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The Virginia Housewife by Mary Randolph

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Or, Methodical Cook




Method Is the Soul of Management


The difficulties I encountered when I first entered on the duties of a
housekeeping life, from the want of books sufficiently clear and concise
to impart knowledge to a Tyro, compelled me to study the subject, and by
actual experiment to reduce every thing in the culinary line, to proper
weights and measures. This method I found not only to diminish the
necessary attention and labour, but to be also economical: for, when the
ingredients employed were given in just proportions, the article made
was always equally good. The government of a family, bears a Lilliputian
resemblance to the government of a nation. The contents of the Treasury
must be known, and great care taken to keep the expenditures from being
equal to the receipts. A regular system must be introduced into each
department, which may be modified until matured, and should then pass
into an inviolable law. The grand arcanum of management lies in three
simple rules:--"Let every thing be done at a proper time, keep every
thing in its proper place, and put every thing to its proper use." If
the mistress of a family, will every morning examine minutely the
different departments of her household, she must detect errors in their
infant state, when they can be corrected with ease; but a few days'
growth gives them gigantic strength: and disorder, with all her
attendant evils, are introduced. Early rising is also essential to the
good government of a family. A late breakfast deranges the whole
business of the day, and throws a portion of it on the next, which opens
the door for confusion to enter. The greater part of the following
receipts have been written from memory, where they were impressed by
long continued practice. Should they prove serviceable to the young
inexperienced housekeeper, it will add greatly to that gratification
which an extensive circulation of the work will be likely to confer.

M. RANDOLPH. Washington, January, 1831.


Management is an art that may be acquired by every woman of good sense
and tolerable memory. If, unfortunately, she has been bred in a family
where domestic business is the work of chance, she will have many
difficulties to encounter; but a determined resolution to obtain this
valuable knowledge, will enable her to surmount all obstacles. She must
begin the day with an early breakfast, requiring each person to be in
readiness to take their seats when the muffins, buckwheat cakes, &c. are
placed on the table. This looks social and comfortable. When the family
breakfast by detachments, the table remains a tedious time; the servants
are kept from their morning's meal, and a complete derangement takes
place in the whole business of the day. No work can be done till
breakfast is finished. The Virginia ladies, who are proverbially good
managers, employ themselves, while their servants are eating, in washing
the cups, glasses, &c.; arranging the cruets, the mustard, salt-sellers,
pickle vases, and all the apparatus for the dinner table. This occupies
but a short time, and the lady has the satisfaction of knowing that they
are in much better order than they would be if left to the servants. It
also relieves her from the trouble of seeing the dinner table prepared,
which should be done every day with the same scrupulous regard to exact
neatness and method, as if a grand company was expected. When the
servant is required to do this daily, he soon gets into the habit of
doing it well; and his mistress having made arrangements for him in the
morning, there is no fear of bustle and confusion in running after
things that may be called for during the hour of dinner. When the
kitchen breakfast is over, and the cook has put all things in their
proper places, the mistress should go in to give her orders. Let all the
articles intended for the dinner, pass in review before her: have the
butter, sugar, flour, meal, lard, given out in proper quantities; the
catsup, spice, wine, whatever may be wanted for each dish, measured to
the cook. The mistress must tax her own memory with all this: we have no
right to expect slaves or hired servants to be more attentive to our
interest than we ourselves are: they will never recollect these little
articles until they are going to use them; the mistress must then be
called out, and thus have the horrible drudgery of keeping house all
day, when one hour devoted to it in the morning, would release her from
trouble until the next day. There is economy as well as comfort in a
regular mode of doing business. When the mistress gives out every thing,
there is no waste; but if temptation be thrown in the way of
subordinates, not many will have power to resist it; besides, it is an
immoral act to place them in a situation which we pray to be exempt from

The prosperity and happiness of a family depend greatly on the order and
regularity established in it. The husband, who can ask a friend to
partake of his dinner in full confidence of finding his wife unruffled
by the petty vexations attendant on the neglect of household duties--who
can usher his guest into the dining-room assured of seeing that
methodical nicety which is the essence of true elegance,--will feel
pride and exultation in the possession of a companion, who gives to his
home charms that gratify every wish of his soul, and render the haunts
of dissipation hateful to him. The sons bred in such a family will be
moral men, of steady habits; and the daughters, if the mother shall have
performed the duties of a parent in the superintendence of their
education, as faithfully as she has done those of a wife, will each be a
treasure to her husband; and being formed on the model of an exemplary
mother, will use the same means for securing the happiness of her own
family, which she has seen successfully practised under the paternal



Asparagus soup
Beef soup
Gravy soup
Soup with Bouilli
Veal soup
Oyster soup
Barley soup
Dried pea soup
Green pea soup
Ochra soup
Hare or Rabbit soup
Soup of any kind of old fowl
Catfish soup
Onion soup
To dress turtle
For the soup
Mock turtle soup of calf's head


Directions for curing beef
To dry beef for summer use
To corn beef in hot weather
Important observations on roasting, boiling, frying, &c.
Beef a-la-mode
Brisket of beef baked
Beef olives
To stew a rump of beef
A fricando of beef
An excellent method of dressing beef
To collar a flank of beef
To make hunter's beef
A nice little dish of beef
Beef steaks
To hash beef
Beef steak pie
Beef a-la-daube


Directions for the pieces in the different quarters of veal
Veal cutlets from the fillet or leg
Veal chops
Veal cutlets
Knuckle of veal
Baked fillet of veal
Scotch collops of veal
Veal olives
Ragout of a breast of veal
Fricando of veal
To make a pie of sweetbreads and oysters
Mock turtle of calf's head
To grill a calf's head
To collar a calf's head
Calf's heart, a nice dish
Calf's feet fricassee
To fry calf's feet
To prepare rennet
To hash a calf's head
To bake a calf's head
To stuff and roast calf's liver
To broil calf's liver
Directions for cleaning calf's head and feet


To roast the fore-quarter, &c.
Baked lamb
Fried lamb
To dress lamb's head and feet


Boiled leg of mutton
Roasted leg of mutton
Baked leg of mutton
Steaks of a leg of mutton
To harrico mutton
Mutton chops
Boiled breast of mutton
Breast of mutton in ragout
To grill a breast of mutton
Boiled shoulder of mutton
Shoulder of mutton with celery sauce
Roasted loin of mutton


To cure bacon
To make souse
To roast a pig
To barbecue shote
To roast a fore-quarter of shote
To make shote cutlets
To corn shote
Shote's head
Leg of pork with pease pudding
Stewed chine
To toast a ham
To stuff a ham
Soused feet in ragout
To make sausages
To make black puddings
A sea pie
To make paste for the pie
Bologna sausages


To cure herrings
To bake sturgeon
To make sturgeon cutlets
Sturgeon steaks
To boil sturgeon
To bake a shad
To boil a shad
To roast a shad
To broil a shad
To boil rock fish
To fry perch
To pickle oysters
To make a curry of catfish
To dress a cod's head and shoulders
To make sauce for the cod's head
To dress a salt cod
Matelote of any kind of firm fish
Chowder, a sea dish
To pickle sturgeon
To caveach fish
To dress cod fish
Cod fish pie
To dress any kind of salted fish
To fricassee cod sounds and tongues
An excellent way to dress fish
Fish a-la-daub
Fish in jelly
To make egg sauce for a salt cod
To dress cod sounds
To stew carp
To boil eels
To pitchcock eels
To broil eels
To scollop oysters
To fry oysters
To make oyster loaves


To roast a goose
To make sauce for a goose
To boil ducks with onion sauce
To make onion sauce
To roast ducks
To boil a turkey with oyster sauce
To make sauce for a turkey
To roast a turkey
To make sauce for a turkey
To boil fowls
To make white sauce for fowls
Fricassee of small chickens
To roast large fowls
To make egg sauce
To boil young chickens
To roast young chickens
Fried chickens
To roast woodcocks or snipes
To roast wild ducks or teal
To boil pigeons
To roast pigeons
To roast partridges or any small birds
To broil rabbits
To roast rabbits
To stew wild ducks
To dress ducks with juice of oranges
To dress ducks with onions
To roast a calf's head
To make a dish of curry after the East Indian manner
Dish of rice to be served up with the curry, in a dish by itself
Ochra and tomatos
Gumbo--a West India dish
Pepper pot
Spanish method of dressing giblets
Paste for meat dumplins
To make an ollo--a Spanish dish
Ropa veija--Spanish
Chicken pudding, a favourite Virginia dish
To make polenta
Mock macaroni
To make croquets
To make vermicelli
Common patties
Eggs in croquets
Omelette souffle
A nice twelve o'clock luncheon
Eggs a-la-creme
Sauce a-la-creme for the eggs
Cabbage a-la-creme
To make an omelette
Omelette--another way
Eggs and tomatos
To fricassee eggs


Fish sauce to keep a year
Sauce for wild fowl
Sauce for boiled rabbits
Forcemeat balls
Sauce for boiled ducks or rabbits
Lobster sauce
Shrimp sauce
Oyster sauce for fish
Celery sauce
Mushroom sauce
Common sauce
To melt butter
Caper sauce
Oyster catsup
Celery vinegar


To dress salad
To boil potatos
To fry sliced potatos
Potatos mashed
Potatos mashed with onions
To roast potatos
To roast potatos under meat
Potato balls
Jerusalem artichokes
Sprouts and young greens
To scollop tomatos
To stew tomatos
Red beet roots
To mash turnips
Turnip tops
French beans
Puree of turnips
Ragout of turnips
Ragout of French beans, snaps, string beans
Mazagan beans
Lima, or sugar beans
Turnip rooted cabbage
Egg plant
Potato pumpkin
Sweet potato
Sweet potatos stewed
Sweet potatos broiled
Cabbage pudding
Squash or cimlin
Winter squash
Field peas
Cabbage with onions
Stewed salsify
Stewed mushrooms
Broiled mushrooms
To boil rice
Rice journey, or johnny cake


Observations on puddings and cakes
Rice milk for a dessert
To make puff paste
To make mince-meat for pies
To make jelly from feet
A sweet-meat pudding
To make an orange pudding
An apple custard
Boiled loaf
Transparent pudding
Burnt custard
An English plum pudding
Marrow pudding
Sippet pudding
Sweet potato pudding
An arrow root pudding
Sago pudding
Puff pudding
Rice pudding
Plum pudding
Almond pudding
Quire of paper pancakes
A curd pudding
Lemon pudding
Bread pudding
The Henrietta pudding
Tansey pudding
Cherry pudding
Apple pie
Baked apple pudding
A nice boiled pudding
An excellent and cheap dessert dish
Sliced apple pudding
Baked Indian meal pudding
Boiled Indian meal pudding
Pumpkin pudding
Fayette pudding
Maccaroni pudding
Potato paste
Compote of apples
Apple fritters
Bell fritters
Bread fritters
Spanish fritters
To make mush


To make drop biscuit
Tavern biscuit
Ginger bread
Plebeian ginger bread
Sugar ginger bread
Dough nuts--a yankee cake
Risen cake
Pound cake
Savoy, or spunge cake
A rich fruit cake
Naples biscuit
Shrewsbury cakes
Little plum cakes
Soda cakes
To make bread
To make nice biscuit
Rice bread
Mixed bread
Patent yeast
To prepare the cakes
Another method for making yeast
Nice, buns
French rolls
Apoquiniminc cakes
Batter cakes
Batter bread
Cream cakes
Soufle biscuits
Corn meal bread
Sweet potato buns
Rice woffles
Velvet cakes
Chocolate cakes
Buckwheat cakes

Observations on ice creams

Ice creams
Vanilla cream
Raspberry cream
Strawberry cream
Cocoa nut cream
Chocolate cream
Oyster cream
Iced jelly
Peach cream
Coffee cream
Quince cream
Citron cream
Almond cream
Lemon cream
Lemonade iced
To make custard
To make a trifle
Rice blanc mange
Floating island


Lemon cream
Orange cream
Raspberry cream
Tea cream
Sago cream
Barley cream
Gooseberry fool
To make slip
Curds and cream
Blanc mange
To make a hen's nest
Pheasants a-la-daub
Partridges a-la-daub
Chickens a-la-daub
To make savoury jelly
Turkey a-la-daub
An excellent relish after dinner
To stew perch


Directions for making preserves
To preserve cling-stone peaches
Cling-stones sliced
Soft peaches
Peach marmalade
Peach chips
Pear marmalade
Currant jelly
Quince jelly
Quince marmalade
Morello cherries
To dry cherries
Raspberry jam
To preserve strawberries
Strawberry jam
Apricots in brandy
Peaches in brandy
Cherries in brandy
Magnum bonum plums in brandy


Lemon pickle
Tomato catsup
Tomato marmalade
Tomato sweet marmalade
Tomato soy
Pepper vinegar
Mushroom catsup
Tarragon or astragon vinegar
Curry powder
To pickle cucumbers
Oil mangos
To make the stuffing for forty melons
To make yellow pickle
To make green pickles
To prepare vinegar for green or yellow pickle
To pickle onions
To pickle nastertiums
To pickle radish pods
To pickle English walnuts
To pickle peppers
To make walnut catsup
To pickle green nectarines, or apricots
To pickle asparagus
Observations on pickling


Ginger wine
Cherry shrub
Currant wine
To make cherry brandy
Rose brandy
Peach cordial
Raspberry cordial
Raspberry vinegar
Mint cordial
Hydromel, or mead
To make a substitute for arrack
Lemon cordial
Ginger beer
Spruce beer
Molasses beer
To keep lemon juice
Sugar vinegar
Honey vinegar
Syrup of vinegar
Aromatic vinegar
Vinegar of the four thieves
Lavender water
Hungarian water
To prepare cosmetic soap for washing the hands
Cologne water
Soft pomatum
To make soap
To make starch
To dry herbs
To clean silver utensils
To make blacking
To clean knives and forks



Take four large bunches of asparagus, scrape it nicely, cut off one inch
of the tops, and lay them in water, chop the stalks and put them on the
fire with a piece of bacon, a large onion cut up, and pepper and salt;
add two quarts of water, boil them till the stalks are quite soft, then
pulp them through a sieve, and strain the water to it, which must be put
back in the pot; put into it a chicken cut up, with the tops of
asparagus which had been laid by, boil it until these last articles are
sufficiently done, thicken with flour, butter and milk, and serve it up.

* * * * *


Take the hind shin of beef, cut off all the flesh off the leg-bone,
which must be taken away entirely, or the soup will be greasy. Wash the
meat clean and lay it in a pot, sprinkle over it one small
table-spoonful of pounded black pepper, and two of salt; three onions
the size of a hen's egg, cut small, six small carrots scraped and cut
up, two small turnips pared and cut into dice; pour on three quarts of
water, cover the pot close, and keep it gently and steadily boiling five
hours, which will leave about three pints of clear soup; do not let the
pot boil over, but take off the scum carefully, as it rises. When it has
boiled four hours, put in a small bundle of thyme and parsley, and a
pint of celery cut small, or a tea-spoonful of celery seed pounded.
These latter ingredients would lose their delicate flavour if boiled too
much. Just before you take it up, brown it in the following manner: put
a small table-spoonful of nice brown sugar into an iron skillet, set it
on the fire and stir it till it melts and looks very dark, pour into it
a ladle full of the soup, a little at a time; stirring it all the while.
Strain this browning and mix it well with the soup; take out the bundle
of thyme and parsley, put the nicest pieces of meat in your tureen, and
pour on the soup and vegetables; put in some toasted bread cut in dice,
and serve it up.

* * * * *


Get eight pounds of coarse lean beef--wash it clean and lay it in your
pot, put in the same ingredients as for the shin soup, with the same
quantity of water, and follow the process directed for that. Strain the
soup through a sieve, and serve it up clear, with nothing more than
toasted bread in it; two table-spoonsful of mushroom catsup will add a
fine flavour to the soup.

* * * * *


Take the nicest part of the thick brisket of beef, about eight pounds,
put it into a pot with every thing directed for the other soup; make it
exactly in the same way, only put it on an hour sooner, that you may
have time to prepare the bouilli; after it has boiled five hours, take
out the beef, cover up the soup and set it near the fire that it may
keep hot. Take the skin off the beef, have the yelk of an egg well
beaten, dip a feather in it and wash the top of your beef, sprinkle over
it the crumb of stale bread finely grated, put it in a Dutch oven
previously heated, put the top on with coals enough to brown, but not
burn the beef; let it stand nearly an hour, and prepare your gravy
thus:--Take a sufficient quantity of soup and the vegetables boiled in
it; add to it a table-spoonful of red wine, and two of mushroom catsup,
thicken with a little bit of butter and a little brown flour; make it
very hot, pour it in your dish, and put the beef on it. Garnish it with
green pickle, cut in thin slices, serve up the soup in a tureen with
bits of toasted bread.

* * * * *


Put into a pot three quarts of water, three onions cut small, one
spoonful of black pepper pounded, and two of salt, with two or three
slices of lean ham; let it boil steadily two hours; skim it
occasionally, then put into it a shin of veal, let it boil two hours
longer; take out the slices of ham, and skim off the grease if any
should rise, take a gill of good cream, mix with it two table-spoonsful
of flour very nicely, and the yelks of two eggs beaten well, strain this
mixture, and add some chopped parsley; pour some soup on by degrees,
stir it well, and pour it into the pot, continuing to stir until it has
boiled two or three minutes to take off the raw taste of the eggs. If
the cream be not perfectly sweet, and the eggs quite new, the thickening
will curdle in the soup. For a change you may put a dozen ripe tomatos
in, first taking off their skins, by letting them stand a few minutes in
hot water, when they may be easily peeled. When made in this way you
must thicken it with the flour only. Any part of the veal may be used,
but the shin or knuckle is the nicest.

* * * * *


Wash and drain two quarts of oysters, put them on with three quarts of
water, three onions chopped up, two or three slices of lean ham, pepper
and salt; boil it till reduced one-half, strain it through a sieve,
return the liquid into the pot, put in one quart of fresh oysters, boil
it till they are sufficiently done, and thicken the soup with four
spoonsful of flour, two gills of rich cream, and the yelks of six new
laid eggs beaten well; boil it a few minutes after the thickening is put
in. Take care that it does not curdle, and that the flour is not in
lumps; serve it up with the last oysters that were put in. If the
flavour of thyme be agreeable, you may put in a little, but take care
that it does not boil in it long enough to discolour the soup.

* * * * *


Put on three gills of barley, three quarts of water, few onions cut up,
six carrots scraped and cut into dice, an equal quantity of turnips cut
small; boil it gently two hours, then put in four or five pounds of the
rack or neck of mutton, a few slices of lean ham, with pepper and salt;
boil it slowly two hours longer and serve it up. Tomatos are an
excellent addition to this soup.

* * * * *


Take one quart of split peas, or Lima beans, which are better; put them
in three quarts of very soft water with three onions chopped up, pepper
and salt; boil them two hours; mash them well and pass them through a
sieve; return the liquid into the pot, thicken it with a large piece of
butter and flour, put in some slices of nice salt pork, and a large
tea-spoonful of celery seed pounded; boil it till the pork is done, and
serve it up; have some toasted bread cut into dice and fried in butter,
which must be put in the tureen before you pour in the soup.

* * * * *


Make it exactly as you do the dried pea soup, only in place of the
celery seed, put a handful of mint chopped small, and a pint of young
peas, which must be boiled in the soup till tender; thicken it with a
quarter of a pound of butter, and two spoonsful of flour.

* * * * *


Get two double handsful of young ochra, wash and slice it thin, add two
onions chopped fine, put it into a gallon of water at a very early hour
in an earthen pipkin, or very nice iron pot; it must be kept steadily
simmering, but not boiling: put in pepper and salt. At 12 o'clock, put
in a handful of Lima beans; at half-past one o'clock, add three young
cimlins cleaned and cut in small pieces, a fowl, or knuckle of veal, a
bit of bacon or pork that has been boiled, and six tomatos, with the
skin taken off; when nearly done, thicken with a spoonful of butter,
mixed with one of flour. Have rice boiled to eat with it.

* * * * *


Cut up two hares, put them into a pot with a piece of bacon, two onions
chopped, a bundle of thyme and parsley, which must be taken out before
the soup is thickened, add pepper, salt, pounded cloves, and mace, put
in a sufficient quantity of water, stew it gently three hours, thicken
with a large spoonful of butter, and one of brown flour, with a glass of
red wine; boil it a few minutes longer, and serve it up with the nicest
parts of the hares. Squirrels make soup equally good, done the same way.

* * * * *


_The, only way in which they are eatable._ Put the fowls in a coop and
feed them moderately for a fortnight; kill one and cleanse it, cut off
the legs and wings, and separate the breast from the ribs, which,
together with the whole back, must be thrown away, being too gross and
strong for use. Take the skin and fat from the parts cut off which are
also gross. Wash the pieces nicely, and put them on the fire with abort
a pound of bacon, a large onion chopped small, some pepper and salt, a
few blades of mace, a handful of parsley, cut up very fine, and two
quarts of water, if it be a common fowl or duck--a turkey will require
more water. Boil it gently for three hours, tie up a small bunch of
thyme, and let it boil in it half an hour, then take it out. Thicken
your soup with a large spoonful of butter rubbed into two of flour, the
yelks of two eggs, and half a pint of milk. Be careful not to let it
curdle in the soup.

* * * * *


_An excellent dish for those who have not imbibed a needless prejudice
against those delicious fish._

Take two large or four small white catfish that have been caught in deep
water, cut off the heads, and skin and clean the bodies; cut each in
three parts, put them in a pot, with a pound of lean bacon, a large
onion cut up, a handful of parsley chopped small, some pepper and salt,
pour in a sufficient quantity of water, and stew them till the fish are
quite tender but not broken; beat the yelks of four fresh eggs, add to
them a large spoonful of butter, two of flour, and half a pint of rich
milk; make all these warm and thicken the soup, take out the bacon, and
put some of the fish in your tureen, pour in the soup, and serve it up.

* * * * *


Chop up twelve large onions, boil them in three quarts of milk and water
equally mixed, put in a bit of veal or fowl, and a piece of bacon with
pepper and salt. When the onions are boiled to pulp, thicken it with a
large spoonful of butter mixed with one of flour. Take out the meat, and
serve it up with toasted bread cut in small pieces in the soup.

* * * * *


Kill it at night in winter, and in the morning in summer. Hang it up by
the hind fins, cut off the head and let it bleed well. Separate the
bottom shell from the top, with great care, lest the gall bladder be
broken, which must be cautiously taken out and thrown away. Put the
liver in a bowl of water. Empty the guts and lay them in water; if there
be eggs, put them also in water. It is proper to have a separate bowl of
water for each article. Cut all the flesh from the bottom shell, and lay
it in water; then break the shell in two, put it in a pot after having
washed it clean; pour on as much water as will cover it entirely, add
one pound of middling, or flitch of bacon, with four onions chopped, and
set it on the fire to boil. Open the guts, cleanse them perfectly; take
off the inside skin, and put them in the pot with the shell; let them
boil steadily for three hours, and if the water boils away too much, add
more. Wash the top shell nicely after taking out the flesh, cover it,
and set it by. Parboil the fins, clean them nicely--taking off all the
black skin, and put them in water; cut the flesh taken from the bottom
and top shell, in small pieces; cut the fins in two, lay them with the
flesh in a dish; sprinkle some salt over, and cover them up. When the
shell, &c. is done, take out the bacon, scrape the shell clean, and
strain the liquor; about one quart of which must be put back in the pot;
reserve the rest for soup; pick out the guts, and cut them in small
pieces; take all the nice bits that were strained out, put them with the
guts into the gravy; lay in the fins cut in pieces with them, and as
much of the flesh as will be sufficient to fill the upper shell; add to
it, (if a large turtle,) one bottle of white wine; cayenne pepper, and
salt, to your taste, one gill of mushroom catsup, one gill of lemon
pickle, mace, nutmegs and cloves, pounded, to season it high. Mix two
large spoonsful of flour in one pound and a quarter of butter; put it in
with thyme, parsley, marjoram and savory, tied in bunches; stew all
these together, till the flesh and fins are tender; wash out the top
shell, put a puff paste around the brim; sprinkle over the shell pepper
and salt, then take the herbs out of the stew; if the gravy is not thick
enough, add a little more flour, and fill the shell; should there be no
eggs in the turtle, boil six new laid ones for ten minutes, put them in
cold water a short time, peel them, cut them in two, and place them on
the turtle; make a rich forcemeat, (see receipt for forcemeat,) fry the
balls nicely, and put them also in the shell; set it in a dripping pan,
with something under the sides to keep it steady; have the oven heated
as for bread, and let it remain in it till nicely browned. Fry the liver
and send it in hot.

* * * * *


At an early hour in the morning, put on eight pounds of coarse beef,
some bacon, onions, sweet herbs, pepper and salt. Make a rich soup,
strain it and thicken with a bit of butter, and brown flour; add to it
the water left from boiling the bottom shell; season it very high with
wine, catsup, spice and cayenne; put in the flesh you reserved, and if
that is not enough, add the nicest parts of a well boiled calf's head;
but do not use the eyes or tongue; let it boil till tender, and serve it
up with fried forcemeat balls in it.

If you have curry powder, (see receipt for it,) it will give a higher
flavour to both soup and turtle, than spice. Should you not want soup,
the remaining flesh may be fried, and served with a rich gravy.

* * * * *


Have a large head cleaned nicely without taking off the skin, divide the
chop from the front of the head, take out the tongue, (which is best
when salted,) put on the head with a gallon of water, the hock of a ham
or a piece of nice pork, four or five onions, thyme, parsley, cloves and
nutmeg, pepper and salt, boil all these together until the flesh on the
head is quite tender, then take it up, cut all into small pieces, take
the eyes out carefully, strain the water in which it was boiled, add
half a pint of wine and a gill of mushroom catsup, let it boil slowly
till reduced to two quarts, thicken it with two spoonsful of browned
flour rubbed into four ounces of butter, put the meat in, and after
stewing it a short time, serve it up. The eyes are a great delicacy.

* * * * *



Prepare your brine in the middle of October, after the following manner:
get a thirty gallon cask, take out one head, drive in the bung, and put
some pitch on it, to prevent leaking. See that the cask is quite tight
and clean. Put into it one pound of saltpetre powdered, fifteen quarts
of salt, and fifteen gallons of cold water; stir it frequently, until
dissolved, throw over the cask a thick cloth, to keep out the dust; look
at it often and take off the scum. These proportions have been
accurately ascertained--fifteen gallons of cold water will exactly hold,
in solution, fifteen quarts of good clean Liverpool salt, and one pound
of saltpetre: this brine will be strong enough to bear up an egg: if
more salt be added, it will fall to the bottom without strengthening the
brine, the water being already saturated. This brine will cure all the
beef which a private family can use in the course of the winter, and
requires nothing more to be done to it except occasionally skimming the
dross that rises. It must be kept in a cool, dry place. For salting your
beef, get a molasses hogshead and saw it in two, that the beef may have
space to lie on; bore some holes in the bottom of these tubs, and raise
them on one side about an inch, that the bloody brine may run off.

Be sure that your beef is newly killed--rub each piece very well with
good Liverpool salt--a vast deal depends upon rubbing the salt into
every part--it is unnecessary to put saltpetre on it; sprinkle a good
deal of salt on the bottom of the tub. When the beef is well salted, lay
it in the tub, and be sure you put the fleshy side downward. Put a great
deal of salt on your beef after it is packed in the tub; this protects
it from animals who might eat, if they could smell it, and does not
waste the salt, for the beef can only dissolve a certain portion. You
must let the beef lie in salt ten days, then take it out, brush off the
salt, and wipe it with a damp cloth; put it in the brine with a bit of
board and weight to keep it under. In about ten days it will look red
and be fit for the table, but it will be red much sooner when the brine
becomes older. The best time to begin to salt beef is the latter end of
October, if the weather be cool, and from that time have it in
succession. When your beef is taken out of the tub, stir the salt about
to dry, that it may be ready for the next pieces. Tongues are cured in
the same manner.

* * * * *


The best pieces for this purpose are the thin briskets, or that part of
the plate which is farthest from the shoulder of the animal, the round
and rib pieces which are commonly used for roasting. These should not be
cut with long ribs and the back-bones must be sawed off as close as
possible, that the piece may lay flat in the dish. About the middle of
February, select your beef from an animal well fatted with corn, and
which, when killed, will weigh one hundred and fifty per quarter--larger
oxen are always coarse. Salt the pieces as directed, let them lie one
fortnight, then put them in brine, where they must remain three weeks:
take them out at the end of the time, wipe them quite dry, rub them over
with bran, and hang them in a cool, dry, and, if possible, dark place,
that the flies may not get to them: they must be suspended, and not
allowed to touch any thing. It will be necessary, in the course of the
summer, to look them over occasionally, and after a long wet season, to
lay them in the sun a few hours. Your tongues may be dried in the same
manner: make a little hole in the root, run a twine through it, and
suspend it. These dried meats must be put in a good quantity of water,
to soak, the night before they are to be used. In boiling it is
absolutely necessary to have a large quantity of water to put the beef
in while the water is cold, to boil steadily, skimming the pot, until
the bones are ready to fall out; and, if a tongue, till the skin peels
off with perfect ease: the skin must also be taken from the beef. The
housekeeper who will buy good ox beef, and follow these directions
exactly, may be assured of always having delicious beef on her table.
Ancient prejudice has established a notion, that meat killed in the
decrease of the moon, will draw up when cooked. The true cause of this
shrinking, may be found in the old age of the animal, or in its diseased
state, at the time of killing. The best age is from three to five years.

Few persons are aware of the injury they sustain, by eating the flesh of
diseased animals. None but the Jewish butchers, who are paid exclusively
for it, attend to this important circumstance. The best rule for judging
that I have been able to discover, is the colour of the fat. When the
fat of beef is a high shade of yellow, I reject it. If the fat of veal,
mutton, lamb or pork, have the slightest tinge of yellow, I avoid it as
diseased. The same rule holds good when applied to poultry.

* * * * *


Take a piece of thin brisket or plate, cut out the ribs nicely, rub it
on both sides well with two large spoonsful of pounded saltpetre; pour
on it a gill of molasses and a quart of salt; rub them both in; put it
in a vessel just large enough to hold it, but not tight, for the bloody
brine must run off as it makes, or the meat will spoil. Let it be well
covered, top, bottom and sides, with the molasses and salt. In four days
you may boil it, tied up in a cloth with the salt, &c. about it: when
done, take the skin off nicely, and serve it up. If you have an
ice-house or refrigerator, it will be best to keep it there. A fillet or
breast of veal, and a leg or rack of mutton, are excellent done in the
same way.

* * * * *


In roasting butchers' meat, be careful not to run the spit through the
nice parts: let the piece lie in water one hour, then wash it out, wipe
it perfectly dry, and put it on the spit. Set it before a clear, steady
fire: sprinkle some salt on it, and when it becomes hot, baste it for a
time with salt and water: then put a good spoonful of nice lard into the
dripping-pan, and when melted, continue to baste with it. When your
meat, of whatever kind, has been down some time, but before it begins to
look brown, cover it with paper and baste on it; when it is nearly done,
take off the paper, dredge it with flour, turn the spit for some minutes
very quick, and baste all the time to raise a froth--after which, serve
it up. When mutton is roasted, after you take off the paper, loosen the
skin and peel it off carefully, then dredge and froth it up. Beef and
mutton must not be roasted as much as veal, lamb, or pork; the two last
must be skinned in the manner directed for mutton. You may pour a little
melted butter in the dish with veal, but all the others must be served
without sauce, and garnished with horse-radish, nicely scraped. Be
careful not to let a particle of dry flour be seen on the meat--it has a
very ill appearance. Beef may look brown, but the whiter the other meats
are, the more genteel are they, and if properly roasted, they may be
perfectly done, and quite white. A loin of veal, and hind quarter of
lamb, should be dished with the kidneys uppermost; and be sure to joint
every thing that is to be separated at table, or it will be impossible
to carve neatly. For those who _must_ have gravy with these meats, let
it be made in any way they like, and served in a boat. No meat can be
well roasted except on a spit turned by a jack, and before a steady
clear fire--other methods are no better than baking. Many cooks are in
the habit of half boiling the meats to plump them as they term it,
before they are spitted, but it destroys their fine flavour. Whatever is
to be boiled, must be put into cold water with a little salt, which will
cook them regularly. When they are put in boiling water, the outer side
is done too much, before the inside gets heated. Nice lard is much
better than butter for basting roasted meats, or for frying. To choose
butchers' meat, you must see that the fat is not yellow, and that the
lean parts are of a fine close grain, a lively colour, and will feel
tender when pinched. Poultry should be well covered with white fat; if
the bottom of the breast bone be gristly, it is young, but if it be a
hard bone, it is an old one. Fish are judged by the liveliness of their
eyes, and bright red of their gills. Dredge every thing with flour
before it is put on to boil, and be sure to add salt to the water.

Fish, and all other articles for frying, after being nicely prepared,
should be laid on a board and dredged with flour or meal mixed with
salt: when it becomes dry on one side, turn it, and dredge the other.
For broiling, have very clear coals, sprinkle a little salt and pepper
over the pieces, and when done, dish them, and pour over some melted
butter and chopped parsley--this is for broiled veal, wild fowl, birds
or poultry: beef-steaks and mutton chops require only a table-spoonful
of hot water to be poured over. Slice an onion in the dish before you
put in the steaks or chops, and garnish both with rasped horse-radish.
To have viands served in perfection, the dishes should be made hot,
either by setting them over hot water, or by putting some in them, and
the instant the meats are laid in and garnished, put on a pewter dish
cover. A dinner looks very enticing, when the steam rises from each dish
on removing the covers, and if it be judiciously _ordered_, will have a
double relish. Profusion is not elegance--a dinner justly calculated for
the company, and consisting for the greater part of small articles,
correctly prepared, and neatly served up, will make a much more pleasing
appearance to the sight, and give a far greater gratification to the
appetite, than a table loaded with food, and from the multiplicity of
dishes, unavoidably neglected in the preparation, and served up cold.

There should always be a supply of brown flour kept in readiness to
thicken brown gravies, which must be prepared in the following manner:
put a pint of flour in a Dutch oven, with some coals under it; keep
constantly stirring it until it is uniformly of a dark brown, but none
of it burnt, which would look like dirt in the gravy. All kitchens
should be provided with a saw for trimming meat, and also with larding

* * * * *


Take the bone from a round of beef, fill the space with a forcemeat made
of the crumbs of a stale loaf, four ounces of marrow, two heads of
garlic chopped with thyme and parsley, some nutmeg, cloves, pepper and
salt, mix it to a paste with the yelks of four eggs beaten, stuff the
lean part of the round with it, and make balls of the remainder; sew a
fillet of strong linen wide enough to keep it round and compact, put it
in a vessel just sufficiently large to hold it, add a pint of red wine,
cover it with sheets of tin or iron, set it in a brick oven properly
heated, and bake it three hours; when done, skim the fat from the gravy,
thicken it with brown flour, add some mushroom and walnut catsup, and
serve it up garnished with forcemeat balls fried. It is still better
when eaten cold with sallad.

* * * * *


Bone a brisket of beef, and make holes in it with a sharp knife about an
inch apart, fill them alternately with fat bacon, parsley and oysters,
all chopped small and seasoned with pounded cloves and nutmeg, pepper
and salt, dredge it well with flour, lay it in a pan with a pint of red
wine and a large spoonful of lemon pickle; bake it three hours, take the
fat from the gravy and strain it; serve it up garnished with green

* * * * *


Cut slices from a fat rump of beef six inches long and half an inch
thick, beat them well with a pestle; make a forcemeat of bread crumbs,
fat bacon chopped, parsley, a little onion, some shred suet, pounded
mace, pepper and salt; mix it up with the yelks of eggs, and spread a
thin layer over each slice of beef, roll it up tight, and secure the
rolls with skewers, set them before the fire, and turn them till they
are a nice brown; have ready a pint of good gravy, thickened with brown
flour and a spoonful of butter, a gill of red wine, with two spoonsful
of mushroom catsup, lay the rolls in it, and stew them till tender;
garnish with forcemeat balls.

* * * * *


Take out as much of the bone as can be done with a saw, that it may lie
flat on the dish, stuff it with forcemeat made as before directed, lay
it in a pot with two quarts of water, a pint of red wine, some carrots
and turnips cut in small pieces and stewed over it, a head of cellery
cut up, a few cloves of garlic, some pounded cloves, pepper and salt,
stew it gently till sufficiently done, skim the fat off, thicken the
gravy, and serve it up; garnish with little bits of puff paste nicely
baked, and scraped horse-radish.

* * * * *


Cut a few slices of beef six inches long, two or three wide, and one
thick, lard them with bacon, dredge them well, and make them a nice
brown before a brisk fire; stew them half an hour in a well seasoned
gravy, put some stewed sorrel or spinage in the dish, lay on the beef,
and pour over a sufficient quantity of gravy; garnish with fried balls.

* * * * *


Take a rib roasting piece that has been hanging ten days or a fortnight,
bone it neatly, rub some salt over it and roll it tight, binding it
around with twine, put the spit through the inner fold without sticking
it in the flesh, skewer it well and roast it nicely; when nearly done,
dredge and froth it; garnish with scraped horse-radish.

* * * * *


Get a nice flank of beef, rub it well with a large portion of saltpetre
and common salt, let it remain ten days, then wash it clean, take off
the outer and inner skin with the gristle, spread it on a board, and
cover the inside with the following mixture: parsley, sage, thyme
chopped fine, pepper, salt and pounded cloves; roll it up, sew a cloth
over it, and bandage that with tape, boil it gently five or six hours,
when cold, lay it on a board without undoing it, put another board on
the top, with a heavy weight on it; let it remain twenty-four hours,
take off the bandages, cut a thin slice from each end, serve it up
garnished with green pickle and sprigs of parsley.

* * * * *


Select a fine fat round weighing about twenty-five pounds, take three
ounces saltpetre, one ounce of cloves, half an ounce of alspice, a large
nutmeg, and a quart of salt; pound them all together very fine, take the
bone out, rub it well with this mixture on both sides, put some of it at
the bottom of a tub just large enough to hold the beef, lay it in and
strew the remainder on the top, rub it well every day for two weeks, and
spread the mixture over it; at the end of this time, wash the beef, bind
it with tape, to keep it round and compact, filling the hole where the
bone was with a piece of fat, lay it in a pan of convenient size, strew
a little suet over the top, and pour on it a pint of water, cover the
pan with a coarse crust and a thick paper over that, it will take five
hours baking; when cold take off the tape. It is a delicious relish at
twelve o'clock, or for supper, eaten with vinegar, mustard, oil, or
sallad. Skim the grease from the gravy and bottle it; it makes an
excellent seasoning for any made dish.

* * * * *


Mince cold roast beef, fat and lean, very fine, add chopped onion,
pepper, salt, and a little good gravy, fill scollop shells two parts
full, and fill them up with potatos mashed smooth with cream, put a bit
of butter on the top, and set them in an oven to brown.

* * * * *


The best part of the beef for steaks, is the seventh and eighth ribs,
the fat and lean are better mixed, and it is more tender than the rump
if it be kept long enough; cut the steaks half an inch thick, beat them
a little, have fine clear coals, rub the bars of the gridiron with a
cloth dipped in lard before you put it over the coals, that none may
drip to cause a bad smell, put no salt on till you dish them, broil them
quick, turning them frequently; the dish must be very hot, some slices
of onion in it, lay in the steaks, sprinkle a little salt, and pour over
them a spoonful of water and one of mushroom catsup, both made boiling
hot, garnish with scraped horse-radish, and put on a hot dish cover.
Every thing must be in readiness, for the great excellence of a beef
steak lies in having it immediately from the gridiron.

* * * * *


Cut slices of raw beef, put them in a stew pan with a little water, some
catsup, a clove of garlic, pepper and salt, stew them till done, thicken
the gravy with a lump of butter rubbed into brown flour. A hash may be
made of any kind of meat that has been cooked, but it is not so good,
and it is necessary to have a gravy prepared and seasoned, and keep the
hash over the fire only a few minutes to make it hot.

* * * * *


Cut nice steaks, and stew them till half done, put a puff paste in the
dish, lay in the steaks with a few slices of boiled ham, season the
gravy very high, pour it in the dish, put on a lid of paste and bake it.

* * * * *


Get a round of beef, lard it well, and put it in a Dutch oven; cut the
meat from a shin of beef, or any coarse piece in thin slices, put round
the sides and over the top some slices of bacon, salt, pepper, onion,
thyme, parsley, cellery tops, or seed pounded, and some carrots cut
small, strew the pieces of beef over, cover it with water, let it stew
very gently till perfectly done, take out the round, strain the gravy,
let it stand to be cold, take off the grease carefully, beat the whites
of four eggs, mix a little water with them, put them to the gravy, let
it boil till it looks clear, strain it, and when cold, put it over the

* * * * *



A loin of veal must always be roasted: the fillet or leg may be dressed
in various ways, the knuckle or knee is proper for soup or for boiling;
these are the pieces that compose the hind quarter. In the fore quarter,
the breast and rack admit variety in cooking; the shoulder and neck are
only fit for soup.

* * * * *


Cut off the flank and take the bone out, then take slices the size of
the fillet and half an inch thick, beat two yelks of eggs light, and
have some grated bread mixed with pepper, salt, pounded nutmeg and
chopped parsley; beat the slices a little, lay them on a board and wash
the upper side with the egg, cover it thick with the bread crumbs, press
them on with a knife, and let them stand to dry a little, that they may
not fall off in frying, then turn them gently, put egg and crumbs on in
the same manner, put them into a pan of boiling lard, and fry them a
light brown; have some good gravy ready, season it with a tea-spoonful
of curry powder, a large one of wine, and one of lemon pickle, thicken
with butter and brown flour, drain every drop of lard from the cutlets,
lay them in the gravy, and stew them fifteen or twenty minutes, serve
them up garnished with lemon cut in thin slices.

* * * * *


Take the best end of a rack of veal, cut it in chops, with one bone in
each, leave the small end of the bone bare two inches, beat them flat,
and prepare them with eggs and crumbs, as the cutlets, butter some
half-sheets of white paper, wrap one round each chop, skewer it well,
leaving the bare bone out, broil them till done, and take care the paper
does not burn; have nice white sauce in a boat.

* * * * *


Cut them from the fillet, put them in a stew pan with a piece of nice
pork, a clove of garlic, a bundle of thyme and parsley, pepper and salt,
cover them with water and let them stew ten or fifteen minutes, lay them
on a dish, and when cold cover them well with the crumb of stale bread
finely grated, mixed with the leaves of parsley chopped very small, some
pepper, salt and grated nutmeg; press these on the veal with a knife,
and when a little dried, turn it and do the same to the other side; put
a good quantity of lard in a pan, when it boils lay the cutlets in
carefully that the crumbs may not fall; fry them a little brown, lay
them on a strainer to drain off the grease, do the same with the crumbs
that have fallen in the pan: while this is doing, simmer the water they
were boiled in to half a pint, strain it and thicken with four ounces of
butter and a little browned flour; add a gill of wine and one of
mushroom catsup, put in the cutlets and crumbs, and stew till tender;
add forcemeat balls.

* * * * *


Boil a half pint of pearl barley in salt and water till quite tender,
drain the water from it and stir in a piece of butter, put it in a deep
dish; have the knuckle nicely boiled in milk and water, and lay it on
the barley, pour some parsley and butter over it.

* * * * *


Take the bone out of the fillet, wrap the flap around and sew it, make a
forcemeat of bread crumbs, the fat of bacon, a little onion chopped,
parsley, pepper, salt, and a nutmeg pounded, wet it with the yelks of
eggs, fill the place from which the bone was taken, make holes around it
with a knife and fill them also, and lard the top; put it in a Dutch
oven with a pint of water, bake it sufficiently, thicken the gravy with
butter and brown flour, add a gill of wine and one of mushroom catsup,
and serve it garnished with forcemeat balls fried.

* * * * *


They may be made of the nice part of the rack, or cut from the fillet,
rub a little salt and pepper on them, and fry them a light brown; have a
rich gravy seasoned with wine, and any kind of catsup you choose, with a
few cloves of garlic, and some pounded mace, thicken it, put the collops
in and stew them a short time, take them out, strain the gravy over, and
garnish with bunches of parsley fried crisp, and thin slices of middling
of bacon, curled around a skewer and boiled.

* * * * *


Take the bone out of the fillet and cut thin slices the size of the leg,
beat them flat, rub them with the yelk of an egg beaten, lay on each
piece a thin slice of boiled ham, sprinkle salt, pepper, grated nutmeg,
chopped parsley, and bread crumbs over all, roll them up tight, and
secure them with skewers, rub them with egg and roll them in bread
crumbs, lay them on a tin dripping pan, and set them in an oven; when
brown on one side, turn them, and when sufficiently done, lay them in a
rich highly seasoned gravy made of proper thickness, stew them till
tender, garnish with forcemeat balls and green pickles sliced.

* * * * *


Separate the joints of the brisket, and saw off the sharp ends of the
ribs, trim it neatly, and half roast it; put it in a stew pan with a
quart of good gravy seasoned with wine, walnut and mushroom catsup, a
tea-spoonful of curry powder, and a few cloves of garlic; stew it till
tender, thicken the gravy, and garnish with sweatbreads nicely broiled.

* * * * *


Cut slices from the fillet an inch thick and six inches long, lard them
with slips of lean middling of bacon, bake them a light brown, stew them
in well seasoned gravy, made as thick as rich cream, serve them up hot,
and lay round the dish sorrel stewed with butter, pepper and salt, till
quite dry.

* * * * *


Boil the sweetbreads tender, stew the oysters, season them with pepper
and salt, and thicken with cream, butter, the yelks of eggs and flour,
put a puff paste at the bottom and around the sides of a deep dish, take
the oysters up with an egg spoon, lay them in the bottom, and cover them
with the sweetbreads, fill the dish with gravy, put a paste on the top,
and bake it. This is the most delicate pie that can be made. The
sweetbread of veal is the most delicious part, and may be broiled,
fried, or dressed in any way, and is always good.

* * * * *


Have the head nicely cleaned, divide the chop from the skull, take out
the brains and tongue, and boil the other parts till tender, take them
out of the water and put into it a knuckle of veal or four pounds of
lean beef, three onions chopped, thyme, parsley, a tea-spoonful of
pounded cloves, the same of mace, salt, and cayenne pepper to your
taste--boil these things together till reduced to a pint, strain it, and
add two gills of red wine, one of mushroom and one of walnut catsup,
thicken it with butter and brown flour; the head must be cut in small
pieces and stewed a few minutes in the gravy; put a paste round the edge
of a deep dish, three folds, one on the other, but none on the bottom;
pour in the meat and gravy, and bake it till the paste is done; pick all
strings from the brains, pound them, and add grated bread, pepper and
salt, make them in little cakes with the yelk of an egg, fry them a nice
brown, boil six egg's hard, leave one whole and divide the others
exactly in two, have some bits of paste nicely baked; when the head is
taken from the oven, lay the whole egg in the middle, and dispose the
others, with the brain cakes and bits of paste tastily around it. If it
be wanted as soup, do not reduce the gravy so much, and after stewing
the head, serve it in a tureen with the brain cakes and forcemeat balls
fried, in place of the eggs and paste. The tongue should be salted and
put in brine; they are very delicate, and four of them boiled and
pealed, and served with four small chickens boiled, make a handsome
dish, either cold or hot, with parsley and butter poured over them.

* * * * *


Clean and divide it as for the turtle, take out the brains and tongue,
boil it tender, take the eyes out whole, and cut the flesh from the
skull in small pieces; take some of the water it was boiled in for
gravy, put to it salt, cayenne pepper, a grated nutmeg, with a spoonful
of lemon pickle; stew it till it is well flavoured, take the jowl or
chop, take out the bones, and cover it with bread crumbs, chopped
parsley, pepper and salt, set it in an oven to brown, thicken the gravy
with the yelks of two eggs and a spoonful of butter rubbed into two of
flour, stew the head in it a few minutes, put it in the dish, and lay
the grilled chop on it; garnish it with brain cakes and broiled

* * * * *


After cleaning it nicely, saw the bone down the middle of the skull, but
do not separate the head, take out the brains and tongue, boil it tender
enough to remove the bones, which must be taken entirely out; lay it on
a board, have a good quantity of chopped parsley seasoned with mace,
nutmeg, pepper and salt--spread a layer of this, then one of thick
slices of ham, another of parsley and one of ham, roll it up tight, sew
a cloth over it, and bind that round with tape; boil it half an hour,
and when cold press it. It must be kept covered with vinegar and water,
and is very delicious eaten with sallad or oil and vinegar.

* * * * *


Take the heart and liver from the harslet, and cut off the windpipe,
boil the lights very tender, and cut them in small pieces--take as much
of the water they were boiled in as will be sufficient for gravy; add to
it a large spoonful of white wine, one of lemon pickle, some grated
nutmeg, pepper and salt, with a large spoonful of butter, mixed with one
of white flour; let it boil a few minutes, and put in the minced lights,
set it by till the heart and liver are ready, cut the ventricle out of
the heart, wash it well, lard it all over with narrow slips of middling,
fill the cavity with good forcemeat, put it in a pan on the broad end,
that the stuffing may not come out; bake it a nice brown, slice the
liver an inch thick and broil it, make the mince hot, set the heart
upright in the middle of the dish, pour it around, lay the broiled liver
on, and garnish with bunches of fried parsley; it should be served up
extremely hot.

* * * * *


Boil the feet till very tender, cut them in two and pull out the large
bones, have half a pint of good white gravy, add to it a spoonful of
white wine, one of lemon pickle, and some salt, with a tea-spoonful of
curry powder, stew the feet in it fifteen minutes, and thicken it with
the yelks of two eggs, a gill of milk, a large spoonful of butter, and
two of white flour, let the thickening be very smooth, shake the stew
pan over the fire a few minutes, but do not let it boil lest the eggs
and milk should curdle.

* * * * *


Prepare them as for the fricassee, dredge them well with flour and fry
them a light brown, pour parsley and butter over, and garnish with fried

* * * * *


Take the stomach from the calf as soon as it is killed--do not wash it,
but hang it in a dry cool place for four or five days; then turn it
inside out, slip off all the curd nicely with the hand, fill it with a
little saltpetre mixed with the quantity of salt necessary, and lay it
in a small stone pot, pour over it a small tea-spoonful of vinegar, and
sprinkle a handful of salt over it, cover it closely and keep it for
use. You must not wash it--that would weaken the gastric juice, and
injure the rennet. After it has been salted six or eight weeks, cut off
a piece four or five inches long, put it in a large mustard bottle, or
any vessel that will hold about a pint and a half; put on it five gills
of cold water, and two gills of rose brandy--stop it very close, and
shake it when you are going to use it: a table-spoonful of this is
sufficient for a quart of milk. It must be prepared in very cool
weather, and if well done, will keep more than a year.

* * * * *


Boil the head till the meat is almost enough for eating; then cut it in
thin slices, take three quarters of a pint of good gravy, and add half a
pint of white wine, half a nutmeg, two anchovies, a small onion stuck
with cloves, and a little mace; boil these up in the liquor for a
quarter of an hour, then strain it and boil it up again; put in the
meat, with salt to your taste, let it stew a little, and if you choose
it, you may add some sweetbreads, and make some forcemeat balls with
veal; mix the brains with the yelks of eggs and fry them to lay for a
garish. When the head is ready to be sent in, stir in a bit of butter.

* * * * *


Divide the calf's head, wash it clean, and having the yelks of two eggs
well beaten, wash the outside of the head all over with them, and on
that strew raspings of bread sifted, pepper, salt, nutmeg and mace
powdered; also, the brains cut in pieces and dipped in thick butter,
then cover the head with bits of butter, pour into the pan some white
wine and water, with as much gravy, and cover it close. Let it be baked
in a quick oven, and when it is served up, pour on some strong gravy,
and garnish with slices of lemon, red beet root pickled, fried oysters
and fried bread.

* * * * *


Take a fresh calf's liver, and having made a hole in it with a large
knife run in lengthways, but not quite through, have ready a forced
meat, or stuffing made of part of the liver parboiled, fat of bacon
minced very fine, and sweet herbs powdered; add to these some grated
bread and spice finely powdered, with pepper and salt. With this
stuffing fill the hole in the liver, which must be larded with fat
bacon, and then roasted, flouring it well, and basting with butter till
it is enough. This is to be served up hot, with gravy sauce having a
little wine in it.

* * * * *


Cut it in slices, put over it salt and pepper; broil it nicely, and pour
on some melted butter with chopped parsley after it is dished.

* * * * *

_ Directions for cleaning Calf's Head and Feet, for those who live in
the country and butcher their own meats._

As soon as the animal is killed, have the head and feet taken off, wash
them clean, sprinkle some pounded rosin all over the hairs, then dip
them in boiling water, take them instantly out, the rosin will dry
immediately, and they may be scraped clean with ease; the feet should be
soaked in water three or four days, changing it daily; this will make
them very white.

* * * * *



The fore-quarter should always be roasted and served with mint sauce in
a boat; chop the mint small and mix it with vinegar enough to make it
liquid, sweeten it with sugar.

The hind-quarter may be boiled or roasted, and requires mint sauce; it
may also be dressed in various ways.

* * * * *


Cut the shank bone from a hind-quarter, separate the joints of the loin,
lay it in a pan with the kidney uppermost, sprinkle some pepper and
salt, add a few cloves of garlic, a pint of water and a dozen large ripe
tomatoes with the skins taken off, bake it but do not let it be burnt,
thicken the gravy with a little butter and brown flour.

* * * * *


Separate the leg from the loin, cut off the shank and boil the leg;
divide the loin in chops, dredge and fry them a nice brown, lay the leg
in the middle of the dish, and put the chops around, pour over parsley
and butter, and garnish with fried parsley.

The leg cut into steaks and the loin into chops will make a fine
fricassee, or cutlets.

* * * * *


Clean them very nicely, and boil them till tender, take off the flesh
from the head with the eyes, also mince the tongue and heart, which must
be boiled with the head; split the feet in two, put them with the pieces
from the head and the mince, into a pint of good gravy, seasoned with
pepper, salt, and tomato catsup, or ripe tomatoes: stew it till tender,
thicken the gravy, and lay the liver cut in slices and broiled over
it--garnish with crisp parsley and bits of curled bacon.

* * * * *


The saddle should always be roasted and garnished with scraped
horse-radish. See general observations on roasting. Mutton is in the
highest perfection from August until Christmas, when it begins to
decline in goodness.

* * * * *


Cut off the shank, wrap the flank nicely round and secure it with
skewers, dredge it well with flour, and put it on the fire in a kettle
of cold water with some salt, and three or four heads of garlic, which
will give it a delicately fine flavour; skin it well, and when nearly
done, take it from the fire and keep it hot and closely covered, that
the steam may finish it; have carrots well boiled to put in the dish
under it, or turnips boiled, mashed smooth and stewed with a lump of
butter and salt, lay the mutton on, and pour over it butter melted with
some flour in it, and a cup full of capers with some of the vinegar;
shake them together over the fire till hot before you pour it on.

* * * * *


Prepare it as for boiling, be very careful in spitting it, cover it with
paper and follow the directions for roasting, serve it up garnished with
scraped horse-radish.

* * * * *


Take the flank off, but leave all the fat, cut out the bone, stuff the
place with a rich forcemeat, lard the top and sides with bacon, put it
in a pan with a pint of water, some chopped onion and cellery cut small,
a gill of red wine, one of mushroom catsup and a tea-spoonful of curry
powder, bake it and serve it up with the gravy, garnish with forcemeat
balls fried.

* * * * *


Cut off the flank, take out the bone, and cut it in large slices half an
inch thick, sprinkle some salt and pepper, and broil it, pour over it
nice melted butter with capers; a leg cut in the same way and dressed as
directed for veal cutlets, is very fine. It is also excellent when
salted as beef, and boiled, served up with carrots or turnips.

A shoulder of mutton is best when roasted, but may be made into cutlets
or in a harrico.

* * * * *


Take the nicest part of the rack, divide it into chops, with one bone in
each, beat them flat, sprinkle salt and pepper on them, and broil them
nicely; make a rich gravy out of the inferior parts, season it well with
pepper, a little spice, and any kind of catsup you choose; when
sufficiently done, strain it, and thicken it with butter and brown
flour, have some carrots and turnips cut into small dice and boiled till
tender, put them in the gravy, lay the chops in and stew them fifteen
minutes; serve them up garnished with green pickle.

* * * * *


Cut the rack as for the harrico, broil them, and when dished, pour over
them a gravy made with two large spoonsful of boiling water, one of
mushroom catsup, a small spoonful of butter and some salt, stir it till
the butter is melted, and garnish with horse-radish scraped.

* * * * *


Separate the joints of the brisket, and saw off the sharp ends of the
ribs, dredge it with flour, and boil it; serve it up covered with
onions--see onion sauce.

* * * * *


Prepare the breast as for boiling, brown it nicely in the oven, have a
rich gravy well seasoned and thickened with brown flour, stew the mutton
in it till sufficiently done, and garnish with forcemeat balls fried.

* * * * *


Prepare it as before, score the top, wash it over with the yelk of an
egg, sprinkle some salt, and cover it with bread crumbs, bake it, and
pour caper sauce in the dish. It may also be roasted, the skin taken off
and frothed nicely, serve it up with good gravy, and garnish with
current jelly cut in slices.

The neck of mutton is fit only for soup, the liver is very good when

* * * * *


Put it in cold water with some salt, and boil it till tender; serve it
up covered with onion sauce.

* * * * *


Wash and clean ten heads of celery, cut off the green tops and take off
the outside stalks, cut the heads in thin slices, boil them tender in a
little milk, just enough for gravy, add salt, and thicken it with a
spoonful of butter and some white flour; boil the shoulder and pour the
sauce over it.

* * * * *


Cut the loin in four pieces, take off the skin, rub each piece with
salt, wash them with the yelk of an egg, and cover them thickly with
bread crumbs, chopped parsley, pepper and salt; wrap them up securely in
paper, put them on a bird spit, and roast them; put a little brown gravy
in the dish, and garnish with pickle.

* * * * *



Hogs are in the highest perfection, from two and a half to four years
old, and make the best bacon, when they do not weigh more than one
hundred and fifty or sixty at farthest; they should be fed with corn,
six weeks at least, before they are killed, and the shorter distance
they are driven to market, the better will their flesh be. To secure
them against the possibility of spoiling, salt them before they get
cold; take out the chine or back-bone from the neck to the tail, cut the
hams, shoulders and middlings; take the ribs from the shoulders and the
leaf fat from the hams: have such tubs as are directed for beef, rub a
large table spoonful of saltpetre on the inside of each ham, for some
minutes, then rub both sides well with salt, sprinkle the bottom of the
tub with salt, lay the hams with the skin downward, and put a good deal
of salt between each layer; salt the shoulders and middlings in the same
manner, but less saltpetre is necessary; cut the jowl or chop from the
head, and rub it with salt and saltpetre. You should cut off the feet
just above the knee joint; take off the ears and nose, and lay them in a
large tub of cold water for souse. When the jowls have been in salt two
weeks, hang them up to smoke--do so with the shoulders and middlings at
the end of three weeks, and the hams at the end of four. If they remain
longer in salt they will be hard. Remember to hang the hams and
shoulders with the hocks down, to preserve the juices. Make a good smoke
every morning, and be careful not to have a blaze; the smoke-house
should stand alone, for any additional heat will spoil the meat. During
the hot weather, beginning the first of April, it should be occasionally
taken down, examined--rubbed with hickory ashes, and hung up again.

The generally received opinion that saltpetre hardens meat, is entirely
erroneous:--it tends greatly to prevent putrefaction, but will not make
it hard; neither will laying in brine five or six weeks in cold weather,
have that effect, but remaining in salt too long, will certainly draw
off the juices, and harden it. Bacon should be boiled in a large
quantity of water, and a ham is not done sufficiently, till the bone on
the under part comes off with ease. New bacon requires much longer
boiling than that which is old.

* * * * *


Let all the pieces you intend to souse, remain covered with cold water
twelve hours; then wash them out, wipe off the blood, and put them again
in fresh water; soak them in this manner, changing the water frequently,
and keeping it in a cool place, till the blood is drawn away; scrape and
clean each piece perfectly nice, mix some meal with water, add salt to
it, and boil your souse gently, until you can run a straw into the skin
with ease. Do not put too much in the pot, for it will boil to pieces
and spoil the appearance. The best way is to boil the feet in one pot,
the ears and nose in another, and the heads in a third; these should be
boiled till you can take all the bones out; let them get cold, season
the insides with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg; make it in a tight
roll, sew it up close in a cloth, and press it lightly. Mix some more
meal and cold water, just enough to look white; add salt, and one-fourth
of vinegar; put your souse in different pots, and keep it well covered
with this mixture, and closely stopped. It will be necessary to renew
this liquor every two or three weeks. Let your souse get quite cold
after boiling, before you put it in the liquor, and be sure to use pale
coloured vinegar, or the souse will be dark. Some cooks singe the hair
from the feet, _etcetera_, but this destroys the colour: good souse will
always be white.

* * * * *


The pig must be very fat, nicely cleaned, and not too large to lie in
the dish; chop the liver fine and mix it with crumbs of bread, chopped
onion and parsley, with pepper and salt, make it into a paste with
butter and an egg, stuff the body well with it, and sew it up, spit it,
and have a clear fire to roast it; baste with salt and water at first,
then rub it frequently with a lump of lard wrapped in a piece of clean
linen; this will make it much more crisp than basting it from the
dripping pan. When the pig is done, take off the head, separate the face
from the chop, cut both in two and take off the ears, take out the
stuffing, split the pig in two parts lengthways, lay it in the dish with
the head, ears, and feet, which have been cut off, placed on each side,
put the stuffing in a bowl with a glass of wine, and as much dripping as
will make it sufficiently liquid, put some of it under the pig, and
serve the rest in a boat.

* * * * *


This is the name given in the southern states to a fat young hog, which,
when the head and feet are taken off, and it is cut into four quarters,
will weigh six pounds per quarter. Take a fore-quarter, make several
incisions between the ribs, and stuff it with rich forcemeat; put it in
a pan with a pint of water, two cloves of garlic, pepper, salt, two
gills of red wine, and two of mushroom catsup, bake it, and thicken the
gravy with batter and brown flour; it must be jointed, and the ribs cut
across before it is cooked; or it cannot be carved well; lay it in the
dish with the ribs uppermost; if it be not sufficiently brown, add a
little burnt sugar to the gravy, garnish with balls.

* * * * *


Joint it for the convenience of carving, roast it before a brisk fire;
when done, take the skin off, dredge and froth it, put a little melted
butter with some caper vinegar over it, or serve it with mint sauce.

* * * * *


Take the skin from the hind-quarter, and cut it in pieces, prepare them
in the way directed for veal cutlets, make a little nice gravy with the
skin and the scraps of meat left, thicken it with butter and brown
flour, and season it in any way you like.

* * * * *


Rub a hind-quarter with saltpetre and common salt, let it lie ten days,
then boil it, and put either carrots or parsnips under it.

* * * * *


Take out the brains, and boil the head till quite tender, cut the heart
and liver from the harslet, and boil the feet with the head; cut all the
meat from the head in small pieces, mince the tongue and chop the brains
small, take some of the water the head was boiled in, season it with
onion, parsley and thyme, all chopped fine, add any kind of
catsup--thicken it with butter and brown flour, stew the whole in it
fifteen minutes, and put it in the dish: have the heart roasted to put
in the middle, lay the broiled liver around, and garnish it with green

* * * * *


Boil a small leg of pork that has been sufficiently salted, score the
top and serve it up; the pudding must be in a separate dish; get small
delicate pease, wash them well, and tie them in a cloth, allowing a
little room for swelling, boil them with the pork, then mash and season
them, tie them up again and finish boiling it; take care not to break
the pudding in turning it out.

* * * * *


Take the neck chine, rub it well with salt, lay it in a pan, put it in a
pint of water, and fill it up with sweet potatos nicely washed, but not
peeled, cover it close and bake it till done; serve it up with the
potatos, put a little of the gravy in the dish.

* * * * *


Boil it well, take off the skin, and cover the top thickly with bread
crumbs, put it in an oven to brown, and serve it up.

* * * * *


Take a well smoked ham, wash it very clean, make incisions all over the
top two inches deep, stuff them quite full with parsley chopped small
and some pepper, boil the ham sufficiently; do not take off the skin. It
must be eaten cold.

* * * * *


Split the feet in two, dredge them with flour and fry them a nice brown;
have some well seasoned gravy thickened with brown flour and butter;
stew the feet in it a few minutes.

* * * * *


Take the tender pieces of fresh pork, chop them exceedingly fine--chop
some of the leaf fat, and put them together in the proportion of three
pounds of pork to one of fat, season it very high with pepper and salt,
add a small quantity of dried sage rubbed to a powder, have the skins
nicely prepared, fill them and hang them in a dry place. Sausages are
excellent made into cakes and fried, but will not keep so well as in

* * * * *


Catch the blood as it runs from the hog, stir it continually till cold
to prevent its coagulating; when cold thicken it with boiled rice or
oatmeal, add leaf fat chopped small, pepper, salt, and any herbs that
are liked, fill the skins and smoke them two or three days; they must be
boiled before they are hung up, and prick them with a fork to keep them
from bursting.

* * * * *


Lay at the bottom of a small Dutch oven some slices of boiled pork or
salt beef, then potatos and onions cut in slices, salt, pepper, thyme
and parsley shred fine, some crackers soaked, and a layer of fowls cut
up, or slices of veal; cover them with a paste not too rich, put another
layer of each article, and cover them with paste until the oven is full;
put a little butter between each layer, pour in water till it reaches
the top crust, to which you must add wine, catsup of any kind you
please, and some pounded cloves; let it stew until there is just gravy
enough left; serve it in a deep dish and pour the gravy on.

* * * * *

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