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The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication by Charles Darwin

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-number of tail-feathers in Ectopistes.
-on Columba affinis.
-pigeons roosting in trees.
-on Columba leuconota.
-on Columba intermedia of Strickland.
-variation in colour of croup in pigeons.
-voluntary domestication of rock-pigeons in India.
-feral pigeons on the Hudson.
-occurrence of sub-species of pigeons.
-notice of pigeon-fanciers in Delhi, etc.
-hybrids of Gallus sonneratii and the domestic hen.
-supposed hybridity of Gallus temminckii.
-variations and domestication of Gallus bankiva.
-crossing of wild and tame fowls in Burmah.
-restricted range of the larger gallinaceous birds.
-feral fowls in the Nicobar Islands.
-black-skinned fowls occurring near Calcutta.
-weight of Gallus bankiva.
-degeneration of the turkey in India.
-on the colour of gold-fish.
-reversion from a cross.
-on the Ghor-Khur (Asinus indicus).
-on Asinus hemionus.
-number of eggs of Gallus bankiva.
-on the breeding of birds in captivity.
-co-existence of large and small breeds in the same country.
-on the drooping ears of the elephant.
-homology of leg and wing feathers.

BOETHIUS on Scotch wild cattle.

BOITARD and Corbie, on the breeds of pigeons.
-Lille pouter pigeon.
-notice of a gliding pigeon.
-variety of the pouter pigeon.
-dovecote pigeon.
-crossing pigeons.
-sterility of hybrids of turtle-doves.
-reversion of crossed pigeons.
-on the fantail.
-on the trumpeter.
-prepotency of transmission in silky fantail.
-secondary sexual characters in pigeons.
-crossing of white and coloured turtle-doves.
-fertility of pigeons.

BOMBYCIDAE, wingless females of.

Bombyx hesperus.

Bombyx huttoni.

Bombyx mori.

BONAFOUS, on maize.

BONAPARTE, number of species of Columbidae.
-number of tail-feathers in pigeons.
-size of the feet in Columbidae.
-on Columba guinea.
-Columba turricola, rupestris and schimperi.

Bonatea speciosa, development of ovary of.

BONAVIA, Dr., growth of cauliflowers in India.

BONER, Mr., semi-feral sheep.

BONES, removal of portions of.
-regeneration of.
-growth and repair of.

BONIZZI, on pigeons.

BONNET, on the salamander.
-theory of reproduction.

BORCHMEYER, experiments with the seeds of the weeping ash.


BORELLI, on Polish fowls.

BORNEO, fowls of, with tail-bands.

BORNET, E., condition of the ovary in hybrid Cisti.
-self-impotence of hybrid Cisti.

BORROW, G., on pointers.

BORY DE SAINT-VINCENT, on gold-fish.

Bos, probable origin of European domestic cattle from three species of.

Bos frontosus.

Bos indicus.

Bos longifrons.

Bos primigenius.

Bos sondaicus.

Bos taurus.

Bos trochoceros.

BOSC, heredity in foliage-varieties of the elm.

BOSSE, production of double flowers from old seed.

BOSSI, on breeding dark-coloured silkworms.

BOSMAN, on dogs of Guinea.

BOUCHARDAT, on the vine disease.

BOUDIN, on local diseases.
-resistance to cold of dark-complexioned men.


"BOUTON d'Alep."

BOWEN, Prof., doubts as to the importance of inheritance.

BOWMAN, Mr., hereditary peculiarities in the human eye.
-hereditary cataract.

BRACE, Mr., on Hungarian cattle.

Brachycome iberidifolia.

BRACTS, unusual development of, in gooseberries.

BRADLEY, Mr., effect of grafts upon the stock in the ash.
-effect of foreign pollen upon apples.
-on change of soil.

"BRAHMA Pootras," a new breed of fowls.

BRAIN, proportion of, in hares and rabbits.

BRANDT, Dr., origin of the goat.
-correlation of teeth and hair.

Brassica, varieties of, with enlarged stems.

Brassica asperifolia.

Brassica napus.

Brassica oleracea.

Brassica rapa.

BRAUN, A., bud-variation in the vine.
-in the currant.
-in Mirabilis jalapa.
-in Cytisus adami.
-on reversion in the foliage of trees.
-spontaneous production of Cytisus purpureo-elongatus.
-reversion of flowers by stripes and blotches.
-excess of nourishment a source of variability.

BRAZIL, cattle of.

BREAD-FRUIT, varieties of.
-sterility and variability of.

BREE, W.T., bud-variation in Geranium pratense and Centaurea cyanus.
-by tubers in the dahlia.
-on the deafness of white cats with blue eyes.

BREEDING, high, dependent on inheritance.

BREEDS, domestic, persistency of.
-artificial and natural.
-extinction of.
-of domestic cats.
-of pigs produced by crossing.
-of cattle.
-of goats.

BREHM, on Columba amaliae.

BRENT, B.P., number of mammae in rabbits.
-habits of the tumbler pigeon.
-Laugher pigeon.
-colouring of the kite tumbler.
-crossing of the pigeon with Columba oenas.
-mongrels of the trumpeter pigeon.
-close interbreeding of pigeons.
-opinion on Aldrovandi's fowls.
-on stripes in chickens.
-on the combs of fowls.
-double-spurred Dorking fowls.
-effect of crossing on colour of plumage in fowls.
-incubatory instinct of mongrels between non-setting varieties of fowls.
-origin of the domestic duck.
-fertility of the hook-billed duck.
-occurrence of the plumage of the wild duck in domestic breeds.
-voice of ducks.
-occurrence of a short upper mandible in crosses of hook-billed and common
-reversion in ducks produced by crossing.
-variation of the canary-bird.
-fashion in the canary.
-hybrids of canary and finches.

BRICKELL, on raising nectarines from seed.
-on the horses of North Carolina.

BRIDGES, Mr., on the dogs of Tierra del Fuego.
-on the selection of dogs by the Fuegians.

BRIDGMAN, W.K., reproduction of abnormal ferns.

BROCA, P., on the intercrossing of dogs.
-on hybrids of hare and rabbit.
-on the rumpless fowl.
-on the character of half-castes.
-degree of fertility of mongrels.
-sterility of descendants of wild animals bred in captivity.

-rudimentary flowers in.
-tenderness of.

BROMEHEAD, W., doubling of the Canterbury Bell by selection.

BROOMFIELD, Dr., sterility of the ivy and Acorus calamus.

Bromus secalinus.

BRONN, H.G., bud variation in Anthemis.
-effects of cross-breeding on the female.
-on heredity in a one-horned cow.
-propagation of a pendulous peach by seed.
-absorption of the minority in crossed races.
-on the crossing of horses.
-fertility of tame rabbits and sheep.
-changes of plumage in captivity.
-on the dahlia.

BRONZE period, dog of.

BROWN, C.M., prepotency of a greyhound.

BROWN, G., variations in the dentition of the horse.

BROWN-SEQUARD, Dr., inheritance of artificially-produced epilepsy in the
-inherited effects of injuries.


BRUSSELS sprouts.

Bubo maximus.

BUCKLAND, F., on oysters.
-number of eggs in a codfish.

BUCKLE, Mr., doubts as to the importance of inheritance.

BUCKLEY, Miss, carrier-pigeons roosting in trees.

BUCKMAN, Prof., cultivation of Avena fatua.
-cultivation of the wild parsnip.
-reversion in the parsnip.

BUCKWHEAT, injurious when in flower to white pigs.

BUD and seed, close analogy of.


BUDS, adventitious.

-contrasted with seminal reproduction.
-peculiar to plants.
-in the peach.
-in plums.
-in the cherry.
-in grapes.
-in the gooseberry and currant.
-pear and apple.
-and in the banana, camellia, hawthorn, Azalea indica, and Paritium tricuspis.
-in the hollyhock and pelargonium.
-in Geranium pratense and the chrysanthemum.
-in roses.
-in sweet williams, carnations, pinks, stocks, and snapdragons.
-in wall-flowers, cyclamen, Oenothera biennis, Gladiolus colvillii, fuchsias,
and Mirabilis jalapa.
-in foliage of various trees.
-cryptogamic plants.
-by suckers in Phlox and barberry.
-by tubers in the potato.
-in the dahlia.
-by bulbs in hyacinths.
-Imatophyllum miniatum, and tulips.
-in Tigridia conchiflora.
-in Hemerocallis.
-doubtful cases.
-in Cytisus adami.
-summary of observations on.

BUFFON, on crossing the wolf and dog.
-increase of fertility by domestication.
-improvement of plants by unconscious selection.
-theory of reproduction.


BULL, apparent influence of, on offspring.


BULLDOG, degeneration of, in India.
-recent modifications of

BULLFINCH, breeding in captivity.
-attacking flower-buds.

BULT, Mr., on the length of pouter pigeons.


BUNTING, reed, in captivity.

BURDACH, crossing of domestic and wild animals.
-aversion of the wild boar to barley.

BURKE, Mr., inheritance in the horse.


BURMAH, cats of.

BURMESE ponies, striped.

BURNES, Sir A., on the Karakool sheep.
-varieties of the vine in Cabool.
-hawks, trained in Scinde.
-pomegranates producing seed.

BURR, FEARING, potato-grafting.

BURTON CONSTABLE, wild cattle at.


BUSSORAH carrier.

Buteo vulgaris, copulation of, in captivity.

BUTTERFLIES, polymorphic.

BUXTON, Mr., parrots breeding in Norfolk.

BUZAREINGUES, GIROU DE, inheritance of tricks.

CABANIS, pears grafted on the quince.

-varieties of.
-unity of character in flowers and seeds of.
-cultivated by ancient Celts.
-classification of varieties of.
-ready crossing of.
-origin of.
-increased fertility of, when cultivated.
-growth of, in tropical countries.

CABOOL, vines of.

CABRAL, on early cultivation in Brazil.

CACTUS, growth of cochineal on, in India.

CAESAR, Bos primigenius wild in Europe in the time of.
-notice of fowls in Britain.
-notice of the importation of horses by the Celts.

CAFFRE fowls.

CAFFRES, different kinds of cattle possessed by the.

"CAGIAS" a breed of sheep.

Cairina moschata.

-effects of seasonal conditions on.
-peloric flowers in.

CALDWELL, J., sporting of sugar-cane.

"CALONGOS," a Columbian breed of cattle.

CALVER, Mr., on a seedling peach producing both peaches and nectarines.

CALYX, segments of the, converted into carpels.

CAMEL, its dislike to crossing water.

Camellia, bud-variations in.
-recognition of varieties of.
-variety in, hardiness of.

CAMERON, D, on the cultivation of Alpine plants.

CAMERONN, Baron, value of English blood in racehorses.

Campanula medium.

-conditions of inheritance in.
-hybrids of.
-period of perfect plumage in.
-diminished fertility of.
-standard of perfection in.
-analogous variation in.

CANCER, heredity of.

CANFIELD, Dr., on horses with curled hair.
-on feral horses in North America.

CANINE teeth, development of the, in mares.

Canis alopex.

Canis antarcticus.

Canis argentatus.

Canis aureus.

Canis cancrivorus, domesticated and crossed in Guiana.

Canis cinereo-variegatus.

Canis fulvus.

Canis ingae, the naked Peruvian dog.

Canis latrans.
-resemblance of, to the Hare Indian dog.
-one of the original stocks.

Canis lupaster.

Canis lupus, var. occidentalis, resemblance of, to North American dogs.
-crossed with dogs.
-one of the original stocks.

Canis mesomelas.

Canis primaevus, tamed by Mr. Hodgson.

Canis sabbar.

Canis simensis, possible original of greyhounds.

Canis thaleb.

Canis variegatus.

CANNING, A.S.G., the japanned peacock.

CANTERBURY Bell, doubled by selection.

CAPE of Good Hope, different kinds of cattle at the.
-no useful plants derived from the.

CAPERCAILZIE, breeding in captivity.

Capra aegagrus and C. falconeri, probable parents of domestic goat.


CARDAN, on a variety of the walnut.
-on grafted walnuts.


Carex rigida, local sterility of the.

CARLIER, early selection of sheep.

CARLISLE, Sir A., inheritance of peculiarities.
-of polydactylism.

"CARME" pigeon.

CARNATION, bud-variation in.
-variability of.
-striped, produced by crossing red and white.
-effect of conditions of life on the.

CARNIVORA, general fertility of, in captivity.

CAROLINE Archipelago, cats of.


CARPELS, variation of, in cultivated Cucurbitaceae.

CARPENTER, W.B., regeneration of bone.
-number of eggs in an Ascaris.

Carpinus betulus.

Carpophaga oceanica.

CARR, Mr., effect of changed conditions.

CARRIER pigeon.
-skull figured.
-history of the.
-Bagadotten, skull figured.
-lower jaw figured.

CARRIERE, origin of radish.
-intermediate form between the almond and the peach.
-glands of peach-leaves.
-bud-variation in the vine.
-bud-variation in the rose.
-inheritance in purple-leaved trees.
-on variation.
-grafts of Aria vestita upon thorns.
-variability of hybrids of Erythrina.

CARROT, wild, effects of cultivation on the.
-reversion in the.
-run wild.
-increased fertility of cultivated.
-experiments on the.
-acclimatisation of the, in India.

Carthamus, abortion of the pappus in.

CARTIER, cultivation of native plants in Canada.

CARYOPHYLLACEAE, frequency of contabescence in the.

CASPARY, bud-variation in the moss-rose.
-on the ovules and pollen of Cytisus.
-crossing of Cytisus purpureus and C. laburnum.
-trifacial orange.
-differently-coloured flowers in the wild Viola lutea.
-sterility of the horse-radish.

CASTELNAU, on Brazilian cattle.

CASTRATION, assumption of female characters caused by.

Casuarius bennettii.

CAT, domestic.
-early domestication and probable origin of the.
-intercrossing of, with wild species.
-variations of.
-polydactylism in.
-indications of stripes in young.
-effects of crossing in.
-fertility of.
-difficulty of selection in.
-length of intestines in.
-white with blue eyes, deafness of.
-with tufted ears.

CATARACT, hereditary.

CATERPILLARS, effect of changed food on.

Catleya leopoldii.

CATLIN, G., colour of feral horses in North America.

CATON, Judge, wild turkey.

CATTLE, European, their probable origin from three original species.
-humped, or zebus.
-intercrossing of.
-wild, of Chillingham, Hamilton, Chartley, Burton Constable, and Gisburne.
-colour of feral.
-British breeds of.
-South African breeds of.
-South American breeds of.
-effects of food and climate on.
-effects of selection on.
-hornless, production of horns in.
-reversion in, when crossed.
-wildness of hybrid.
-short-horned, prepotency of.
-wild, influence of crossing and segregation on.
-crosses of.
-of Falkland Islands.
-mutual fertility of all varieties of.
-effects of interbreeding on.
-shorthorn, sterility of.
-effects of careful selection on.
-naked, of Columbia.
-crossed with wild banteng in Java.
-with reversed hair in Banda Oriental.
-selection of trifling characters in.
-fashion in.
-similarity of best races of.
-unconscious selection in.
-effects of natural selection on anomalous breeds of.
-light-coloured, attacked by flies.
-Jersey, rapid improvement of.
-effects of disuse of parts in.
-rudimentary horns in.
-supposed influence of humidity on the hair of.
-white spots of, liable to disease.
-supposed analogous variation in.
-displacement of long-horned by short-horned.

-free-seeding of.
-in India.
-rudimentary flowers in.

CAVALIER pigeon.

Cavia aperea.

CAY (Cebus azarae), sterility of, in confinement.

Cebus azarae.

Cecidomyia, larval development of.
-and Misocampus.

CEDARS of Lebanon and Atlas.

CELERY, turnip-rooted.
-run wild.


Celosia cristata.

CELSUS, on the selection of seed-corn.

CELTS, early cultivation of the cabbage by the.
-selection of cattle and horses by the.

Cenchrus, seeds of a, used as food.

Centaurea cyanus, bud-variation in.

CEPHALOPODA, spermatophores of.

Cerasus padus, yellow-fruited.

Cercoleptes, sterility of, in captivity.

Cercopithecus, breeding of a species of, in captivity.

-of the Neolithic period in Switzerland.
-adaptation of, to soils.


Cereus speciosissimus and phyllanthus, reversion in hybrids of.

Cervus canadensis.

Cervus dama.

CETACEA, correlation of dermal system and teeth in the.

CEYLON, cats of.
-pigeon-fancying in.

CHAMISSO, on seeding bread-fruit.

CHANNEL Islands, breeds of cattle in.

CHAPMAN, Professor, peach-trees producing nectarines.

CHAPUIS, F., sexual peculiarities in pigeons.
-effect produced by first male upon the subsequent progeny of the female.
-sterility of the union of some pigeons.

CHARACTERS, fixity of.
-continued divergence of.

CHARDIN, abundance of pigeons in Persia.

CHARLEMAGNE, orders as to the selection of stallions.

CHARTLEY, wild cattle of.

CHATE, reversion of the upper seeds in the pods of stocks.

CHAUNDY, Mr., crossed varieties of cabbage.

CHEETAH, general sterility of, in captivity.

Cheiranthus cheiri.

-bud-variation in.
-white Tartarian.
-variety of, with curled petals.
-period of vegetation of, changed by forcing.

CHEVREUL, on crossing fruit-trees.

CHICKENS, differences in characters of.
-white, liable to gapes.


CHILE, sheep of.

CHILLINGHAM cattle, identical with Bos primigenius.
-characters of.

CHILOE, half-castes of.

CHINA, cats of, with drooping ears.
-horses of.
-striped ponies of.
-asses of.
-notice of rabbits in, by Confucius.
-breeds of pigeons reared in.
-breeds of fowls of, in fifteenth century.

CHINCHILLA, fertility of, in captivity.

CHINESE, selection practised by the.
-preference of the, for hornless rams.
-recognition of the value of native breeds by the.

CHINESE, or Himalayan rabbit.

"CHIVOS," a breed of cattle in Paraguay.


CHRIST, H., on the plants of the Swiss Lake-dwellings.
-intermediate forms between Pinus sylvestris and montana.


Chrysotis festiva.

CINERARIA, effects of selection on the.

CIRCASSIA, horses of.


CIRRIPEDES, metagenesis in.

Cistus, intercrossing and hybrids of.


"Citrus aurantium fructu variabili."

Citrus decumana.

Citrus lemonum.

Citrus medica.

CLAPHAM, A., bud-variation in the hawthorn.

"CLAQUANT" (pigeons).

"CLAQUERS" (pigeons).

CLARK, G., on the wild dogs of Juan de Nova.
-on striped Burmese and Javanese ponies.
-breeds of goats imported into the Mauritius.
-variations in the mammae of goats.
-bilobed scrotum of Muscat goat.

CLARK, H.J., on fission and gemmation.

CLARKE, R.T., intercrossing of strawberries.

CLARKE, T., hybridisation of stocks.

CLARKSON, Mr., prize-cultivation of the gooseberry.

CLASSIFICATION, explained by the theory of natural selection.

CLEFT palate, inheritance of.

CLEMENTE, on wild vines in Spain.

CLERMONT-TONNERRE, on the St. Valery apple.

CLIMATE, effect of, upon breeds of dogs.
-on horses.
-on cattle.
-on the fleece of sheep.
-on seeds of wheat.
-on cultivated cabbages.
-adaptation of maize to.

CLIMATE and pasture, adaptation of breeds of sheep to.

CLIMATE and soil, effects of, upon strawberries.

CLINE, Mr., on the skull in horned and hornless rams.

CLOS, on sterility in Ranunculus ficaria.

CLOTZSCH, hybrids of various trees.

CLOVER, pelorism in.

COATE, Mr., on interbreeding pigs.

COCCUS of apple-trees.

COCHIN fowls.
-occipital foramen of, figured.
-section of skull of, figured.
-cervical vertebra of, figured.

COCHINEAL, persistence of.
-preference of, for a particular cactus.

Cochlearia armoracia.

COCK, game, natural selection in.
-spur of, grafted on the comb.
-spur of, inserted into the ear of an ox.
-effect of castration upon the.

COCK'S-COMB, varieties of the.

COCOONS of silkworms, variations in.

CODFISH, bulldog.
-number of eggs in the.

Coelogenys paca.

COLIN, prepotency of the ass over the horse.
-on cross-breeding.
-on change of diet.

COLLINSON, PETER, peach-tree producing a nectarine.

COLORATION in pigeons, an evidence of unity of descent.

COLOUR, correlation of, in dogs.
-persistence of, in horses.
-inheritance and diversity of, in horses.
-variations of, in the ass.
-of wild or feral cattle.
-transmission of, in rabbits.
-peculiarities of, in Himalayan rabbits.
-influence of.
-correlation of, in head and limbs.
-correlated with constitutional peculiarities.

COLOUR and odour, correlation of.

-more common in men than in women.
-associated with inability to distinguish musical sounds.

COLOURS, sometimes not blended by crossing.

Columba affinis, Blyth, a variety of C. livia.

Columba amaliae, Brehm, a variety of C. livia.

Columba guinea.

Columba gymnocyclus, Gray, a form of C. livia.

Columba gymnophthalmos, hybrids of, with C. oenas.
-with C. maculosa.

Columba intermedia, Strickland, a variety of C. livia.

Columba leucocephala.

Columba leuconota.

Columba littoralis.

Columba livia.
-the parent of domestic breeds of pigeons.
-measurements of.
-skull figured.
-lower jaw figured.
-scapula figured.

Columba luctuosa.

Columba migratoria and leucocephala, diminished fertility of, in captivity.

Columba oenas.
-crossed with common pigeon and C. gymnophthalmos.

Columba palumbus.

Columba rupestris.

Columba schimperi.

Columba torquatrix.

Columba turricola.

COLUMBIA, cattle of

COLUMBINE, double.

COLUMBUS, on West Indian dogs.

COLUMELLA, on Italian shepherd dogs.
-on domestic fowls.
-on the keeping of ducks.
-on the selection of seed-corn.
-on the benefits of change of soil to plants.
-on the value of native breeds.


COMB, in fowls, variations of.
-sometimes rudimentary.



COMPLEXION, connection of, with constitution.

COMPOSITAE, double flowers of.

CONCEPTION, earlier in Alderney and Zetland cows than in other breeds.

CONDITIONS of life, changed, effect of.
-on horses.
-upon variation in pigeons.
-upon wheat.
-upon trees.
-in producing bud-variation.
-advantages of.
-sterility caused by.
-conducive to variability.
-accumulative action of.
-direct action of.

CONDOR, breeding in captivity.

CONFINEMENT, effect of, upon the cock.

CONFUCIUS, on the breeding of rabbits in China.

CONOLLY, Mr., on Angora goats.

CONSTITUTIONAL differences in sheep.
-in varieties of apples.
-in pelargoniums.
-in dahlias.

CONSTITUTIONAL peculiarities in strawberries.
-in roses.

CONSUMPTION, hereditary.
-period of appearance of.
-correlated with complexion.


Convolvulus batatas.

Convolvulus tricolor, bud-variation in.

COOPER, Mr., improvement of vegetables by selection.

COOPER, WHITE, hereditary peculiarities of vision.
-association of affections of the eyes with those of other systems.

CORALS, bud-variation in.
-non-diffusion of cell-gemmules in.

CORBIE, See Boitard.

CORDEMOZ, Dr., seedless plants.

CORNEA, opacity of, inherited.

Cornus mascula, yellow-fruited.

-of neighbouring parts.
-of change in the whole body, and in some of its parts.
-of homologous parts.
-commingling of, with the effects of other agencies.

CORRELATION of skull and limbs in swine.
-of tusks and bristles in swine.
-of multiplicity of horns and coarseness of wool in sheep.
-of beak and feet in pigeons.
-between nestling down and colour of plumage in pigeons.
-of changes in silkworms.
-in plants.
-in maize.
-in pigeons.
-in fowls.

CORRESPONDING periods, inheritance at.

CORRIENTES, dwarf cattle of.

CORRINGHAM, Mr., influence of selection on pigs.

CORSICA, ponies of.

"CORTBECK" (pigeon) of Aldrovandi.

Corvus corone, and C. cornix, hybrids of.

Corydalis, flower of.

Corydalis cava.

Corydalis solida, sterile when peloric.

Corydalis tuberosa, peloric by reversion.

Corylus avellana.

COSTA, A., on shells transferred from England to the Mediterranean.

COUES, Dr. E., on a monstrous chicken.

COWPER, Mr. WHITE, defective development of the dental system.


COW, inheritance of loss of one horn in the.
-amount of milk furnished by the.
-development of six mammae in.


CRACIDAE, sterility of the, in captivity.

CRANES, fertility of, in captivity.

Crataegus oxyacantha.

Crataegus monogyna.

Crataegus sibirica.

CRAWFURD, J., Malasian cats.
-horses of the Malay Archipelago.
-horses of Japan.
-occurrence of stripes in young wild pigs of Malacca.
-on a Burmese hairy family with deficient teeth.
-Japanese origin of the bantam.
-game fowls of the Philippine Islands.
-hybrids of Gallus varius and domestic fowl.
-domestication of Gallus bankiva.
-feral fowls in the Pellew Islands.
-history of the fowl.
-history of the domestic duck.
-domestication of the goose.
-cultivated plants of New Zealand.
-breeding of tame elephants in Ava.
-sterility of Goura coronata in confinement.
-geese of the Philippine Islands.

CREEPERS, a breed of fowls.


"CREVE-COEUR," a French sub-breed of fowls.

CRISP, Dr., on the brains of the hare and rabbit.

CROCKER, C.W., singular form of Begonia frigida.
-sterility in Ranunculus ficaria.


CROSS-BREEDING, permanent effect of, on the female.

-a cause of uniformity.
-occurs in all organised beings.
-some characters not blended by.
-modifications and new races produced by.
-causes which check.
-domestication and cultivation favourable to.
-beneficial effects of.
-necessary in some plants.
-summary of subject of.
-of dogs with wolves in North America.
-with Canis cancrivorus in Guiana.
-of dog with wolf, described by Pliny and others.
-characters furnished by, brought out by reversion in the progeny.
-a direct cause of reversion.
-a cause of variability.

CRUSTACEA, macrourous, differences in the development of the.

CRUSTACEAN with an antenna-like development of the eye-peduncle.

CRYPTOGAMIC plants, bud-variation in.

CUBA, wild dogs of.

"CUCKOO," sub-breeds of fowls.

CUCUMBER, variation in number of carpels of.
-supposed crossing of varieties of the.

Cucumis momordica.

Cucumis sativa.

Cucurbita, dwarf, correlation of leaves in.

Cucurbita maxima.

Cucurbita moschata.

Cucurbita pepo.
-varieties of.
-relation in size and number of fruit of.

-supposed crossing of.
-Naudin's observations on hybrids of.
-acclimatisation of.

"CULBUTANTS" (pigeons).

CULTIVATION of plants, origin of, among savages.
-fertility increased by.

CUNIER, on hereditary night-blindness.

CUPPLES, Mr., pairing of deer-hounds.

CURRANTS, of Tierra del Fuego.
bud-variation in.

CURTIS, Mr., bud-variation in the rose.

CUVIER, on the gestation of the wolf.
-the odour of the jackal, an obstacle to domestication.
-differences of the skull in dogs.
-external characters of dogs.
-elongation of the intestines in domestic pigs.
-fertility of the hook-billed duck.
-hybrid of ass and zebra.
-breeding of animals in the Jardin des Plantes.
-sterility of predaceous birds in captivity.
-facility of hybridisation in confinement.

CYANOSIS, affection of fingers in.

CYCLAMEN, bud-variation in.

Cynara cardunculus.

Cynips fecundatrix.

Cynocephalus hamadryas.

Cyprinus auratus.



Cytisus adami, its bud-variation.
-seedlings from.
-different views of its origin.
-experiments in crossing C. purpureus and laburnum to produce.
-its production by M. Adam.
-discussion of origin of.

Cytisus alpino-laburnum, ovules and pollen of.
-origin of.

Cytisus alpinus.

Cytisus laburnum.

Cytisus purpureo-elongatus, ovules and pollen of.
-production of.

Cytisus purpureus.

DAHLBOHM, effects of food on hymenoptera.

-bud-variation by tubers in the.
-improvement of, by selection.
-steps in cultivation of.
-effect of conditions of life on.
-correlation of form and colour in.

DAISY, hen-and-chicken.
-Swan River.

DALBRET, varieties of wheat.

DALIBERT, changes in the odours of plants.

DALLY, Dr., on consanguineous marriages.

DALTONISM, hereditary.

DAMARAS, cattle of.


DANDOLO, Count, on silkworms.

DANIELL, fertility of English dogs in Sierra Leone.

DANISH Middens, remains of dogs in.

DAPPLING in horses, asses, and hybrids.

DARESTE, C., on the skull of the Polish fowl.
-causes of variability.
-on the production of monstrous chickens.
-co-existence of anomalies.
-production of double monsters.

DARVILL, Mr., heredity of good qualities in horses.

DARWIN, C., on Lepus magellanicus.
-on the wild potato.
-dimorphism in the polyanthus and primrose.

DARWIN, Dr., improvement of vegetables by selection.

DARWIN, Sir F., wildness of crossed pigs.

DARWIN, G., consanguineous marriages.

D'ASSO, monogynous condition of the hawthorn in Spain.

Dasyprocta aguti.

DATE-PALM, varieties of the.

-variability in.

Datura laevis and stramonium, reversion in hybrids of.

Datura stramonium.

DAUBENTON, variations in the number of mammae in dogs.
-proportions of intestines in wild and domestic cats.

DAUDIN, on white rabbits.

DAVY, Dr., on sheep in the West Indies.

DAWKINS, W. BOYD, history of the dog.
-origin of cattle.
-early domestication of Bos longifrons in Britain.

DEAF-MUTES, non-heredity in.

DEAFNESS, inheritance of.

DEAN, potato-grafting.

DEBY, wild hybrids of common and musk ducks.

DE CANDOLLE, ALPH., number and origin of cultivated plants.
-regions which have furnished no useful plants.
-wild wheat.
-wild rye and oats.
-antiquity of varieties of wheat.
-apparent inefficacy of selection in wheat.
-origin and cultivation of maize.
-colours of seeds of maize.
-varieties and origin of the cabbage.
-origin of the garden-pea.
-on the vine.
-cultivated species of the orange group.
-probable Chinese origin of the peach.
-on the peach and nectarine.
-varieties of the peach.
-origin of the apricot.
-origin and varieties of the plum.
-origin of the cherry.
-varieties of the gooseberry.
-selection practised with forest-trees.
-wild fastigiate oak.
-dark-leaved varieties of trees.
-conversion of stamens into pistils in the poppy.
-variegated foliage.
-heredity of white hyacinths.
-changes in oaks dependent on age.
-inheritance of anomalous characters.
-variation of plants in their native countries.
-deciduous bushes becoming evergreen in hot climates.
-antiquity of races of plants.

DE CANDOLLE, P., non-variability of monotypic genera.
-relative development of root and seed in Raphanus sativus.

DECAISNE, on the cultivation of the wild carrot.
-varieties of the pear.
-intercrossing of strawberries.
-fruit of the apple.
-sterility of Lysimachia nummularia.
-tender variety of the peach.

DEER, assumption of horns by female.
-imperfect development of horns in a, on a voyage.

DEER, fallow.

DEERHOUND, Scotch, difference in size of the sexes of.
-deterioration of.

DEGENERATION of high-bred races, under neglect.

DE JONGHE, J., on strawberries.
-soft-barked pears.
-on accumulative variation.
-resistance of blossoms to frost.

DELAMER, E.S., on rabbits.

Delphinium ajacis.

Delphinium consolida.

DELPINO on Pangenesis.

Dendrocygna viduata.

DENNY, H., lice of Aperea.

DENTITION, variations of, in the horse.


DESMAREST, distribution of white on dogs.
-cat from the Cape of Good Hope.
-cats of Madagascar.
-occurrence of striped young in Turkish pigs.
-French breeds of cattle.
-horns of goats.
-on hornless goats.

DESPORTES, number of varieties of roses.

DEVAY, Dr., singular case of albinism.
-on the marriage of cousins.
-on the effects of close interbreeding.

DEVELOPMENT and metamorphosis.

DEVELOPMENT, arrests of.

DEVELOPMENT, embryonic.

D'HERVEY-SAINT-DENYS, L., on the Yami, or imperial race of the Chinese.

DHOLE, fertility of the, in captivity.

DIABETES, occurrence of, in three brothers.

Dianthus, contabescent plants of.
-hybrid varieties of.

Dianthus armeria and deltoides, hybrids of.

Dianthus barbatus.

Dianthus caryophyllus.

Dianthus japonicus, contabescence of female organs in.

Diapheromera femorata.


DICKSON, Mr., on "running" in carnations.
-on the colours of tulips.

Dicotyles torquatus and labiatus.

DIEFFENBACH, dog of New Zealand.
-feral cats in New Zealand.
-polydactylism in Polynesia.


DIET, change of.

Digitalis, properties of, affected by culture.

DIGITS, supernumerary.
-analogy of, with embryonic conditions.
-fusion of.

-conditions of reproduction in.

DIMORPHISM, reciprocal.

-variation of, in colour.
-half-bred, attempting to burrow.
-attraction of foxes by a female.
-variations of, in confinement.

DIOECIOUSNESS of strawberries.

DISEASES, inheritance of.
-inherited at corresponding periods of life.
-peculiar to localities and climates.
-obscure correlations in.
-affecting certain parts of the body.
-occurring in alternate generations.

DISTEMPER, fatal to white terriers.

DISUSE and use of parts, effects of.
-in the skeleton of rabbits.
-in pigeons.
-in fowls.
-in ducks.
-in the silk-moth.

DIVERGENCE, influence of, in producing breeds of pigeons.

DIXON, E.S., on the musk duck.
-on feral ducks.
-on feral pigeons in Norfolk Island.
-crossing of pigeons.
-origin of domestic fowls.
-crossing of Gallus sonneratii and common fowl.
-occurrence of white in the young chicks of black fowls.
-Paduan fowl of Aldrovandi.
-peculiarities of the eggs of fowls.
-late development of the tail in Cochin cocks.
-comb of lark-crested fowls.
-development of webs in Polish fowls.
-on the voice of fowls.
-origin of the duck.
-ducks kept by the Romans.
-domestication of the goose.
-gander frequently white.
-breeds of turkeys.
-incubatory instinct of mongrels of non-sitting races of fowls.
-aversion of the dovecote pigeon to pair with fancy birds.
-fertility of the goose.
-general sterility of the guans in captivity.
-fertility of geese in captivity.
-white pea-fowl.

DOBELL, H., inheritance of anomalies of the extremities.
-non-reversion to a malformation.

DOBRIZHOFFER, abhorrence of incest by the Abipones.

DOGS, origin of.
-ancient breeds of.
-of Neolithic, Bronze and Iron periods in Europe.
-resemblance of, to various species of Canidae.
-of North America compared with wolves.
-of the West Indies, South America, and Mexico.
-of Guiana.
-naked dogs of Paraguay and Peru.
-dumb, on Juan Fernandez.
-of Juan de Nova.
-of La Plata.
-of Cuba.
-of St. Domingo.
-correlation of colour in.
-gestation of.
-hairless Turkish.
-inter-crossing of different breeds of.
-characters of different breeds of, discussed.
-degeneration of European, in warm climates.
-liability to certain diseases in different breeds of.
-causes of differences of breeds discussed.
-catching fish and crabs in New Guinea and Tierra del Fuego.
-webbing of the feet in.
-influence of selection in producing different breeds of.
-retention of original habits by.
-inheritance of polydactylism in.
-reversion in fourth generation of.
-of the Pacific Islands.
-comparative facility of crossing different breeds of.
-fertility of.
-interbreeding of.
-selection of, among the Greeks.
-among savages.
-unconscious selection of.
-valued by the Fuegians.
-climatal changes in hair of.
-production of drooping ears in.
-rejection of bones of game by.
-inheritance of rudiments of limbs in.
-development of fifth toe in.
-hairless, deficiency of teeth in.
-short-faced, teeth of.
-probable analogous variation in.
-extinction of breeds of.

DOMBRAIN, H.H., on the auricula.

DOMESTICATION, essential points in.
-favourable to crossing.
-fertility increased by.

DOMESTICATED animals, origin of
-occasional sterility of, under changed conditions.

DONDERS, Dr., hereditary hypermetropia.

-furculum of, figured.


DOUBLE flowers.
-produced by selection.

DOUBLEDAY, H., cultivation of the filbert pine strawberry.

DOUGLAS, J., crossing of white and black game-fowls.

DOWNING, Mr., wild varieties of the hickory.
-peaches and nectarines from seed.
-origin of the Boston nectarine.
-American varieties of the peach.
-North American apricot.
-varieties of the plum.
-origin and varieties of the cherry.
-"twin-cluster pippins."
-varieties of the apple.
-on strawberries.
-fruit of the wild gooseberry.
-effects of grafting upon the seed.
-diseases of plum and peach tree.
-injury done to stone fruit in America by the "weevil."
-grafts of the plum and peach.
-wild varieties of pears.
-varieties of fruit-trees suitable to different climates.

DOWNING, Mr. J., sterility of shorthorns.

Draba sylvestris.

DRAGON (pigeon).

"DRAIJER" (pigeon).

DRINKING, effects of, in different climates.

DROMEDARY, selection of.

DRUCE, Mr., interbreeding.
-value of cross breed of pigs.

DU CHAILLU, fruit-trees in West Africa.

DUCHESNE, on Fragaria vesca.

DUFOUR, LEON, on Cecidomyia and Misocampus.

DUCK, musk, retention of perching habit by the.
-feral hybrid of.

DUCK, penguin, hybrid of, with Egyptian goose.

Duck, wild, difficulty of rearing.
-effects of domestication on.

DUCKS, breeds of.
-origin of.
-history of.
-wild, easily tamed.
-fertility of breeds of, when crossed.
-with the plumage of Anas boschas.
-Malayan penguin, identical in plumage with English.
-characters of the breeds of.
-eggs of.
-effects of use and disuse in.
-feral, in Norfolk.
-Aylesbury, inheritance of early hatching by.
-reversion in, produced by crossing.
-wildness of half-bred wild.
-hybrids of, with the musk duck.
-assumption of male plumage by.
-crossing of Labrador and penguin.
-increased fertility of, by domestication.
-general fertility of, in confinement.
-increase of size of, by care in breeding.
-change produced by domestication in.

DUMERIL, AUG., breeding of Siredon in the branchiferous stage.

DUN-COLOURED horses, origin of.

DUREAU DE LA MALLE, feral pigs in Louisiana.
-feral fowls in Africa.
-bud-variation in the pear.
-production of mules among the Romans.

Dusicyon silvestris.

DUTCH rabbit.

DUTCH roller pigeon.

DUTROCHET, pelorism in the laburnum.

DUVAL, growth of pears in woods in France.

DUVAL-JOUVE, on Leersia oryzoides.

DUVERNOY, self-impotence in Lilium candidum.

DZIERZON, variability in the characters and habits of bees.

EARLE, Dr., on colour-blindness.

EARS, of fancy rabbits.
-deficiency of, in breeds of rabbits.
-rudimentary, in Chinese sheep.
-fusion of.

EATON, J.M., on fancy pigeons.
-variability of characters in breeds of pigeons.
-reversion of crossed pigeons to coloration of Columba livia.
-on pigeon-fancying.
-on tumbler-pigeons.
-effects of interbreeding on pigeons.
-properties of pigeons.
-death of short-faced tumblers in the egg.

ECHINODERMATA, metagenesis in.

Ectopistes, specific difference in number of tail-feathers in.

Ectopistes migratorius, sterile hybrids of, with Turtur vulgaris.

EDENTATA, correlation of dermal system and teeth in the.

EDGEWORTH, Mr., use of grass-seeds as food in the Punjab.

EDMONSTON, Dr., on the stomach in Larus argentatus and the raven.

EDWARDS and Colin, on English wheat in France.

EDWARDS, W.F., absorption of the minority in crossed races.

EDWARDS, W.W., occurrence of stripes in a nearly thoroughbred horse.
-in foals of racehorses.

EGGS, of fowls, characters of.
-variations of, in ducks.
-of the silk-moth.

EGYPT, ancient dogs of.
-ancient domestication of the pigeon in.
-absence of the fowl in ancient.

EGYPTIAN goose, hybrids of, with penguin duck.

EHRENBERG, Prof., multiple origin of the dog.
-dogs of Lower Egypt.
-mummies of Felis maniculata.

ELEMENTS of the body, functional independence of the.

ELEPHANT, its sterility in captivity.

ELK, Irish, correlations in the.

ELLIOT, Sir WALTER, on cats in India.
-on striped horses.
-Indian domestic and wild swine.
-pigeons from Cairo and Constantinople.
-fantail pigeons.
-Lotan tumbler pigeons.
-a pigeon uttering the sound "Yahu."
-Gallus bankiva in Pegu.

ELLIS, Mr., varieties of cultivated plants in Tahiti.

ELM, nearly evergreen Cornish variety of the.
-foliage-varieties of the.

ELM, weeping.
-not reproduced by seed.

Emberiza passerina.

EMBRYOS, similarity of.
-fusion of.

ENGEL, on Laurus sassafras.

ENGLAND, domestication of Bos longifrons in.
-selection of horses in.
-in mediaeval times.
-laws against the early slaughter of rams in.

EPHEMERIDAE, development of the.

Epidendrum cinnabarinum.
-and E. zebra.

EPILEPSY, hereditary.

Equus burchellii.

Equus quagga.

Equus indicus.

Equus taeniopus.

ERDT, disease of the white parts of cattle.

ERICACEAE, frequency of contabescence in the.

ERICHTHONIUS, an improver of horses by selection.

ERMAN, on the fat-tailed Kirghisian sheep.
-on the dogs of the Ostyaks.


Erythrina crista-galli and E. herbacea, hybrids of.

Eschscholtzia californica, self-sterile in England.

ESQUILANT, Mr., on the naked young of dun-coloured pigeons.

ESQUIMAUX dogs, their resemblance to wolves.
-selection of.

ESQUIROL, on hereditary insanity.

EUDES-DESLONGCHAMPS, on appendages under the jaw of pigs.

Euonymus japonicus.

Euphorbia maculata.

EUROPEAN cultivated plants, still wild in Europe.

EVANS, Mr., on the Lotan tumbler pigeon.

EVELYN, pansies grown in his garden.

EVEREST, R., on the Newfoundland dog in India.
-degeneration of setters in India.
-Indian wild boars.

EWES, hornless.

EXTINCTION of domestic races.

EYES, hereditary peculiarities of the.
-loss of, causing microphthalmia in children.
-modification of the structure of, by natural selection.

EYEBROWS, hereditary elongation of hairs in.

EYELIDS, inherited peculiarities of the.

EYTON, Mr., on gestation in the dog.
-variability in number of vertebrae in the pig.
-individual sterility.

Faba vulgaris.

Fabre, observations on Aegilops triticoides.

Fagus sylvatica.

FAIRWEATHER, Mr., production of double flowers from old seed.

FAIVRE, on the Primula sinensis.

Falco albidus, resumption of young plumage by, in captivity.

Falco ossifragus.

Falco subbuteo, copulating in captivity.

Falco tinnunculus, breeding in captivity.

FALCONER, Dr., sterility of English bulldogs in India.
-resemblance between Sivatherium and Niata cattle.
-selection of the silkworm in India.
-fastigiate apple-trees in Calcutta.
-reproduction of a supernumerary thumb after amputation.
-fertility of the dhole in captivity.
-fertility of English dogs in India.
-sterility of the tiger in captivity.
-turkeys at Delhi.
-on Indian cultivated plants.
-Thibet mastiff and goat.

FALCONS, sterility of, in captivity.

FALKLAND Islands, horses of the.
-feral pigs of the.
-feral cattle of the.
-feral rabbits of the.

FALLOW deer.

FANTAIL pigeons.
-furculum of, figured.
-history of.
-absence of oil-gland in.

FAROE Islands, pigeons of the.

FASHION, influence of, in breeding.


FAUNAS, geographical differences of.


FEATHERS, homologous variation in.

FEET, of pigeons, individual differences of.
-correlations of external characters in.

FEET and beak, correlation of, in pigeons.

FELIDAE, fertility of, in captivity.

Felis bubastes.

Felis caffra.

Felis caligulata.

Felis chaus.

Felis jubata.

Felis lybica.

Felis maniculata.

Felis manul.

Felis ornata.

Felis sylvestris.

Felis torquata.

FEMALE, affected by male element.

FEMALE flowers, in male panicle of maize.

FENN, Mr., grafting potatoes.

FENNEL, Italian variety of.

FERAL cats.
-Guinea fowl.
-animals and plants, reversion in.

FERGUSON, Mr., supposed plurality of origin of domestic fowls.
-chickens of black game-fowls.
-relative size of eggs of fowls.
-yolk of eggs of game-fowls.
-early pugnacity of game-cocks.
-voice of the Malay fowl.
-effects of interbreeding on fowls.
-selection in Cochin-China fowls.
-on fashion in poultry.

FERNANDEZ, on Mexican dogs.

FERNS, reproduction of abnormal forms of, by spores.
-non-diffusion of cell-gemmules in.


FERTILISATION, artificial, of the St. Valery apple.

FERTILITY, various degrees of, in sheep.
-unlimited mutual, of breeds of pigeons.
-comparative, of mongrels and hybrids.
-influence of nourishment on.
-diminished by close interbreeding.
-reduced, of Chillingham wild cattle.
-of domesticated varieties when crossed.

Festuca, species of, propagated by bulblets.

FILBERTS, spared by tomtits.

FILIPPI, on the breeding of branchiferous tritons.

FINCHES, general sterility of, in captivity.

FINNIKIN (pigeon).


FIR, Scotch, acclimatisation of.

FISH, Mr., advantage of change of soil to plants.

FISHES, regeneration of portions of fins of.
-variability of, when kept in tanks.
-marine, living in fresh water.
-double monsters of.

FISSION and gemmation.

FITCH, Mr., persistency of a variety of the pea.

FITTEST, survival of the.

FITZINGER, origin of sheep.
-African maned sheep.

FITZPATRICK, Mr., potato-grafting.

FIXEDNESS of character, conditions of, discussed.

FLAX, found in the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-climatal difference in products of.

FLEECE, fineness of, in Austrian merinos.

FLEISCHMANN, on German sheep crossed with merinos.



FLOURENS, crossing of wolf and dog.
-prepotency of the jackal over the dog.
-hybrids of the horse and ass.
-breeding of monkeys in Europe.

FLOWER-GARDEN, earliest known, in Europe.

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