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The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication by Charles Darwin

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FLOWERS, capricious transmission of colour-varieties in.
-tendency to uniformity in striped.
-scorching of, dependent on colour.
-change in, caused by conditions of life.
-relative position of, to the axis.

FOETATION, abdominal.

FOLEY, Mr., wild varieties of pears.

FOLIAGE, inherited peculiarities of.
-variegation of.
-bud-variation in.

FOOD, influence of, on the pig.
-on cattle.
-excess of, a cause of variability.

FORBES, D., on Chilian sheep.
-on the horses of Spain, Chili, and the Pampas.

Formica rufa.

FORTUNE, R., sterility of the sweet potato in China.
-development of axillary bulbs in the yam.

FOWL, common, breeds of
-supposed plurality of origin.
-early history of.
-causes of production of breeds of.
-origin of, from Gallus bankiva.
-feral, notices of.
-reversion and analogous variation in.
-"cuckoo" sub-breeds of.
-history of.
-structural characters of.
-sexual peculiarities of.
-external differences of.
-differences of breeds of, from G. bankiva.
-osteological characters of.
-effects of disuse of parts in.
-polydactylism in.
-fertility of, increased by domestication.
-sterility of, under certain conditions.
-influence of selection on.
-evils of close interbreeding of.
-crossing of.
-prepotency of transmission in.
-rudimentary organs in.
-crossing of non-sitting varieties of.
-homology of wing and leg feathers in.
-hybrids of, with pheasants and Gallus sonneratii.
-black, preyed upon by the osprey in Ireland.
-five-toed, mentioned by Columella.
-rumpless, tailed chickens produced by.
-Dorking, crosses of.
-form of comb and colour of plumage in.
-game, crossing of white and black.
-Spanish, liable to suffer from frost.
-Polish, peculiarities of skull of.

FOX, sterility of, in captivity.

FOX, S. BEVAN, races of bees.

FOX, W. DARWIN, gestation of the dog.
-"Negro" cat.
-reversion of sheep in colour.
-period of gestation in the pig.
-young of the Himalayan rabbit.
-crossing of wild and domestic turkeys.
-reversion in crossed musk ducks.
-spontaneous segregation of varieties of geese.
-effects of close interbreeding upon bloodhounds.
-deafness of white cats with blue eyes.


Fragaria chiloensis.

Fragaria collina.

Fragaria dioica of Duchesne.

Fragaria elatior.

Fragaria grandiflora.

Fragaria vesca.

Fragaria virginiana.

Fraxinus excelsior.

Fraxinus lentiscifolia.

FRIESLAND cattle, probably descended from Bos primigenius.


Fringilla ciris.

Fringilla spinus.


FROG, polydactylism in the.

FRUIT, seedless.

FRUIT-TREES, varieties of, occurring wild.

FRY, Mr., on fertile hybrid cats.
-on feral fowls in Ascension.

FUCHSIAS, origin of.
-bud-variation in.

Fuchsia coccinea and fulgens, twin seed produced by crossing.

FUEGIANS, their superstition about killing young water-fowl.
-selection of dogs by the.
-their comparative estimation of dogs and old women.
-their power of distant vision.

FUNGI, parasitic.

FURBRINGER, Dr., on nails of Saurians.

FURCULUM, characters and variations of the, in pigeons.
-alteration of, by disuse, in pigeons.
-characters of, in fowls.

FUSION of homologous parts.

GAIT, inheritance of peculiarities of.

GALAPAGOS Archipelago, its peculiar fauna and flora.

Galeobdolon luteum, pelorism in.



GALL-LIKE excrescences not inherited.

GALLINACEOUS birds, restricted range of large.
-general fertility of, in captivity.

Gallinula chloropus.

Gallinula nesiotis.

GALLESIO, species of oranges.
-hybridisation of oranges.
-persistency of races in the peach.
-supposed specific distinctions of peach and nectarine.
-bizzarria orange.
-crossing of red and white carnations.
-crossing of the orange and lemon.
-effect of foreign pollen on maize.
-spontaneous crossing of oranges.
-monstrosities a cause of sterility in plants.
-seeding of ordinarily seedless fruits.
-sterility of the sugar-cane.
-tendency of male flowers to become double.
-effects of selection in enlarging fruit, etc.
-variation of the orange-tree in North Italy.
-naturalisation of the orange in Italy.

Gallus aeneus, a hybrid of varius and the domestic fowl.

Gallus bankiva, probable original of domestic fowls.
-game-fowl, nearest to.
-crossed with G. sonneratii.
-its character and habits.
-differences of various breeds of fowls from.
-occipital foramen of, figured.
-skull of, figured.
-cervical vertebra of, figured.
-furculum of, figured.
-reversion to, in crossed fowls.
-hybrid of, with G. varius.
-number of eggs of.

Gallus ferrugineus.

Gallus furcatus.

Gallus giganteus.

Gallus sonneratii, characters and habits of.
-hybrids of.

Gallus stanleyi, hybrids of.

Gallus temminckii, probably a hybrid.

Gallus varius, characters and habits of.
-hybrids and probable hybrids of.

GALTON, Mr., fondness of savages for taming animals.
-cattle of Benguela.
-on hereditary talent.
-on Pangenesis.

GAMBIER, Lord, his early cultivation of the pansy.



GARCILAZO DE LA VEGA, annual hunts of the Peruvian Incas.

GARNETT, Mr., migratory propensities of hybrid ducks.

GARROD, Dr., on hereditary gout.

GARTNER, on the sterility of hybrids.
-acquired sterility of varieties of plants when crossed.
-sterility in transplanted plants.
-and in the lilac in Germany.
-mutual sterility of blue and red flowers of the pimpernel.
-supposed rules of transmission in crossing plants.
-on crossing plants.
-on repeated crossing.
-absorption of one species by another, when crossed.
-crossing of varieties of the pea.
-crossing maize.
-crossing of species of Verbascum.
-reversion in hybrids.
-of Cereus.
-of Tropaeolum majus and minus.
-variability of hybrids.
-variable hybrids from one variable parent.
-graft hybrid produced by inoculation in the vine.
-effect produced by grafts on the stock.
-tendency of hybrid plants to produce double flowers.
-production of perfect fruit by sterile hybrids.
-sexual elective affinity.
-self-impotence in Lobelia, Verbascum, Lilium, and Passiflora.
-on the action of pollen.
-fertilisation of Malva.
-prepotency of pollen.
-prepotency of transmission in species of Nicotiana.
-bud-variation in Pelargonium zonale.
-in Oenothera biennis.
-in Achillaea millefolium.
-effect of manure on the fertility of plants.
-on contabescence.
-inheritance of plasticity.
-villosity of plants.

GASPARINI, a genus of pumpkins, founded on stigmatic characters.

GAUDICHAUD, bud-variation in the pear.
-apple-tree with two kinds of fruit on branch.

GAY, on Fragaria grandiflora.
on Viola lutea and tricolor.
-on the nectary of Viola grandiflora.

GAYAL, domestication of the.

GAYOT. See Moll.

GEESE (anseres), general fertility of, in captivity.

GEMMATION and fission.

GEMMULES, or cell-gemmules.

GENERATION, alternate.


GENET, fertility of the, in captivity,

GENIUS, inheritance of.

Gentiana amarella.

GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, production of monstrous chickens,
-"Loi de l'affinite de soi pour soi."
-compensation of growth.

GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, ISID., origin of the dog.
-barking of a jackal.
-period of gestation and odour of the jackal.
-anomalies in the teeth of dogs.
-variations in the proportions of dogs.
-webbed feet of Newfoundland dogs.
-crossing of domestic and wild cats.
-domestication of the arni.
-supposed introduction of cattle into Europe from the East.
-absence of interdigital pits in sheep.
-origin of the goat.
-feral geese.
-ancient history of the fowl.
-skull of the Polish fowl.
-preference of the Romans for the liver of white geese.
-assumption of male characters by female bird.
-transmission and blending of characters in hybrids.
-refusal of animals to breed in captivity.
-on the Guinea-pig.
-silkworms producing white cocoons.
-on the carp.
-on Helix lactea.
-on monstrosities.
-injury to the embryo a cause of monstrosity.
-alteration in the coat of horses in coal-mines.
-length of the intestines in wild and tame animals.
-inheritance of rudimentary limbs in the dog.
-correlation in monstrosities.
-supernumerary digits in man.
-co-existence of anomalies.
-presence of hairs and teeth in ovarian tumours.
-development of teeth on the palate in the horse.

GEOGRAPHICAL differences of faunas.

GEOLOGICAL succession of organisms.


Geranium phaeum and pyrenaicum.

Geranium pratense.

GERARD, asserted climatal change in Burgundian bees.

GERARDE, on varieties of the hyacinth.

GERSTACKER, on hive-bees.

GERVAIS, Prof., origin of the dog.
-resemblance of dogs and jackals.
-taming of the jackal.
-number of teeth in dogs.
-breeds of dogs.
-on tertiary horses.
-Biblical notices of horses.
-species of Ovis.
-wild and domestic rabbits.
-rabbits from Mount Sinai and Algeria.
-earless rabbits.
-batrachia with doubled limbs.

GESTATION, period of, in the dog, wolf, etc.
-in the pig.
-in cattle.
-in sheep.

GESTURES, inheritance of peculiarities in.

"GHOONDOOKS" a sub-breed of fowls.


GILES, Mr., effect of cross-breeding in the pig.

GIRAFFE, co-ordination of structure of.

GIRARD, period of appearance of permanent teeth in dogs.

GIRAUD-TEULON, cause of short sight.

GIROU DE BUZAREINGUES, inheritance in the horse.
-reversion by age in cattle.
-prepotency of transmission of character in sheep and cattle.
-on crossing gourds.

GISBURNE, wild cattle at.

Gladiolus, self-impotence of hybrids of.

Gladiolus colvillii, bud-variation in.

GLANDS, compensatory development of.


GLENNY, Mr., on the Cineraria.

GLOEDE, F., on strawberries.

GLOGER, on the wings of ducks.

"GLOUGLOU" (pigeon).

Gloxiniae, peloric.

GMELIN, on red cats, at Tobolsk.

-polydactylism in the.
-sexual differences in horns of.
-valued by South Africans.
-amount of milk and development of udders in the.
-hornless, rudimentary bony cores in.

GODINE, on prepotency of transmission.

GODRON, odour of the hairless Turkish dog.
-differences in the skull of dogs.
-increase of breeds of horses.
-crossing of domestic and wild swine.
-on goats.
-colour of the skin in fowls.
-bees of north and south of France.
-introduction of the silkworm into Europe.
-variability in the silkworm.
-supposed species of wheat.
-on Aegilops triticoides.
-variable presence of barbs in grasses.
-colours of the seeds of maize.
-unity of character in cabbages.
-correlation of colour and odour.
-effect of heat and moisture on the cabbage.
-on the cultivated species of Brassica.
-on the Rouncival and sugar peas.
-variation in the numbers of peas in the same pod.
-wild vines in Spain.
-on raising peaches from seed.
-supposed specific distinctness of peach and nectarine.
-nectarine producing peaches.
-on the flower of Corydalis.
-origin and variations of the plum.
-origin of the cherry.
-reversion of single-leaved strawberries.
-five-leaved variety of Fragaria collina.
-supposed immutability of specific characters.
-varieties of Robinia.
-permanency of the simple-leaved ash.
-non-inheritance of certain mutilations.
-wild turnips, carrots, and celery.
-prepotency of a goat-like ram.
-benefit of change of soil to plants.
-fertility of peloric flowers of Corydalis solida.
-seeding of ordinarily seedless fruit.
-sexual sterility of plants propagated by buds, etc.
-increase of sugar in beet-root.
-effects of selection in enlarging particular parts of plants.
-growth of the cabbage in the tropics.
-rejection of bitter almonds by mice.
-influence of marshy pasture on the fleece of sheep.
-on the ears of ancient Egyptian pigs.
-primitive distinctness of species.
-solid-hoofed swine.

GOETHE, on compensation of growth.


GOMARA, on South American cats.

GONGORA, number of seeds in the.

GOODMAN, three-toed cows.

GOOSE, ancient domestication of.
-sacred to Juno in Rome.
-inflexibility of organisation of.
-skull perforated in tufted.
-characters of breeds and sub-breeds of.
-variety of, from Sebastopol.
-feral, in La Plata.
-Egyptian, hybrid of, with penguin duck.
-spontaneous segregation of varieties of.
-fertility of, increased by domestication.
-decreased fertility of, in Bogota.
-sterility of, in the Philippine Islands.
-selection of.
-white, preference of the Romans for the liver of.
-persistency of character in.
-Egyptian, change in breeding season of.

-bud-variation in the.

GOPPERT, on monstrous poppies.

GOSSE, P.H., feral dogs in Jamaica.
-feral pigs of Jamaica.
-feral rabbits of Jamaica.
-on Columba leucocephala.
-feral Guinea fowl in Jamaica.
-reproduction of individual peculiarities by gemmation in a coral.
-frequency of striped legs in mules.

GOULD, Dr., on hereditary haemorrhage.

GOULD, JOHN, origin of the turkey.

Goura coronata and Victoriae, hybrids of.

-crossing of varieties of.
-ancient Peruvian variety of.

GOUT, inheritance of.
-period of appearance of.

GRABA, on the pigeon of the Faroe Islands.

-effects of.
-upon the stock.
-upon the variability of trees.
-changes analogous to bud-variation produced by.


GRAPES, bud-variation in.
-cross of white and purple.
-green, liable to disease.
-effect of foreign pollen on.

GRASSES, seeds of, used as food by savages.

GRAY, ASA, superior wild varieties of fruit-trees.
-cultivated native plants of North America.
-non-variation of weeds.
-supposed spontaneous crossing of Cucurbitaceae.
-pre-ordination of variation.
-progeny of husked form of maize.
-wild intermediate forms of strawberries.

GRAY, G.R., on Columba gymnocyclus.

GRAY, J.E., on Sus pliciceps.
-on a variety of the gold-fish.
-hybrids of the ass and zebra.
-on the breeding of animals at Knowsley.
-on the breeding of birds in captivity.

GREENE, J. REAY, on the development of the echinodermata.

GREENHOW, Mr., on a Canadian web-footed dog.

GREENING, Mr., experiments on Abraxas grossulariata.

GREGSON, Mr., experiments on Abraxas grossulariata.

GREY, Sir GEORGE, preservation of seed-bearing plants by the Australian
-detestation of incest by Australian savages.

GREYHOUNDS, sculptured on Egyptian monuments, and in the Villa of Antoninus.
-modern breed of.
-crossed with the bulldog, by Lord Orford.
-close interbreeding of.
-co-ordination of structure of, due to selection.

GREYNESS, inherited at corresponding periods of life.

GRIEVE, Mr., on early-flowering dahlias.

GRIGOR, Mr., acclimatisation of the Scotch fir.

GRONLAND, hybrids of Aegilops and wheat.

GROOM-NAPIER, C.O., on the webbed feet of the otter-hound.

GROS, on Pangenesis.

"GROSSES-GORGES" (pigeons).


GROUSE, fertility of, in captivity.

Grus montigresia, cinerea, and antigone.

GUANACOS, selection of.

GUANS, general fertility of, in captivity.



GUIANA, selection of dogs by the Indians of.

GUINEA fowl.
-feral, in Ascension and Jamaica.
-indifference of, to change of climate.


GULDENSTADT, on the jackal.

GULL, herring, breeding in confinement.

GULLS, general sterility of, in captivity.

Gulo, sterility of, in captivity.

GUNTHER, A., on tufted ducks and geese.
-on the regeneration of lost parts in batrachia.

GURNEY, Mr., owls breeding in captivity.
-appearance of "black-shouldered" among ordinary peacocks.

HABIT, influence of, in acclimatisation.

HACKEL, on fissiparous reproduction.
-on cells.
-on the double reproduction of medusae.
-on inheritance.

HACKLES, peculiarities of, in fowls.

HAIR, on the face, inheritance of, in man.
-peculiar lock of, inherited.
-growth of, under stimulation of skin.
-homologous variation of.
-development of, in the brain.

HAIR and teeth, correlation of.

HAIRY family, corresponding period of inheritance in.

HALF-CASTES, character of.

HALF-LOP rabbits, figured and described.
-skull of.

Haliaetus leucocephalus, copulating in captivity.

HALLAM, Col., on a two-legged race of pigs.

HALLET, Major, selection in cereals.
-on pedigree wheat.


HAMILTON, wild cattle of.

HAMILTON, Dr., on the assumption of male plumage by the hen pheasant.

HAMILTON, F. BUCHANAN, on the shaddock.
-varieties of Indian cultivated plants.

HANCOCK, Mr., sterility of tamed birds.

HANDWRITING, inheritance of peculiarities in.

HANMER, Sir J., on selection of flower-seeds.

HANSELL, Mr., inheritance of dark yolks in duck's eggs.

HARCOURT, E.V., on the Arab boar-hound.
-aversion of the Arabs to dun-coloured horses.

HARDY, Mr., effect of excess of nourishment on plants.

HARE, hybrids of, with rabbit.
-sterility of the, in confinement.
-preference of, for particular plants.

HARE-LIP, inheritance of.

HARLAN, Dr., on hereditary diseases.

HARTMAN, on the wild ass.

HARVEY, Mr., monstrous red and white African bull.

HARVEY, Prof., singular form of Begonia frigida.
-effects of cross-breeding on the female.
-monstrous saxifrage.

HASORA wheat.

HAUTBOIS strawberry.

HAWKER, Col., on call or decoy ducks.

HAWTHORN, varieties of.
-pendulous hybridised.
-changes of, by age.
-bud-variation in the.
-flower buds of, attacked by bullfinches.

HAYES, Dr., character of Esquimaux dogs.

HAYWOOD, W., on the feral rabbits of Porto Santo.

HAZEL, purple-leaved.

HEAD of wild boar and Yorkshire pig, figured.

HEAD and limbs, correlated variability of.

HEADACHE, inheritance of.

-change produced in the, by transplantation.
-reversion in.
-effects of selection on.
-scorching of.
-effects of seasonal conditions on the.
-annual varieties of the.

HEAT, effect of, upon the fleece of sheep.

HEBER, Bishop, on the breeding of the rhinoceros in captivity.

HEBRIDES, cattle of the.
-pigeons of the.

HEER, O., on the plants of the Swiss lake-dwellings.
-on the cereals.
-on the peas.
-on the vine growing in Italy in the Bronze age.

HEIMANN, potato-grafting.

Helix lactea.

Hemerocallis fulva and flava, interchanging by bud-variation.

HEMLOCK, yields no conicine in Scotland.

HEMP, differences of, in various parts of India.
-climatal difference in products of.

HEMPSEED, effect of, upon the colour of birds.

HERMAPHRODITE flowers, occurrence of, in maize.

HEN, assumption of male characters by the.
-development of spurs in the.

"HENNIES," or hen-like male fowls.

HENRY, T.A., a variety of the ash produced by grafting.
-crossing of species of Rhododendron and Arabis.

HENSLOW, Prof., individual variation in wheat.
-bud-variation in the Austrian bramble rose.
-partial reproduction of the weeping ash by seed.

HEPATICA, changed by transplantation.

HERBERT, Dr., variations of Viola grandiflora.
-bud-variation in camellias.
-seedlings from reverted Cytisus adami.
-crosses of Swedish and other turnips.
-on hollyhocks.
-breeding of hybrids.
-self-impotence in hybrid hippeastrums.
-hybrid Gladiolus.
-on Zephyranthes candida.
-fertility of the crocus.
-on contabescence.
-hybrid Rhododendron.

HERCULANEUM, figure of a pig found in.

HERON, Sir R., appearance of "black-shouldered" among ordinary peacocks.
-non-inheritance of monstrous characters by gold-fish.
-crossing of white and coloured Angora rabbits.
-crosses of solid-hoofed pigs.

Herpestes fasciatus and griseus.

HEUSINGER, on the sheep of the Tarentino.
-on correlated constitutional peculiarities.

HEWITT, Mr., reversion in bantam cocks.
-degeneration of silk fowls.
-partial sterility of hen-like male fowls.
-production of tailed chickens by rumpless fowls.
-on taming and rearing wild ducks.
-conditions of inheritance in laced Sebright bantams.
-reversion in rumpless fowls.
-reversion in fowls by age.
-hybrids of pheasant and fowl.
-assumption of male characters by female pheasants.
-development of latent characters in a barren bantam hen.
-mongrels from the silk fowl.
-effects of close interbreeding on fowls.
-on feather-legged bantams.

HIBBERT, Mr., on the pigs of the Shetland Islands.

HIBISCUS, See Paritium.

HIGHLAND cattle, descended from Bos longifrons.

HILDEBRAND, Dr., on graft-hybrids with the potato.
-on the influence of pollen on the mother-plant.
-on the fertilisation of Orchideae.
-occasional necessary crossing of plants.
-on seeds not fitted for distribution.
-crossing of varieties.
-on Primula sinensis and Oxalis rosea.
-on Corydalis cava.

HILL, R., on the Alco.
-feral rabbits in Jamaica.
-feral peacocks in Jamaica.
-variation of the Guinea fowl in Jamaica.
-sterility of tamed birds in Jamaica.

HIMALAYA, range of gallinaceous birds in the.

-skull of.


HINDMARSH, Mr., on Chillingham cattle.


HINNY and mule, difference of.

Hipparion, anomalous resemblance to, in horses.

Hippeastrum, hybrids of.

HIVE-BEES, ancient domestication of.
-breeds of.
-smaller when produced in old combs.
-variability in.
-crossing of Ligurian and common.

HOBBS, FISHER, on interbreeding pigs.


HODGKIN, Dr., on the attraction of foxes by a female Dingo.
-origin of the Newfoundland dog.
-transmission of a peculiar lock of hair.

HODGSON, Mr., domestication of Canis primaevus.
-development of a fifth digit in Thibet mastiffs.
-number of ribs in humped cattle.
-on the sheep of the Himalaya.
-presence of four mammae in sheep.
-arched nose in sheep.
-measurements of the intestines of goats.
-presence of interdigital pits in goats.
-disuse a cause of drooping ears.

HOFACKER, persistency of colour in horses.
-production of dun horses from parents of different colours.
-inheritance of peculiarities in handwriting.
-heredity in a one horned stag.
-on consanguineous marriages.

HOFFMAN, Prof., on Raphanus.

HOG, Red River.

HOGG, Mr., retardation of breeding in cows by hard living.

HOLLAND, Sir H., necessity of inheritance.
-on hereditary diseases.
-hereditary peculiarity in the eyelid.
-morbid uniformity in the same family.
-transmission of hydrocele through the female.
-inheritance of habits and tricks.

HOLLY, varieties of the.
-bud-reversion in.

HOLLYHOCK, bud-variation in.
-non-crossing of double varieties of.
-tender variety of the.

HOMER, notice of geese.
-breeding of the horses of Aeneas.

HOMOLOGOUS parts, correlated variability of.
-fusion of.
-affinity of.

HOOFS, correlated with hair in variation.

HOOK-BILLED duck, skull figured.

HOOKER, Dr. J.D., forked shoulder-stripe in Syrian asses.
-voice of the cock in Sikkim.
-use of Arum-roots as food.
-native useful plants of Australia.
-wild walnut of the Himalayas.
-variety of the plane-tree.
-production of Thuja orientalis from seeds of T. pendula.
-singular form of Begonia frigida.
-reversion in plants run wild.
-on the sugar-cane.
-on Arctic plants.
-on the oak grown at the Cape of Good Hope.
-on Rhododendron ciliatum.
-stock and mignonette perennial in Tasmania.

HOPKIRK, Mr., bud-variation in the rose.
-in Mirabilis jalapa.
-in Convolvulus tricolor.

HORNBEAM, heterophyllous.

HORNED fowl.
-skull figured.

HORNLESS cattle in Paraguay.

HORNS of sheep.
-correlation of.
-with fleece in sheep.
-correlation of, with the skull.
-rudimentary in young polled cattle.
-of goats.

HORSES, in Swiss lake-dwellings.
-different breeds of, in Malay Archipelago.
-anomalies in osteology and dentition of.
-mutual fertility of different breeds.
-habit of scraping away snow.
-mode of production of breeds of.
-inheritance and diversity of colour in.
-dark stripes in.
-dun-coloured, origin of.
-colours of feral.
-effect of fecundation by a quagga on the subsequent progeny of.
-inheritance of peculiarities in.
-polydactylism in.
-inheritance of colour in.
-inheritance of exostoses in legs of.
-reversion in.
-hybrids of, with ass and zebra.
-prepotency of transmission in the sexes of.
-segregation of.
-in Paraguay.
-wild species of, breeding in captivity.
-curly, in Paraguay.
-selection of, for trifling characters.
-unconscious selection of.
-natural selection in Circassia.
-alteration of coat of, in coal-mines.
-degeneration of, in the Falkland Islands.
-diseases of, caused by shoeing.
-feeding on meat.
-white and white-spotted, poisoned by mildewed vetches.
-analogous variations in the colour of.
-teeth developed on palate of.
-of Bronze period in Denmark.

HORSE-CHESTNUT, early, at the Tuileries.
-tendency to doubleness in.

HORSE-RADISH, general sterility of the.

"HOUDAN," a French sub-breed of fowls.

HOWARD, C., on an Egyptian monument.
-on crossing sheep.

HUC, on the Emperor Khang-hi.
-Chinese varieties of the bamboo.

HUMBOLDT, A., character of the Zambos.
-parrot speaking in the language of an extinct tribe.
-on Pulex penetrans.

HUMIDITY, injurious effect of, upon horses.

HUMPHREYS, Col., on Ancon sheep.


HUNTER, JOHN, period of gestation in the dog.
-on secondary sexual characters.
-fertile crossing of Anser ferus and the domestic goose.
-inheritance of peculiarities in gestures, voice, etc.
-assumption of male characters by the human female.
-period of appearance of hereditary diseases.
-graft of the spur of a cock upon its comb.
-on the stomach of Larus tridentatus.

HUNTER, W., evidence against the influence of imagination upon the

HUTH, Mr., close interbreeding of rabbits.
-consanguineous marriages.

HUTTON, Capt., on the variability of the silk-moth.
-on the number of species of silkworms.
-markings of silkworms.
-domestication of the rock-pigeon in India.
-domestication and crossing of Gallus bankiva.
-reversion in goats from a cross.

HUTCHINSON, Col., liability of dogs to distemper.

HUXLEY, Prof., on the transmission of polydactylism.
-on unconscious selection.
-on correlation in the mollusca.
-on gemmation and fission.
-development of star-fishes.

-bud-variation in.
-graft-hybrid by union of half bulbs of.
-white, reproduced by seed.
-varieties of, recognisable by the bulb.

HYACINTH, feather.

Hyacinthus orientalis.

Hybiscus syriacus.

HYBRIDS, of hare and rabbit.
-of various species of Gallus.
-of almond, peach, and nectarine.
-naturally produced, of species of Cytisus.
-from twin-seed of Fuchsia coccinea and fulgens.
-reversion of.
-from mare, ass, and zebra.
-of tame animals, wildness of.
-female instincts of sterile male.
-transmission and blending of characters in.
-breed better with parent species than with each other.
-self-impotence in.
-readily produced in captivity.

HYBRIDISATION, singular effects of, in oranges.
-of cherries.
-difficulty of, in Cucurbitae.
-of roses.

-the cause of a tendency to double flowers.
-in relation to Pangenesis.

HYBRIDITY in cats.
-supposed, of peach and nectarine.


HYDRANGEA, colour of flowers of, influenced by alum.



Hypericum calycinum.

Hypericum crispum.


HYPERMETROPIA, hereditary.

ICHTHYOPTERYGIA, number of digits in the.

Ilex aquifolium.

IMAGINATION, supposed effect of, on offspring.

Imatophyllum miniatum, bud-variation in.

INCEST, abhorred by savages.

INCUBATION, by crossed fowls of non-sitting varieties.

INDIA, striped horses of.
-pigs of.
-breeding of rabbits in.
-cultivation of pigeons in.

INDIVIDUAL variability in pigeons.

INGLEDEW, Mr., cultivation of European vegetables in India.


-doubts entertained of, by some writers.
-importance of, to breeders.
-evidence of, derived from statistics of chances.
-of peculiarities in man.
-of disease.
-of peculiarities in the eye.
-of deviations from symmetry.
-of polydactylism.
-capriciousness of.
-of mutilations.
-of congenital monstrosities.
-causes of absence of.
-by reversion or atavism.
-its connection with fixedness of character.
-affected by prepotency of transmission of character.
-limited by sex.
-at corresponding periods of life.
-summary of the subject of.
-laws of, the same in seminal and bud varieties.
-of characters in the horse.
-in cattle.
-in rabbits.
-in the peach.
-in the nectarine.
-in plums.
-in apples.
-in pears.
-in the pansy.
-of primary characters of Columba livia in crossed pigeons.
-of peculiarities of plumage in pigeons.
-of peculiarities of foliage in trees.
-effects of, in varieties of the cabbage.

INSANITY, inheritance of.

INSECTS, regeneration of lost parts in.
-agency of, in fecundation of larkspurs.
-effect of changed conditions upon.
-sterile neuter.
-monstrosities in.

INSTINCTS, defective, of silkworms.

INTERBREEDING, close, ill effects of.

INTERCROSSING, of species, as a cause of variation.
-natural, of plants.
-of species of Canidae and breeds of dogs.
-of domestic and wild cats.
-of breeds of pigs.
-of cattle.
-of varieties of cabbage.
-of peas.
-of varieties of orange.
-of species of strawberries.
-of Cucurbitae.
-of flowering plants.
-of pansies.

INTERDIGITAL pits, in goats.


INTESTINES, elongation of, in pigs.
-relative measurement of parts of, in goats.
-effects of changed diet on.

Ipomoea purpurea.

IRELAND, remains of Bos frontosus and longifrons found in.

IRIS, hereditary absence of the.
-hereditary peculiarities of colour of the.
-variation of.

Iris xiphium.

IRISH, ancient, selection practised by the.

IRON period, in Europe, dog of.

ISLANDS, oceanic, scarcity of useful plants on.

ISLAY, pigeons of.

ISOLATION, effect of, in favour of selection.

ITALY, vine-growing in, during the Bronze period.

IVY, sterility of, in the north of Europe.

JACK, Mr., effect of foreign pollen on grapes.

-hybrids of, with the dog.
-prepotency of, over the dog.

JACKSON, Mr., white-footed cats.

JACOBIN pigeon.

JACQUEMET-BONNEFORT, on the mulberry.

JAEGER, Prof., on reversion in pigs.
-from a cross.
-white pigeons killed by hawks.

JAGUAR, with crooked legs.

JAMAICA, feral dogs of.
-feral pigs of.
-feral rabbits of.

JAMESON, Mr., on hybrid potatoes.

JAPAN, horses of.

JAPANESE pig (figured).

JARDINE, Sir W., crossing of domestic and wild cats.

JARVES, J., silkworm in the Sandwich Islands.

JAVA, fantail pigeon in.

JAVANESE ponies.

JEITTELES, history of the dog.
-history of the fowl.
-Hungarian sheep-dogs.
-crossing of domestic and wild cats.


JENYNS (BLOMEFIELD), L., whiteness of ganders.
-sunfish-like variety of the goldfish.

JERDON, J.C., number of eggs laid by the pea-hen.
-origin of domestic fowl.

JERSEY, arborescent cabbages of.


JESSE, G.R., on the bulldog.

JOHN, King, importation of stallions from Flanders by.

JOHNSON, D., occurrence of stripes on young wild pigs in India.

JORDAN, A., on Vibert's experiments on the vine.
-origin of varieties of the apple.
-varieties of pears found wild in woods.

JOURDAN, parthenogenesis in the silk-moth.

JUAN DE NOVA, wild dogs on.

JUAN FERNANDEZ, dumb dogs on.

Juglans regia.

JUKES, Prof., origin of the Newfoundland dog.

JULIEN, Stanislas, early domestication of pigs in China.
-antiquity of the domestication of the silkworm in China.

JUMPERS, a breed of fowls.

JUNIPER, variations of the.

Juniperus suecica.

Jussiaea grandiflora.

JUSSIEU, A. de, structure of the pappus in Carthamus.

KAIL, Scotch, reversion in.


"KALI-PAR" pigeon.

KALM, P., on maize.
-introduction of wheat into Canada.
-sterility of trees growing in marshes and dense woods.

"KALMI LOTAN" tumbler pigeon.

KANE, Dr., on Esquimaux dogs.


KARKEEK, on inheritance in the horse.


KARSTEN on Pulex penetrans.

KATTYWAR horses.

KEELEY, R., pelorism in Galeobdolon luteum.

KERNER, on the culture of Alpine plants.
-definite action of conditions.

KESTREL, breeding in captivity.


KHANG-HI, selection of a variety of rice by.


KIDD, on the canary-bird.

KIDNEY bean.
-varieties of.

KIDNEYS, compensatory development of the.
-shape of, in birds influenced by the form of the pelvis.

KING, Col., domestication of rock doves from the Orkneys.

KING, Dr., on Paritium.

KING, P.P., on the dingo.

KIRBY and Spence, on the growth of galls.


KITE, breeding in captivity.

KLEINE, variability of bees.

KNIGHT, ANDREW, on crossing horses of different breeds.
-crossing varieties of peas.
-persistency of varieties of peas.
-origin of the peach.
-hybridisation of the morello by the Elton cherry.
-on seedling cherries.
-variety of the apple not attacked by coccus.
-intercrossing of strawberries.
-broad variety of the cock's-comb.
-bud variation in the cherry and plum.
-crossing of white and purple grapes.
-experiments in crossing apples.
-hereditary disease in plants.
-on interbreeding.
-crossed varieties of wheat.
-necessity of intercrossing in plants.
-on variation.
-effects of grafting.
-bud-variation in a plum.
-correlated variation of head and limbs.

KNOX, Mr., breeding of the eagle owl in captivity.

KOCH, degeneracy in the turnip.


KOLREUTER, reversion in hybrids.
-acquired sterility of crossed varieties of plants.
-absorption of Mirabilis vulgaris by M. longiflora.
-crosses of species of Verbascum.
-on the hollyhock.
-crossing varieties of tobacco.
-benefits of crossing plants.
-sell-impotence in Verbascum.
-effects of conditions of growth upon fertility in Mirabilis.
-great development of tubers in hybrid plants.
-inheritance of plasticity.
-variability of hybrids of Mirabilis.
-repeated crossing a cause of variation.
-number of pollen-grains necessary for fertilisation.


KROHN, on the double reproduction of Medusae.


LABAT, on the tusks of feral boars in the West Indies.
-on French wheat grown in the West Indies.
-on the culture of the vine in the West Indies.

LABURNUM, Adam's, see Cytisus adami.
-oak-leaved, reversion of.
-pelorism in the.

LACHMANN, on gemmation and fission.

Lachnanthes tinctoria.

LACTATION, imperfect, hereditary.
-deficient, of wild animals in captivity.

LADRONE Islands, cattle of.

LA GASCA, Prof., individual variation in wheat.

LAING, Mr., resemblance of Norwegian and Devonshire cattle.

-cattle of.
-absence of the fowl in.
-cultivated plants of.
-cereals of.
-peas found in.
-beans found in.

LAMARE-PIQUOT, observations on half-bred North American wolves.

LAMBERT, A.B., on Thuja pendula or filiformis.

LAMBERT family.

LAMBERTYE, on strawberries.
-five-leaved variety of Fragaria collina.

LANDT, L., on sheep in the Faroe Islands.

LANKESTER, RAY, on longevity.

LA PLATA, wild dogs of.
-feral cat from.


LARKSPURS, insect agency necessary for the full fecundation of.

Larus argentatus.

Larus tridactylus.

LASTERYE, merino sheep in different countries.

LATENT characters.

LATHAM, on the fowl not breeding in the extreme north.


Lathyrus aphaca.

Lathyrus odoratus.

LA TOUCHE, J.D., on a Canadian apple with dimidiate fruit.


LAUGHER pigeon.

Laurus sassafras.

LAWRENCE, J., production of a new breed of foxhounds.
-occurrence of canines in mares.
-on three-parts-bred horses.
-on inheritance in the horse.

LAWSON, Mr., varieties of the potato.

LAXTON, Mr., bud-variation in the gooseberry.
-crossing of varieties of the pea.
-weakness of transmission in peas.
-double-flowered peas.

LAYARD, E.L., resemblance of a Caffre dog to the Esquimaux breed.
-crossing of the domestic cat with Felis caffra.
-feral pigeons in Ascension.
-domestic pigeons of Ceylon.
-on Gallus stanleyi.
-on black-skinned Ceylonese fowls.

LE COMPTE family, blindness inherited in.

LECOQ, bud-variation in Mirabilis jalapa.
-hybrids of Mirabilis.
-crossing in plants.
-fecundation of Passiflora.
-hybrid Gladiolus.
-sterility of Ranunculus ficaria.
-villosity in plants.
-double asters.

LE COUTEUR, J., varieties of wheat.
-acclimatisation of exotic wheat in Europe.
-adaptation of wheat to soil and climate.
-selection of seed-corn.
-evil from interbreeding.
-on change of soil.
-selection of wheat.
-natural selection in wheat.
-cattle of Jersey.

LEDGER, Mr., on the llama and alpaca.

LEE, Mr., his early culture of the pansy.

Leersia oryzoides.

LEFOUR, period of gestation in cattle.

LEGRAIN, falsified experiments of.

LEGS, of fowls, effects of disuse on.
-characters and variations of, in ducks.

LEGUAT, cattle of the Cape of Good Hope.

LEHMANN, occurrence of wild double-flowered plants near a hot spring.

LEIGHTON, W.A., propagation of a weeping yew by seed.

LEITNER, effects of removal of anthers.


LEMOINE, variegated Symphytum and Phlox.

-orange fecundated by pollen of the.

LEMURS, hybrid.


LEPSIUS, figures of ancient Egyptian dogs.
-domestication of pigeons in ancient Egypt.

Lepus glacialis.

Lepus magellanicus.

Lepus nigripes.

Lepus tibetanus.

Lepus variabilis.

LEREBOULLET, double monsters of fishes.

LESLIE, on Scotch wild cattle.

LESSONA, on regrowth.
-on Lepus magellanicus.

LETHBRIDGE, previous impregnation.

LEUCKART, on the larva of Cecidomyidae.

LEWES, G.H., on Pangenesis.

LEWIS, G., cattle of the West Indies.

LHERBETTE and Quatrefages, on the horses of Circassia.

LICHENS, sterility in.

LICHTENSTEIN, resemblance of Bosjesman's dogs to Canis mesomelas.
-Newfoundland dog at the Cape of Good Hope.

LIEBIG, differences in human blood, according to complexion.

LIEBREICH, occurrence of pigmentary retinitis in deaf-mutes.


LILIACEAE, contabescence in.

Lilium bulbiferum and davuricum.

Lilium candidum.

LIMBS, regeneration of.

LIMBS and head, correlated variation of.

LIME, effect of, upon shells of the mollusca.

LIME-TREE, changes of, by age.


LIMITATION, supposed, of variation.

Linaria, pelorism in.
-peloric, crossed with the normal form.
-sterility of.

Linaria vulgaris and purpurea, hybrids of.

LINDEMUTH, potato-grafting.

LINDLEY, JOHN, classification of varieties of cabbages.
-origin of the peach.
-influence of soil on peaches and nectarines.
-varieties of the peach and nectarine.
-on the New Town pippin.
-freedom of the Winter Majetin apple from coccus.
-production of monoecious Hautbois strawberries by bud-selection.
-origin of the large tawny nectarine.
-bud-variation in the gooseberry.
-hereditary disease in plants.
-on double flowers.
-seeding of ordinarily seedless fruits.
-sterility of Acorus calamus.
-resistance of individual plants to cold.

LINNAEUS, summer and winter wheat regarded as distinct species by.
-on the single-leaved strawberry.
-sterility of Alpine plants in gardens.
-recognition of individual reindeer by the Laplanders.
-growth of tobacco in Sweden.


Linota cannabina.


LION, fertility of, in captivity.

LIPARI, feral rabbits of.

LIVINGSTONE, Dr., striped young pigs on the Zambesi.
-domestic rabbits at Loanda.
-use of grass-seeds as food in Africa.
-planting of fruit-trees by the Batokas.
-character of half-castes.
-taming of animals among the Barotse.
-selection practised in South Africa.

LIVINGSTONE, Mr., disuse a cause of drooping ears.

LIZARDS, reproduction of tail in.

LLAMA, selection of.

LLOYD, Mr., taming of the wolf.
-English dogs in northern Europe.
-fertility of the goose increased by domestication.
-number of eggs laid by the wild goose.
-breeding of the capercailzie in captivity.

LOANDA, domestic rabbits at.

Loasa, hybrid of two species of.

Lobelia, reversion in hybrids of.
-contabescence in.

Lobelia fulgens, cardinalis, and syphilitica.

LOCKHART, Dr., on Chinese pigeons.


LOISELEUR-DESLONGCHAMPS, originals of cultivated plants.
-Mongolian varieties of wheat.
-characters of the ear in wheat.
-acclimatisation of exotic wheat in Europe.
-effect of change of climate on wheat.
-on the supposed necessity of the coincident variation of weeds and cultivated
-advantage of change of soil to plants.

Lolium temulentum, variable presence of barbs in.


LOOCHOO Islands, horses of.

LORD, J.K., on Canis latrans.

"LORI RAJAH," how produced.

Lorius garrulus.

"LOTAN" tumbler pigeon.

LOUDON, J.W., varieties of the carrot.
-short duration of varieties of peas.
-on the glands of peach-leaves.
-presence of bloom on Russian apples.
-origin of varieties of the apple.
-varieties of the gooseberry.
-on the nut tree.
-varieties of the ash.
-fastigiate juniper (J. suecica).
-on Ilex aquifolium ferox.
-varieties of the Scotch fir.
-varieties of the hawthorn.
-variation in the persistency of leaves on the elm and Turkish oak.
-importance of cultivated varieties.
-varieties of Rosa spinosissima.
-variation of dahlias from the same seed.
-production of Provence roses from seeds of the moss-rose.
-effect of grafting the purple-leaved upon the common hazel.
-intercrossing melons.
-nearly evergreen Cornish variety of the elm.

LOW, on the pigs of the Orkney Islands.

LOW, Prof., pedigrees of greyhounds.
-origin of the dog.
-burrowing instinct of a half-bred dingo.
-inheritance of qualities in horses.
-comparative powers of English racehorses, Arabs, etc.
-British breeds of cattle.
-wild cattle of Chartley.
-effect of abundance of food on the size of cattle.
-effects of climate on the skin of cattle.
-on interbreeding.
-selection in Hereford cattle.
-formation of new breeds.
-on "sheeted" cattle.

LOWE, Mr., on hive bees.

LOWE, Rev. Mr., on the range of Pyrus malus and P. acerba.

LOWNE, Mr., monsters.
-on gemmules.

"LOWTUN" tumbler pigeon.

Loxia pyrrhula.

LUBBOCK, Sir J., developments of the Ephemeridae.

LUCAS, P., effects of cross-breeding on the female.
-hereditary diseases.
-hereditary affections of the eye.
-inheritance of anomalies in the human eye and in that of the horse.
-inheritance of polydactylism.
-morbid uniformity in the same family.
-inheritance of mutilations.
-persistency of cross-reversion.
-persistency of character in breeds of animals in wild countries.
-prepotency of transmission.
-supposed rules of transmission in crossing animals.
-sexual limitations of transmission of peculiarities.
-absorption of the minority in crossed races.
-crosses without blending of certain characters.
-on interbreeding.
-variability dependent on reproduction.
-period of action of variability.
-inheritance of deafness in cats.
-complexion and constitution.

LUCAZE-DUTHIERS, structure and growth of galls.

LUCAE, Prof., on the masked pig.
on pigs.

LUIZET, grafting of a peach-almond on a peach.

LUTKE, cats of the Caroline Archipelago.

LUXURIANCE, of vegetative organs, a cause of sterility in plants.

LYONNET, on the scission of Nais.

Lysimachia nummularia, sterility of.

Lythrum, trimorphic species of.

Lythrum salicaria.
-contabescence in.

Lytta vesicatoria, affecting the kidneys.

Macacus, species of, bred in captivity.

MACAULAY, Lord, improvement of the English horse.

M'CLELLAND, Dr., variability of fresh-water fishes in India.

M'COY, Prof., on the dingo.

MACFAYDEN, influence of soil in producing sweet or bitter oranges from
the same seed.

MACGILLIVRAY, domestication of the rock-dove.
-feral pigeons in Scotland.
-number of vertebrae in birds.
-on wild geese.
-number of eggs of wild and tame ducks.

MACKENZIE, Sir G., peculiar variety of the potato.

MACKENZIE, P., bud-variation in the currant.

MACKINNON, Mr., horses of the Falkland Islands.
-feral cattle of the Falkland Islands.

MACKNIGHT, C., on interbreeding cattle.

MACNAB, Mr., on seedling weeping birches.
-non-production of the weeping beech by seed.

MADAGASCAR, cats of.

MADDEN, H., on interbreeding cattle.

MADEIRA, rock pigeon of.

Magnolia grandiflora.

MAGNUS, Herr, on potato-grafting.
-on graft-hybrids.

MAIZE, its unity of origin.
-antiquity of.
-with husked grains said to grow wild.
-variation of.
-irregularities in the flowers of.
-persistence of varieties.
-adaptation of, to climate.
-acclimatisation of.
-crossing of.
-extinct Peruvian varieties of.

MALAY fowl.

MALAY Archipelago, horses of.
-short-tailed cats of.
-striped young wild pigs of.
-ducks of.

MALE, influence of, on the fecundated female.
-supposed influence of, on offspring.

MALE flowers, appearance of, among female flowers in maize.

MALFORMATIONS, hereditary.

-cross-breeding sheep.
-English sheep in France.

MALM, eyes of flat fish.

Malva, fertilisation of.

Mamestra suasa.

MAMMAE, variable in number in the pig.
-rudimentary, occasional full development of, in cows.
-four present in some sheep.
-variable in number in rabbits.
-latent functions of, in male animals.

MANGLES, Mr., annual varieties of the heartsease.

MANTEGAZZA, abnormal growth of spur of cock.
-on Pangenesis.

MANTELL, Mr., taming of birds by the New Zealanders.

MANU, domestic fowl noticed in the Institutes of.

MANURE, effect of, on the fertility of plants.

MANX cats.

MARCEL DE SERRES, fertility of the ostrich.

MARIANNE Islands, varieties of Pandanus in.

MARKHAM, GERVASE, on rabbits.

MARKHOR, probably one of the parents of the goat.

MARQUAND, cattle of the Channel Islands.

MARRIMPOEY, inheritance in the horse.

MARROW, vegetable.

MARRYATT, Capt., breeding of asses in Kentucky.

MARSDEN, notice of Gallus giganteus.

MARSHALL, Dr. W., on Gallus sonneratii.

MARSHALL, Mr., voluntary selection of pasture by sheep.
-adaptation of wheats to soil and climate.
-"Dutch-buttocked" cattle.
-segregation of herds of sheep.
-advantage of change of soil to wheat and potatoes.
-fashionable change in the horns of cattle.
-sheep in Yorkshire.

MARTENS, E. VON, on Achatinella.

MARTIN, W.C.L., origin of the dog.
-Egyptian dogs.
-barking of a Mackenzie River dog.
-African hounds in the Tower menagerie.
-on dun horses and dappled asses.
-breeds of the horse.
-wild horses.
-Syrian breeds of asses.
-asses without stripes.
-effects of cross-breeding on the female in dogs.
-striped legs of mules.

MARTINS, defective instincts of silkworms.

MARTIUS, C., fruit-trees of Stockholm.

MASON, W., bud-variation in the ash.

MASTERS, Dr., on bud-variation and reversion.
-on pollen within ovules.
-reversion in the spiral-leaved weeping willow.
-on peloric flowers.
-on Opuntia.
-pelorism in a clover.
-position as a cause of pelorism.

MASTERS, Mr., persistence of varieties of peas.
-reproduction of colour in hyacinths.
-on hollyhocks.
-selection of peas for seed.
-on Hibiscus syriacus.
-reversion by the terminal pea in the pod.

MASTIFF, sculptured on an Assyrian monument.

MATTHEWS, PATRICK, on forest trees.

Matthiola annua.

Matthiola incana.

MAUCHAMP merino sheep.

MAUDUYT, crossing of wolves and dogs in the Pyrenees.

MAUND, Mr., crossed varieties of wheat.

MAUPERTUIS, axiom of "least action."

MAURITIUS, importation of goats into.

MAW, G., effects of change of climate.
-correlation of contracted leaves and flowers in pelargoniums.

MAWZ, fertility of Brassica rapa.

Maxillaria, self-fertilised capsules of.

Maxillaria atro-rubens, fertilisation of, by M. squalens.

MAXIMOWICZ, direct action of pollen.

MAYERS, on gold-fish in China.

MAYES, M., self-impotence in Amaryllis.

MECKEL, on the number of digits.
-correlation of abnormal muscles in the leg and arm.

MEDUSAE, development of.

MEEHAN, Mr., weeping peach.
-effects of parasites.
-comparison of European and American trees.

Meles taxus.

-mongrel supposed to be produced from a twin-seed.
-crossing of varieties of.
-inferiority of, in Roman times.
-changes in, by culture and climate.
-serpent, correlation of variations in.
-analogous variations in.


MENETRIES, on the stomach of Strix grallaria.

MENINGITIS, tubercular, inherited.

MERRICK, potato-grafting.



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