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The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication by Charles Darwin

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METAMORPHOSIS and development.

METZGER, on the supposed species of wheat.
-tendency of wheat to vary.
-variation of maize.
-cultivation of American maize in Europe.
-on cabbages.
-acclimatisation of Spanish wheat in Germany.
-advantage of change of soil to plants.
-on rye.
-cultivation of different kinds of wheat.

MEXICO, dog from, with tan spots on the eyes.
-colours of feral horses in.

MEYEN, on seeding of bananas.

MICE, grey and white, colours of, not blended by crossing.
-rejection of bitter almonds by.

MICHAUX, F., roan-coloured feral horses of Mexico.
-origin of domestic turkey.
-on raising peaches from seed.

MICHEL, F., selection of horses in mediaeval times.
-horses preferred on account of slight characters.

MICHELY, effects of food on caterpillars.
-on Bombyx hesperus.

MICROPHTHALMIA, associated with defective teeth.

MIDDENS, Danish, remains of dogs in.



MILLS, J., diminished fertility of mares when first turned out to grass.

MILNE-EDWARDS, on the development of the crustacea.

MILNE-EDWARDS, A., on a crustacean with a monstrous eye-peduncle.

Milvus niger.

Mimulus luteus.

MINOR, W.C., gemmation and fission in annelids.

Mirabilis, fertilisation of.
-hybrids of.

Mirabilis jalapa.

Mirabilis longiflora.

Mirabilis vulgaris.

Misocampus and Cecidomyia.

MITCHELL, Dr., effects of the poison of the rattlesnake.

MITFORD, Mr., notice of the breeding of horses by Erichthonius.

MIVART, Mr., rudimentary organs.

MOCCAS Court, weeping oak at.

MOGFORD, horses poisoned by fool's parsley.

MOLLER, L., effects of food on insects.

MOLE, white.

MOLL and Gayot, on cattle.

MOLLUSCA, change in shells of.

MONKE, Lady, culture of the pansy by.

MONKEYS, rarely fertile in captivity.

MONNIER, identity of summer and winter wheat.

MONSTERS, double.

MONSTROSITIES, occurrence of, in domesticated animals and cultivated
-due to persistence of embryonic conditions.
-occurring by reversion.
-a cause of sterility.
-caused by injury to the embryo.

MOOR, J.H., deterioration of the horse in Malasia.

MOORCROFT, Mr., on Hasora wheat.
-selection of white-tailed yaks.
-melon of Kaschmir.
-varieties of the apricot cultivated in Ladakh.
-varieties of the walnut cultivated in Kaschmir.

MOORE, Mr., on breeds of pigeons.
-on ground tumblers.

MOORUK, fertility of, in captivity.

MOQUIN-TANDON, original form of maize.
-variety of the double columbine.
-peloric flowers.
-position as a cause of pelorism in flowers.
-tendency of peloric flowers to become irregular.
-on monstrosities.
-correlation in the axis and appendages of plants.
-fusion of homologous parts in plants.
-on a bean with monstrous stipules and abortive leaflets.
-conversion of parts of flowers.

MORLOT, dogs of the Danish Middens.
-sheep and horse of the Bronze period.

Mormodes ignea.

MOROCCO, estimation of pigeons in.

MORREN, grafts of Abutilon.
-on pelorism.
-in Calceolaria.
-non-coincidence of double flowers and variegated leaves.

MORRIS, Mr., breeding of the kestrel in captivity.

MORSE, Dr., digits of birds.

MORTON, Lord, effect of fecundation by a quagga on an Arab mare.

MORTON, Dr., origin of the dog.

Morus alba.

MOSCOW, rabbits of.
-effects of cold on pear-trees at.

MOSSES, sterility in.
-retrogressive metamorphosis in.

MOSS-ROSE, probable origin of, from Rosa centifolia.
-Provence roses produced from seeds of.

MOSTO, Cada, on the introduction of rabbits into Porto Santo.

MOT-MOT, mutilation of feathers inherited.

MOTTLING of fruits and flowers.


MOUSE, Barbary.


MOWBRAY, Mr., on the eggs of game fowls.
-early pugnacity of game cocks.
-diminished fecundity of the pheasant in captivity.

MOWBRAY, Mr., reciprocal fecundation of Passiflora alata and racemosa.

MULATTOS, character of.


MULE and hinny, differences in the.

MULES, striped colouring of.
-obstinacy of.
-production of, among the Romans.
-noticed in the Bible.

MULLER, FRITZ, reproduction of orchids.
-development of crustacea.
-direct action of pollen.
-self-sterile bignonia.

MULLER, H., on the face and teeth in dogs.

MULLER, J., tendency to variation.
-atrophy of the optic nerve consequent on destruction of the eye.
-on gemmation and fission.
-identity of ovules and buds.
-special affinities of the tissues.

MULLER, MAX, antiquity of agriculture.

MULTIPLICITY of origin of pigeons, hypotheses of, discussed.

MUNIZ, F., on Niata cattle.

MUNRO, R., on the fertilisation of orchids.
-reproduction of Passiflora alata.
-self-sterile Passiflora.

"MURASSA" pigeon.

MURIE, Dr., size of hybrids.

MURPHY, J.J., the structure of the eye not producible by selection.

Mus alexandrinus.

Musa sapientium, chinensis and cavendishii.

Muscari comosum.

MUSCLES, effects of use on.

MUSK duck, feral hybrid of, with the common duck.

MUTILATIONS, inheritance or non-inheritance of.

MYATT, on a five-leaved variety of the strawberry.

MYOPIA, hereditary.

MYRIAPODA, regeneration of lost parts in.

NAILS, growing on stumps of fingers.

NAIS, scission of.

NAMAQUAS, cattle of the.

NARCISSUS, double, becoming single in poor soil.

NARVAEZ, on the cultivation of native plants in Florida.

Nasua, sterility of, in captivity.

"NATAS" or Niatas, a South American breed of cattle.

NATHUSIUS, H. VON, on striped horses.
-on the pigs of the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-on the races of pigs.
-convergence of character in highly-bred pigs.
-causes of changes in the form of the pig's skull.
-changes in breeds of pigs by crossing.
-change of form in the pig.
-effects of disuse of parts in the pig.
-period of gestation in the pig.
-appendages to the jaw in pigs.
-on Sus pliciceps.
-period of gestation in sheep.
-on Niata cattle.
-on shorthorn cattle.
-on interbreeding.
-in the sheep.
-in pigs.
-unconscious selection in cattle and pigs.
-variability of highly-selected races.

NATO, P., on the Bizzarria orange.

NATURAL selection, its general principles.

NATURE, sense in which the term is employed.

NAUDIN, supposed rules of transmission in crossing plants.
-on the nature of hybrids.
-essences of the species in hybrids.
-reversion of hybrids.
-reversion in flowers by stripes and blotches.
-hybrids of Linaria vulgaris and purpurea.
-pelorism in Linaria.
-crossing of peloric Linaria with the normal form.
-variability in Datura.
-hybrids of Datura laevis and stramonium.
-prepotency of transmission of Datura stramonium when crossed.
-on the pollen of Mirabilis and of hybrids.
-fertilisation of Mirabilis.
-cultivated Cucurbitaceae.
-rudimentary tendrils in gourds.
-dwarf Cucurbitae.
-relation between the size and number of the fruit in Cucurbita pepo.
-analogous variation in Cucurbitae.
-acclimatisation of Cucurbitaceae.
-production of fruit by sterile hybrid Cucurbitaceae.
-on the melon.
-incapacity of the cucumber to cross with other species.

-derived from the peach.
-hybrids of.
-persistency of characters in seedling.
-origin of.
-produced on peach-trees.
-producing peaches.
-variation in.
-bud-variation in.
-glands in the leaves of the.
-analogous variation in.

NECTARY, variations of, in pansies.

NEES, on changes in the odour of plants.

"NEGRO" cat.

NEGROES, polydactylism in.
-selection of cattle practised by.

NEOLITHIC period, domestication of Bos longifrons and primigenius in the.
-cattle of the, distinct from the original species.
-domestic goat in the.
-cereals of the.

NERVE, optic, atrophy of the.

NEUBERT, potato-grafting.

NEUMEISTER, on the Dutch and German pouter pigeons.
-on the Jacobin pigeon.
-duplication of the middle flight feather in pigeons.
-on a peculiarly coloured breed of pigeons, "Staarhalsige Taube."
-fertility of hybrid pigeons.
-mongrels of the trumpeter pigeon.
-period of perfect plumage in pigeons.
-advantage of crossing pigeons.

NEURALGIA, hereditary.

NEW ZEALAND, feral cats of.
cultivated plants of.

NEWFOUNDLAND dog, modification of, in England.

NEWMAN, E., sterility of Sphingidae under certain conditions.

NEWPORT, G., non-copulation of Vanessae in confinement.
-fertilisation of the ovule in batrachia.

NEWT, polydactylism in the.

NEWTON, A., absence of sexual distinctions in the Columbidae.
-production of a "black-shouldered" peahen among the ordinary kind.
-on hybrid ducks.

NGAMI, Lake, cattle of.

"NIATA" cattle.
-resemblance of, to Sivatherium.
-prepotency of transmission of character by.

"NICARD" rabbit.

NICHOLSON, Dr., on the cats of Antigua.
-on the sheep of Antigua.

Nicotiana, crossing of varieties and species of.
-prepotency of transmission of characters in species of.
-contabescence of female organs in.

Nicotiana glutinosa.

NIEBUHR, on the heredity of mental characteristics in some Roman families.

NIGHT-BLINDNESS, non-reversion to.

NILSSON, Prof., on the barking of a young wolf.
-parentage of European breeds of cattle.
-on Bos frontosus in Scania.

NIND, Mr., on the dingo.

"NISUS formativus."

NITZSCH, on the absence of the oil-gland in certain Columbae.


"NONNAIN" pigeon.

NORDMANN, dogs of Awhasie.

NORMANDY, pigs of, with appendages under the jaw.

NORWAY, striped ponies of.

NOTT and Gliddon, on the origin of the dog.
-mastiff represented on an Assyrian tomb.
-on Egyptian dogs.
-on the Hare Indian dog.


NOURISHMENT, excess of, a cause of variability.

NUMBER, importance of, in selection.

Numida ptilorhyncha, the original of the Guinea-fowl.

NUN pigeon.
-known to Aldrovandi.


OAK, weeping.
-valueless as timber at the Cape of Good Hope.
-changes in, dependent on age.
-galls of the.

OATS, wild.
-in the Swiss lake-dwellings.

OBERLIN, change of soil beneficial to the potato.

ODART, Count, varieties of the vine.
-bud-variation in the vine.


Oenothera biennis, bud-variation in.

OGLE, Dr. J.W., inherited deficient phalanges.
-resemblance of twins.

OIL-GLAND, absence of, in fantail pigeons.

OLDFIELD, Mr., estimation of European dogs among the natives of Australia.

OLEANDER, stock affected by grafting in the.

OLLIER, Dr., insertion of the periosteum of a dog beneath the skin of a

Oncidium, reproduction of.

ONIONS, crossing of.
-white, liable to the attacks of fungi and disease.

Ophrys apifera, self-fertilisation of.
-formation of pollen by a petal in.

Opuntia leucotricha.

-crossing of.
-with the lemon.
-naturalisation of, in Italy.
-variation of, in North Italy.
-peculiar variety of.

ORCHIDS, reproduction of.

ORFORD, Lord, crossing greyhounds with the bulldog.

ORGANISMS, origin of.

ORGANISATION, advancement in.

ORGANS, rudimentary and aborted.
-multiplication of abnormal.

ORIOLE, assumptions of hen-plumage by a male in confinement.

ORKNEY Islands, pigs of.
-pigeons of.

ORTHOPTERA, regeneration of hind legs in the.

Orthosia munda.

ORTON, R., on the effects of cross-breeding on the female.
-on the Manx cat.
-on mongrels from the silk fowl.
-infertility of geese in Quito.

OSBORNE, Dr., inherited mottling of the iris.

OSPREY, preying on black fowls.

OSTEN-SACKEN, Baron, on American oak-galls.

OSTEOLOGICAL characters of pigs.
-of rabbits.
-of pigeons.
-of ducks.

OSTRICH, diminished fertility of the, in captivity.

OSTYAKS, selection of dogs by the.


"OTTER" sheep of Massachusetts.

OUDE, feral humped cattle in.

OUISTITI, breed in Europe.

OVARY, variation of, in Cucurbita moschata.
-development of, independently of pollen.

Ovis montana.

OVULES and buds, identity of nature of.

OWEN, Capt., on stiff-haired cats at Mombas.

OWEN, Prof. R., palaeontological evidence as to the origin of dogs.
-on the skull of the "Niata" cattle.
-on fossil remains of rabbits.
-on the significance of the brain.
-on metagenesis.
-theory of reproduction and parthenogenesis.

OWL, eagle, breeding in captivity.

OWL pigeon.
-African, figured.
-known in 1735.

Oxalis, trimorphic species of.

Oxalis rosea.

OXLEY, Mr., on the nutmeg-tree.

OYSTERS, differences in the shells of.

PACA, sterility of the, in confinement.

PACIFIC Islands, pigs of the.

PADUA, earliest known flower-garden at.

PADUAN fowl of Aldrovandi.

Paeonia moutan.

PAEONY-TREE, ancient cultivation of, in China.

PAGET, on the Hungarian sheep-dog.

PAGET, Sir J., inheritance of cancer.
-hereditary elongation of hairs in the eyebrow.
-regrowth of extra digits.
-period of inheritance of cancer.
-on Hydra.
-on the healing of wounds.
-on the reparation of bones.
-growth of hair near inflamed surfaces or fractures.
-on false membranes.
-compensatory development of the kidney.
-bronzed skin in disease of supra-renal capsules.
-unity of growth and gemmation.
-independence of the elements of the body.
-affinity of the tissues for special organic substances.

PALLAS, on the influence of domestication upon the sterility of intercrossed
-hypothesis that variability is wholly due to crossing.
-on the origin of the dog.
-variation in dogs.
-crossing of dog and jackal.
-origin of domestic cats.
-origin of Angora cat.
-on wild horses.
-on Persian sheep.
-on Siberian fat-tailed sheep.
-on Chinese sheep.
-on Crimean varieties of the vine.
-on a grape with rudimentary seeds.
-on feral musk-ducks.
-sterility of Alpine plants in gardens.
-selection of white-tailed yaks.

PAMPAS, feral cattle on the.


PANGENESIS, hypothesis of.

Panicum, seeds of, used as food.
-found in the Swiss lake-dwellings.


PAPPUS, abortion of the, in Carthamus.

Paradoxurus, sterility of species of, in captivity.

PARAGUAY, cats of.
-cattle of.
-horses of.
-dogs of.
-black-skinned domestic fowl of.

PARALLEL variation.

PARAMOS, woolly pigs of.

PARASITES, liability to attacks of, dependent on colour.

PARIAH dog, with crooked legs.
-resembling the Indian wolf.

PARISET, inheritance of handwriting.

Paritium tricuspis, bud-variation.

PARKER, W.K., number of vertebrae in fowls.

PARKINSON, Mr., varieties of the hyacinth.

PARKYNS, MANSFIELD, on Columba guinea.

PARMENTIER, differences in the nidification of pigeons.
-on white pigeons.

PARROTS, general sterility of, in confinement.
-alteration of plumage of.

PARSNIP, reversion in.
-influence of selection on.
-experiments on.
-wild, enlargement of roots of, by cultivation.


PARTRIDGE, sterility of, in captivity.

PARTURITION, difficult, hereditary.

Parus major.

Passiflora, self-impotence in species of.
-contabescence of female organs in.

Passiflora alata, fertility of, when grafted.

PASTRANA, Julia, peculiarities in the hair and teeth of.

PASTURE and climate, adaptation of breeds of sheep to.

PATAGONIA, crania of pigs from.


PATERSON, R., on the Arrindy silk-moth.

PAUL, W., on the hyacinth.
-varieties of pelargoniums.
-weakness of transmission in hollyhocks.
-improvement of pelargoniums.

Pavo cristatus and muticus, hybrids of.

Pavo nigripennis.


-derived from the almond.
-stones of, figured.
-contrasted with almonds.
-hybrids of.
-persistency of races of.
-trees producing nectarines.
-variation in.
-bud-variation in.
-variation by selection in.
-peculiar disease of the.
-glands on the leaves of the.
-antiquity of the.
-increased hardiness of the.
-varieties of, adapted for forcing.
-liable to certain diseases.


PEAFOWL, origin of.
-japanned or black-shouldered.
-feral, in Jamaica.
-comparative fertility of, in wild and tame states.

-bud-variation in.
-reversion in seedling.
-inferiority of, in Pliny's time.
-winter nelis, attacked by aphides.
-soft-barked varieties of, attacked by wood-boring beetles.
-origination of good varieties of, in woods.
-Forelle, resistance of, to frost.

-origin of.
-varieties of.
-found in Swiss lake-dwellings.
-fruit and seeds figured.
-persistency of varieties.
-intercrossing of varieties.
-effect of crossing on the female organs in.
-maturity of, accelerated by selection.
-varieties of, produced by selection.
-thin-shelled, liable to the attacks of birds.
-reversion of, by the terminal seed in the pod.

PECCARY, breeding of the, in captivity.

PEDIGREES of horses, cattle, greyhounds, game-cocks, and pigs.

PEGU, cats of.
-horses of.

PELARGONIUMS, multiple origin of.
-zones of.
-bud-variation in.
-variegation in, accompanied by dwarfing.
-pelorism in.
-by reversion.
-advantage of change of soil to.
-improvement of, by selection.
-scorching of.
-numbers of, raised from seed.
-effects of conditions of life on.
-stove-variety of.
-correlation of contracted leaves and flowers in.

Pelargonium fulgidum, conditions of fertility in.

"PELONES," a Columbian breed of cattle.

PELORIC flowers, tendency of, to acquire the normal form.
-fertility or sterility of.

PELORIC races of Gloxinia speciosa and Antirrhinum majus.


PELVIS, characters of, in rabbits.
-in pigeons.
-in fowls.
-in ducks.

PEMBROKE cattle.

-uncertainty of transmission of.

PENGUIN ducks.
-hybrid of the, with the Egyptian goose.

PENNANT, production of wolf-like curs at Fochabers.
-on the Duke of Queensberry's wild cattle.

Pennisetum, seeds of, used as food in the Punjab.

Pennisetum distichum, seeds of, used as food in Central Africa.

PERCIVAL, Mr., on inheritance in horses.
-on horn-like processes in horses.

Perdix rubra, occasional fertility of, in captivity.

PERIOD of action of causes of variability.

PERIOSTEUM of a dog, producing bone in a rabbit.

PERIWINKLE, sterility of, in England.

PERSIA, estimation of pigeons in.
-carrier pigeon of.
-tumbler pigeon of
-cats of.
-sheep of.

PERSISTENCE of colour in horses.
-of generic peculiarities.

PERU, antiquity of maize in.
-peculiar potato from.
-selection of wild animals practised by the Incas of.


PETALS, rudimentary, in cultivated plants.
-producing pollen.

PETUNIAS, multiple origin of.

PEYRITSCH, Dr., vegetable teratology.


Phalaenopsis, pelorism in.

PHALANGES, deficiency of.

Phaps chalcoptera.

Phaseolus multiflorus.

Phaseolus vulgaris.

Phasianus pictus.

Phasianus amherstiae.

PHEASANT, assumption of male plumage by the hen.
-wildness of hybrids of, with the common fowl.
-prepotency of the, over the fowl.
-diminished fecundity of the, in captivity.

PHEASANTS, golden and Lady Amherst's.


PHILIPEAUX, regeneration of limbs in the salamander.

PHILIPPAR, on the varieties of wheat.

PHILIPPINE Islands, named breeds of game fowl in the.

PHILLIPS, Mr., on bud-variation in the potato.

Phlox, bud-variation by suckers in.

PHTHISIS, affection of the fingers in.


PICKERING, Dr., on the grunting voice of humped cattle.
-occurrence of the head of a fowl in an ancient Egyptian procession.
-seeding of ordinarily seedless fruits.
-extinction of ancient Egyptian breeds of sheep and oxen.
-on an ancient Peruvian gourd.

PICOTEES, effect of conditions of life on.

PICTET, A., oriental names of the pigeon.

PICTET, Prof., origin of the dog.
-on fossil oxen.

PIEBALDS, probably due to reversion.

PIETREMENT, M., on the ribs of horses.

PIGEAUX, hybrids of the hare and rabbit.

PIGEON a cravate.

PIGEON bagadais.

PIGEON coquille.

PIGEON cygne.

PIGEON heurte.

PIGEON pattu plongeur.

PIGEON polonais.

PIGEON romain.

PIGEON tambour.

PIGEON turc.

PIGEONS, origin of.
-classified table of breeds of.
-turbit and owl.
-Indian frill-back.
-other breeds of.
-differences of, equal to generic.
-individual variations of.
-variability of peculiarities characteristic of breeds in.
-sexual variability in.
-osteology of.
-correlation of growth in.
-young of some varieties naked when hatched.
-effects of disuse in.
-settling and roosting in trees.
-floating in the Nile to drink.
-arguments for unity of origin of.
-feral, in various places.
-unity of coloration in.
-reversion of mongrel, to coloration of C. livia.
-history of the cultivation of.
-history of the principal races of.
-mode of production of races of.
-reversion in.
-by age.
-produced by crossing in.
-prepotency of transmission of characters in breeds of.
-sexual differences in some varieties of.
-period of perfect plumage in.
-effect of segregation on.
-preferent pairing of, within the same breed.
-fertility of, increased by domestication.
-effects of interbreeding and necessity of crossing.
-indifference of, to change of climate.
-selection of.
-among the Romans.
-unconscious selection of.
-facility of selection of.
-white, liable to the attacks of hawks.
-effects of disuse of parts in.
-fed upon meat.
-effect of first male upon the subsequent progeny of the female.
-homology of the leg and wing feathers in.
-union of two outer toes in feather-legged.
-correlation of beak, limbs, tongue, and nostrils.
-analogous variation in.
-permanence of breeds of.

PIGS, of Swiss lake-dwellings.
-types of, derived from Sus scrofa and Sus indicus.
-Japanese (Sus pliciceps, Gray), figured.
-of Pacific Islands.
-modifications of skull in.
-length of intestines in.
-period of gestation of.
-number of vertebrae and ribs in.
-anomalous forms.
-development of tusks and bristles in.
-striped young of.
-reversion of feral, to wild type.
-production and changes of breeds of, by intercrossing.
-effects produced by the first male upon the subsequent progeny of the
-pedigrees of.
-polydactylism in.
-cross-reversion in.
-hybrid, wildness of.
-disappearance of tusks in male under domestication.
-crosses of.
-mutual fertility of all varieties of.
-increased fertility by domestication.
-ill effects of close interbreeding in.
-influence of selection on.
-prejudice against certain colours in.
-unconscious selection of.
-black Virginian.
-similarity of the best breeds of.
-change of form in.
-effects of disuse of parts in.
-ears of.
-correlations in.
-white buck-wheat injurious to.
-tail of, grafted upon the back.
-extinction of the older races of.



PINE-APPLE, sterility and variability of the.

PINK, Chinese.

PINKS, bud-variation in.
-improvement of.

Pinus pumilio, mughus, and nana, varieties of P. sylvestris.

Pinus sylvestris.
-hybrids of, with P. nigricans.

PIORRY, on hereditary disease.

Pistacia lentiscus.

Pistacia vera.

PISTILS, rudimentary, in cultivated plants.

Pistor, sterility of some mongrel pigeons.
-fertility of pigeons.

Pisum arvense and sativum.

PITYRIASIS versicolor, inheritance of.

PLANCHON, G., on a fossil vine.
-sterility of Jussiaea grandiflora in France.

PLANE-TREE, variety of the.

PLANTIGRADE carnivora, general sterility of the, in captivity.

PLANTS, progress of cultivation of.
-cultivated, their geographical derivation.
-crossing of.
-comparative fertility of wild and cultivated.
-dimorphic and trimorphic.
-sterility of, from changed conditions.
-from contabescence of anthers.
-from monstrosities.
-from doubling of the flowers.
-from seedless fruit.
-from excessive development of vegetative organs.
-influence of selection on.
-variation by selection, in useful parts of.
-variability of.
-variability of, induced by crossing.
-direct action of change of climate on.
-change of period of vegetation in.
-varieties of, suitable to different climates.
-correlated variability of.
-antiquity of races of.

PLASTICITY, inheritance of.

PLATEAU, F., on the vision of amphibious animals.

Platessa flesus.

PLATO, notice of selection in breeding dogs by.

PLICA polonica.

PLINY, on the crossing of shepherd dogs with the wolf.
-on Pyrrhus' breed of cattle.
-on the estimation of pigeons among the Romans.
-pears described by.

-stones figured.
-varieties of the.
-bud-variation in the.
-peculiar disease of the.
-flower-buds of, destroyed by bullfinches.
-purple-fruited, liable to certain diseases.

PLUMAGE, inherited peculiarities of, in pigeons.
-sexual peculiarities of, in fowls.

PLURALITY of races, Pouchet's views on.

Poa, seeds of, used as food.
-species of, propagated by bulblets.

PODOLIAN cattle.

POINTERS, modification of.
-crossed with the foxhound.

POIS sans parchemin.

POITEAU, origin of Cytisus adami.
-origin of cultivated varieties of fruit-trees.

POLISH fowl.
-skull figured.
-section of skull figured.
-development of protuberance of skull.
-furculum figured.

POLISH, or Himalayan rabbit.

-action of.
-injurious action of, in some orchids.
-resistance of, to injurious treatment.
-prepotency of.

POLLOCK, Sir F., transmission of variegated leaves in Ballota nigra.
-on local tendency to variegation.


POLYDACTYLISM, inheritance of.
-significance of.

PONIES, most frequent on islands and mountains.

POOLE, Col., on striped Indian horses.
-on the young of Asinus indicus.

POPLAR, Lombardy.

POPPIG, on Cuban wild dogs.

POPPY, found in the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-with the stamens converted into pistils.
-differences of the, in different parts of India.
-monstrous, fertility of.
-black-seeded, antiquity of.

PORCUPINE, breeding of, in captivity.


Porphyrio, breeding of a species of, in captivity.

PORTAL, on a peculiar hereditary affection of the eye.

PORTO Santo, feral rabbits of.

Portulaca oleracea.

Potamochoerus penicillatus.

-bud-variation by tubers in the.
-graft-hybrid of, by union of half-tubers.
-individual self-impotence in the.
-sterility of.
-advantage of change of soil to the.

POTATO, sweet, sterility of the, in China.
-varieties of the, suited to different climates.

POUCHET, M., his views on plurality of races.

POUTER pigeons.
-furculum figured.
-history of.

POWIS, Lord, experiments in crossing humped and English cattle.

POYNTER, Mr., on a graft-hybrid rose.


PRECOCITY of highly-improved breeds.

PREPOTENCY of pollen.

PREPOTENCY of transmission of character.
-in the Austrian emperors and some Roman families.
-in cattle.
-in sheep.
-in cats.
-in pigeons.
-in fowls.
-in plants.
-in a variety of the pumpkin.
-in the jackal over the dog.
-in the ass over the horse.
-in the pheasant over the fowl.
-in the penguin duck over the Egyptian goose.
-discussion of the phenomena of.

PRESCOTT, Mr., on the earliest known European flower-garden.

PRESSURE, mechanical, a cause of modification.

PREVOST and Dumas, on the employment of several spermatozoids to fertilise one

PREYER, Prof., on the effect of circumcision.

PRICE, Mr., variations in the structure of the feet in horses.

PRICHARD, Dr., on polydactylism in the negro.
-on the Lambert family.
-on an albino negro.
-on Plica polonica.

-double, rendered single by transplantation.

Primula, intercrossing of species of.
-contabescence in.
-'hose in hose.'
-with coloured calyces, sterility of.

Primula sinensis, variations.
-reciprocally dimorphic.

Primula veris.

Primula vulgaris.

PRINCE, Mr., on the intercrossing of strawberries.

PRINGSHEIM, on conjugation.

Procyon, sterility of, in captivity.

PROLIFICNESS, increased by domestication.

PROTOZOA, reproduction of the.

Prunus armeniaca.

Prunus avium.

Prunus cerasus.

Prunus domestica.

Prunus insititia.

Prunus spinosa.

PRUSSIA, wild horses in.

Psittacus erithacus.

Psittacus macoa.

Psophia, general sterility of, in captivity.


Pulex penetrans.


PUNO ponies of the Cordillera.

PUSEY, Mr., value of crossbred sheep.
-preference of hares and rabbits for common rye.

PUTSCHE and Vertuch, varieties of the potato.

PUVIS, effects of foreign pollen on apples.
-supposed non-variability of monotypic genera.

Pyrrhula vulgaris.
-assumption of the hen-plumage by the male, in confinement.

PYRRHUS, his breed of cattle.

Pyrus, fastigiate Chinese species of.

Pyrus acerba.

Pyrus aucuparia.

Pyrus communis.

Pyrus malus.

Pyrus paradisiaca.

Pyrus praecox.

QUAGGA, previous impregnation by.

QUATREFAGES, A. DE, on the burrowing of a bitch to litter.
-selection in the silkworm.
-development of the wings in the silk-moth.
-on varieties of the mulberry.
-special raising of eggs of the silk-moth.
-on disease of the silkworm.
-on monstrosities in insects.
-on a change in the breeding season of the Egyptian goose.
-fertilisation of the Teredo.
-tendency to similarity in the best races.
-on his "tourbillon vital."
-on the independent existence of the sexual elements.

Quercus cerris.

Quercus robur and pedunculata, hybrids of.

QUINCE, pears grafted on the.

RABBITS, domestic, their origin.
-of Mount Sinai and Algeria.
-breeds of.
-Himalayan, Chinese, Polish, or Russian.
-of Jamaica.
-of the Falkland Islands.
-of Porto Santo.
-osteological characters of.
-discussion of modifications in.
-one-eared, transmission of peculiarity of.
-reversion in feral.
-in the Himalayan.
-crossing of white and coloured Angora.
-comparative fertility of wild and tame.
-falsified experiments in interbreeding of.
-high-bred, often bad breeders.
-selection of.
-white, liable to destruction.
-effects of disuse of parts in.
-skull of, affected by drooping ears.
-length of intestines in.
-correlation of ears and skull in.
-variations in skull of.
-periosteum of a dog producing bone in.

RACEHORSE, origin of.

RACES, modification and formation of, by crossing.
-natural and artificial.
-Pouchet's views on plurality of.
-of pigeons.

RADCLYFFE, W.F., effect of climate and soil on strawberries.
-constitutional differences in roses.

-crossing of.
-varieties of.

RADLKOFER, retrogressive metamorphosis in mosses and algae.

RAFARIN, M., bud-variation and reversion.

RAFFLES, Sir STAMFORD, on the crossing of Javanese cattle with Bos sondaicus.

RAM, goat-like, from the Cape of Good Hope.

RAMU, M., on appendages to throat of goat.

RANCHIN, heredity of diseases.

RANGE of gallinaceous birds on the Himalaya.

RANKE, on the effects of use and disuse of organs.

Ranunculus ficaria.

Ranunculus repens.


Raphanus caudatus.

Raphanus raphanistrum.

Raphanus sativus.

RASPBERRY, yellow-fruited.

RATTLESNAKE, experiments with poison of the.

RAVEN, stomach of, affected by vegetable diet.

RAWSON, A., self-impotence in hybrids of Gladiolus.

RE, COMTE, on the assumption of a yellow colour by all varieties of maize.

REAUMUR, effect of confinement upon the cock.
-fertility of fowls in most climates.

REED, Mr., atrophy of the limbs of rabbits, consequent on the destruction of
their nerves.

REGENERATION of amputated parts in man.
-in the human embryo.
-in the lower vertebrata, insects, and myriapoda.

REGROWTH of amputated joints.

REGNIER, early cultivation of the cabbage by the Celts.
-selection practised by the Celts.

REINDEER, individuals recognised by the Laplanders.

REISSEK, experiments in crossing Cytisus purpureus and laburnum.
-modification of a Thesium by Oecidium.

RELATIONS, characters of reproduced in children.

RENGGER, occurrence of jaguars with crooked legs in Paraguay.
-naked dogs of Paraguay.
-feral dogs of La Plata.
-on the aguara.
-cats of Paraguay.
-dogs of Paraguay.
-feral pigs of Buenos Ayres.
-on the refusal of wild animals to breed in captivity.
-on Dicotyles labiatus.
-sterility of plantigrade carnivora in captivity.
-on Cavia aperea.
-sterility of Cebus azarae in captivity.
-abortions produced by wild animals in captivity.

REPRODUCTION, sexual and asexual, contrasted.
-unity of forms of.
-antagonism of, to growth.

Reseda odorata, self-sterility of.

RETINITIS, pigmentary, in deaf-mutes.

REUTER, Herr, potato-grafting.

-in pigeons.
-in cattle.
-in sheep.
-in fowls.
-in the heartsease.
-in vegetables.
-in feral animals and plants.
-to characters derived from a previous cross in man, dogs, pigeons,
pigs, and fowls.
-in hybrids.
-by bud-propagation in plants.
-by age in fowls, cattle, etc.
-partial, from an injury.
-caused by crossing.
-explained by latent characters.
-producing monstrosities.
-producing peloric flowers.
-of feral pigs to the wild type.
-of supposed feral rabbits to the wild type.
-of pigeons, in coloration, when crossed.
-in fowls.
-in the silkworm.
-in the pansy.
-in a pelargonium.
-in Chrysanthemums.
-of varieties of the China rose in St. Domingo.
-by buds in pinks and carnations.
-of laciniated varieties of trees to the normal form.
-in variegated leaves of plants.
-in tulips.
-of suckers of the seedless barberry to the common form.
-by buds in hybrids of Tropaeolum.
-in plants.
-of crossed peloric snapdragons.
-analogous variations due to.

RHINOCEROS, breeding in captivity in India.

Rhododendron, hybrid.

Rhododendron ciliatum.

Rhododendron dalhousiae, effect of pollen of R. nuttallii upon.

Ribes grossularia.

Ribes rubrum.

RIBS, number and characters of, in fowls.
-characters of, in ducks.

RICE, imperial, of China.
-Indian varieties of.
-variety of, not requiring water.

RICHARDSON, H.D., on jaw-appendages in Irish pigs.
-management of pigs in China.
-occurrence of striped young in Westphalian pigs.
-on crossing pigs.
-on interbreeding pigs.
-on selection in pigs.

RICHARDSON, Sir John, observations on the resemblance between North American
dogs and wolves.
-on the burrowing of wolves.
-on the broad feet of dogs, wolves, and foxes in North America.
-on North American horses scraping away the snow.

Ricinus, annual in England.

RIEDEL, Dr., on the "Bagadotte" pigeon.
-on the Jacobin pigeon.
-fertility of hybrid pigeons.

RILEY, on Phylloxera.


RINTOUL, Mr., potato-grafting.

RISSO, on varieties of the orange.

RIVERS, Lord, on the selection of greyhounds.

RIVERS, Mr., persistency of characters in seedling potatoes.
-on the peach.
-persistency of races in the peach and nectarine.
-connection between the peach and the nectarine.
-persistency of character in seedling apricots.
-origin of the plum.
-seedling varieties of the plum.
-persistency of character in seedling plums.
-bud-variation in the plum.
-plum attacked by bullfinches.
-seedling apples with surface-roots.
-variety of the apple found in a wood.
-on roses.
-bud-variation in roses.
-production of Provence roses from seeds of the moss-rose.
-effect produced by grafting on the stock in jessamine.
-in the ash.
-on grafted hazels.
-hybridisation of a weeping thorn.
-experiments with the seed of the weeping elm and ash.
-variety of the cherry with curled petals.

RIVIERE, reproduction of Oncidium cavendishianum.

ROBERTS, Mr., on inheritance in the horse.

ROBERTSON, Mr., on glandular-leaved peaches.

ROBINET, on the silkworm.


ROBSON, Mr., deficiencies of half-bred horses.

ROBSON, Mr., on the advantage of change of soil to plants.
-on the growth of the verbena.
-on broccoli.

ROCK pigeon, measurements of the.

RODENTS, sterility of, in captivity.


RODWELL, J., poisoning of horses by mildewed tares.

ROHILCUND, feral humped cattle in.

ROLLE, F., on the history of the peach.


ROLLESTON, Prof., inherited effects of injuries.
-incisor teeth affected in form in cases of pulmonary tubercle.

ROMANES on sternum of the fowl.
-rudimentary organs.

ROMANS, estimation of pigeons by.
-breeds of fowls possessed by.

ROOKS, pied.

Rosa, cultivated species of.

Rosa devoniensis, graft-hybrid produced by, on the white Banksian rose.

Rosa indica and centifolia, fertile hybrids of.

Rosa spinosissima, history of the culture of.

ROSELLINI, on Egyptian dogs.

-origin of.
-bud-variation in.
-doubled by selection.
-continuous variation of.
-effect of seasonal conditions on.
-galls of.

ROSS, Dr., on Pangenesis.

ROUENNAIS, rabbit.

ROUJOU, polydactylism, and arrested development.

ROULIN, on the dogs of Juan Fernandez.
-on South American cats.
-striped young pigs.
-feral pigs in South America.
-on Columbian cattle.
-effects of heat on the hides of cattle in South America.
-fleece of sheep in the hot valleys of the Cordilleras.
-diminished fertility of these sheep.
-on black-boned South American fowls.
-variation of the guinea-fowl in tropical America.
-frequency of striped legs in mules.
-geese in Bogota.
-sterility of fowls introduced into Bolivia.

ROY, M., on a variety of Magnolia grandiflora.

ROYLE, Dr., Indian varieties of the mulberry.
-on Agave vivipara.
-variety of rice not requiring irrigation.
-sheep from the Cape in India.

Rubus, pollen of.


RUFZ DE LAVISON, extinction of breeds of dogs in France.

RUMINANTS, general fertility of, in captivity.


-history of.
-lower jaws and skull figured.

RUSSELL, Lord A., spiegelcarpe.

RUSSIAN or Himalayan rabbit.

RUTIMEYER, Prof., dogs of the Neolithic period.
-horses of Swiss lake-dwellings.
-diversity of early domesticated horses.
-pigs of the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-on humped cattle.
-parentage of European breeds of cattle.
-on "Niata" cattle.
-sheep of the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-goats of the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-absence of fowls in the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-on crossing cattle.
-differences in the bones of wild and domesticated animals.
-decrease in size of wild European animals.

RYE, wild, De Candolle's observations on.
-found in the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-common, preferred by hares and rabbits.
-less variable than other cultivated plants.

SABINE, Mr., on the cultivation of Rosa spinosissima.
-on the cultivation of the dahlia.
-effect of foreign pollen on the seed-vessel in Amaryllis vittata.

ST. ANGE, influence of the pelvis on the shape of the kidneys in birds.

ST. DOMINGO, wild dogs of.
-bud-variation of dahlias in.

ST. HILAIRE, AUG., milk furnished by cows in South America.
-husked form of maize.

ST. JOHN, C., feral cats in Scotland.
-taming of wild ducks.

ST. VALERY apple, singular structure of the.
-artificial fecundation of the.

ST. VITUS' Dance, period of appearance of.

SACHS, Prof., flow of sap.

SAGERET, origin and varieties of the cherry.
-origin of varieties of the apple.
-incapacity of the cucumber for crossing with other species.
-varieties of the melon.
-supposed twin-mongrel melon.
-crossing melons.
-on gourds.
-effects of selection in enlarging fruit.
-on the tendency to depart from type.
-variation of plants in particular soils.

SALAMANDER, experiments on the.
-regeneration of lost parts in the.

Salamandra cristata, polydactylism in.

SALISBURY, Mr., on the production of nectarines by peach-trees.
-on the dahlia.

Salix, intercrossing of species of.

Salix humilis, galls of.

SALLE, feral guinea-fowl in St. Domingo.

SALMON, early breeding of male.

SALTER, Mr., on bud-variation in pelargoniums.
-in the Chrysanthemum.
-transmission of variegated leaves by seed.
-bud-variation by suckers in Phlox.
-application of selection to bud-varieties of plants.
-accumulative effect of changed conditions of life.
-on the variegation of strawberry leaves.
-on pollen within ovules.

SALTER, S.J., hybrids of Gallus sonneratii and the common fowl.
-crossing of races or species of rats.

SALVIN, habits of the jackal.
-mutilation inherited in mot-mot.

SAMESREUTHER, on inheritance in cattle.


SANSON, M., origin of the horse.
-lumbar vertebra of pigs.

SAP, ascent of the.

Saponaria calabrica.

SAPORTA, on Pistacia.

SARDINIA, ponies of.

SARS, on the development of the hydroida.

SATIATION of the stigma.

Saturnia pyri, sterility of, in confinement.

SAUL, on the management of prize gooseberries.

SAUVIGNY, varieties of the gold-fish.

SAVAGES, their indiscriminate use of plants as food.
-fondness of, for taming animals.

SAVI, effect of foreign pollen on maize.

Saxifraga geum.

SAYZID MOHAMMED MUSARI, on carrier-pigeons.
-on a pigeon which utters the sound "Yahu."

SCANDEROONS (pigeons).

SCANIA, remains of Bos frontosus found in.

SCAPULA, characters of, in rabbits.
-in fowls.
-in pigeons.
-alteration of, by disuse, in pigeons.

SCARLET fever.

SCHAAFFHAUSEN on the horses represented in Greek statues.

SCHLEIDEN, excess of nourishment a cause of variability.

SCHMERLING, Dr., varieties of the dog found in a cave.

SCHOMBURGK, Sir R., on the dogs of Indians of Guiana.
-on the musk duck.
-bud-variation in the banana.
-reversion of varieties of the China rose in St. Domingo.
-sterility of tame parrots in Guiana.
-on Dendrocygna viduata.
-selection of fowls in Guiana.

SCHREIBERS, on Proteus.

SCHUTZE on the Torfschwein.

Sciuropterus volucella.

Sciurus palmarum and cinerea.

SCLATER, P.L., on Asinus taeniopus.
-on Asinus indicus.
-striped character of young wild pigs.
-osteology of Gallinula nesiotis.
-on the black-shouldered peacock.
-animals breeding in Zoological Gardens.
-birds breeding in Zoological Gardens.
-on the breeding of birds in captivity.

SCOTCH fir, local variation of.

SCOTCH kail and cabbage, cross between.

SCOTT, JOHN, irregularities in the sex of the flowers of maize.
-bud-variation in Imatophylium miniatum.
-crossing of species of Verbascum.
-self-sterility of Verbascum.
-experiments on crossing Primulae.
-reproduction of orchids.
-fertility of Oncidium divaricatum.
-acclimatisation of the sweet pea in India.
-number of seeds in Acropera and Gongora.

SCROPE, on the Scotch deerhound.

SCUDDER, Dr., on regrowth.

SEBRIGHT, Sir John, effects of close interbreeding in dogs.
-care taken by, in selection of fowls.

Secale cereale.

SEDGWICK, W., effects of crossing on the female.
-on the "Porcupine man."
-on hereditary diseases.
-hereditary affections of the eye.
-inheritance of polydactylism and anomalies of the extremities.
-morbid uniformity in the same family.
-on deaf-mutes.
-inheritance of injury to the eye.
-atavism in diseases and anomalies of structure.
-non-reversion to night-blindness.
-sexual limitation of the transmission of peculiarities in man.
-on the effects of hard-drinking.
-inherited baldness with deficiency of teeth.
-occurrence of a molar tooth in place of an incisor.
-diseases occurring in alternate generations.

SEDILLOT, on the removal of portions of bone.

SEEDS, early selection of.
-rudimentary, in grapes.
-relative position of, in the capsule.

SEEDS and buds, close analogies of.

SEEMANN, B., crossing of the wolf and Esquimaux dogs.

SEGREGATION of characters.

SELBY, P.J., on the bud-destroying habits of the bullfinch.

-by the ancients and semi-civilised people.
-of trifling characters.
-effects of, shown by differences in most valued parts.
-produced by accumulation of variability.
-natural, as affecting domestic productions.
-as the origin of species, genera, and other groups.
-circumstances favourable to.
-tendency of, towards extremes.
-possible limit of.
-influence of time on.
-summary of subject.
-effects of, in modifying breeds of cattle.
-in preserving the purity of breeds of sheep.
-in producing varieties of pigeons.
-in breeding fowls.
-in the goose.
-in the canary.
-in the gold-fish.
-in the silkworm.
-contrasted in cabbages and cereals.
-in white mulberry.
-on gooseberries.
-applied to wheat.
-exemplified in carrots, etc.
-in potato.
-in the melon.
-in flowering plants.
-in the hyacinth.
-applied to bud-varieties of plants.
-illustrations of.

SELECTION, sexual.

-in individual plants.
-of hybrids.

SELWYN, Mr., on the Dingo.

SELYS-LONGCHAMPS, on hybrid ducks.
-hybrid of the hook-billed duck and Egyptian goose.

SERINGE, on the St. Valery apple.

SERPENT melon.

SERRES, OLIVIER DE, wild poultry in Guiana.

SESAMUM, white-seeded, antiquity of the.

Setaria, found in the Swiss lake-dwellings.

SETTEGAST, sheep poisoned by buckwheat.

SETTERS, degeneration of, in India.
-Youatt's remarks on.

SEX, secondary characters of, latent.
-of parents, influence of, on hybrids.

SEXUAL characters, sometimes lost in domestication.

SEXUAL limitation of characters.

SEXUAL peculiarities, induced by domestication in sheep.
-in fowls.
-transfer of.

SEXUAL variability in pigeons.

SEXUAL selection.


SHAILER, Mr., on the moss-rose.

SHAN ponies, striped.


SHANGHAI sheep, their fecundity.

SHEEP, disputed origin of.
-early domestication of.
-variations in horns, mammae, and other characters of.
-sexual characters of, induced by domestication.
-adaptation of, to climate and pasture.
-periods of gestation of.
-effect of heat on the fleece of.
-effect of selection on.
-"ancon" or "otter" breeds of.
-cross of German and merino.
-black, of the Tarentino.
-Jaffna, with callosities on the knees.
-Danish, of the Bronze period.
-polydactylism in.
-occasional production of horns in hornless breeds of.
-reversion of colour in.
-influence of male, on offspring.
-sexual differences in.
-influence of crossing or segregation on.
-interbreeding of.
-effect of nourishment on the fertility of.
-value of, crossbred.
-diminished fertility of, under certain conditions.
-unconscious selection of.
-natural selection in breeds of.
-reduction of bones in.
-individual differences of.
-local changes in the fleece of, in England.
-partial degeneration of, in Australia.
-correlation of horns and fleece in.
-feeding on flesh.
-acclimatisation of.
-mountain, resistance of, to severe weather.
-white, poisoned by Hypericum crispum.

SHEEP dogs, resembling wolves.
-mutilated tail inherited.

SHELLS, sinistral and dextral.

SHIRLEY, E.P., on the fallow-deer.

SHIRREFF Mr., new varieties of wheat.
-on crossing wheat.
-variability of wheat.
-continuous variation of wheat.

SHORT, D., hybrids of the domestic cat and Felis ornata.

SIAM, cats of.
-horses of.

SIBERIA, northern range of wild horses in.

SICHEL, J., on the deafness of white cats with blue eyes.

SIDNEY, S., on the pedigrees of pigs.
-on cross-reversion in pigs.
-period of gestation in the pig.
-production of breeds of pigs by intercrossing.
-fertility of the pig.
-effects of interbreeding on pigs.
-on the colours of pigs.

SIEBOLD, on the sweet potato.

SIEBOLD, CARL VON, on parthenogenesis.

Silene, contabescence in.


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