Part 19 out of 23
_Patra_, or Alms-dish of Buddha,
Holy Grail of Buddhism.
Patriarchs of Eastern Christians. (_See_ also Catholicos and
Patterns, beast and bird, on silk, etc.
Patu, _see_ Batu.
Pauthier, G., remarks on text of Polo.
Paved roads in China.
---- streets of Kinsay.
Payan, _see_ Bayan.
Pa-yi writing, specimen of.
Peaches, yellow and white (apricots).
Peacocks at St. Thomas's,
special kind in Coilum.
rose-coloured in Chipangu;
pearls and precious stones of kingdom of Maabar.
Pedro, Prince of Portugal.
Pegu and Bengal confounded.
Pein (Pim), province,
Peking, white pagoda at. (_See_ Cambaluc.).
Pelly, Col. Sir Lewis, British Resident at Bushire.
Pemberton, Captain R.
Pepper, daily consumption of, at Kinsay,
change in Chinese use of;
great importation at Zayton, duty on;
white and black;
Eli and Cananore;
trade in, to Alexandria.
Persia, extent of name to Bokhara,
three Magi of;
its eight kingdoms.
Persia and India, boundary of.
Persian applied to language of foreigners at Mongol Court.
Persian Gulf (Sea of India?).
Peter, Tartar slave of Marco Polo's.
Pharaoh's rats (Gerboa).
Phayre, Major-General Sir Arthur.
Pheasants, large and long tailed,
Pheng (the Rukh).
Philip the Fair.
Philip III. and IV. of France.
Phra Rama, Siamese kings so-called.
Phungan, Phungan-lu (Fungul?).
Physician, a virtuous.
Pianfu (P'ing-yang fu).
Pilgrimage, to Adam's Sepulchre in Ceylon,
to Shrine of St. Thomas.
Pinati, king of Kaulam.
Pine woods in Mongolian desert.
---- in South China.
P'ing-chang, Fanchan, or second class Minister.
P'ing-yang fu (Pianfu).
Pipino, Friar Francesco.
Pirabandi or Bir Pandi (Vira Pandi).
Pirates of Malabar,
Piratical customs at Eli.
Plane, Oriental or Chinar.
Pog, or Fiag River.
Poison, antidote to.
Poisoning guests, custom of.
Poland, Mongol invasion of.
Pole, or Jackdaw on Polo's scutcheon.
Pole-star, invisible in Java the Less,
visible again in India.
Politeness of Chinese.
Polo, Andrea, grandfather of Marco.
---- Antonio, illegitimate son of Elder Marco.
---- Bellela, second daughter,
died before 1333.
---- Donata, wife of Traveller,
sale of property to her husband;
death between 1333-1336;
may have been Loredano.
---- or Bragadino, Fantina, eldest daughter of Traveller.
---- Felice, a cousin.
---- Fiordelisa, wife of last.
Polo, Fiordelisa, daughter of Maffeo the Younger.
---- Maffeo, brother of Nicolo,
time of death between 1309 and 1318.
---- Maffeo, brother of Traveller,
probabilities as to birth;
---- Marco, the elder son of Andrea, Uncle of the Traveller,
---- Marco, the Traveller,
perplexities in his biography;
Ramusio's notices, extracts from;
recognition of his names of places, paralleled with Columbus;
story of his capture at Curzola;
writes his book in prison at Genoa;
release and marriage;
claim to nobility;
his birth, circumstances of;
is taken to East;
employed by Kublai, mentioned in Chinese Records;
mission to Yun-nan;
governor of Yang-chau;
employed at Kan-chau, Kara Korum, Champa and Indian Seas;
mentioned in his Uncle Marco's will;
commands a galley at Curzola;
taken prisoner and carried to Genoa;
his imprisonment there;
dictates his book to Rusticiano;
release and return to Venice;
evidence as to story of capture;
dying vindication of his book;
executor to his brother Maffeo;
record of exemption from municipal penalty;
gives copy of book to T. de Cepoy;
marriage and daughters;
lawsuit with Paulo Girardo, proceeding regarding house property;
illness and last will;
probable date of death;
place of burial;
professed portraits of;
estimate of him and of his book;
true claims to glory;
faint indications of personality;
rare indications of humour;
absence of scientific notions;
geographical data in book;
his acquisition of languages, ignorance of Chinese, deficiencies in
allusions to Alexander;
incredulity about his stories;
by T. de Cepoy, Friar Pipino;
J. d'Acqui, Giov. Villani, and P. d'Abano;
notice by John of Ypres;
borrowings in poem of Bauduin de Sebourc;
influence on geography, obstacles to its effect;
character of mediaeval cosmography;
Roger Bacon as geographer;
Marino Sanudo's map;
Carta Catalana largely based on Polo's book;
increased appreciation of Polo's book;
confusions of nomenclature;
introduction of block-printing into Europe and Polo;
dictates his narrative;
found at Venice;
noticed and employed by Kublai;
grows in favour, many missions;
returns from one to India;
escapes from the Karaunas;
hears of breed of Bucephalus;
recovers from illness in hill climate;
hears from Zulficar about Salamander;
brings home hair of yak;
and head and feet of musk deer;
witnesses events connected with Ahmad's death;
noticed in Chinese annals;
whether he had to do with Persian scheme of paper currency in;
sent by Khan into Western provinces;
governor of Yang-chau;
probable extent of his authority;
aids in constructing engines for siege of Siang-yang;
difficulties as to this statement;
on number of vessels on Great Kiang;
ignorant of Chinese;
on greatness of Kinsay;
sent to inspect amount of revenue from Kinsay;
his great experience;
never in islands of Sea of Chin;
in kingdom of Chamba;
detained five months in Sumatra, stockade party against wild people;
brings Brazil seed to Venice;
partakes of tree-flour (sago);
takes some to Venice;
in six kingdoms of Sumatra;
witnesses arrest for debt in Maabar;
his erroneous view of Arabian coast;
his unequalled travels;
Venetian documents about him.
---- Marco, called Marcolino, son of Nicolo the Younger.
---- Marco, last male survivor.
---- Marco, others of this name.
---- Maroca, sister of Nicolo the Younger.
---- or Delfino, Moreta, youngest daughter.
Polo, Nicolo and Maffeo, sons of Andrea,
their first journey;
cross Black Sea to Soldaia;
visit Volga country, etc.;
go to Bokhara;
join envoys to Khan's Court;
Kublai's reception of;
sent back as envoys to Pope;
receive a Golden Tablet;
find young Marco there
---- Nicolo, Maffeo and Marco, proceed to Acre;
set out for East, recalled from Ayas;
set out again with Pope's letters, etc.;
reach Kublai's Court;
_see_ on their journey outward;
their alleged service in capture of Siang-yang;
Khan refuses them permission to return home;
allowed to go with ambassadors;
receive Golden Tablets;
story of their arrival at Venice;
scheme to assert their identity.
---- Nicolo, his alleged second marriage and sons;
probable truth as to time of;
his illegitimate sons;
approximate time of his death;
---- Nicolo the Younger, cousin of traveller.
---- Stefano and Giovannino, illegitimate brothers of Traveller.
---- (?), or Trevisano (?), Fiordelisa, perhaps second wife of Nicolo Polo
the Elder, and mother of Maffeo the Younger.
---- or Trevisano, Maria, last survivor of the family,
doubts as to her kindred.
---- Family, its duration and end, according to Ramusio,
last notices of.
(For relationship of different Polos, _see_ table).
---- Family, branch of S. Geremia.
_Po-lut_ (Pa-lut), _incense_.
supposed effect on population.
Ponent, or West, term applied by Polo to Kipchak, the Mongol Khanate of
the Volga, _see_ Kipchak.
Pong (Mediaeval Shan State).
Population, vast, of Cathay.
fragments found at Kayal;
---- shells, _see_ Cowries.
Pork, mention of, omitted.
_Postin_, sheep-skin coat.
Posts, post-houses and runners,
Potala at L'hasa.
Poultry, kind of, in Coilum,
in Abyssinia (guinea-fowl?).
_Pourpre_, or _Purpura_.
Precious stones or gems,
how discovered by pirates.
Prester John (Unc Can, Aung or Ung Khan),
Tartar tribute to;
marriage relations with Chinghiz;
insults Chinghiz' envoys;
"these be no soldiers";
marches to meet Chinghiz;
real site of battle with Chinghiz;
his real fate;
slain in battle;
his lineage in Tenduc;
and the Golden King.
Prices of horses, _see_ Horses.
Printing, imaginary connection of Polo's name with introduction of.
Private names supposed.
Prjevalsky, Colonel N.M.
Probation of Jogis,
Prophecy regarding Bayan.
_Proques_, the word.
Prostitutes; at Cambaluc,
Provinces, thirty-four of Kublai's Empire.
Ptolemies' trained African elephants.
Puer and Esmok.
Pulisanghin, River and Bridge.
Pulo Condore (Sondur and Condur).
Pulo Gommes (Gauenispola).
Pulo Nankai, or Nasi.
Pulo We, Wai, or Wey.
_Purpura_, see _Pourpre_.
Putu-ho, "Grape R.".
Pygmies, factitious (?).
Qal'ah Asgher, hot springs at.
Qara Ars-lan Beg, king of Kerman.
Quails in India.
Queen of Mutfili.
Quicksilver and sulphur potion.
---- as regarded by alchemists.
Quills of the Ruc, _see_ Ruc.
Quilon, Kaulam, etc., _see_ Coilum.
Rabbanta, a Nestorian monk.
Radloff, Dr. W.,
Rainald, of Dassel, Archbishop.
Rain-makers, _see_ Conjurers.
Rama Kamheng, king.
Rampart of Gog and Magog.
Ramusio, Giov. Battista, _passim_,
his biographical notices of Polo;
his edition of Polo.
Rana Paramita's Woman Country.
Rashiduddin, _alias_ Fazl-ulla Rashid, Persian statesman and
historian of the Mongols,
frequently quoted in the Notes.
Ravenala tree (_Urania speciosa_).
Raw meat eaten.
Rawlinson, Sir H.
Reclus, _Asie russe_,
on Caspian Sea fisheries.
Red gold and red Tangas.
Red Sea, trade from India to Egypt by,
described in some texts as a river;
possible origin of mistake.
Red sect of Lamas.
_Reg Ruwan_, of Kabul.
---- of Seistan.
Religion, indifference of Chinghizide Princes to,
occasional power of among Chinese.
Remission of taxation by Kublai
Rennell, Major James.
Reobarles (Rudbar, etc.).
Revenue of Kinsay.
Rhinoceros (Unicorn), in Sumatra,
four Asiatic species.
Rhins, Dutreuil de.
Rhubarb, _Rheum palmatum_.
---- trade on Grand Canal.
Richthofen, Baron F. von,
Right and Left, ministers of the.
_Rishis_ (Eremites) of Kashmir.
"River of China".
Roads radiating from Cambaluc.
Robbers in Persia.
Robes distributed by Kublai.
Rochefort, "faire la couvade".
Rockhill (_Rubruck_ and _Diary of a Journey_),
on the titles Khan, Khatun, etc.;
on horn horse-shoes;
earliest mention of name Mongol in Oriental works;
charge of cannibalism against Tibetans;
on Bonbo Lamas;
mechanical contrivances at E. Court;
from Peking to Si-ngan fu;
descent of Yellow River;
road between T'ung-kwan and Si-ngan fu;
two famous Uigur Nestorians;
on the word Salar;
on the Hui-hui sects;
on the Alan;
on branch of Volga Bulgars.
Rofia palm (_sagus ruffia_).
_Roiaus dereusse_ (?).
Rome, the Sudarium at.
_Rondes_, ingenious but futile explanation of.
_Rook_, in Chess.
Rori-Bakkar, Sepoy name for Upper Sind.
Rostof and Susdal, Andrew, Grand Duke of.
Roth, H. Ling, on _couvade_.
Roxana, daughter of Darius, wife of Alexander.
Roze de l'Acur.
of Adam's Peak.
Rubruquis, or Rubruc, Friar William de.
Ruby mines in Badakhshan.
Ruc (Rukh), or Gryphon, bird called, described,
its feathers and quills;
wide diffusion and various forms of fable;
eggs of the Aepyornis;
Fra Mauro's story;
genus of that bird, condor;
discovery of bones of _Harpagornis_ in New Zealand;
Sindbad, Rabbi Benjamin, romance of Duke Ernest;
Ibn Batuta's sight of Ruc;
rook in chess;
various notices of.
Rudbar-i-Lass, Robbers' River.
---- (Reobarles), district and River.
Rudder, single, noted by Polo as peculiar,
double, used in Mediterranean.
Rudkhanah-i-Duzdi (Robbers' River).
Rudkhanah-i-Shor (Salt River).
Rudra Deva, King of Telingana.
Rudrama Devi, Queen of Telingana.
Rukhnuddin, Mahmud, Prince of Hormuz.
---- Khurshah, son of Alaodin, Prince of the Ismaelites.
Ruomedam-Ahomet, King of Hormuz.
Rupen, Bagratid, founder of Armenian State in Cilicia.
Rueppell's Table of Abyssinian kings.
Russia (Rosia), annexes Georgia,
great cold, Arab accounts of;
subject to Tartars;
conquered by Batu.
Russians, trusty lieges of king.
Rusticiano of Pisa,
introduces himself in prologue;
writes down Polo's book;
extracts and character of his compilation;
his real name;
his other writings.
Saba (Sava, Savah), city of the Magi.
Sabaste, _see_ Sivas.
Sable, its costliness.
Sacrifices of people of Tangut.
_Sadd-i-Iskandar_, rampart of Alexander.
Saffron, fruit-serving purposes of.
Sagacity of sledge-dogs.
Sagamon Borcan, _see_ Sakyamuni Buddha.
Sagatu, general of Kublai's.
Saggio (1/6 oz.).
Saianfu, _see_ Siang-yang-fu.
Saif Arad, king of Abyssinia.
Saifuddin Nazrat, ruler of Hormuz.
Sain Khan (or Batu).
St. Anno of Cologne.
St. Barlaam and St. Josafat, story of Buddhist christianised.
St. Barsauma (Barsamo, Brassamus), and monastery of.
St. Blasius (Blaise), Church at Sivas.
St. George, Church of, in Sivas,
St. James' Shrine, Gallicia.
St. John the Baptist, Church of, in Samarkand.
---- Major Oliver.
St. Leonard's Convent in Georgia, and the fish miracle.
his campaign on the Nile.
St. Martin, Vivien de, Map.
St. Mary's Island, Madagascar.
St. Matthew, Monastery near Mosul.
St. Matthew's Gospel, story of the Magi.
St. Sabba's at Acre.
St. Thomas, the Apostle,
his shrine in India;
his murderers, and their hereditary curse;
reverenced by Saracens and heathen;
miracles in India;
story of his death;
tradition of his preaching in India;
translation of remains to Edessa;
King Gondopharus of legend a real king;
alleged discovery of reliques;
church ascribed to;
St. Thomas's Isle.
Sakya Muni (Sagamon Borcan) Buddha,
recumbent figures of;
his footmark on Adam's Peak;
Alms dish, Holy Grail;
Salem, dragoman, explores Rampart of Gog.
Salghur, Atabegs of Fars.
Salih, Malik, son of Badruddin Lulu.
Salt, H., his version of Abyssinian chronology.
used for currency;
extracted from deep wells;
in Carajan province;
manufactured in Eastern China;
manufacture, revenue and traffic in;
trade on the Kiang;
junks employed therein.
Salwen River, or Lu-Kiang.
Samara, kingdom of, _see_ Sumatra.
story of a miracle at;
colony near Peking from.
Sampson, Theos., on grapes in China.
Samudra, _see_ Sumatra.
Samuel, his alleged tomb at Savah.
San Giovanni Grisostomo,
parish in Venice where the Ca' Polo was;
San Lorenzo, Venice, burial place of Marco and his father.
Sandu, _see_ Chandu.
Sanf, _see_ Champa.
Sangin, Sangkan River.
Sanglich, dialect of.
Sang-Miau, tribe of Kwei-chau.
Sangon, the Title (Tsiang-kiun).
Sanitary effects of Mountain air.
Sanjar, sovereigns of Persia.
Sankin Hoto, Dalai.
Sanuto of Torcelli, Marino,
his World Map;
on long range.
Sappan wood, _see_ Brazil.
Sapurgan (Saburkan, Shaburkan, Shibrgan).
_Saputa, Scue_, peculiar use of.
Saracanco (Saraichik), on the Yaik.
Saracens, _see_ Mahomedans.
Sarai (Sara), capital of Kipchak,
city and its remains;
perhaps occupied successive sites.
---- Sea of (Caspian).
_Saras_, crane (_Grus antigone_).
Sarha, Port of Sumatra.
Sartak, the Great Khan's ambassador to Hulaku.
Sati, _see_ Suttee.
Satin, probable origin of word.
silver ingots used in Kipchak;
apparently the original rouble.
Scanderoon, Gulf of.
Schindler, General Houtum-.
Schlegel, Dr. G.
Schmidt, Professor I.J.
Scidmore, Miss E., on the Tide.
Scotra, _see_ Socotra.
Sea of Chin.
---- Ghel, or Ghelan.
Sebaste, _see_ Sivas.
Sebourc, Bauduin de, _see Bauduin de Sebourc_.
Sees of Latin Church.
---- Nestorian Church.
Seilan, _see_ Ceylon.
Selitrennoye Gorodok (Saltpetre Town).
_Selles, chevaux a deux_, the phrase.
Semenat, _see_ Somnath.
Sempad, Prince, High Constable of Armenia.
Sendal, a silk texture.
_Sendaus_, generally Taffetas.
Sendemain, king of Seilan.
Senecherim, king of Armenia.
Sensin, ascetics, devotees living on bran.
Sepulchre of Adam, _see_ Adam's Sepulchre.
---- of our Lord,
Serano, Juan de.
Serazi (Shiraz), kingdom of Persia.
their tree wool;
ancient character of the.
Serpents, great, i.e. alligators.
_Sesnes_, mediaeval form of _cygnet_, _cigne_.
_Seta Ghella_, _seta Leggi_ (Ghelle), silk.
Seth's mission to Paradise.
Seven Arts, the.
Severtsoff, shoots the _Ovis Poli_,
on the name Bolor.
Seyyed Barghash, Sultan of Zanzibar.
Shabankara, or Shawankara (Soncara).
Shabar, son of Kaidu.
Sha-chau (Sachin), "Sand-district".
Shadow, augury from length of
Shahr-i-Babek, turquoise mine at.
Shahr Mandi, or Pandi.
Shah Werdy, last of the Kurshid dynasty.
Shaikhs (Esheks), in Madagascar.
Shakespeare, on relation of gold to silver.
Shamanism. (_See_ also Devil-Dancing.).
Shampath, ancestor of Georgian kings.
Shamuthera, _see_ Sumatra.
Shan (Laotian, or _Thai_).
---- race and country.
---- dynasty in Yun-nan.
---- state of Pong, _see_ Pong.
Shanars of Tinnevelly,
Shangtu, Shangdu (Chandu),
Kublai's City and Summer Palace;
Dr. Bushell's description of;
Kublai's annual visit to.
Shankarah, Shabankara (Soncara).
Shao-ling, pariah caste of.
Shara-ul-buks (Forest of box on the Black Sea).
Sharks and shark charmers.
Shauls, or Shuls, the.
Shawls of Kerman.
Sheep, fat-tailed in Kerman.
---- four-horned at Shehr.
---- large Indian.
---- none in Manzi.
---- of Pamir (_Ovis Poli_).
---- wild, of Badakhshan (Kachkar, _Ovis Vignei_).
---- with trucks behind.
Sheep's head given to horses.
Shehr, or Shihr, _see_ Esher.
Shewa, cool plateau of.
Shieng, Sheng, or Sing, the Supreme Board of Administration.
Shighnan (Syghinan), ruby mines.
_Shijarat Malayu_, or Malay Chronicle.
Shikargah, applied to animal pattern textures, Benares brocades.
Shing-king, or Mukden.
Ships, of the Great Khan,
of India at Fuju;
of Manzi described;
mediaeval, accounts of;
in Java Seas;
Shob'aengs of Nicobar.
Shodja ed-din Kurshid, Kurd.
Shor-Rud (Salt River).
Shot of Military Engines.
Shuls of Shauls, people of Persia.
Shut up nations, legend of the.
Kublai's siege of;
Polo's aid in taking;
difficulties in Polo's account;
not removed by Pauthier, notice by Wassaf, Chinese account,
Sibree, on rofia palm.
Sick men put to death and eaten by their friends.
_Siclatoun_, kind of texture.
Sien, Sien-Lo, Sien-Lo-Kok (Siam, Locac).
Sigatay, _see_ Chagatai.
Sighelm, envoy from King Alfred to India.
Si Hia, language of Tangut.
Si-hu, Lake of Kinsay or Hang-chau.
Silesia, Mongol invasion of.
Silk, called Ghelle (of Gilan),
manufacture at Yezd;
in Shan-si and Shen-si;
---- cotton tree.
---- duty on.
---- and gold stuffs.
---- stuffs and goods, Turcomania,
in animal patterns;
Silk, tent ropes,
---- trade at Cambaluc,
---- imported into Malabar,
---- mines at Baiburt,
in N. Shansi;
---- plate in Chinese taverns.
Simon, Metropolitan of Fars.
Simum, effects of.
his story of the diamonds;
of the Rukh.
Sindachu (Siuen-hwa fu).
Si-ngan fu (Kenjanfu),
Christian inscription at.
Singtur, Mongol Prince.
Sinhopala (Accambale), king of Chamba.
Sinju (Si-ning fu).
Sinkalan, Sin-ul-Sin, Maha-chin, or Canton.
Siraf (Kish, or Kais?).
Sirikol, Lake and River.
Sirjan or Shirjan.
Sitting in air.
Siuen-hwa-fu, _see_ Sindachu.
Sivas, Siwas, Sebaste, Sevasd (Savast).
Siwi, gigantic cotton in.
Sixtus V., Pope.
_Siya-gosh_, or lynx.
Slaves in Bengal.
Sluices of Grand Canal.
Smith, G., Bishop of Hongkong.
Smith (R.E.), Major R.M.
Sneezing, omen from.
Socotra (Scotra), island of,
Sofala, trade to China from.
Sogoman Borcan, see Sakya Muni.
Sol, Arbre, see Arbre.
Soldaia, Soldachia, Sodaya (the Oriental Sudak).
Soldan, a Melic.
Soldurii, trusty lieges of Celtic kings.
Soli, Solli (_Chola_, or Tanjore), kingdom of.
Solomon, house of, in Abyssinia.
Soltania, Archbishop of (See Sultaniah.).
Sender Bandi Davar, see Sundara Pandi.
Sondur and Condur (Pulo Condore Group).
Sorcerers, sorceries of Pashai (Udyana),
Lamas and Tibetans.
Socotra (See also Conjurers.).
Sornau (Shahr-i-Nau), Siam.
Sotiates, tribe of Aquitania.
Southey, _St. Romuald_.
Spices in China, duty on.
Spinello Aretini, fresco by.
Spirit drawings and spiritual flowers.
Spirits haunting deserts.
Spiritualism in China.
Sport and game,
Sprinkling of drink, a Tartar rite.
Squares at Kinsay.
Stack, E., visits Kuh Banan.
Star of Bethlehem, traditions about.
Steamers on Yangtse-kiang.
Steel mines at Kerman,
Asiatic view of.
Stein, Dr. M.A., on Sorcery in Kashmir,
on Paonano Pao;
on site of Pein.
Stiens of Cambodia.
Stirrups, short and long.
Stockade erected by Polo's party in Sumatra.
Stone, miracle of the, at Samarkand.
---- the green.
---- towers in Chinese cities.
---- umbrella column.
Stones giving invulnerability.
Submersion of part of Ceylon.
Suburbs of Cambaluc.
Subutai, Mongol general.
Sudarium, the Holy.
art of refining;
of Egypt and China.
Suicides before an idol.
Sukchur, province Sukkothai.
Sulphur and quicksilver, potion of longevity.
Sultaniah, Monument at (_See_ Soltania.).
Sultan Shah, of Badakhshan.
Sumatra (Java the Less),
described, its kingdoms;
city and kingdom of (Samara for Samatva);
legend of origin;
Ibn Batuta there;
latest mention of;
Sumutala, Sumuntala, _see_ Sumatra.
Sun and moon, trees of the.
Sundara Pandi Devar, Sondar Bandi Davar, king in Ma'bar,
Dr. Caldwell's views about.
Sundar Fulat (Pulo Condore Group).
Sung, a native dynasty reigning in S. China till Kublai's conquest,
their paper-money, effeminacy;
Kublai's war against;
end of them.
Sunnis and Shias.
Suolstan (Shulistan), a kingdom in Persia.
Superstitions in Tangut, the devoted sheep or ram (_Tengri Tockho_),
the dead man's door;
as to chance shots;
property of the dead;
as to omens.
Survival, instances of.
Sushun, Regent of China, execution of.
Su-tash, the Jadek.
Suttees in S. India,
_Svastika_, sacred symbol of the Bonpos.
Swans, wild, at Chagan-Nor.
Sword blades of India.
Syghinan, _see_ Shighnan.
Sykes, Major P. Molesworth.
Symbolical messages, Scythian and Tartar.
_Syrrhaptes Pallasii, see_ Barguerlac.
Table of the Great Khan.
Tables, how disposed at Mongol feasts.
Tablet, Emperor's, adored with incense.
Tablets of Authority, Golden (_Paizah_),
presented by Khan to Polos;
lion's head and gerfalcon;
bestowed on distinguished captains, inscription;
granted to governors of different rank.
---- worshipped by Cathayans.
Tachindo, _see_ Ta-ts'ien-lu.
Tacitus, _Claustra Caspiorum_, Pass of Derbend.
Taeping Insurrection and Devastations.
Taeping, or Taiping, Sovereigns' effeminate customs.
Taft, near Yezd, turquoise at.
Taianfu (T'ai-yuan-fu), king of N. China.
Taican, _see_ Talikan.
Taidu, Daitu, Tatu, Kublai's new city of Cambaluc.
Taikung, _see_ Tagaung.
Tailed men, in Sumatra,
Tailors, none in Maabar.
Taiting-fu (Tadinfu), or Yenchau.
Taitong-fu, see Tathung.
T'ai Tsung, Emperor.
Tatyang Khan (Great King), king of the Naimans.
Tajiks of Badakhshan, great topers.
Taki-uddin, Abdu-r Rahman.
Tali, gold mines.
Talikan, Thaikan (Taican).
Tallies, record by.
Tamarind, pirates use of.
---- near Bombay, kingdom of
Tanduc, see Tenduc.
Tangnu Oola, branch of Altai.
Tangut province, Chinese Si Hia, or Ho Si,
five invasions of.
Tangutan, term applied to Tibetan speaking people round the Koko-nor.
Tankiz Khan, applied to Chinghiz.
Tantras, Tantrika, Tantrists.
Tao-lin, a Buddhist monk.
Tao-sze (Taosse), sect,
female idols of the.
Taprobana, mistakes about.
Tarem, or Tarum.
Tares of the parable.
Tarmabala, Kublai's grandson.
_Tarok_, Burmese name for Chinese.
Tarok Man and Tarok Myo.
on Tartar, its correct form;
misuse by Ramusio.
different characters used by;
identified with Gog and Magog;
their first city;
original country, tributary to Prester John;
revolt and migration;
earliest mention of the word;
make Chinghiz their king;
their customs and religion;
chastity of their women;
their gods and idols;
their drink (Kumiz);
arms, horses, and war customs;
sustenance on rapid marches;
tactics in war;
administration of justice;
laws against theft;
Rubruquis' account of;
custom before a fight;
want of charity to the poor;
conquerors of China, history of;
excellence in archery;
objection to meddling with things pertaining to the dead;
admiration of the Polo mangonels;
employment of military engines;
---- in the Far North.
---- of the Levant, see Levant.
---- of the Ponent, see Ponent.
Tathung, or Taitongfu.
Ta-t'sien-lu, or Tachindo, Tartsedo.
Ta Tsing River.
Tauris, see Tabriz.
Taxes, see Customs, Duties.
Tchakiri Mondou (Modun).
_Tchekmen_, thick coarse cotton stuff.
Tea-houses at Kingsze.
Tea trees in E. Tibet.
Tebet, _see_ Tibet.
Tedaldo, _see_ Theobald.
Teeth, custom of casing in gold.
---- of Adam or of Buddha.
---- conservation of, by Brahmans.
Teghele, Atabeg of Lur.
Teimur (Temur), Kublai's grandson and successor.
Telingana, _see_ Tilinga.
Tembul (Betel), chewing.
Temkan, Kublai's son.
Temple, connection of Cilician Armenia with Order of.
---- Master of the.
Temple's account of the Condor.
Temujin, _see_ Chinghiz.
Tenduc, or Tanduc, plain of,
Tengri, Supreme deity of Tartars.
Tents, the Khan's.
Thai, Great and Little,
_Thard-wahsh_, _see_ Patterns, Beast and Bird.
Theft, Tartar punishment of.
Theobald, or Tedaldo of Piacenza,
chosen Pope as Gregory X.;
sends friars with the Polos and presents.
Theodorus, king of Abyssinia.
Theodosius the Great.
Theophilus, Emperor of Constantinople.
Thin l'Eveque, siege of.
_Thinae_ of Ptolemy.
Tholoman, _see_ Coloman.
---- of Mancasola, Bishop of Samarcand.
Three kingdoms (San-Kwe).
Threshold, a great offence to step on the.
Thuran Shah's History of Hormuz.
Tibet (Tebet) province,
its acquisition by Mongols;
organisation under Kublai;
Tibetan language and character,
origin of the Yue-chi.
and Kashmiris (Tebet and Keshimur), sorceries of;
accused of cannibalism.
Tides in Hang-chau estuary.
Tierce, half tierce, etc., hours of.
Tigado, Castle of.
Tigers (called lions by Polo),
trained to the chase;
(_See_ also Lions.).
Tigris River (Volga),
Tigudar (Acomat Soldan).
Tilinga, Telingana, Tiling, Telenc.
Timur of Toumen, chief of the Nikoudrians.
Timur the Great.
Ting, 10 taels of silver = tael of gold.
Tithe on clothing material.
Tithing men, Chinese (_Pao-kia_).
Tjajya, _see_ Choiach.
Toctai, king, _see_ Toktai.
Tod, Colonel James.
Toddy, _see_ Wine of Palm.
Toghontemur, last Mongol Emperor,
---- Shah of Kerman.
Togrul Wang Khan, _see_ Prester John.
Toktai Khan (Toctai, Lord of the Ponent),
wars with Noghai;
his symbolic message.
Toleto, John de, Cardinal Bishop of Portus.
Toman (Tuman, etc.), Mongol word for 10,000.
Tooth-relique of Buddha,
Torchi, Dorje, Kublai's first-born.
Torture by constriction in raw hide.
_Toscaul, toskaul_ (_toscaol_), watchman.
Tournefort, on cold at Erzrum.
Tower and Bell Alarm at Peking,
Trade at Layas,
on the Great Kiang;
at Sinju Matu;
---- of India with Hormuz,
with Egypt by Aden;
Trades in Manzi, alleged to be hereditary.
Traps for fur animals.
Treasure of Maabar kings.
Emperors of, and their tails.
Trees, of the Sun and Moon,
by the highways;
producing flour (sago).
---- Marc' Antonio, Doge.
'Trusty lieges,' devoted comrades of king of Maabar.
T'sien T'ang River,
Tsiuan-chau, T'swanchau, see Zayton.
Tsongkhapa, Tibetan Reformer.
Ts'uan-chou, see Zayton.
Tsukuzi in Japan.
Tuan, Prince, chief of the Boxers.
_Tuc, tuk, tugh_, commanders of 100,000, horse-tail or yak-tail;
Tudai, Ahmad Khan's wife.
Tudai-Mangku (Totamangu or Totamangul).
Tu-fan, ancient name of Tibet.
Tughan, Tukan, Kublai's son.
Tughlak Shah, of Delhi (a Karaunah).
Tuli, or Tulin, fourth son of Chinghiz.
Tuman, see Toman.
Tumba, Angelo di,
Tun, city of E. Persia.
Tung-'an in Fokien.
_Tungani_, or Converts, Mahomedans in N. China and Chinese Turkestan.
Tung-hwang-hien, ancient Shachau.
Tung-kwan, fortress of the Kin sovereigns.
Tun-o-kain (Tunocain), kingdom of Persia.
Turbit (radex Turpethi).
Turcomania (Anatolian Turkey).
Turkey, Great (Turkestan).
Turkistan chiefs send mission to kings of India.
Turkmans and Turks, distinction between,
Turks, ancient mention of,
friend of Polo's;
Turner, Lieutenant Samuel, describes Yak of Tartary.
Turquans, Turkish horses.
Turquoises in Kerman,
Tutia (Tutty), preparation of.
Tu T'song, Sung Emperor of China.
Twelve, a favourite round number.
---- Barons over Khan's Administration.
Twigs or arrows, divination by.
Tyunju, porcelain manufacture.
Tylor, Dr. E.B., on _Couvade_.
Ucaca (Ukak, Ukek, Uwek),
Ukak of Ibn Batuta, a different place.
Ughuz, legend of.
Uighur character, parent of present Mongol writing.
Uirad, _see_ Oirad.
Ujjain, legend of,
Ukak. (_See_ Ucaca.).
Ulatai (Oulatay), Tartar envoy from Persia.
Ulan Muren (Red River).
Ulugh Bagh, on Badakhshan border.
U-man and Pe-man (Black and White Barbarians).
Unc Can (Aung Khan), _see_ Prester John
Ung (Ungkut), Tartar tribe..
Ungrat (Kungurat), Tartar tribe.
Unicorn (Rhinoceros), in Burma,
legend of Virgin and;
Uspenskoye (called also Bolgarskoye).
Uttungadeva, king of Java.
Uwek, _see_ Ucaca.
Uzbeg Khan of Sarai.
Uzbegs of Kunduz.
Uzun Tati, coins, Chinese porcelain from.
Vair, the fur and animal.
---- as an epithet of eyes.
Vambery, Prof. Hermann.
Vanchu (Wangchu), conspires with Chenchu against Ahmad.
Varaha Mihira, astronomer.
Varsach, or Mashhad River.
Veil of the Temple, [Greek: peplos babylonios].
Venadan, title of king of Kaulam.
Venetians, factory at Soldaia,
expelled from Constantinople.
return of Polos to;
its exaltation after Latin conquest of Constantinople;
Polo's mansion at;
articles brought from East by Marco to.
Ventilators at Hormuz.
Verlinden, Belgian missionary.
_Verzino Colombino_. (_See_ also Brazil.).
stitched of Kerman ([Greek: ploiaria rhapta]).
(_See_ also Ships.).
Vial, Paul, French missionary.
Vikramajit, legend of.
Villard de Honnecourt, Album of.
Vincent of Beauvais.
Vineyards, in Taican,
in N. China.
Vinson, Prof., on _Couvade_.
Virgin of Cape Comorin.
Visconti, Tedaldo, or Tebaldo, _see_ Theobald of Piacenza.
Vissering, on _Chinese Currency_.
Vochan (Unchan, Yungchan),
Vokhan, _see_ Wakhan.
Volga, called Tigris.
Vos, Belgian Missionary.
Vuju in Kiangnan.
---- in Chekiang.
Wakhan (Vokhan), dialect.
Wakhijrui Pass, _see_ Wakhjir Pass.
Wakhsh, branch of the Oxus.
Wakhtang II., king of Georgia.
Wall of Alexander (or Caucasian).
---- of Gog and Magog (i.e. China).
_Wang_, Chinese silk.
Wang, king of Djungar.
Wangchu, _see_ Vanchu
War vessels, Chinese.
Wassaf, the historian,
his character of the Karaunahs;
notices of Hormuz;
eulogy of Kublai;
story of Kublai;
account of taking of Siang-yang;
horse trade to India;
treatment of them there;
extract from his history.
---- custom of lying in,
consecration by Lamas.
Wa-tzu, Lolo slaves.
Weights and measures.
Wei River in Shen-si.
---- in Shan-tung.
Westermarck, _Human Marriage_.
Whale oil, including spermaceti.
species of Indian Ocean;
Wheaten bread not eaten,
---- bone, Chinese for Lolos.
---- City, meaning of term among Tartars.
---- City, of Manzi frontier.
---- Feast at Kublai's City.
---- horses and mares,
offered to Khan.
Whittington and his cat in Persia.
Wild asses and oxen, _see_ Asses and Oxen.
William of Tripoli, Friar,
Williams, Dr. S.W., on the Chinese year,
on elephants at Peking.
Williamson, Rev. A.
Wilson, General Sir C.
Wind, poison (Simum),
Wine, of the vine, Persians lax in abstaining from,
---- of ancient Kapisa,
imported at Kinsay.
---- rice (_Samshu or darasun_),
and of wheat;
spices, etc., in Caindu;
---- Palm (toddy).
---- from sugar.
---- (unspecified), at Khan's table,
not used in Ma'bar;
nor by Brahmans.
"Winter" used for "rainy season".
Wo-fo-sze, "Monastery of the lying Buddha".
Wolves in Pamir.
Women, Island of.
Women, of Kerman,
of Khorasan, their beauty;
Kamul, fair and wanton;
Tartar good and loyal;
Erguiul, pretty creatures;
of the town;
of Tibet, evil customs;
Carajan; Zardandan, _couvade_;
respectful treatment of;
Wonders performed by the Bacsi.
Wood, Lieutenant John, Indian Navy,
his elucidations of Polo in Oxus regions.
Worship of Mahomet (supposed).
---- of fire,
---- of first object seen in the day.
Worshipping the tablets.
Wuesus, or Wesses, people of Russia.
Xavier, at Socotra.
Yachi (Yun-nan-fu), city.
_Yadah, Jadagari, Jadah-tash_, science and stone of weather-conjurer.
Yaju, and Majuj, _see_ Gog and Magog.
their tails carried to Venice;
used in India for military decorations.
Ya'kub Beg of Kasghar.
Yam, or Yamb (a post-stage or post-house).
Yang-chau (Yanju), city,
Marco's government there.
Yarbeg of Badakhshan.
_Yarligh and P'aizah_.
---- silk tissue.
Yasodhara, bride of Sakya Sinha.
Mongol and Chinese cycle.
Yelimala, _see_ Monte d'Ely.
Yeliu Chutsai, statesman and astronomer.
Yellow, or orthodox Lamas.
Yemen (_See_ also Aden.).
Yeng-chau (in Shan-tung).
---- (in Che-kiang).
Yen-king (Old Peking).
Yesugai, father of Chinghiz.
silk fabrics of.
Yoritomo, descendants of.
Yonting Ho River.
Youth, Island of.
Ysemain of Hiulie, western engineer.
Yu, _see_ Jade.
Yu-chow, gold and silver mines.
Yuen, Mongol Imperial dynasty, so styled.
Yuen-hao, kingdom of Tangut.
Yuen ming-yuen, palace.
Yuen shi, History of Mongol Dynasty in China.
Yugria, or Yughra, in the Far North.
Yule, Sir Henry,
Yun-Hien, a Buddhist Abbot.
Yung-chang fu (Shen-si).
---- (Yun-nan, Vochan).
Yung Lo, Emperor.
Yun-nan (Carajan), province,
Yun-nan-fu city, _see_ Yachi.
Yurungkash (white Jade) River.
Yuthia, Ayuthia (Ayodhya), mediaeval capital of Siam.
Yvo of Narbonne.
_Zaituniah_, probable origin of satin.
Zampa, _see_ Champa.
Zanghibar (Zangibar, Zanjibar, Zanzibar),
its blacks, women.
Zanton (Shantung ?).
Zanzale, James, or Jacob Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa.
Zapharan, monastery near Baghdad.
Zardandan, or "Gold Teeth," a people of W. Yun-nan,
Zayton, Zaitun, Zeiton, Cayton,
(T'swan-chau, Chwan-chau, or Chinchew of modern charts);
the great mediaeval port of China;
Khan's revenue from;
Chinchew, a name misapplied;
Christian churches at;
Zayton, Andrew, Bishop of.
Zebu, humped oxen.
Zhafar, _see_ Dhafar.
Zimme, _see_ Kiang-mai.
Zobeidah, the lady.
Zorza, _see_ Chorcha.
Zu-'lkarnain (Zulcarniain), "the Two Horned," an epithet of Alexander.
Zurficar (Zurpica, Zulficar), a Turkish friend of Marco Polo's.
SER MARCO POLO
NOTES AND ADDENDA TO SIR HENRY YULE'S EDITION, CONTAINING THE RESULTS OF
RECENT RESEARCH AND DISCOVERY
BY HENRI CORDIER
[Illustration: THE LO-HAN SHAN-CHU TSUN CHE.
No. 100 IN THE SERIES OF THE FIVE HUNDRED LO-HAN.
There is no need of a long Preface to this small book. When the third
edition of the _Book of Ser Marco Polo_ was published in 1903,
criticism was lenient to the Editor of YULE'S grand work, and it was
highly satisfactory to me that such competent judges as Sir Aurel STEIN
and Sven HEDIN gave their approval to the remarks I made on the
itineraries followed in Central Asia by the celebrated Venetian Traveller.
Nevertheless occasional remarks having been made by some of the reviewers,
proper notice was taken of them; moreover, it was impossible to avoid some
mistakes and omissions in a work including several hundreds of pages. As
years went on, extensive voyages were undertaken by travellers like Sir
Aurel STEIN, Sven HEDIN, PELLIOT, KOZLOV, and others, who brought fresh
and important information. I had myself collected material from new works
as they were issued and from old works which had been neglected. In the
mean time I had given a second edition of _Cathay and the Way
Thither_, having thus an opportunity to explore old ground again and
add new commentaries to the book.
All this material is embodied in the present volume which is to be
considered but as a supplementary volume of "Addenda" and "Corrigenda" to
the Book itself. I have gathered matter for a younger editor when a fourth
edition of the _Book of Ser Marco Polo_ is undertaken, age preventing the
present editor to entertain the hope to be able to do the work himself.
To many who lent their aid have I to give my thanks: all are named in the
following pages, but I have special obligation to Sir Aurel STEIN, to Dr.
B. LAUFER, of Chicago, to Sir Richard TEMPLE, and to Prof. Paul PELLIOT,
of the College de France, Paris, who furnished me with some of the more
important notes. A paper by Prof. E.H. PARKER in the _Asiatic Quarterly
Review_ proved also of considerable help.
PARIS, 8, RUE DE SIAM,
11th of November, 1919.
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SIR HENRY YULE'S WRITINGS.
---- Notes [miscellaneous] by H. Yule, Palermo, August 28th, 1872.
(_Indian Antiquary_, I. 1872, pp. 320-321.)
---- "Discovery of Sanskrit." By H. Yule, Palermo, Dec. 26th, 1872.
(_Indian Antiquary_, II. 1873, p. 96.)
---- "Sopeithes, King of the [Greek: Kaekeoi]." By H. Yule. (_Indian
Antiquary_, II. 1873, p. 370.)
---- The Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels in India. By Col. H. Yule,
Palermo. (_Indian Antiquary_, III. 1874, pp. 114-117, 209-212.)
---- The Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels. By Col. H. Yule, C.B.
(Ibid. pp. 242-244.)
---- Mediaeval Ports of Western and Southern India, etc., named in the
Tohfat-al-Majahidin. By Col. H. Yule, C.B., Palermo. (_Indian
Antiquary_, III. 1874, pp. 212-214.)
---- Malifattan. By Col. H. Yule, C.B., Palermo. (_Indian Antiquary_,
IV. 1875, pp. 8-10.)
---- Champa. By H. Yule. (_Indian Antiquary_, VI. 1877, pp. 228-230.)
From the _Geog. Mag._, March, 1877, IV. pp. 66-67. Written for
the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, but omitted.
---- Specimen of a Discursive Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms. By H.Y. and
A.C.B. (_Indian Antiquary_, VIII. 1879, pp. 52-54, 83-86,
173-176, 201-204, 231-233.)
SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS