite clean, wet it, and put on the
mixture about an inch thick, smooth with a spoon, and baste it with a
little milk; set the board aslant before clear coals; when sufficiently
baked, slip a thread under the cake and turn it: baste and bake that
side in a similar manner, split it, and butter while hot. Small homony
boiled and mixed with rice flour, is better than all rice; and if baked
very thin, and afterwards toasted and buttered, it is nearly as good as
cassada bread.

* * * * *

PUDDINGS, &c.

OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND CAKES.

The salt should always be washed from butter, when it is to be used in
any thing that has sugar for an ingredient, and also from that which is
melted to grease any kind of mould for baking--otherwise, there will be
a disagreeable salt taste on the outer side of the article baked.
Raisins should be stoned and cut in two, and have some flour sifted over
them--stir them gently in the flour, and take them out free from lumps;
the small quantity that adheres to them, will prevent their sticking
together, or falling in a mass to the bottom. Eggs must be fresh, or
they will not heal well: it is better to separate the yelks from the
whites always, though it is a more troublesome process; but for some
things it is essential to do so: when they are to be mixed with milk,
let it cool after boiling, or the eggs will poach; and only set it on
the fire a few minutes, to take off the raw taste of the eggs, stirring
it all the time. Currants require washing in many waters to cleanse
them; they must be picked and well dried, or they will stick together.
Almonds should be put in hot water till the skins will slip off, which
is called blanching; they must always be pounded with rose or orange
flower water, to prevent their oiling. When cream is used, put it in
just before the mixture is ready; much beating will decompose it. Before
a pudding or cake is begun, every ingredient necessary for it must be
ready; when the process is retarded by neglecting to have them prepared,
the article is injured. The oven must be in a proper state, and the
paste in the dishes or moulds, ready for such things as require it.
Promptitude is necessary in all our actions, but never more so than when
engaged in making cakes and puddings. When only one or two eggs are to
be used, cooks generally think it needless to beat them--it is an error:
eggs injure every thing, unless they are made light before they are
used. Cloths for boiling puddings should be made of German sheeting; an
article less thick, will admit the water, and injure the pudding.

* * * * *

RICE MILK FOR A DESSERT.

Boil half a pint of rice in water till tender, pour off the water, and
add a pint of milk with two eggs beaten well, stirred into it; boil all
together two or three minutes; serve it up hot, and eat it with butter,
sugar, and nutmeg. It may be sweetened and cooled in moulds, turned out
in a deep dish, and surrounded with rich milk, with raspberry marmalade
stirred into it, and strained to keep back the seeds--or the milk may be
seasoned with wine and sugar.

* * * * *

TO MAKE PUFF PASTE.

Sift a quart of flour, leave out a little for rolling the paste, make up
the remainder with cold water into a stiff paste, knead it well, and
roll it out several times; wash the salt from a pound of butter, divide
it into four parts, put one of them on the paste in little bits, fold it
up, and continue to roll it till the butter is well mixed; then put
another portion of butter, roll it in the same manner; do this till all
the butter is mingled with the paste; touch it very lightly with the
hands in making--bake it in a moderate oven, that will permit it to
rise, but will not make it brown. Good paste must look white, and as
light as a feather.

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