Part 17 out of 23
Polo's _Arbre Sec_ to be sought near Damghan;
clue to the term _Arbre Sec_.
Arcali, Arculin, _see_ Erculin.
Architectural remains in Indo-China.
Ardeshir Babekan, first Sassanian king.
Ardeshir, last sovereign of Shabankara.
Arghun, Khan of Persia (Polo's Argon, Lord of the Levant),
sends an embassy to Kublai for a wife;
is dead when she arrives;
his unhappy use of the elixir vitae;
advances against his uncle Ahmad;
harangues his chiefs;
sends Ahmad a remonstrance;
is taken prisoner;
released by certain chiefs;
Argons (Arghun), half-breeds.
Arikbuga, Kublai's brother.
meaning of _Ariora_.
_Arkhaiun_, applied to Oriental Christians or their Clergy.
Armenia (Hermenia), Lesser or Cilician.
Armillary Zodiacal Sphere.
Armour of boiled leather, _see_ Cuirbouly.
Arms of Kerman,
of the Tartars.
Arts, the Seven.
Arulun Tsaghan Balghasun (Chagan-Nor).
Aryavartta, the Holy Lands of Indian Buddhism.
Asbestos, and the Salamander.
Asceticism of the Sensin,
of the Jogis.
Asedin Soldan (Ghaiassuddin Balban, Sultan of Delhi).
Ashar (Asciar), king of Cail.
Ashishin, _see_ Assassins.
Ashod, founder of the Bagratid dynasty.
Asikan, Mongol general.
_Asper_, or _akche_ about a groat.
Assassins (Ashishin, Hashishin), Ismailites,
how the Old Man trained them;
survival and recent circumstances of the sect.
Asses, in Persia,
in Far North.
Asterius, Bishop of Amasia in Pontus.
Astrology, -ers, in Tangut,
at Kublai's Court;
Astronomical instruments, ancient Chinese.
Atabegs, of Mosul,
Atjeh, _see_ Achin.
Atkinson's Narratives, and their credibility.
Atlas, Chinese, in Magliabecchian Library.
[Greek: Attagas] (Black Partridge).
Auberoche, Siege of.
Augury, _see_ Omens.
Aung Khan (Unc Can), _see_ Prester John.
Aurora, Ibn Fozlan's account of.
'Avah, Abah, Ava, one of the cities of the Magi.
Avarian, epithet of S. Thomas.
Avebury, Lord, on _couvade_.
Avicenna's classification of Iron.
_Avigi, 'afci (falco montanus)_.
Ayas (Layas, Aiazzo, etc.), port of Cilician Armenia,
Sea fight at.
Azure, Ultramarine (_lapis armenus_) Mines in Badakhshan,
Baba Buzurg, worshipped by the Lurs.
Baber, E. C, on Ch'eng-tu,
on wild oxen of Tibet;
Gold River (Brius);
the word Caindu;
site of battle between Kublai and king of Mien;
descent of Mien.
Bab-ul-abwah, "The Gate of Gates," Pass of Derbend.
Babylon, Babylonia (Cairo or Egypt),
Bacsi, _see_ Bakhshi.
Bactria, its relation to Greece.
Bacu, Sea of (Caspian).
legend of Alexandrian pedigree of its kings;
forms of the name;
great river of (Upper Oxus).
Badger, Rev. Dr. G.P.
Badruddin Lu-lu, last Atabeg of Mosul.
Baghdad (Baudas), Baldac, taken by Alau, Hulaku,
the miracle of the mountain.
---- Archbishop of.
---- its indigo (_baccadeo_).
Bagratidae, of Armenia,
Baha-uddin Ayaz, Wazir of Kalhaat.
Baha-ul-hakh, the Saint of Multan.
Baiburt (Paipurth), Castle of.
seizes throne of Persia;
displaced and killed by Ghazan;
alleged to be a Christian.
Bailo, the title,
Bakhshi (Bacsi), Lamas,
various meanings of the word.
Bakhtyaris of Luristan, the.
Baku, oil fields of,
Sea of (Caspian).
_Balalaika_, a two-stringed Tartar instrument.
_Balanjariyah, devoted lieges_.
Baldac, _see_ Baghdad.
_Baldacchini (Baudekins)_, brocades made at Baghdad.
Baldwin II. (de Courtenay), last Latin Emperor of Constantinople.
Bali, Island of.
---- in Abyssinia.
_Balish_ (a money of account).
_Balista_, always a crossbow in mediaeval times.
Ballads, Genoese, on sea-fights at Ayas and Curzola.
Balor, Balaur, Bilaur, Malaur, Bolor.
_Balos_, Malacca boats with two rudders.
Balthazar, of the Magi.
_Balustrade_, etymology of the word.
Bamboo (always called canes by Polo),
its multifarious uses;
Kublai's Chandu Palace made of;
great, on banks of Caramoran river;
explode loudly when burning;
large in Tibet;
in Che kiang.
Bamian, caves at,
huge recumbent image at.
_Bam-i-Duniah_, "Roof of the World".
Bandar Abbas (Bandar-Abbasi).
Bangala, _see_ Bengal.
Banzaroff, Dorji, on Shamanism.
Baptism, accompanied by branding, in Abyssinia.
Barac (Borrak), Khan of Chagatai,
his war with Arghun.
Baradaeus, Jacob, or James Zanzale, Bishop of Edessa.
Barberino, Francesco da.
Bardshir, Bardsir, Bard-i-Ardeshir.
Bargu (Barguchin Tugrum, or Barguti), plain.
_Barguerlac, Syrrhaptes Pallasii_, a kind of sand grouse,
its migration into England.
Barin, Mongol tribe.
Bark, money made from,
fine clothes from.
Barka (Barca), Khan, ruler of Kipchak,
his war with Hulaku.
_Barkut, burgut (bearcoote)_, eagle trained to the chase.
Barlaam and Josaphat, Story of Saints, from Legend of Buddha.
_Baron-tala_, name applied by Mongols to Tibet.
Barons (Shieng or Sing), Kaan's twelve.
Barros, John de,
Barsauma (St. Barsamo).
Barskul (Barscol), "Leopard Lake".
Bartizan, Kublai's wooden.
Barus, Barros (Sumatra), its camphor.
Bashpah, Lama, and the Mongol character called after him.
Basma, _see_ Pasei.
_Basmuls_ (Guasmuls), half-breeds.
Basra (Bastra), noted for its date-groves.
Baths, natural hot, near Hormuz,
public at Kinsay.
Bats, large, in India.
Battas of Sumatra, and cannibalism.
Batthala, Bettelar (Patlam in Ceylon).
Battles, Kublai _v._ Nayan,
Tartars _v._ king of Mien;
Caidu _v._ Khan's forces;
Borrak and Arghun;
Arghun and Ahmad;
Hulaku and Barka;
Toktai and Nogai.
Batu, Khan of Kipchak, founder of Sarai,
made by Polo into two kings--Sain and Patu;
his character and cruelty.
Baudas, _see_ Baghdad.
_Baudekins_ (baldacchini), brocades made at Baghdad.
_Bauduin de Sebourc_.
Bavaria, Duke Ernest of, a mediaeval Romance.
Bayan Chingsian, Kublai's greatest Captain,
prophecy connected with his name;
his conquest of Manzi or South China;
his history and character;
his exceptional cruelty at Chang-chau.
Bayan, Khagan of the Avars.
Bayan (Baian), Kublai's Master of the Hounds.
Bayan, son of Nasruddin.
white in Far North.
Beast and bird patterns, _see_ Patterns.
Beaujeu, William de, Master of the Temple.
_Argons_, or half-breeds;
the Ungrat or Kungurat tribe;
people of Coloman;
Beds, their arrangement in India.
Beef, not eaten in Maabar, except by the Govi,
formerly eaten in India.
Bejas of the Red Sea Coast.
Belgutai, Chinghiz's stepbrother.
"Belic" for "Melic".
Bell at Cambaluc, great.
_Belledi, balladi_, ginger so called,
Spanish use of the word.
Benares, brocades of.
Bendocquedar, _see_ Bundukdari, Bibars.
Benedict XII., Pope.
king of Mien (Burma) and;
why Polo couples these;
relations between Burma and;
claim asserted by king of Burma to;
alleged Mongol invasion of;
its distance from Caugigu;
confused with Pegu by Polo.
Beni Buya dynasty.
Benjamin of Tudela, on Alexander's Rampart,
on the Gryphon.
Benzoin, etymology of.
Berard, Thos., Master of the Temple.
Berbera, Sea of.
Bereke, Batu Khan's brother.
Bernier, on Kashmir women's beauty.
_Berrie_, the Arabic Bariya, a desert.
Bettelar, rendezvous of Pearl Fishers.
_Beyamini_, wild oxen of Tibet.
Bhamo, and River of.
Bhartpur, prophecy about.
"Bhim's Baby," colossal idol at Dhamnar caves.
Bianco's, Andrea, maps.
Bibars Bundukdari, _see_ Bundukdari.
_Bigoncio_, a firkin.
their robber raids;
Lumri or Numri.
Binh Thuan (Champa).
Bir-dhul, or Bujardawal, cap. of Ma'bar.
Birdwood, Sir G.
Birhors of Chuta Nagpur.
Bir-Pandi, or Pira-Bandi.
Birthday, celebration of Kublai's.
Bishop, of Male Island,
story of an Abyssinian.
Blac, Blachia (Lac, Wallach).
_Black-bone_, Chinese name for Lolos.
Black Crane (Kara Togorue).
---- Saints, White Devils in India.
---- Sea, M. Maurum v. Nigrum.
---- Sect of Tibet.
Blacker, the more beautiful.
Blochmann, Professor H.
Block-books, supposed to have been introduced from China,.
Block-printing in Persia..
Boar's tusks, huge (Hipp.).
Bode, Baron de.
Bodleian MS. of Polo,
list of miniatures in.
Boeach, mistake for Locac, and its supposed position.
Boemond, Prince of Antioch and Tripoli, letter of Bibar to.
Boga (Buka), a great Mongol officer, delivers Arghun.
Bohra, sect of W. India.
Boikoff, Russian Envoy.
Boleyn, Anne, her use of buckram.
Bolgana, Queen, see Bulughan.
Bolgarskoye (called also Uspenskoye).
_Bolghar, borgal, borghal_, Russia leather.
Bolghar (Bolgara), on the Volga,
Bolivar, Padre, S.J., his account of the Condor (_Rukh_) of Africa.
Bonaparte, Prince Roland, _Recueil des Documents de l'Epoque Mongole_.
Boniface VIII., Pope.
Bonoccio di Mestro.
Bonpos, old Tibetan Sect.
Book of Marco Polo,
original language, French;
oldest Italian MS.;
"Geographic Text," in rude French;
various types of Text--
(2) Pauthier's MSS.
(3) Pipino's Latin,
(4) Ramusio's Italian edition,
probable truth about it;
bases of it.
MS. and some of its peculiarities;
general view of the relations of the texts;
notice of an old Irish version;
how far influenced in form by Rustician;
perhaps in description of battles;
diffusion and number of MSS.;
basis of present version;
specimens of different recensions of text;
distribution of MSS.;
list of MSS.;
Tabular view of the filiation of chief MSS.;
titles of works cited;
Bore in Hang-chau Estuary.
_Borgal, see Bolghar_.
Born, Bertram de.
Borneo, camphor, _see_ Camphor.
---- tailed men of.
Boro Bodor, Buddhist Monument, Java.
Borrak, Amir, Prince of Kerman (Kutlugh Sultan?).
---- Khan of Chaghatai, _see_ Barac.
Bouqueran, _see_ Buckram.
Boxwood forests in Georgia.
Bra, the word.
Bracelets, in Anin.
Bragadino, Marco, husband of Marco Polo's daughter, Fantina.
fish-charmers to the pearl fishery;
their character and virtues;
Palladian legend of.
Brahma's temple, Hang-chau.
Brakhimof, early capital of Bulgaria.
Brambanan, ruins at.
Bran (Tibetan _tsamba_), parched barley.
Brazil wood, in Locac,
manner of growth;
in Coilum (_Coilumin_);
vicissitudes of the word;
its use prohibited by Painters' Guild.
Bretschneider, Dr. Emil (_Medical Researches_), ruins of Bolghar,
the Uighur character;
use of muslin in Samarkand;
on _nakh_ and _nachetti_;
Hulaku's expedition to West Asia;
an extract from the _Yuean Si_;
the _Stipa inebrians_;
the Utiken Uigurs;
death of Chinghiz;
_tung lo_ or _kumiz_;
Chinese intoxicating drinks;
regulations for time of dearth;
introduction of plants from Asia into China;
Cara-jang and Chagan-jang;
rhubarb in Tangut;
Polo's "large pears";
on Mongol invasion of Poland and Silesia.
Brichu (Brius, the Upper Kiang).
Bridges of Pulisanghin,
Zayton, or Chinchau.
Brine-wells, _see_ Salt.
Brius River (Kin-sha Kiang, Gold River).
---- Sir Thomas,
Bruce's Abyssinian Chronology.
Brunetto Latini's Book, _Li Tresor_.
Bruun, Professor Ph., of Odessa.
Bucephala, of Alexander.
Bucephalus, breed of.
Buckrams, of Arzinga,
Buddha, _see_ Sakya Muni.
Buddhism, Buddhists, _see_ Idolatry, Idolaters.
Buffaloes in Anin.
Buffet and vessels of Kublai's table.
Buka (Boga), a great Mongol chief.
Buka Bosha, 1st Mongolian Governor of Bokhara.
Buku Khan, of the Hoei-Hu, or Uighurs.
Bularguji (Bularguchi), "The Keeper of Lost Property".
Bulughan (Bolgana), Queen.
Bundukdar, Amir Alauddin Aidekin ("The Arblaster").
Bundukdari, Malik Dahir Ruknuddin Bibars (Bendocquedar), Mameluke Sultan
killed by kumiz.
Buraets, or Burgats, the.
Burma (or Ava), King of (_See_ also Mien.).
Burning the Dead, _see_ Cremation.
---- heretical books.
---- paper-money, etc., at funerals.
---- Widows in South India.
Burton, Captain R.F.
Bushell, Dr. S.W., his visit to Shang-tu,
on the Khitan Scripts;
orders for post-horses.
Butchers, in Kashmir,
Ca' Polo, Ca' Milion, Corte del Millioni, the house of the
Polos at Venice.
Caaju, castle of.
Cachanfu (P'uchau-fu, Ho-chung-fu).
Caesalpinia; and _see_ Brazil.
Caesarea of Cappadocia (Casaria, Kaisariya).
Caichu, castle of (Kiai-chau, or Hiai-chau?).
Caidu, _see_ Kaidu.
Caiju, on the Hwang-Ho.
---- on the Kiang, Kwachau.
a great port of Commerce;
meaning of name;
Caindu (K'ien-ch'ang), a region of Eastern Tibet.
Caingan (Ciangan, Kiahing).
ventilators at. (_See_ Babylon.).
Caiton, _see_ Zayton.
Cala Ataperistan (Kala' Atishparastan), "Castle of the Fire Worshippers".
Calaiate, Calatu, _see_ Kalhat.
Calamanz, the word.
Caldwell, Rev. Dr. R., on devil-dancing among the Shanars,
on name of Ceylon;
on Shahr-Mandi and Sundara Pandi;
on the Tower at Negapatam;
etymology of Chilaw;
singular custom of arrest;
food of horses;
Cail, or Kayal city;
King Ashar of Cail;
etymology of Sapong;
Calendar, Ecclesiastical Buddhist,
of Documents relating to Marco Polo and his family.
King of, and his costume.
Calif, _see_ Khalif.
Caligine, Calizene (Khalij, a canal from Nile).
Camadi (City of Dakianus) ruined.
Cambaluc (Khanbaligh, or Peking), capital of Cathay,
Kublai's return thither after defeating Nayan;
its size, walls, gates, and streets, the Bell Tower, etc.;
period of khan's stay there;
its suburbs and hostelries;
cemeteries, women, patrols;
the Emperor's Mint;
palace of the Twelve Barons;
roads radiating from;
Cambay (Cambaet, Cambeth, Kunbayat), kingdom of.
Cambuscan, of Chaucer, corruption of Chinghiz.
Camel-bird, _see_ Ostrich.
Camels, mange treated with oil,
camlets from wool of;
alleged to be eaten in Madagascar;
really eaten in Magadoxo;
ridden in war.
Camexu, Kamichu, _see_ Campichu.
Camphor (_Laurus Camphora_) trees in Fo-kien.
---- of Sumatra,
earliest mention of:
description of the tree, _Dryabalanops Camphora_;
value attached by Chinese to;
recent prices of;
its use with betel.
Campichu (Kanchau), city of.
Camul (Kamul), province.
_Camut_, fine shagreen leather.
Canal, Grand, of China.
Canale, Cristoforo, MS. by.
---- Martino da, French Chronicle of Venice by.
Canes, Polo's name for bamboos.
ascribed to Tibetans, Kashmiris, etc;
to Hill-people in Fo-kien;
to islanders in Seas of China and India;
regulations of the Battas;
ascribed to Andaman islanders.
Cannibals, i.e. Caribs.
Cansay, _see_ Kinsay.
Cape Comorin, see Comari; Temple at.
---- Corrientes (of Currents).
---- of Good Hope.
_Capidoglio_ (_Capdoille_), sperm-whale.
Caracoron (Kara Korum).
Carajan (Caraian, Karajang, or Yun-nan), province.
Caramoran River (Hwang-Ho).
Carans, or Scarans.
Caraonas (Karaunahs), a robber tribe.
_Carbine_, etymology of.
Caribs, i.e. cannibals.
of Turcomania (Turkey);
Carrion, shot from engines.
_Carta Catalana_, Catalan Map of 1375.
_Carte_, _a la_.
Casan, see Ghazan Khan.
Casaria (Caesarea of Cappadocia).
Casem, _see_ Kishm.
Caspian Sea (Sea of Ghel or Ghelan),
ancient error about;
its numerous names.
Cassay, _see_ Kinsay.
Castaldi, Panfilo, his alleged invention of movable types.
Castelli, P. Cristoforo di.
Casvin (Kazvin), a kingdom of Persia.
Cathay (Northern China),
origin of name;
Cambaluc, the capital of, _see_ Cambaluc;
Cathayans, v. Ahmad;
politeness, filial duty, gaol deliveries, gambling.
Catholicos, of Sis;
of the Nestorians.
Cators (_chakors_), great partridges.
Cat's Head Tablet.
Cats in China.
Caulking, of Chinese ships.
Cauly, Kauli (Corea).
Causeway, south of the Yellow River.
Cauterising children's heads.
Cavo de Eli.
---- de Diab, ii. 417_n_.
Census, of houses in Kinsay,
Ceremonial of Mongol Court, _see_ Etiquette.
customs of natives;
mountain of Adam's (_alias_ Sagamoni Borcan's) Sepulchre;
history of Buddha;
origin of idolatry;
subject to China.
Ceylon, King of, his pearl-ponds.
Chachan (Charchan, Charchand).
Chagatai (Sigatay), Kublai's uncle, son of Chinghiz.
Chaghan-Nor ("White Lake"), N.E. of Kamul.
---- (Chaghan, or Tsaghan Balghasun), site of Kublai's palace.
_Chakor (cator)_, great partridges.
Chalcedony and jasper.
Chalukya Malla kings.
Champa (Chamba), kingdom of,
the king and his wives;
invaded by king of Lukyn.
Chandu (Shangtu), city of peace of Kublai.
---- in Fo-kien,
Christian remains at.
Ch'ang Ch'un, _travels_.
_Chang-kia-Kau_, the gate in the Great Wall.
Ch'ang Te (the Chinese traveller), _Si Shi Ki_.
Chang Te-hui, a Chinese teacher.
Chang Yao, Chinese general.
_Chao de Bux (Cavo di Bussi)_, boxwood.
Chaohien, Sung Prince.
_Chao-Khanahs_, bank-note offices in Persia.
Chao Naiman Sume Khotan, or Shangtu, "city of the 108 temples".
_Chao_, title of Siamese and Shan Princes.
Characters, written, four acquired by Marco Polo,
one in Manzi, but divers spoken dialects.
Charchan (Chachan of Johnson, Charchand).
Charcoal, store in Peking, palace garden of.
Buddhistic and Chinese;
Charles VIII., of France.
_Chaukans_, temporary wives at Kashgar.
Cheapness in China.
Cheetas, or hunting leopards.
Cheh-kiang, cremation common during Sung dynasty in,
roads into Fo-kien from.
Cheinan, Gulf of.
Chenchau, or Iching hien.
Chenchu (Chang-y), conspires with Vanchu _v._ Ahmad.
Ch'eng-Tsu (Yung-lo), Emperor.
Cheu, the Seven.
Chibai and Chiban.
Chien-ch'ang (Caindu). (_See_ K'ien ch'ang.).
Chihli, plain of.
Chilianwala, battlefield of.
Chilu-ku, last Karakhitai king.
Chin, Sea of.
_Imperial Maritime Customs Returns for 1900_;
paved roads in;
relations with Korea and Japan;
king of Malacca at Court of;
trade from Arabia to;
from Sofala in Africa.
(_See_ also Cathay and Manzi.).
_Chinar_, Oriental planes.
Chinchau, Chincheo, Chinchew, Chwanchew, Tswanchau, _see_ Zayton.
Polo ignorant of the languages;
funeral and mourning customs;
feeling towards Kublai;
religion and irreligion;
their politeness and filial piety;
character for integrity;
written character and varieties of dialect;
pagodas at Negapatam and elsewhere;
coins found in Southern India;
trade and intercourse with Southern India.
reported to be a Christian;
Aung Khan's saying of;
his use of Uighur character;
Erzrum taken by;
his respect for Christians;
subjugates Kutchluk Khan;
his campaigns in Tangut;
Rubruquis' account of;
made king of the Tartars;
his system of conquests;
and Prester John;
divining by twigs--presage of victory;
defeats and slays Prester John;
his death and burial-place;
his aim at conquest of the world;
defeats the Merkits;
relations between Prester John's and his families;
the Horiad tribe;
his prophecy about Kublai;
rewards his captains;
defeats and slays Taiyang Khan;
his alleged invasion of Tibet;
his mechanical artillery;
Table of Genealogy of his House.
Ching-hoang tower at Hangchau-fu.
Chingkim, Chinkin, Chimkin, Kublai's favourite son and heir-apparent,
Chingsang, Ching-siang (Chinisan), title of a Chief Minister of State.
Chingtsu, or Yung-lo, Emperor.
_Chini_, coarse sugar.
_Chin-tan_, or _Chinasthana_, Chinese etymology of.
Chinuchi, Cunichi, Kublai's Masters of the Hounds.
account of Kublai's expedition _v._;
history of expedition;
relations with China and Korea.
_Choiach_, the term.
Chola, or Sola-desam (Soli, Tanjore).
Chonka (Fo-kien), kingdom of,
explanation of name.
Chorcha, _see_ Churchin
churches in China, early;
inscription of Singanfu;
Alans in the Mongol service.
Christianity, attributed to Chinghizide princes,
Kublai's views on.
---- former, of Socotra.
Christians, of the Greek rite, Georgians,
Jacobite and Nestorian, at Mosul;
among the Kurds;
and the Khalif of Baghdad--the miracle of the mountain and the
the miracle of the stone removed;
in Chinghiz's camp;
Erguiul and Sinju;
Nayan and the Khan's decision;
at Kublai's Court;
churches at Chin-kiang fu;
Male and Female Islands;
Abyssinia and fire baptism;
of the Girdle;
in Lac (Wallachia).
_Chrocho_, the Rukh (_q.v._).
Chronology and chronological data discussed,
first journey of the Polos;
war between Barka and Hulaku;
Polos' stay at Bokhara;
their departure and their second journey from Acre;
their return voyage and arrival in Persia;
story of Nigudar;
destruction of Ismailites;
history of Chinghiz;
Kublai's birth and accession;
visit to Yun-nan;
battle with the king of Mien;
wars between China and Burma;
value of Indo-Chinese;
conquest of S. China;
capture of Siang-yang;
Kublai's dealings with Japan;
Marco's visit to Japan;
Kublai's Java expedition;
review of the Malay;
events in Ma'bar;
cessation of Chinese navigation to India;
Mongol revolutions in Persia, notes from;
wars of Toktai and Noghai.
(_see_ also _Dates_.)
Chuchu, in Kiang-si.
Chughis, _see_ Jogis.
Chungkwe, "Middle Kingdom".
Chung-tu, or Yen-King (Peking, _see_ Cambaluc).
Churches, Christian, in Kashgar,
early, in China;
Churchin, or Niuche, Churche, Chorcha (the Manchu Country).
Cielstan, Suolstan (Shulistan).
story in Herodotus of;
Circumcision of Socotrans,
forcible, of a bishop;
Cirophanes, or Syrophenes, story of.
Civet, of Sumatra.
Clement IV., Pope.
Coal (Polo's blackstone),
in Scotland in Middle Ages;
Cobbler, the one-eyed, and the miracle of the mountain.
Cocachin (Kukachin), the Lady.
Cochin-China, the mediaeval Champa (_q.v._).
Coco-nut (Indian nut).
Coco Islands, of Hiuen T'sang.
Coeur de Lion, his mangonels.
Coffins, Chinese, in Tangut.
Cogachin (Hukaji), Kublai's son, King of Carajan.
Cogatal, a Tartar envoy to the Pope.
Coilum (Kollam, Kaulam, Quilon), kingdom of,
identity of meaning of name;
Church of St. George at;
modern state of;
Kublai's intercourse with.
Coilumin, _columbino, colomni_, so-called Brazil-wood,
Coins of Cilician Armenia,
Agathocles and Pantaleon;
Seljukian with Lion and Sun;
found at Siang-Yang;
Tartar heathen princes with Mahomedan and Christian formulae.
Coja (Koja), Tartar envoy from Persia to the Khan.
Cold, intense, in Kerman,
Coleridge, verses on Kublai's Paradise.
_Colombino_, _see_ Coilumin.
Colon, _see_ Coilum.
Colossal Buddhas, recumbent.
Columbum, _see_ Coilum.
Columbus, Polo paralleled with,
Comari, Comori (Cape Comorin, Travancore),
Combermere, Lord, prophecy applied to.
_Comercque_, Khan's custom-house.
Compartments, in hulls of ships.
Competitive Examinations in beauty.
Conchi, King of the North.
Concubines, how the Khan selects.
Condor, its habits,
Temple's account of;
Padre Bolivar's of the African.
Condur and Sondur.
_Condux_, sable or beaver.
Conia, Coyne (Iconium).
Conjurers, the Kashmirian,
(_see_ also Sorcerers.).
Convents, _see_ Monasteries.
Cookery, Tartar horse.
Cooper, T.T., traveller on Tibetan frontier.
Copper, token currency of Mahomed Tughlak,
imported to Malabar;
Coral, valued in Kashmir, Tibet, etc.
Corn, Emperor's store and distribution of.
Coromandel (Maabar), _see_ Mabar.
Corsairs, _see_ Pirates.
Corte del Milione, _see_ Ca' Polo.
---- Sabbionera at Venice.
Cotan, _see_ Khotan.
Cotton, stuffs of,
bushes of gigantic size.
Counts in Vokhan,
Courts of Justice, at Kinsay.
_Couvade_, custom of.
Cow-dung, its use in Maabar.
Cowries (porcelain shells, pig shells), used for money, etc.,
procured from Locac.
_Cralantur_, its meaning (?).
Cranes, five kinds of.
in Middle Ages.
Cremesor, Hot Region (Garmsir).
Cribhoja (Cribhodja), country.
Crocodiles, _see_ Alligators.
Cross, legend of the Tree of the,
gibes against, on Nayan's defeat;
on monument at Singanfu.
_Crusca MS._ of Polo.
Cubits, astronomical altitude estimated by.
Cublay, _see_ Kublai.
Cudgel, Tartars' use of.
Cuiju (Kwei-chau), province.
Cuinet, Vital, on Turkman villages,
on Mosul Kurds.
Cuncun (Han-Chung) province.
Cunningham, General A.
Curds and Curdistan.
Currency, copper token, in India,
Cowrie, _see_ Cowries.
Currency, paper, in China,
attempt to institute in Persia;
Current, strong south along East Coast of Africa.
Currents, Cape of, or Corrientes.
Curzola Island, Genoese victory at,
Polo's galley at;
list of Pamirs.
---- Hon. R., on invention of printing.
Cuy Khan (Kuyuk).
Cypresses, sacred, of the Magians.
Cyrus, his use of camels in battle near Sardis.
_Dadian_, title of Georgian kings.
Dagroian, kingdom of, in Sumatra,
probable position of.
Daitu, Taidu, Tatu (Peking), Kublai's new city of Cambaluc.
Dakianus, city of (Camadi).
_Dalada_, tooth relique of Buddha.
Dalai Lama, with four hands.
Dalivar, Dilivar, Dilawar (Lahore), a province of India.
Damasks, with _cheetas_ in them,
(_see_ also Patterns.).
Dancing girls, in Hindu temples.
Dandolo, Andrea, Admiral of Venetian fleet at Curzola,
his captivity and suicide;
funeral at Venice.
D'Anghieria, Pietro Martire.
Dante, number of MSS.,
does not allude to Polo;
_Dardas_, stuff embroidered in gold.
Dariel, Pass of (Gate of the Alans).
the Golden King.
Dark Ocean of the South.
---- land of,
how the Tartars find their way out;
the people and their peltry;
Alexander's legendary entrance into;
Dumb trade of.
_Darraj_, black partridge, its peculiar call.
Daruna, salt mines.
Dasht, or Plain, of Baharak.
Dashtab, hot springs.
Dasht-i-Lut (Desert of Lut).
Dashtistan tribe and district.
Dates (chronology) in Polo's book, generally erroneous.
---- (trees or fruit),
diet of fish, etc.
Daughters of Marco Polo.
David, king of Abyssinia.
David, king of Georgia (Dawith).
Davids, Professor T.W. Rhys, _Buddhist Birth Stories_.
Davis, Sir John F.
Dead, disposal of the, in Tangut,
by the Battas.
---- burning of the, _see_ Cremation.
eating the, _see_ Cannibalism.
Debt, singular arrest for.
_Decima_, or Tithe on bequest.
Decimal organisation of Tartar armies.
De la Croix, Petis.
Delhi, Sultans of.
D'Ely, Mount, _see_ Eli.
Demoiselle Crane, _anthropoides virgo_.
Derbend, Wall of (_see_ also Iron Gate of.).
Deserts of Kerman or of Lut,
D'Evreux, Father Yves.
Dhafar (Dofar, Thafar),
two places of the name.
_Dharani_, mystic charms.
Dhulkarnain (Alex.), _see_ Zulkarnain.
Diamonds in India, how found,
diffusion of legend about.
Dilawar, Polo's Dihar.
Dimitri II., Thawdadebuli, king of Georgia.
Dinar, _see_ Bezant.
Dinar of Red Gold.
Dinh Tien-hwang, king of An-nam.
Dir, chief town of Panjkora.
Dirawal, ancient capital of the Bhattis.
Dirhem-Kub, Shah Mahomed, founder of Hormuz dynasty.
Dish of Sakya or of Adam.
Diul-Sind, Lower Sind.
Divination by twigs or arrows.
Dixan, branding with cross at.
Dizabulus, pavilion of.
Djao (Chao) Namian Sume (Kaipingfu).
Doctors at Kinsay.
Dofar, _see_ Dhafar.
conjectures as to.
Dogs, the Khan's mastiffs,
fierce in Cuiju.
Dog-sledging in Far North,
notes on dogs.
Dolfino, Ranuzzo, husband of Polo's daughter, Moreta.
Dominicans, sent with Polos but turn back.
_D' or plain_, the expression.
Doria, family at Meloria.
Admiral of Genoese Fleet sent to Adriatic;
his tomb and descendants;
at Meloria with six sons.
---- Octaviano, death of.
---- Tedisio, exploring voyage of.
D'Orleans, Prince Henri.
Douglas, Rev. Dr. C.
Doyley, Sir Fulke.
Drawers, enormous, of Badakhshan women.
Drums, sound of in certain sandy districts.
Du Bose, Rev. H.C.
Ducat, or sequin.
Dudley, _Arcano del Mare_.
Duel, mode in S. India of.
Dufour, on mediaeval artillery.
Duhalde, Plan of Ki-chau,
or T'si-ning chau.
Duncan, Rev. Moir.
_Dungen (Tungani)_, or converts.
Duplicates in geography.
Duerer's Map of Venice, so-called.
_Dushab_, sweet liquor or syrup.
Duties, on Great Kiang,
on goods at Kinsay and Zayton;
(_See_ also Customs.).
Dutthagamini, king of Ceylon.
Dzegun-tala, name applied to Mongolia.
Eagle mark on shoulder of Georgian kings.
Eagles, trained to kill large game.
---- white, in the Diamond Country.
Eagle-wood, origin of the name. (_See_ Lign-aloes.).
East, its state, circa, 1260.
Edward II., correspondence with Tartar princes.
Effeminacy, in Chinese palaces.
Eggs of Ruc and Aepyornis.
Elephants, Kublai carried on a timber bartizan by four,
the king of Mien's;
numbers of men alleged to be carried by;
how the Tartars routed;
Madagascar and Zanghibar;
trade in teeth of;
carried off by the Ruc;
used in war;
not bred in Abyssinia;
training of African;
war of the.
Eli, Ely, Elly (Hili), kingdom of.
Elixir vitae of the Jogis.
Elliot, Sir Walter.
Emad, Ed-din Abu Thaher, founder of the Kurd dynasty.
Embroidery of silk at Kerman,
leather in Guzerat.
Empoli, Giovanni d'.
_Empusa_, the Arabian Nesnas.
Enchanters, at Socotra.
Enchantments, of the Caraonas.
(_See_ also Conjurers, Socerers.).
Engano Island, legend.
Engineers, their growing importance in Middle Ages.
England, Kublai's message to king of,
correspondence of Tartar princes with kings of.
English trade and character in Asia.
Enlightenment, Land of.
_Erba_, poisonous plant or grass.
Erculin, Arculin (an animal).
Erdeni Tso (Erdenidsu), or Erdeni Chao Monastery.
Eremites (Rishis), of Kashmir.
_Erkeun_, (_Ye li ke un_), Mongol for Christians.
Erzinjan, Erzinga, Eriza (Arzinga).
_Eschiel_, the word.
Esher (Shehr, Es-shehr),
trade with India, incense, Ichthyophagi;
Essentemur (Isentimur), Kublai's grandson, king of Carajan.
_Estimo_, Venetian, or forced loan.
Ethiopia and India, confused.
Etiquette of the Mongol Court.
azure and lazuli;
Mawmet and Mummery;
Jadu and Yadah;
camut, borgal, shagreen;
Chinuchi or Chunichi;
Manjanik, mangonel, mangle, etc.;
Chini and Misri;
Tembul and Betel;
Sappan and Brazil;
rook (in chess);
Erculin and Vair;
---- (of Proper Names),
Mangla and Nebila;
procured from Bengal.
said to flow into the Caspian.
Euxine, _see_ Black Sea.
Execution of Princes of the Blood, mode of.
Facen, Dr. J.
Faghfur (Facfur, Emperor of Southern China),
meaning of title;
his effeminate diversions;
decay of his palace.
Faizabad in Badakhshan.
Fakhruddin Ahmad, Prince of Hormuz.
Falcons, of Kerman,
Saker and Lanner;
_Fanchan, P'ingchang_, title of a second class Cabinet Minister.
Fan-ching, siege of.
_Fang, see_ Squares.
Fansur, in Sumatra, kingdom of.
Fan Wen-hu, or Fan-bunko, a General in Japanese Expedition.
Fariab, or Pariab.
Faro of Constantinople.
Farriers, none in S. India.
Fashiyah, Atabeg dynasty.
Fasting days, Buddhist.
Fattan, in Ma'bar.
Fatten, 'Ali Shah.
Fausto, Vettor, his Quinquereme.
Fazl, Ibn Hassan (Fazluieh-Hasunieh).
Feili, Lurs dynasty.
Female attendants on Chinese Emperors.
Ferlec, in Sumatra, kingdom of (Parlak),
Fernandez, or Moravia, Valentine.
Festivals, Order of the Kaan's.
Fiag, or Pog River.
_Fidawi_, Ismailite adepts.
Filial Piety in China.
Filippi, Professor F. de, Silk industry in Ghilan.
Fiordelisa, daughter of younger Maffeo Polo.
---- supposed to be Nicolo Polo's second wife.
---- wife of Felice Polo.
Firdus, Ismailite Castle.
Fire, affected by height of Pamir Plain,
regulations at Kinsay.
Fire-baptism, ascribed to Abyssinians.
Fire-worship, or rockets, in Persia,
by the Sensin in Cathay.
Firishta, the historian.
Fish miracle in Georgia,
in the Caspian;
and date diet;
supply at Kinsay;
food for cattle;
stored for man and beast.
Fish-oil, used for rubbing ships.
Florin, or ducat.
Flour (Sago), trees producing.
Fo-kien, _see_ Fu-chau.
Folin (Byzantine Empire).
Foot-mark on Adam's Peak, _q.v._.
Foot-posts in Cathay.
Formosa, Plain (Harmuza).
Forsyth, Sir T. Douglas.
Foundlings, provision for.
Fowls with hair.
_Fra terre_ (Interior).
in Volga region
Francolin (darraj of the Persians), black partridge.
Frankincense, _see_ Incense.
Frederic II., Emperor,
his account of the Tartars;
story of implicit obedience;
his leather money;
the original language of Polo's Book;
its large diffusion in that age.
French Expedition up the Kamboja River.
Frenchmen, riding long like.
French mission and missionaries in China.
Frere, Sir B.
Fu-chau (Fo-kien, Fuju),
wild hill people of;
tooth relique at.
Fuen (Fen) ho River.
Funeral rites, Chinese,
of the Kaans;
(_See_ also Dead.).
Fungul, city of.
Furs, of the Northern Regions.
Fusang, Mexico (?).
Fuzo, _see_ Fu-chau.
Gabala, Bishop of.
Gagry, maritime defile of.
Gaisue, officer of Kublai's Mathematical Board.
_Galeasse_, Venetian gallery.
Galleys of the Middle Ages, war,
arrangement of rowers;
number of oars;
tactics in fight;
toil in rowing;
strength and cost of crew;
staff of fleet;
Joinville's description of;
Galley-slaves not usual in Middle Ages.
Gambling, prohibited by Kublai.
Game, _see_ Sport.
Game Laws, Mongol.
Game, supplied to Court of Cambaluc.
Buddhist name for Yun-nan.
Ganfu, port of Kinsay.
Ganja, gate of.
Gantanpouhoa, Kublai's son.
Gardenia, fruit and dyes.
Gardiner's (misprinted Gardner's) _Travels_.
Garmsir, Ghermseer (Cremesor), Hot Region.
Garnier, Lieut. Francis (journey to Talifu).
Garrisons, Mongol, in Cathay and Manzi,
disliked by the people.
Gate of Iron, ascribed to Derbend.
Gates, of Kaan's palace,
Gat-pauls, Gatopaul, Gatos-paulas.
Gaur (_Bos Gaurus, etc._).
Gelath in Imeretia, Iron Gate at.
_Geliz_, Spanish for silk dealer.
Genealogy of Polos,
errors as given by Barbaro, etc., in;
of House of Chinghiz.
Genoa, Polo's captivity at.
---- and Pisa, rivalry, and wars of.
---- and Venice, rivalry and wars of.
Genoese, their growth in skill and splendour,
character as seamen by poet of their own;
character by old Italian author;
capture of Soldaia;
their navigation of the Caspian;
trade in box-wood;
their merchants at Tabriz;
Gentile Plural names converted into local singulars.
Geographical Text of Polo's Book constantly quoted,
proofs that it is the original;
source of other texts.
George (Jirjis, Yurji, Gurgan), king of Tenduc,
of the time of Prester John;
a possible descendant of.
Georgia (Georgiana), beauty of,
and its inhabitants;
tablets engraved with.
German Follower of the Polos.
Ghaissuddin Balban (Asedin Soldan), Sultan of Delhi.
Gharan country, ruby mines in.
Ghazan (Casan) Khan of Persia, son of Arghun,
his regard for the Polos;
marries the Lady Kukachin;
his mosque at Tabriz;
set to watch the Khorasan frontier;
obtains the throne;
his object and accomplishments.
Ghel, or Ghelan (Ghel-u-chelan), Sea of, Caspian Sea.
Ghelle (Gili), silk of the Gil province.
Ghes, or Kenn (formerly Kish or Kais).
Ghiyas ed-din, last Prince of Kurd dynasty.
Ghori, or Aksarai River.
Giglioli, Professor H.
Gil, or Gilan, province.
Gill, Captain (_River of Golden Sand_).
Ginao, Mt. and Hot Springs.
Gindanes of Herodotus.
alleged to grow in Kiangnan;
different qualities and prices of;
mediaeval notices of.
Girdkuh, an Ismailite fortress, its long defence.
Girls, consecrated to idols in India.
Gittarchan, _see_ Astrakhan.
Glaza (Ayas, _q.v._).
Gleemen and jugglers, conquer Mien.
Gobernador, Straits of.
Gog and Magog (Ung and Mungul),
name suggested by Wall of China.
Goitre at Yarkand.
Golconda diamond mines.
Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh, their mystic meaning.
Gold dust in Tibet,
exchanged for salt in Caindu;
and nuggets in Carajan;
abundant in Yun-nan;
infinite in Chipangu;
in Sea of Chin Islands;
dust in Gulf of Cheinan Islands;
not found in Java;
the Malayo-Siamese territories;
vast accumulations in South India;
imported into Malabar;
and into Cambay;
purchased in Socotra.
Gold and silver towers of Mien.
---- cloths of. (_See_ Silk and Gold.).
---- of the Gryphons in Herodotus.
---- Teeth (Zardandan), Western Yun-nan.
---- to silver, relative value of.
Golden King and Prester John, tale of the.
---- Horde (kings of the Ponent).
_Golfo, Indigo di_.
Gomispola, Gomispoda, _see_ Gauenispola.
Gomushtapah, Wall of.
Gondophares, a king in the St. Thomas legends.
Gordon's "Ever Victorious Army".
_Gor Khar_, wild ass.
its limit and language.
Govy, a low caste in Maabar.
Gozurat, _see_ Guzerat.
Grail, Buddhist parallel to the Holy.
Grapes in Shan-si.
Great Bear (Meistre),
and Little, force of, and application of these epithets.
Great, or Greater Sea (Black Sea).
Greece, Bactria's relation to.
Greeks, in Turcomania,
and Greek tongue in Socotra;
possible relic of.
Green, Rev. D.D.
---- Island, legendary.
---- Mount, Cambaluc.
---- R., _see_ Tsien Tang.
Gregorieff, his excavations at Sarai.
Gregory X., Pope, _see_ Theobald of Piacenza.
_Griut_ (_kurut_), sour-curd.
Groat, Venetian _grosso_.
Groot, Professor, J.J.M. de.
Grueber and Dorville, Jesuit travellers.
_Grus, cinerea, antigone, leucogeranus, monachus_.
Gryphon, _see_ Rue.
Guasmul (Basmul), half-breeds.
_Gudderi_, musk animals, Tibet.