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THE TRAVELS OF MARCO POLO

THE COMPLETE YULE-CORDIER EDITION

Including the unabridged third edition (1903) of Henry Yule's annotated
translation, as revised by Henri Cordier; together with Cordier's later
volume of notes and addenda (1920)

IN TWO VOLUMES

VOLUME II

Containing the second volume of the 1903 edition and the 1920 volume of
addenda (two original volumes bound as one)

[Illustration: "MARCVS POLVS VENETVS TOTIVS ORBIS ET INDIE PEREGRATOR
PRIMVS"

Copied by permission from a painting bearing the above inscription in the
Gallery of Monsignore Padia in Rome]

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

THE BOOK OF MARCO POLO

APPENDICES

INDEX

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.

BOOK SECOND--(Continued).

PART II.

Journey to the West and South-West of Cathay.

XXXV.--HERE BEGINS THE DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERIOR OF CATHAY; AND FIRST OF
THE RIVER PULISANGHIN

NOTES.--1. Marco's Route. 2. The Bridge Pul-i-sangin, or Lu-ku-k'iao.

XXXVI.--ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF JUJU

NOTES.--1. The Silks called _Sendals_. 2. Chochau. 3. Bifurcation of Two
Great Roads at this point.

XXXVII.--THE KINGDOM OF TAIANFU

NOTES.--1. Acbaluc. 2. T'ai-yuan fu. 3. Grape-wine of that place.
4. P'ing-yang fu.

XXXVIII.--CONCERNING THE CASTLE OF CAICHU. THE GOLDEN KING AND PRESTER JOHN

NOTES.--1. The Story and Portrait of the _Roi d'Or_. 2. Effeminacy
reviving in every Chinese Dynasty.

XXXIX.--HOW PRESTER JOHN TREATED THE GOLDEN KING HIS PRISONER

XL.--CONCERNING THE GREAT RIVER CARAMORAN AND THE CITY OF CACHANFU

NOTES.--1. The Kara Muren. 2. Former growth of silk in Shan-si and
Shen-si. 3. The _akche_ or _asper_.

XLI.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF KENJANFU

NOTES.--1. Morus alba. 2. Geography of the Route since Chapter XXXVIII.
3. Kenjanfu or Si-ngan fu; the Christian monument there. 4. Prince
Mangala.

XLII.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF CUNCUN, WHICH IS RIGHT WEARISOME TO
TRAVEL THROUGH

NOTE.--The Mountain Road to Southern Shen-si.

XLIII.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF ACBALEC MANZI

NOTES.--1. Geography, and doubts about Acbalec. 2. Further Journey into
Sze-ch'wan.

XLIV.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF SINDAFU

NOTES.--1. Ch'eng-tu fu. 2. The Great River or _Kiang_. 3. The word
_Comereque_. 4. The Bridge-Tolls. 5. Correction of Text.

XLV.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF TEBET

NOTES.--1. The Part of Tibet and events referred to. 2. Noise of burning
bamboos. 3. Road retains its desolate character. 4. Persistence of
eccentric manners illustrated. 5. Name of the Musk animal.

XLVI.--FURTHER DISCOURSE CONCERNING TEBET

NOTES.--1. Explanatory. 2. "_Or de Paliolle_." 3. Cinnamon. 4. 5. Great
Dogs, and _Beyamini_ oxen.

XLVII.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF CAINDU

NOTES.--1. Explanation from Ramusio. 2. Pearls of Inland Waters. 3. Lax
manners. 4. Exchange of Salt for Gold. 5. Salt currency. 6. Spiced Wine.
7. Plant like the Clove, spoken of by Polo. Tribes of this Tract.

XLVIII.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF CARAJAN

NOTES.--1. Geography of the Route between Sindafu or Ch'eng-tu fu, and
Carajan or Yun-nan. 2. Christians and Mahomedans in Yun-nan. 3. Wheat.
4. Cowries. 5. Brine-spring. 6. Parallel.

XLIX.--CONCERNING A FURTHER PART OF THE PROVINCE OF CARAJAN

NOTES.--1. City of Talifu. 2. Gold. 3. Crocodiles. 4. Yun-nan horses
and riders. Arms of the Aboriginal Tribes. 5. Strange superstition and
parallels.

L.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF ZARDANDAN

NOTES.--1. Carajan and Zardandan. 2. The Gold-Teeth. 3. Male Indolence.
4. The Couvade. (See App. L. 8.) 5. Abundance of Gold. Relation of Gold
to Silver. 6. Worship of the Ancestor. 7. Unhealthiness of the climate.
8. Tallies. 9.-12. Medicine-men or Devil-dancers; extraordinary identity
of practice in various regions.

LI.--WHEREIN IS RELATED HOW THE KING OF MIEN AND BANGALA VOWED VENGEANCE
AGAINST THE GREAT KAAN

NOTES.--1. Chronology. 2. Mien or Burma. Why the King may have been
called King of Bengal also. 3. Numbers alleged to have been carried on
elephants.

LII.--OF THE BATTLE THAT WAS FOUGHT BY THE GREAT KAAN'S HOST AND HIS
SENESCHAL AGAINST THE KING OF MIEN

NOTES.--1. Nasruddin. 2. Cyrus's Camels. 3. Chinese Account of the
Action. General Correspondence of the Chinese and Burmese Chronologies.

LIII.--OF THE GREAT DESCENT THAT LEADS TOWARDS THE KINGDOM OF MIEN

NOTES.--1. Market-days. 2. Geographical difficulties.

LIV.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF MIEN, AND THE TWO TOWERS THAT ARE THEREIN, ONE
OF GOLD, AND THE OTHER OF SILVER

NOTES.--1. Amien. 2. Chinese Account of the Invasion of Burma. Comparison
with Burmese Annals. The City intended. The Pagodas. 3. Wild Oxen.

LV.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF BANGALA

NOTES.--1. Polo's view of Bengal; and details of his account illustrated.
2. Great Cattle.

LVI.--DISCOURSES OF THE PROVINCE OF CAUGIGU

NOTE.--A Part of Laos. Papesifu. Chinese Geographical Etymologies.

LVII.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF ANIN

NOTES.--1. The Name. Probable identification of territory. 2. Textual.

LVIII.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF COLOMAN

NOTES.--1. The Name. The Kolo-man. 2. Natural defences of Kwei-chau.

LIX.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF CUIJU

NOTES.--1. Kwei-chau. Phungan-lu. 2. Grass-cloth. 3. Tigers. 4. Great
Dogs. 5. Silk. 6. Geographical Review of the Route since Chapter LV.
7. Return to Juju.

BOOK SECOND.

(Continued.)

PART III.

Journey Southward through Eastern Provinces of Cathay and Manzi.

LX.--CONCERNING THE CITIES OF CACANFU AND CHANGLU

NOTES.--1. Pauthier's Identifications. 2. Changlu. The Burning of the
Dead ascribed to the Chinese.

LXI.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF CHINANGLI, AND THAT OF TADINFU, AND THE
REBELLION OF LITAN

NOTES.--1. T'si-nan fu. 2. Silk of Shan-tung. 3. Title _Sangon_. 4. Agul
and Mangkutai. 5. History of Litan's Revolt.

LXII.--CONCERNING THE NOBLE CITY OF SINJUMATU

NOTE.--The City intended. The Great Canal.

LXIII.--CONCERNING THE CITIES OF LINJU AND PIJU

NOTES.--1. Linju. 2. Piju.

LXIV.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF SIJU, AND THE GREAT RIVER CARAMORAN

NOTES.--1. Siju. 2. The Hwang-Ho and its changes. 3. Entrance to Manzi;
that name for Southern China.

LXV.--HOW THE GREAT KAAN CONQUERED THE PROVINCE OF MANZI

NOTES.--1. Meaning and application of the title _Faghfur_. 2. Chinese
self-devotion. 3. Bayan the Great Captain. 4. His lines of Operation.
5. The Juggling Prophecy. 6. The Fall of the Sung Dynasty. 7. Exposure of
Infants, and Foundling Hospitals.

LXVI.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF COIGANJU

NOTE.--Hwai-ngan fu.

LXVII.--OF THE CITIES OF PAUKIN AND CAYU

NOTE.--Pao-yng and Kao-yu.

LXVIII.--OF THE CITIES OF TIJU, TINJU, AND YANJU

NOTES.--1. Cities between the Canal and the Sea. 2. Yang-chau. 3. Marco
Polo's Employment at this City.

LXIX.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF NANGHIN

NOTE.--Ngan-king.

LXX.--CONCERNING THE VERY NOBLE CITY OF SAIANFU, AND HOW ITS CAPTURE WAS
EFFECTED

NOTES.--1. and 2. Various Readings. 3. Digression on the Military Engines
of the Middle Ages. 4. Mangonels of Coeur de Lion. 5. Difficulties
connected with Polo's Account of this Siege.

LXXI.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF SINJU AND THE GREAT RIVER KIAN

NOTES.--1. I-chin hien. 2. The Great Kiang. 3. Vast amount of tonnage
on Chinese Waters. 4. Size of River Vessels. 5. Bamboo Tow-lines.
6. Picturesque Island Monasteries.

LXXII.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF CAIJU

NOTES.--1. Kwa-chau. 2. The Grand Canal and Rice-Transport. 3. The Golden
Island.

LXXIII.--OF THE CITY OF CHINGHIANFU

NOTE.--Chin-kiang fu. Mar Sarghis, the Christian Governor.

LXXIV.--OF THE CITY OF CHINGINJU AND THE SLAUGHTER OF CERTAIN ALANS THERE

NOTES.--1. Chang-chau. 2. Employment of Alans in the Mongol Service.
3. The Chang-chau Massacre. Mongol Cruelties.

LXXV.--OF THE NOBLE CITY OF SUJU

NOTES.--1. Su-chau. 2. Bridges of that part of China. 3. Rhubarb; its
mention here seems erroneous. 4. The Cities of Heaven and Earth. Ancient
incised Plan of Su-chau. 5. Hu-chau, Wu-kiang and Kya-hing.

LXXVI.--DESCRIPTION OF THE GREAT CITY OF KINSAY, WHICH IS THE CAPITAL OF
THE WHOLE COUNTRY OF MANZI

NOTES.--1. King-sze now Hang-chau. 2. The circuit ascribed to the City;
the Bridges. 3. Hereditary Trades. 4. The Si-hu or Western Lake.
5. Dressiness of the People. 6. Charitable Establishments. 7. Paved
roads. 8. Hot and Cold Baths. 9. Kanpu, and the Hang-chau Estuary.
10. The Nine Provinces of Manzi. 11. The Kaan's Garrisons in Manzi.
12. Mourning costume. 13. 14. Tickets recording inmates of houses.

LXXVII.--[FURTHER PARTICULARS CONCERNING THE GREAT CITY OF KINSAY.]
(From Ramusio only.)

NOTES.--1. Remarks on these supplementary details. 2. Tides in the
Hang-chau Estuary. 3. Want of a good Survey of Hang-chau. The Squares.
4. Marco ignores pork. 5. Great Pears: Peaches. 6. Textual. 7. Chinese
use of Pepper. 8. Chinese claims to a character for Good Faith.
9. Pleasure-parties on the Lake. 10. Chinese Carriages. 11. The Sung
Emperor. 12. The Sung Palace. Extracts regarding this Great City from
other mediaeval writers, European and Asiatic. Martini's Description.

LXXVIII.--TREATING OF THE YEARLY REVENUE THAT THE GREAT KAAN HATH FROM
KINSAY

NOTES.--1. Textual. 2. Calculations as to the values spoken of.

LXXIX.--OF THE CITY OF TANPIJU AND OTHERS

NOTES.--1. Route from Hang-chau southward. 2. Bamboos. 3. Identification
of places. Chang-shan the key to the route.

LXXX.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF FUJU

NOTES.--1. "Fruit like Saffron." 2. 3. Cannibalism ascribed to Mountain
Tribes on this route. 4 Kien-ning fu. 5. Galingale. 6. Fleecy Fowls.
7. Details of the Journey in Fo-kien and various readings. 8. Unken.
Introduction of Sugar-refining into China.

LXXXI.--CONCERNING THE GREATNESS OF THE CITY OF FUJU

NOTES.--1. The name _Chonka_, applied to Fo-kien here. _Cayton_ or
_Zayton_. 2. Objections that have been made to identity of _Fuju_ and
Fu-chau. 3. The Min River.

LXXXII.--OF THE CITY AND GREAT HAVEN OF ZAYTON

NOTES.--1. The Camphor Laurel. 2. The Port of Zayton or T'swan-chau;
Recent objections to this identity. Probable origin of the word Satin.
3. Chinese Consumption of Pepper. 4. Artists in Tattooing. 5. Position
of the Porcelain manufacture spoken of. Notions regarding the _Great
River_ of China. 6. Fo-kien dialects and variety of spoken language in
China. 7. From Ramusio.

BOOK THIRD.

Japan, the Archipelago, Southern India, and the Coasts and Islands of the
Indian Sea.

I.--OF THE MERCHANT SHIPS OF MANZI THAT SAIL UPON THE INDIAN SEAS

NOTES.--1. Pine Timber. 2. Rudder and Masts. 3. Watertight Compartments.
4. Chinese substitute for Pitch. 5. Oars used by Junks. 6. Descriptions
of Chinese Junks from other Mediaeval Writers.

II.--DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND OF CHIPANGU, AND THE GREAT KAAN'S DESPATCH
OF A HOST AGAINST IT.

NOTES.--1. Chipangu or Japan. 2. Abundance of Gold. 3. The Golden Palace.
4. Japanese Pearls. Red Pearls.

III.--WHAT FURTHER CAME OF THE GREAT KAAN'S EXPEDITION AGAINST CHIPANGU

NOTES.--1. Kublai's attempts against Japan. Japanese Narrative of the
Expedition here spoken of. (See App. L. 9.) 2. Species of Torture.
3. Devices to procure Invulnerability.

IV.--CONCERNING THE FASHION OF THE IDOLS

NOTES.--1. Many-limbed Idols. 2. The Philippines and Moluccas. 3. The
name _Chin_ or _China_. 4. The Gulf of Cheinan.

V.--OF THE GREAT COUNTRY CALLED CHAMBA

NOTES.--1. Champa, and Kublai's dealings with it. (See App. L. 10).
2. Chronology. 3. Eagle-wood and Ebony. Polo's use of Persian words.

VI.--CONCERNING THE GREAT ISLAND OF JAVA

NOTE.--Java; its supposed vast extent. Kublai's expedition against it and
failure.

VII.--WHEREIN THE ISLES OF SONDUR AND CONDUR ARE SPOKEN OF; AND THE KINGDOM
OF LOCAC

NOTES.--1. Textual. 2. Pulo Condore. 3. The Kingdom of Locac, Southern
Siam.

VIII.--OF THE ISLAND CALLED PENTAM, AND THE CITY MALAIUR

NOTES.--1. Bintang. 2. The Straits of Singapore. 3. Remarks on the Malay
Chronology. Malaiur probably Palembang.

IX.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF JAVA THE LESS. THE KINGDOMS OF FERLEC AND
BASMA

NOTES.--1. The Island of Sumatra: application of the term _Java_.
2. Products of Sumatra. The six kingdoms. 3. Ferlec or Parlak. The
Battas. 4. Basma, Pacem, or Pasei. 5. The Elephant and the Rhinoceros.
The Legend of Monoceros and the Virgin. 6. Black Falcon.

X.--THE KINGDOMS OF SAMARA AND DAGROIAN

NOTES.--1. Samara, Sumatra Proper. 2. The Tramontaine and the Mestre.
3. The Malay Toddy-Palm. 4. Dagroian. 5. Alleged custom of eating dead
relatives.

XI.--OF THE KINGDOMS OF LAMBRI AND FANSUR

NOTES.--1. Lambri. 2. Hairy and Tailed Men. 3. Fansur and Camphor
Fansuri. Sumatran Camphor. 4. The Sago-Palm. 5. Remarks on Polo's
Sumatran Kingdoms.

XII.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF NECUVERAN

NOTE.--Gauenispola, and the Nicobar Islands.

XIII.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF ANGAMANAIN

NOTE.--The Andaman Islands.

XIV.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF SEILAN

NOTES.--1. Chinese Chart. 2. Exaggeration of Dimensions. The Name.
3. Sovereigns then ruling Ceylon. 4. Brazil Wood and Cinnamon. 5. The
Great Ruby.

XV.--THE SAME CONTINUED. THE HISTORY OF SAGAMONI BORCAN AND THE BEGINNING
OF IDOLATRY

NOTES.--1. Adam's Peak, and the Foot thereon. 2. The Story of Sakya-Muni
Buddha. The History of Saints Barlaam and Josaphat; a Christianised
version thereof. 3. High Estimate of Buddha's Character. 4. Curious
Parallel Passages. 5. Pilgrimages to the Peak. 6. The Patra of Buddha,
and the Tooth-Relic. 7. Miraculous endowments of the Patra; it is the
Holy Grail of Buddhism.

XVI.--CONCERNING THE GREAT PROVINCE OF MAABAR, WHICH IS CALLED INDIA THE
GREATER, AND IS ON THE MAINLAND

NOTES.--1. Ma'bar, its definition, and notes on its Mediaeval History.
2. The Pearl Fishery.

XVII.--CONTINUES TO SPEAK OF THE PROVINCE OF MAABAR

NOTES.--1. Costume. 2. Hindu Royal Necklace. 3. Hindu use of the Rosary.
4. The Saggio. 5. Companions in Death; the word _Amok_. 6. Accumulated
Wealth of Southern India at this time. 7. Horse Importation from the
Persian Gulf. 8. Religious Suicides. 9. Suttees. 10. Worship of the Ox.
The Govis. 11. Verbal. 12. The Thomacides. 13. Ill-success of
Horse-breeding in S. India. 14. Curious Mode of Arrest for Debt. 15. The
Rainy Seasons. 16. Omens of the Hindus. 17. Strange treatment of Horses.
18. The Devadasis. 19. Textual.

XVIII.--DISCOURSING OF THE PLACE WHERE LIETH THE BODY OF ST. THOMAS THE
APOSTLE; AND OF THE MIRACLES THEREOF

NOTES.--1. Mailapur. 2. The word _Avarian_. 3. Miraculous Earth. 4. The
Traditions of St. Thomas in India. The ancient Church at his Tomb; the
ancient Cross preserved on St. Thomas's Mount. 5. White Devils. 6. The
Yak's Tail.

XIX.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF MUTFILI

NOTES.--1. Motapalle. The Widow Queen of Telingana. 2. The Diamond Mines,
and the Legend of the Diamond Gathering. 3. Buckram.

XX.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF LAR WHENCE THE BRAHMANS COME

NOTES.--1. Abraiaman. The Country of Lar. Hindu Character. 2. The Kingdom
of Soli or Chola. 3. Lucky and Unlucky Days and Hours. The Canonical
Hours of the Church. 4. Omens. 5. Jogis. The Ox-emblem. 6. Verbal.
7. Recurrence of Human Eccentricities.

XXI.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF CAIL

NOTES.--1. Kayal; its true position. _Kolkhoi_ identified. 2. The King
Ashar or As-char. 3. Correa, Note. 4. Betel-chewing. 5. Duels.

XXII.--OF THE KINGDOM OF COILUM

NOTES.--1. Coilum, Coilon, Kaulam, Columbum, Quilon. Ancient Christian
Churches. 2. Brazil Wood: notes on the name. 3. Columbine Ginger and
other kinds. 4. Indigo. 5. Black Lions. 6. Marriage Customs.

XXIII.--OF THE COUNTRY CALLED COMARI

NOTES.--1. Cape Comorin. 2. The word _Gat-paul_.

XXIV.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM ELI

NOTES.--1. Mount D'Ely, and the City of Hili-Marawi. 2. Textual.
3. Produce. 4. Piratical custom. 5. Wooden Anchors.

XXV.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF MELIBAR

NOTES.--1. Dislocation of Polo's Indian Geography. The name of Malabar.
2. Verbal. 3. Pirates. 4. Cassia: Turbit: Cubebs. 5. Cessation of direct
Chinese trade with Malabar.

XXVI.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF GOZURAT

NOTES.--1. Topographical Confusion. 2. Tamarina. 3. Tall Cotton Trees.
4. Embroidered Leather-work.

XXVII.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF TANA

NOTES.--1. Tana, and the Konkan. 2. Incense of Western India.

XXVIII.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF CAMBAET

NOTE.--Cambay.

XXIX.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF SEMENAT

NOTE.--Somnath, and the so-called Gates of Somnath.

XXX.--CONCERNING THE KINGDOM OF KESMACORAN

NOTES.--1. Kij-Mekran. Limit of India. 2. Recapitulation of Polo's Indian
Kingdoms.

XXXI.--DISCOURSETH OF THE TWO ISLANDS CALLED MALE AND FEMALE, AND WHY THEY
ARE SO CALLED

NOTE.--The Legend and its diffusion.

XXXII.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF SCOTRA

NOTES.--1. Whales of the Indian Seas. 2. Socotra and its former
Christianity. 3. Piracy at Socotra. 4. Sorcerers.

XXXIII.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF MADEIGASCAR

NOTES.--1. Madagascar; some confusion here with Magadoxo. 2. Sandalwood.
3. Whale-killing. The _Capidoglio_ or Sperm-Whale. 4. The Currents
towards the South. 5. The Rukh (and see Appendix L. 11). 6. More on the
dimensions assigned thereto. 7. Hippopotamus Teeth.

XXXIV.--CONCERNING THE ISLAND OF ZANGHIBAR. A WORD ON INDIA IN GENERAL

NOTES.--1. Zangibar; Negroes. 2. Ethiopian Sheep. 3. Giraffes. 4. Ivory
trade. 5. Error about Elephant-taming. 6. Number of Islands assigned to
the Indian Sea. 7. The Three Indies, and various distributions thereof.
Polo's Indian Geography.

XXXV.--TREATING OF THE GREAT PROVINCE OF ABASH, WHICH IS MIDDLE INDIA, AND
IS ON THE MAINLAND

NOTES.--1. Habash or Abyssinia. Application of the name India to it.
2. Fire Baptism ascribed to the Abyssinian Christians. 3. Polo's idea of
the position of Aden. 4. Taming of the African Elephant for War.
5. Marco's Story of the Abyssinian Invasion of the Mahomedan Low-Country,
and Review of Abyssinian Chronology in connection therewith. 6. Textual.

XXXVI.--CONCERNING THE PROVINCE OF ADEN

NOTES.--1. The Trade to Alexandria from India via Aden. 2. "_Roncins a
deux selles_." 3. The Sultan of Aden. The City and its Great Tanks.
4. The Loss of Acre.

XXXVII.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF ESHER

NOTES.--1. Shihr. 2. Frankincense. 3. Four-horned Sheep. 4. Cattle fed on
Fish. 5. Parallel passage.

XXXVIII.--CONCERNING THE CITY OF DUFAR

NOTES.--1. Dhofar. 2. Notes on Frankincense.

XXXIX.--CONCERNING THE GULF OF CALATU, AND THE CITY SO CALLED

NOTES.--1. Kalhat. 2. "_En fra terre_." 3. Maskat.

XL.--RETURNS TO THE CITY OF HORMOS WHEREOF WE SPOKE FORMERLY

NOTES.--1. Polo's distances and bearings in these latter chapters.
2. Persian _Bad-girs_ or wind-catching chimneys. 3. Island of Kish.

BOOK FOURTH.

Wars among the Tartar Princes, and some Account of the Northern
Countries.

I.--CONCERNING GREAT TURKEY

NOTES.--1. Kaidu Khan. 2. His frontier towards the Great Kaan.

II.--OF CERTAIN BATTLES THAT WERE FOUGHT BY KING CAIDU AGAINST THE ARMIES
OF HIS UNCLE THE GREAT KAAN

NOTES.--1. Textual. 2. "_Araines_." 3. Chronology in connection with the
events described.

III.--[1]WHAT THE GREAT KAAN SAID TO THE MISCHIEF DONE BY CAIDU HIS NEPHEW

IV.--OF THE EXPLOITS OF KING CAIDU'S VALIANT DAUGHTER

NOTE.--Her name explained. Remarks on the story.

V.--HOW ABAGA SENT HIS SON ARGON IN COMMAND AGAINST KING CAIDU (Extract and
Substance.)

NOTES.--1. Government of the Khorasan frontier. 2. The Historical Events.

VI.--HOW ARGON AFTER THE BATTLE HEARD THAT HIS FATHER WAS DEAD AND WENT TO
ASSUME THE SOVEREIGNTY AS WAS HIS RIGHT

NOTES.--1. Death of Abaka. 2. Textual. 3. Ahmad Tigudar.

VII.--[1]HOW ACOMAT SOLDAN SET OUT WITH HIS HOST AGAINST HIS NEPHEW WHO WAS
COMING TO CLAIM THE THRONE THAT BELONGED TO HIM

VIII.--[1]HOW ARGON TOOK COUNSEL WITH HIS FOLLOWERS ABOUT ATTACKING HIS
UNCLE ACOMAT SOLDAN

IX.--[1]HOW THE BARONS OF ARGON ANSWERED HIS ADDRESS

X.--[1]THE MESSAGE SENT BY ARGON TO ACOMAT

XI.--HOW ACOMAT REPLIED TO ARGON'S MESSAGE

XII.--OF THE BATTLE BETWEEN ARGON AND ACOMAT, AND THE CAPTIVITY OF ARGON

NOTES.--1. Verbal. 2. Historical.

XIII.--HOW ARGON WAS DELIVERED FROM PRISON

XIV.--HOW ARGON GOT THE SOVEREIGNTY AT LAST

XV.--[1]HOW ACOMAT WAS TAKEN PRISONER

XVI.--HOW ACOMAT WAS SLAIN BY ORDER OF HIS NEPHEW

XVII.--HOW ARGON WAS RECOGNISED AS SOVEREIGN

NOTES.--1. The historical circumstances and persons named in these
chapters. 2. Arghun's accession and death.

XVIII.--HOW KIACATU SEIZED THE SOVEREIGNTY AFTER ARGON'S DEATH

NOTE.--The reign and character of Kaikhatu.

XIX.--HOW BAIDU SEIZED THE SOVEREIGNTY AFTER THE DEATH OF KIACATU

NOTES.--1. Baidu's alleged Christianity. 2. Ghazan Khan.

XX.--CONCERNING KING CONCHI WHO RULES THE FAR NORTH

NOTES.--1. Kaunchi Khan. 2. Siberia. 3. Dog-sledges. 4. The animal here
styled _Erculin_. The Vair. 5. Yugria.

XXI.--CONCERNING THE LAND OF DARKNESS

NOTES.--1. The Land of Darkness. 2. The Legend of the Mares and their
Foals. 3. Dumb Trade with the People of the Darkness.

XXII.--DESCRIPTION OF ROSIA AND ITS PEOPLE. PROVINCE OF LAC

NOTES.--1. Old Accounts of Russia. Russian Silver and Rubles. 2. Lac, or
Wallachia. 3. Oroech, Norway (?) or the Waraeg Country (?)

XXIII.--HE BEGINS TO SPEAK OF THE STRAITS OF CONSTANTINOPLE, BUT DECIDES TO
LEAVE THAT MATTER

XXIV.--CONCERNING THE TARTARS OF THE PONENT AND THEIR LORDS

NOTES.--1. The Comanians; the Alans; Majar; Zic; the Goths of the Crimea;
Gazaria. 2. The Khans of Kipchak or the Golden Horde; errors in Polo's
list. Extent of their Empire.

XXV.--OF THE WAR THAT AROSE BETWEEN ALAU AND BARCA, AND THE BATTLES THAT
THEY FOUGHT (Extracts and Substance.)

NOTES.--1. Verbal. 2. The Sea of Sarai. 3. The War here spoken of.
Wassaf's rigmarole.

XXVI.--[1]HOW BARCA AND HIS ARMY ADVANCED TO MEET ALAU

XXVII.--[1]HOW ALAU ADDRESSED HIS FOLLOWERS

XXVIII.--[1]OF THE GREAT BATTLE BETWEEN ALAU AND BARCA

XXIX.--HOW TOTAMANGU WAS LORD OF THE TARTARS OF THE PONENT; AND AFTER HIM
TOCTAI

NOTE.--Confusions in the Text. Historical circumstances connected with
the Persons spoken of. Toctai and Noghai Khan. Symbolic Messages.

XXX.--[1]OF THE SECOND MESSAGE THAT TOCTAI SENT TO NOGAI

XXXI.--[1]HOW TOCTAI MARCHED AGAINST NOGAI

XXXII.--[1]HOW TOCTAI AND NOGAI ADDRESS THEIR PEOPLE, AND THE NEXT DAY JOIN
BATTLE

XXXIII.--[1]THE VALIANT FEATS AND VICTORY OF KING NOGAI

XXXIV. AND LAST. CONCLUSION

[1] Of chapters so marked nothing is given but the substance in brief.

APPENDICES.

A. Genealogy of the House of Chinghiz to the End of the Thirteenth Century

B. The Polo Families:--
(I.) Genealogy of the Family of Marco Polo the Traveller
(II.) The Polos of San Geremia

C. Calendar of Documents relating to Marco Polo and his Family

D. Comparative Specimens of the Different Recensions of Polo's Text

E. Preface to Pipino's Latin Version

F. Note of MSS. of Marco Polo's Book, so far as known:
General Distribution of MSS.
List of Miniatures in two of the finer MSS.
List of MSS. of Marco Polo's Book, so far as they are known

G. Diagram showing Filiation of Chief MSS. and Editions of Marco Polo

H. Bibliography:--
(I.) Principal Editions of Marco Polo's Book
(II.) Bibliography of Printed Editions
(III.) Titles of Sundry Books and Papers treating of Marco Polo and his
Book

I. Titles of Works quoted by Abbreviated References in this Book

K. Values of Certain Moneys, Weights, and Measures occurring in this Book.

L. Supplementary Notes to the Book of Marco Polo
1. The Polos at Acre.
2. Sorcery in Kashmir.
3. PAONANO PAO.
4. Pamir.
5. Number of Pamirs.
6. Site of Pein.
7. Fire-arms.
8. La Couvade.
9. Alacan
10. Champa.
11. Ruck Quills.
12. A Spanish Marco Polo.
13. Sir John Mandeville.

INDEX

EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOLUME II.

INSERTED PLATES AND MAPS.

Portrait bearing the inscription "MARCUS POLVS VENETVS TOTIVS ORBIS ET
INDIE PEREGRATOR PRIMVS." In the Gallery of Monsignor _Badia_ at Rome;
copied by Sign. GIUSEPPE GNOLI, Rome.

Medallion, representing Marco Polo in the PRISON of GENOA, dictating his
story to Master RUSTICIAN of PISA, drawn by Signor QUINTO CENNI from a
rough design by Sir HENRY YULE.

The celebrated CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTION OF SI-NGAN FU. Photolithographed by Mr
W. GRIGG, from a Rubbing of the original monument, given to the Editor by
the Baron F. von Richthofen.

This rubbing is more complete than that used in the first edition, for
which the Editor was indebted to the kindness of William Lockhart, Esq.

The LAKE of TALI (CARAJAN of Polo) from the Northern End. Woodcut after
Lieut. DELAPORTE, borrowed from Lieut. GARNIER'S Narrative in the _Tour du
Monde_.

Suspension Bridge, neighbourhood of TALI. From a photograph by M. Tannant.

The CITY of MIEN, with the Gold and Silver Towers. From a drawing by the
Editor, based upon his sketches of the remains of the City so called by
Marco Polo, viz., PAGAN, the mediaeval capital of Burma.

Itineraries of Marco Polo. No. V. The INDO-CHINESE COUNTRIES. With a small
sketch extracted from a Chinese Map in the possession of Baron von
Richthofen, showing the position of KIEN-CH'ANG, the _Caindu_ of Marco
Polo.

Sketch Map exhibiting the VARIATIONS of the TWO GREAT RIVERS of China,
within the Period of History.

The CITY of SU-CHAU. Reduced by the Editor from a Rubbing of a Plan incised
on Marble, and preserved in the Great Confucian Temple in the City.

The date of the original set of Maps, of which this was one, is
uncertain, owing to the partial illegibility of the Inscription; but it
is subsequent to A.D. 1000. They were engraved on the Marble A.D. 1247.
Many of the names have been obliterated, and a few of those given in the
copy are filled up from modern information, as the Editor learns from
Mr. Wylie, to whom he owes this valuable illustration.

Map of HANG-CHAU FU and its LAKE, from Chinese Sources.

The Map as published in the former edition was based on a Chinese Map in
the possession of Dr. W. Lockhart, with some particulars from Maps in a
copy of the Local Topography, _Hang-Chau-fu-chi_, in the B. Museum
Library. In the second edition the Map has been entirely redrawn by the
Editor, with many corrections, and with the aid of new materials,
supplied by the kindness of the Rev. G. Moule of the Church Mission at
Hang-chau. These materials embrace a Paper read by Mr. Moule before the
N. China Branch of the R. As. Soc. at Shang-hai; a modern engraved Map of
the City on a large scale; and a large MS. Map of the City and Lake,
compiled by John Shing, Tailor, a Chinese Christian and Catechist;

The small Side-plan is the City of SI-NGAN FU, from a plan published
during the Mongol rule, in the 14th century, a tracing of which was sent
by Mr. Wylie. The following references could not be introduced in
lettering for want of space:--

1. Yuen-Tu-Kwan (Tauist Monastery).
2. Chapel of Hien-ning Prince.
3. Leih-Ching Square (Fang).
4. Tauist Monastery.
5. Kie-lin General Court.
6. Ancestral Chapel of Yang-Wan-Kang.
7. Chapel of the Mid-year Genius.
8. Temple of the Martial Peaceful King.
9. Stone where officers are selected.
10. Mews.
11. Jasper-Waves Square (Fang).
12. Court of Enquiry.
13. Gate of the Fang-Yuen Circuit.
14. Bright Gate.
15. Northern Tribunal.
16. Refectory.
17. Chapel of the Fang-Yuen Prince.
18. Embroidery manufactory.
19. Hwa-li Temple.
20. Old Superintendency of Investigations.
21. Superintendent of Works.
22. Ka-yuen Monastery.
23. Prefectural Confucian Temple.
24. Benevolent Institution.
25. Temple of Tu-Ke-King.
26. Balustrade enclosure.
27. Medicine-Bazar Street.
28. Tsin and Ching States Chapel.
29. Square of the Double Cassia Tree.

N.B.--The shaded spaces are marked in the original _Min-Keu_
"Dwellings of the People."

Plan of SOUTHERN PART of the CITY of KING-SZE (or Hang-chau), with the
PALACE of the SUNG EMPERORS. From a Chinese Plan forming part of a Reprint
of the official Topography of the City during the period _Hien-Shun_
(1265-1274) of the Sung Dynasty, i.e. the period terminated by the Mongol
conquest of the City and Empire. Mr. Moule, who possesses the Chinese plan
(with others of the same set), has come to the conclusion that it is a copy
at second-hand. Names that are underlined are such as are preserved in the
modern Map of Hang-chau. I am indebted for the use of the original plan to
Mr. Moule; for the photographic copy and rendering of the names to Mr.
Wylie.

Sketch Map of the GREAT PORTS of FO-KIEN, to illustrate the identity of
Marco Polo's ZAYTON. Besides the Admiralty Charts and other well-known
sources the Editor has used in forming this a "Missionary Map of Amoy and
the Neighbouring Country," on a large scale, sent him by the Rev.
Carstairs Douglas, LL.D., of Amoy. This contains some points not to be
found in the others.

Itineraries of MARCO POLO, No. VI. The Journey through KIANG-NAN,
CHE-KIANG, and FO-XIEN.

1. Map to illustrate Marco Polo's Chapters on the MALAY COUNTRIES.
2. Map to illustrate his Chapters on SOUTHERN INDIA.

1. Sketch showing the Position of KAYAL in Tinnevelly.
2. Map showing the Position of the Kingdom of ELY in MALABAR.

ADEN, with the attempted Escalade under Alboquerque in 1513, being the
Reduced Facsimile of a large contemporary Wood Engraving in the Map
Department of the British Museum. (Size of the original 42-1/2 inches by
19-1/8 inches.) Photolithographic Reduction by Mr. G.B. PRAETORIUS,
through the assistance of R. H. Major, Esq.

Facsimile of the Letters sent to PHILIP the FAIR, King of France, by ARGHUN
KHAN, in A.D. 1289, and by OLJAITU, in A.D. 1305, preserved in the Archives
of France, and reproduced from the _Recueil des Documents de l'Epoque
Mongole_ by kind permission of H.H. Prince ROLAND BONAPARTE.

Some of the objects found by Dr. M.A. Stein, in Central Asia. From a
photograph kindly lent by the Traveller.

WOODCUTS PRINTED WITH THE TEXT.

BOOK SECOND.--PART SECOND.

The BRIDGE of PULISANGHIN, the _Lu-ku-k'iao_ of the Chinese, reduced from a
large Chinese Engraving in the Geographical work called _Ki-fu-thung-chi_
in the Paris Library. I owe the indication of this, and of the Portrait of
Kublai Kaan in vol. i. to notes in M. Pauthier's edition.

The BRIDGE of PULISANGHIN. From the _Livre des Merveilles_.

BRIDGE of LU-KU-K'IAO. From a photograph by Count de SEMALLE.

BRIDGE of LU-KU-K'IAO. From a photograph by Count de SEMALLE.

The ROI D'OR. Professed Portrait of the Last of the _Altun Khans_ or Kin
Emperors of Cathay, from the (fragmentary) Arabic Manuscript of
_Rashiduddin's History_ in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society. This
Manuscript is supposed to have been transcribed under the eye of
Rashiduddin, and the drawings were probably derived from Chinese originals.

Plan of Ki-chau, after Duhalde.

The CROSS incised at the head of the GREAT CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTION of SI-NGAN
FU (A.D. 781); actual size, from copy of a pencil rubbing made on the
original by the Rev. J. Lees. Received from Mr. A. Wylie.

Diagram to elucidate the cities of Ch'eng-tu fu.

Plan of Ch'eng-tu. From MARCEL MONNIER'S _Tour d'Asie_, by kind permission
of M. PLON.

Bridge near Kwan-hsien (Ch'eng-tu). From MARCEL MONNIER'S _Tour d'Asie_, by
kind permission of M. PLON.

MOUNTAINEERS on the Borders of SZE-CH'WAN and TIBET, from one of the
illustrations to Lieut. Garnier's Narrative (see p. 48). From _Tour du
Monde_.

VILLAGE of EASTERN TIBET on Sze-ch'wan Frontier. From _Mr. Cooper's Travels
of a Pioneer of Commerce_.

Example of ROADS on the TIBETAN FRONTIER of China (being actually a view of
the Gorge of the Lan t'sang Kiang). From _Mr. Cooper's Travels of a Pioneer
of Commerce_.

The VALLEY of the KIN-SHA KIANG, near the lower end of the CAINDU of Marco
Polo. From Lieut. Garnier in the _Tour du Monde_.

SALT PANS in Yun-nan. From the same.

Black Lolo.

White Lolo. From DEVERIA'S _Frontiere Sino-annamite_.

_Pa-y_ Script. From the _T'oung-Pao_.

Garden-House on the LAKE of YUN-NAN-FU, YACHI of Polo. _From_ Lieut.
Garnier in the _Tour du Monde_.

Road descending from the Table-Land of YUN-NAN into the VALLEY of the
KIN-SHA KIANG (the BRIUS of Polo). From the same.

"A SARACEN of CARAJAN," being the portrait of a Mahomedan Mullah in Western
Yun-nan. From the same.

The Canal at YUN-NAN FU. From a photograph by M. TANNANT.

"Riding long like FRENCHMEN," exemplified from the Bayeux Tapestry. After
Lacroix, _Vie Militaire du Moyen Age_.

The SANG-MIAU tribe of KWEI-CHAU, with the Cross-bow. From a coloured
drawing in a Chinese work on the Aboriginal Tribes, belonging to W.
Lockhart, Esq.

Portraits of a KAKHYEN man and woman. Drawn by Q. CENNI from a photograph
(anonymous).

Temple called GAUDAPALEN in the city of MIEN (i.e. Pagan in Burma), erected
circa A.D. 1160. Engraving after a sketch by the first Editor, from
_Fergusson's History of Architecture_.

The PALACE of the KING of MIEN in modern times (viz., the Palace at
Amarapura). From the same, being partly from a sketch by the first
Editor.

Script _Pa-pe_. From the _T'oung-Pao_.

HO-NHI and other Tribes in the Department of Lin-ngan in S. Yun-nan,
supposed to be the _Anin_ country of Marco Polo. From Garnier in the
_Tour du Monde_.

The KOLOMAN tribe, on borders of Kwei-chau and Yun-nan. From coloured
drawing in Mr. Lockhart's book as above (under p. 83).

Script _thai_ of Xieng-hung. From the _T'oung-Pao_.

Iron SUSPENSION BRIDGE at Lowatong. From Garnier in _Tour du Monde_.

FORTIFIED VILLAGES on Western Frontier of KWEI-CHAU. From the same.

BOOK SECOND.--PART THIRD.

YANG-CHAU: the three Cities under the Sung.

YANG-CHAU: the Great City under the Sung. From Chinese Plans kindly sent to
the present Editor by the late Father H. Havret, S.J., Zi-ka-wei.

MEDIAEVAL ARTILLERY ENGINES. Figs, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, are CHINESE. The
first four are from the Encyclopaedia _San-Thsai-Thou-hoei_ (Paris
Library), the last from _Amyot_, vol. viii.

Figs. 6, 7, 8 are SARACEN, 6 and 7 are taken from the work of Reinaud
and Fave, Du Feu Gregeois, and by them from the Arabic MS. of Hassan al
Raumah (_Arab Anc. Fonds_, No. 1127). Fig. 8 is from _Lord Munster's
Arabic Catalogue_ of Military Works, and by him from a MS. of
_Rashiduddin's History_.

The remainder are EUROPEAN. Fig. 9 is from _Pertz, Scriptores_, vol.
xviii., and by him from a figure of the Siege of Arbicella, 1227, in a
MS. of _Genoese Annals_ (No. 773, _Supp. Lat._ of _Bib. Imp._). Fig. 10
from _Shaw's Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages_, vol. i., No.
21, after _B. Mus. MS. Reg._ 16, G. vi. Fig. 11 from Perts as above,
under A.D. 1182. Fig. 12, from _Valturius de Re Militari_, Verona, 1483.
Figs. 13 and 14 from the _Poliorceticon_ of Justus Lipsius. Fig. 15 is
after the Bodleian MS. of the Romance of Alexander (A.D. 1338), but is
taken from the _Gentleman's Magazine_, 3rd ser. vol. vii. p. 467. Fig. 16
from Lacroix's _Art au Moyen Age_, after a miniature of 13th cent. in the
Paris Library. Figs. 17 and 18 from the Emperor Napoleon's _Etudes de
l'Artillerie_, and by him taken from the MS. of Paulus Santinus (Lat.
MS. 7329 in Paris Library). Fig. 19 from Professor Moseley's restoration
of a Trebuchet, after the data in the Mediaeval Note-book of Villars de
Honcourt, in _Gentleman's Magazine_ as above. Figs. 20 and 21 from the
Emperor's Book. Fig. 22 from a German MS. in the Bern Library, the
_Chronicle of Justinger and Schilling_.

COIN from a treasure hidden during the siege of SIANG-YANG in 1268-73, and
lately discovered in that city.

Island MONASTERIES on the YANG-TZU KIANG; viz.:--

1. _Uppermost_. The "Little Orphan Rock," after a cut in _Oliphant's
Narrative_.

2. _Middle_. The "Golden Island" near Chin-kiang fu, after _Fisher's
China_. (This has been accidentally reversed in the drawing.)

3. _Lower_. The "_Silver Island_," below the last, after Mr. Lindley's
book on the T'ai-P'ings.

The West Gate of CHIN-KIANG FU. From an engraving in _Fisher's China_ after
a sketch made by Admiral Stoddart, R.N., in 1842.

South-West Gate and Water Gate of SU-CHAU; facsimile on half scale from the
incised Map of 1247. (See List of Inserted Plates preceding, under p. 182.)

The old LUH-HO-TA or Pagoda of Six Harmonies near HANG-CHAU, and anciently
marking the extreme S.W. angle of the city. Drawn by Q. CENNI from an
anonymous photograph received from the Rev. G. Moule.

Imperial City of HANG-CHAU in the 13th Century.

Metropolitan City of HANG-CHAU in the 13th Century. From the Notes of the
Right Rev. G.E. Moule.

_Fang_ of SI-NGAN FU. Communicated by A. Wylie.

Stone _Chwang_ or UMBRELLA COLUMN, one of two which still mark the site of
the ancient Buddhist Monastery called _Fan-T'ien-Sze_ or "Brahma's Temple"
at Hang-chau. Reduced from a pen-and-ink sketch by Mr. Moule.

Mr. PHILLIPS' Theory of Marco Polo's Route through Fo-Kien.

Scene in the BOHEA MOUNTAINS, on Polo's route between Kiang-Si and Fo-Kien.
From _Fortune's Three Years' Wanderings_.

Scene on the MIN RIVER below Fu-chau. From the same.

The KAAN'S FLEET leaving the Port of ZAYTON. The scenery is taken from an
engraving in _Fisher's China_, purporting to represent the mouth of the
Chinchew River (or River of Tswan-chau), after a sketch by Capt. (now
Adm.) Stoddart. But the Rev. Dr. Douglas, having pointed out that this
cut really supported _his_ view of the identity of Zayton, being a view of
the _Chang-chau_ River, reference was made to Admiral Stoddart, and Dr.
Douglas proves to be quite right. The View was really one of the Chang-chau
River; but the Editor has not been able to procure material for one of the
Tswan-chau River, and so he leaves it.

BOOK THIRD

The KAAN'S FLEET passing through the Indian ARCHIPELAGO. From a drawing by
the Editor.

Ancient JAPANESE EMPEROR, after a Native Drawing. From the _Tour du Monde_.

Ancient JAPANESE ARCHER, after a native drawing. From the same.

The JAPANESE engaged in combat with the CHINESE, after an ancient native
drawing. From Charton, _Voyageurs Anciens et Modernes_.

JAVA. A view in the interior. From a sketch of the slopes of the Gedeh
Volcano, taken by the Editor in 1860.

Bas Relief of one of the VESSELS frequenting the Ports of JAVA in the
Middle Ages. From one of the sculptures of the BORO BODOR, after a
photograph.

The three Asiatic RHINOCEROSES. Adapted from a proof of a woodcut given to
the Editor for the purpose by the late eminent zoologist, Edward Blyth.
It is not known to the Editor whether the cut appeared in any other
publication.

MONOCEROS and the MAIDEN. From a mediaeval drawing engraved in _Cahier et
Martin, Melanges d'Archeologie_, II. Pl. 30.

The BORUS. From a manuscript belonging to the late CHARLES SCHEFER, now in
the _Bibliotheque Nationale_, Paris.

The CYNOCEPHALI. From the _Livre des Merveilles_.

ADAM'S PEAK from the Sea.

SAKYA MUNI as a Saint of the Roman Martyrology. Facsimile from an old
German version of the story of Barlaam and Josaphat (circa 1477), printed
by Zainer at Augsburg, in the British Museum.

TOOTH Reliques of BUDDHA. 1. At Kandy, after Emerson Tennent. 2. At
Fu-chau, after Fortune.

"CHINESE PAGODA" (so called) at Negapatam. From a sketch taken by Sir
Walter Elliot, K.C.S.I., in 1846.

PAGODA at TANJORE. From _Fergusson's History of Architecture_.

Ancient CROSS with Pehlvi Inscription, preserved in the church on ST.
THOMAS'S MOUNT near Madras. From a photograph, the gift of A. Burnell,
Esq., of the Madras Civil Service, assisted by a lithographic drawing in
his unpublished pamphlet on Pehlvi Crosses in South India. N.B.--The
lithograph has now appeared in the _Indian Antiquary_, November, 1874.

The Little MOUNT of ST. THOMAS, near Madras. After Daniel.

Small Map of the ST. THOMAS localities at Madras.

Ancient Christian CHURCH at PARUR or Palur, on the Malabar Coast; from an
engraving in Pearson's _Life of Claudius Buchanan_, after a sketch by the
latter.

SYRIAN CHURCH at Karanyachirra, showing the quasi-Jesuit Facade generally
adopted in modern times. From the _Life of Bishop Daniel Wilson_.

INTERIOR of Syrian CHURCH at Koetteiyam. From the same.

CAPE COMORIN. From an original sketch by Mr. FOOTE of the Geological Survey
of India.

MOUNT D'ELY. From a _nautical sketch of last century_.

Mediaeval ARCHITECTURE in GUZERAT, being a view of Gateway at Jinjawara,
given in Forbes's _Ras Mala_. From _Fergusson's History of Architecture_.

The GATES of SOMNATH (so called), as preserved in the British Arsenal at
Agra. From a photograph by Messrs. SHEPHERD and BOURNE, converted into an
elevation.

The RUKH, after a Persian drawing. From _Lane's Arabian Nights_.

Frontispiece of A. Mueller's _Marco Polo_, showing the Bird _Rukh_.

The ETHIOPIAN SHEEP. From a sketch by Miss Catherine Frere.

View of ADEN in 1840. From a sketch by Dr. R. KIRK in the Map-room of the
Royal Geographical Society.

The Harvest of FRANKINCENSE in Arabia. Facsimile of an engraving in
_Thevet's Cosmographie Universelle_ (1575). Reproduced from _Cassell's
Bible Educator_, by the courtesy of the publishers.

BOSWELLIA FREREANA, from a drawing by Mr. W.H. FITCH. The use of this
engraving is granted by the India Museum through the kindness of Sir
George Birdwood.

A Persian BAD-GIR, or Wind-Catcher. From a drawing in the Atlas to
_Hommaire de Hell's Persia_. Engraved by ADENEY.

BOOK FOURTH.

Tomb of OLJAITU KHAN, the brother of Polo's CASAN, at Sultaniah. From
_Fergusson's History of Architecture_.

The Siberian DOG-SLEDGE. From the _Tour du Monde_.

Mediaeval RUSSIAN Church. From _Fergusson's History of Architecture_.

Figure of a TARTAR under the Feet of Henry Duke of Silesia, Cracow, and
Poland, from the tomb at Breslau of that Prince, killed in battle with the
Tartar host, 9th April, 1241. After a plate in _Schlesische Fuerstenbilder
des Mittelalters_, Breslau, 1868.

Asiatic WARRIORS of Polo's Age. From the MS. of Rashiduddin's History,
noticed under cut at p. 19. Engraved by ADENEY.

APPENDICES.

FIGURE of MARCO POLO, from the first printed edition of his Book, published
in German at Nuremberg 1477. Traced from a copy in the Berlin Library.
(This tracing was the gift of Mr. Samuel D. Horton, of Cincinnati,
through Mr. Marsh.)

Marco Polo's rectified Itinerary from Khotan to Nia.

THE BOOK OF MARCO POLO

[Illustration: MARCO POLO in the Prison of Genoa]

BOOK SECOND.--CONTINUED.

PART II.--JOURNEY TO THE WEST AND SOUTH-WEST OF CATHAY.

CHAPTER XXXV.

HERE BEGINS THE DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERIOR OF CATHAY, AND FIRST OF THE
RIVER PULISANGHIN.

Now you must know that the Emperor sent the aforesaid Messer Marco Polo,
who is the author of this whole story, on business of his into the Western
Provinces. On that occasion he travelled from Cambaluc a good four months'
journey towards the west.[NOTE 1] And so now I will tell you all that he
saw on his travels as he went and returned.

[Illustration: The Bridge of Pulisanghin. (Reduced from a Chinese
original.)

"--et desus cest flum a un mout biaus pont de pieres: car sachiez qe pont
n'a en tout le monde de si biaus ne son pareil."]

When you leave the City of Cambaluc and have ridden ten miles, you come to
a very large river which is called PULISANGHIN, and flows into the ocean,
so that merchants with their merchandise ascend it from the sea. Over this
River there is a very fine stone bridge, so fine indeed, that it has very
few equals. The fashion of it is this: it is 300 paces in length, and it
must have a good eight paces of width, for ten mounted men can ride across
it abreast. It has 24 arches and as many water-mills, and 'tis all of very
fine marble, well built and firmly founded. Along the top of the bridge
there is on either side a parapet of marble slabs and columns, made in this
way. At the beginning of the bridge there is a marble column, and under it
a marble lion, so that the column stands upon the lion's loins, whilst on
the top of the column there is a second marble lion, both being of great
size and beautifully executed sculpture. At the distance of a pace from
this column there is another precisely the same, also with its two lions,
and the space between them is closed with slabs of grey marble to prevent
people from falling over into the water. And thus the columns run from
space to space along either side of the bridge, so that altogether it is a
beautiful object.[NOTE 2]

NOTE 1.--[When Marco leaves the capital, he takes the main road, the
"Imperial Highway," from Peking to Si-ngan fu, via Pao-ting, Cheng-ting,
Hwai-luh, Tai-yuan, Ping-yang, and T'ung-kwan, on the Yellow River. Mr. G.
F. Eaton, writing from Han-chung (_Jour. China Br. R. As. Soc._ XXVIII.
No. 1) says it is a cart-road, except for six days between Tai-yuan and
Hwai-luh, and that it takes twenty-nine days to go from Peking to Si-ngan,
a figure which agrees well with Polo's distances; it is also the time
which Dr. Forke's journey lasted; he left Peking on the 1st May, 1892,
reached Tai-yuan on the 12th, and arrived at Si-ngan on the 30th (_Von
Peking nach Ch'ang-an_). Mr. Rockhill left Peking on the 17th December,
1888, reached T'ai-yuan on the 26th, crossed the Yellow River on the 5th
January, and arrived at Si-ngan fu on the 8th January, 1889, in twenty-two
days, a distance of 916 miles. (_Land of the Lamas_, pp. 372-374.) M.
Grenard left Si-ngan on the 10th November and reached Peking on the 16th
December, 1894 = thirty-six days; he reckons 1389 kilometres = 863 miles.
(See _Rev. C. Holcombe, Tour through Shan-hsi and Shen-hsi_ in _Jour.
North China Br.R.A.S.N.S._ X. pp. 54-70.)--H.C.]

[Illustration: The Bridge of Pulisanghin. (From the _Livre des
Merveilles_.)]

NOTE 2.--_Pul-i-Sangin_, the name which Marco gives the _River_, means in
Persian simply (as Marsden noticed) "The Stone Bridge." In a very different
region the same name often occurs in the history of Timur applied to a
certain bridge, in the country north of Badakhshan, over the Wakhsh branch
of the Oxus. And the Turkish admiral Sidi 'Ali, travelling that way from
India in the 16th century, applies the name, as it is applied here, to the
river; for his journal tells us that beyond Kulib he crossed "the _River
Pulisangin_."

We may easily suppose, therefore, that near Cambaluc also, the Bridge,
first, and then the River, came to be known to the Persian-speaking
foreigners of the court and city by this name. This supposition is however
a little perplexed by the circumstance that Rashiduddin calls the _River_
the _Sangin_ and that _Sangkan_-Ho appears from the maps or citations of
Martini, Klaproth, Neumann, and Pauthier to have been one of the _Chinese_
names of the river, and indeed, Sankang is still the name of one of the
confluents forming the Hwan Ho.

[By _Sanghin_, Polo renders the Chinese _Sang-kan_, by which name the River
Hun-ho is already mentioned, in the 6th century of our era. _Hun-ho_ is
also an ancient name; and the same river in ancient books is often called
_Lu-Kou_ River also. All these names are in use up to the present time; but
on modern Chinese maps, only the upper part of the river is termed
_Sang-Kan ho_, whilst south of the inner Great Wall, and in the plain, the
name of _Hun-ho_ is applied to it. _Hun ho_ means "Muddy River," and the
term is quite suitable. In the last century, the Emperor K'ien-lung ordered
the Hun-ho to be named _Yung-ting ho_, a name found on modern maps, but the
people always call it _Hun ho_ (_Bretschneider, Peking_, p. 54.)--H.C.]

The River is that which appears in the maps as the Hwan Ho, Hun-ho, or
Yongting Ho, flowing about 7 miles west of Peking towards the south-east
and joining the Pe-Ho at Tientsin; and the Bridge is that which has been
known for ages as the _Lu-kou-Kiao_ or Bridge of Lukou, adjoining the town
which is called in the Russian map of Peking _Feuchen_, but in the official
Chinese Atlas _Kung-Keih-cheng_. (See Map at ch. xi. of Bk. II. in the
first Volume.) ["Before arriving at the bridge the small walled city of
_Kung-ki cheng_ is passed. This was founded in the first half of the 17th
century. The people generally call it _Fei-ch'eng_" (_Bretschneider,
Peking_, p. 50.)--H.C.] It is described both by Magaillans and Lecomte,
with some curious discrepancies, whilst each affords particulars
corroborative of Polo's account of the character of the bridge. The former
calls it the finest bridge in China. Lecomte's account says the bridge was
the finest he had yet seen. "It is above 170 geometrical paces (850 feet)
in length. The arches are small, but the rails or side-walls are made of
a hard whitish stone resembling marble. These stones are more than 5 feet
long, 3 feet high, and 7 or 8 inches thick; supported at each end by
pilasters adorned with mouldings and bearing the figures of lions.... The
bridge is paved with great flat stones, so well joined that it is even as
a floor."

Magaillans thinks Polo's memory partially misled him, and that his
description applies more correctly to another bridge on the same road, but
some distance further west, over the Lieu-li Ho. For the bridge over the
Hwan Ho had really but _thirteen_ arches, whereas that on the Lieu-li had,
as Polo specifies, twenty-four. The engraving which we give of the Lu-kou
K'iao from a Chinese work confirms this statement, for it shows but
thirteen arches. And what Polo says of the navigation of the river is
almost conclusive proof that Magaillans is right, and that our traveller's
memory confounded the two bridges. For the navigation of the Hwan Ho, even
when its channel is full, is said to be impracticable on account of rapids,
whilst the Lieu-li Ho, or "Glass River," is, as its name implies, smooth,
and navigable, and it is largely navigated by boats from the coal-mines of
Fang-shan. The road crosses the latter about two leagues from Cho-chau.
(See next chapter.)

[Illustration: Bridge of Lu-ku k'iao]

[The Rev. W.S. Ament (_M. Polo in Cambaluc_, p. 116-117) remarks regarding
Yule's quotation from Magaillans that "a glance at Chinese history would
have explained to these gentlemen that there was no stone bridge over the
Liu Li river till the days of Kia Tsing, the Ming Emperor, 1522 A.D., or
more than one hundred and fifty years after Polo was dead. Hence he could
not have confounded bridges, one of which he never saw. The Lu Kou Bridge
was first constructed of stone by She Tsung, fourth Emperor of the Kin, in
the period Ta Ting 1189 A.D., and was finished by Chang Tsung 1194 A.D.
Before that time it had been constructed of wood, and had been sometimes a
stationary and often a floating bridge. The oldest account [end of 16th
century] states that the bridge was pu 200 in length, and specifically
states that each pu was 5 feet, thus making the bridge 1000 feet long. It
was called the Kuan Li Bridge. The Emperor, Kia Tsing of the Ming, was a
great bridge builder. He reconstructed this bridge, adding strong
embankments to prevent injury by floods. He also built the fine bridge over
the Liu Li Ho, the Cho Chou Bridge over the Chue Ma Ho. What cannot be
explained is Polo's statement that the bridge had twenty-four arches, when
the oldest accounts give no more than thirteen, there being eleven at the
present time. The columns which supported the balustrade in Polo's time
rested upon the loins of sculptured lions. The account of the lions after
the bridge was repaired by Kia Tsing says that there are so many that it is
impossible to count them correctly, and gossip about the bridge says that
several persons have lost their minds in making the attempt. The little
walled city on the east end of the bridge, rightly called Kung Chi,
popularly called Fei Ch'eng, is a monument to Ts'ung Ch'eng, the last of
the Ming, who built it, hoping to check the advance of Li Tzu ch'eng, the
great robber chief who finally proved too strong for him."--H.C.]

The Bridge of Lu-kou is mentioned more than once in the history of the
conquest of North China by Chinghiz. It was the scene of a notable mutiny
of the troops of the _Kin_ Dynasty in 1215, which induced Chinghiz to break
a treaty just concluded, and led to his capture of Peking.

This bridge was begun, according to Klaproth, in 1189, and was five years
a-building. On the 17th August, 1688, as Magaillans tells us, a great flood
carried away two arches of the bridge, and the remainder soon fell. [Father
Intorcetta, quoted by Bretschneider (_Peking_, p. 53), gives the 25th of
July, 1668, as the date of the destruction of the bridge, which agrees well
with the Chinese accounts.--H.C.] The bridge was renewed, but with only
nine arches instead of thirteen, as appears from the following note of
personal observation with which Dr. Lockhart has favoured me:

"At 27 _li_ from Peking, by the western road leaving the gate of the
Chinese city called Kwang-'an-man, after passing the old walled town of
Feuchen, you reach the bridge of _Lo-Ku-Kiao_. As it now stands it is a
very long bridge of nine arches (real _arches_) spanning the valley of the
Hwan Ho, and surrounded by beautiful scenery. The bridge is built of green
sandstone, and has a good balustrade with short square pilasters crowned by
small lions. It is in very good repair, and has a ceaseless traffic, being
on the road to the coal-mines which supply the city. There is a pavilion at
each end of the bridge with inscriptions, the one recording that K'anghi
(1662-1723) _built_ the bridge, and the other that Kienlung (1736-1796)
_repaired_ it." These circumstances are strictly consistent with
Magaillans' account of the destruction of the mediaeval bridge. Williamson
describes the present bridge as about 700 feet long, and 12 feet wide in
the middle part.

[Dr. Bretschneider saw the bridge, and gives the following description of
it: "The bridge is 350 ordinary paces long and 18 broad. It is built of
sandstone, and has on either side a stone balustrade of square columns,
about 4 feet high, 140 on each side, each crowned by a sculptured lion over
a foot high. Beside these there are a number of smaller lions placed
irregularly on the necks, behind the legs, under the feet, or on the back
of the larger ones. The space between the columns is closed by stone slabs.
Four sculptured stone elephants lean with their foreheads against the edge
of the balustrades. The bridge is supported by eleven arches. At each end
of the bridge two pavilions with yellow roofs have been built, all with
large marble tablets in them; two with inscriptions made by order of the
Emperor K'ang-hi (1662-1723); and two with inscriptions of the time of
K'ien-lung (1736-1796). On these tablets the history of the bridge is
recorded." Dr. Bretschneider adds that Dr. Lockhart is also right in
counting nine arches, for he counts only the waterways, not the arches
resting upon the banks of the river. Dr. Forke (p. 5) counts 11 arches and
280 stone lions.--H.C.]

(_P. de la Croix_, II. 11, etc.; _Erskine's Baber_, p. xxxiii.; _Timour's
Institutes_, 70; _J. As._ IX. 205; _Cathay_, 260; _Magaillans_, 14-18, 35;
_Lecomte_ in _Astley_, III. 529; _J. As._ ser. II. tom. i. 97-98;
_D'Ohsson_, I. 144.)

[Illustration: Bridge of Lu ku Kiao]

CHAPTER XXXVI.

ACCOUNT OF THE CITY OF JUJU.

When you leave the Bridge, and ride towards the west, finding all the way
excellent hostelries for travellers, with fine vineyards, fields, and
gardens, and springs of water, you come after 30 miles to a fine large city
called JUJU, where there are many abbeys of idolaters, and the people live
by trade and manufactures. They weave cloths of silk and gold, and very
fine taffetas.[NOTE 1] Here too there are many hostelries for
travellers.[NOTE 2]

After riding a mile beyond this city you find two roads, one of which goes
west and the other south-east. The westerly road is that through Cathay,
and the south-easterly one goes towards the province of Manzi.[NOTE 3]

Taking the westerly one through Cathay, and travelling by it for ten days,
you find a constant succession of cities and boroughs, with numerous
thriving villages, all abounding with trade and manufactures, besides the
fine fields and vineyards and dwellings of civilized people; but nothing
occurs worthy of special mention; and so I will only speak of a kingdom
called TAIANFU.

NOTE 1.--The word _sendaus_ (Pauthier), pl. of _sendal_, and in G.T.
_sandal_. It does not seem perfectly known what this silk texture was, but
as banners were made of it, and linings for richer stuffs, it appears to
have been a light material, and is generally rendered _taffetas_. In
_Richard Coeur de Lion_ we find

"Many a pencel of sykelatoun
And of sendel of grene and broun,"

and also _pavilions_ of sendel; and in the Anglo-French ballad of the death
of William Earl of Salisbury in St. Lewis's battle on the Nile--

"Le Meister du Temple brace les chivaux
Et le Count Long-Espee depli les _sandaux_."

The oriflamme of France was made of _cendal_. Chaucer couples taffetas and
sendal. His "Doctor of Physic"

"In sanguin and in perse clad was alle,
Lined with taffata and with sendalle."

[La Curne, _Dict., s.v. Sendaus_ has: Silk stuff: "Somme de la delivrance
des _sendaus_" (_Nouv. Compt. de l'Arg._ p. 19).--Godefroy, _Dict._, gives:
"_Sendain_, adj., made with the stuff called cendal: Drap d'or _sendains_
(1392, _Test. de Blanche. duch d'Orl._, Ste-Croix, Arch. Loiret)." He says
_s.v._ CENDAL, "_cendau, cendral, cendel, ... sendail_, ... etoffe legere
de soie unie qui parait avoir ete analogue au taffetas." "'On faisait des
_cendaux_ forts ou faibles, et on leur donnait toute sorte de couleurs. On
s'en servait surtout pour vetements et corsets, pour doublures de draps, de
fourrures et d'autres etoffes de soie plus precieuses, enfin pour tenture
d'appartements.' (_Bourquelot, Foir. de Champ._ I. 261)."

"J'ay de toilles de mainte guise,
De sidonnes et de _cendaulx_.
Soyes, satins blancs et vermaulx."
--_Greban, Mist. de la Pass._, 26826, _G. Paris_.--H.C.]

The origin of the word seems also somewhat doubtful. The word [Greek:
Sendes] occurs in _Constant. Porphyrog. de Ceremoniis_ (Bonn, ed. I. 468),
and this looks like a transfer of the Arabic _Sandas_ or _Sundus_, which is
applied by Bakui to the silk fabrics of Yezd. (_Not. et Ext._ II. 469.)
Reiske thinks this is the origin of the Frank word, and connects its
etymology with Sind. Others think that _sendal_ and the other forms are
modifications of the ancient _Sindon_, and this is Mr. Marsh's view. (See
also _Fr. Michel, Recherches, etc._ I. 212; _Dict. des Tissus_, II. 171
seqq.)

NOTE 2.--JUJU is precisely the name given to this city by Rashiduddin, who
notices the vineyards. Juju is CHO-CHAU, just at the distance specified
from Peking, viz. 40 miles, and nearly 30 from Pulisanghin or Lu-kou K'iao.
The name of the town is printed _Tsochow_ by Mr. Williamson, and _Chechow_
in a late Report of a journey by Consul Oxenham. He calls it "a large town
of the second order, situated on the banks of a small river flowing towards
the south-east, viz. the Kiu-ma-Ho, a navigable stream. It had the
appearance of being a place of considerable trade, and the streets were
crowded with people." (_Reports of Journeys in China and Japan_, etc.
Presented to Parliament, 1869, p. 9.) The place is called _Juju_ also in
the Persian itinerary given by 'Izzat Ullah in _J.R.A.S._ VII. 308; and in
one procured by Mr. Shaw. (_Proc.R.G.S._ XVI. p. 253.)

[The Rev. W.S. Ament (_Marco Polo_, 119-120) writes, "the historian of the
city of Cho-chau sounds the praises of the people for their religious
spirit". He says:--"It was the custom of the ancients to worship those who
were before them. Thus students worshipped their instructors, farmers
worshipped the first husbandman, workers in silk, the original silk-worker.
Thus when calamities come upon the land, the virtuous among the people make
offerings to the spirits of earth and heaven, the mountains, rivers,
streams, etc. All these things are profitable. These customs should never
be forgotten.' After such instruction, we are prepared to find fifty-eight
temples of every variety in this little city of about 20,000 inhabitants.
There is a temple to the spirits of Wind, Clouds, Thunder, and Rain, to the
god of silk-workers, to the Horse-god, to the god of locusts, and the eight
destructive insects, to the Five Dragons, to the King who quiets the waves.
Besides these, there are all the orthodox temples to the ancient worthies,
and some modern heroes. Liu Pei and Chang Fei, two of the three great
heroes of the _San Kuo Chih_, being natives of Cho Chou, are each honoured
with two temples, one in the native village, and one in the city. It is not
often that one locality can give to a great empire two of its three most
popular heroes: Liu Pei, Chang Fei, Kuan Yu."

"Judging from the condition of the country," writes the Rev. W.S. Ament
(p. 120), "one could hardly believe that this general region was the
original home of the silk-worm, and doubtless the people who once lived
here are the only people who ever saw the silk-worm in his wild state. The
historian of Cho-Chou honestly remarks that he knows of no reason why the
production of silk should have ceased there, except the fact that the worms
refused to live there.... The palmy days of the silk industry were in the
T'ang dynasty."--H.C.]

NOTE 3.--"About a _li_ from the southern suburbs of this town, the great
road to Shantung and the south-east diverged, causing an immediate
diminution in the number of carts and travellers" (_Oxenham_). [From Peking
"to Cheng-ting fu, says Colonel Bell (_Proc.R.G.S._, XII. 1890, p. 58), the
route followed is the Great Southern highway; here the Great Central Asian
highway leaves it." The Rev. W.S. Ament says (l.c., 121) about the
bifurcation of the road, one branch going on south-west to Pao-Ting fu and
Shan-si, and one branch to Shantung and Ho-nan: "The union of the two roads
at this point, bringing the travel and traffic of ten provinces, makes Cho
Chou one of the most important cities in the Empire. The magistrate of this
district is the only one, so far as we know, in the Empire who is relieved
of the duty of welcoming and escorting transient officers. It was the
multiplicity of such duties, so harassing, that persuaded Fang Kuan-ch'eng
to write the couplet on one of the city gateways: _Jih pien ch'ung yao, wu
shuang ti: T'ien hsia fan nan, ti yi Chou_. 'In all the world, there is no
place so public as this: for multiplied cares and trials, this is the first
Chou.' The people of Cho-Chou, of old celebrated for their religious
spirit, are now well known for their literary enterprise."--H.C.] This
bifurcation of the roads is a notable point in Polo's book. For after
following the western road through Cathay, i.e. the northern provinces of
China, to the borders of Tibet and the Indo-Chinese regions, our traveller
will return, whimsically enough, not to the capital to take a fresh
departure, but to this bifurcation outside of Chochau, and thence carry us
south with him to Manzi, or China south of the Yellow River.

Of a part of the road of which Polo speaks in the latter part of the
chapter Williamson says: "The drive was a very beautiful one. Not only were
the many villages almost hidden by foliage, but the road itself hereabouts
is lined with trees.... The effect was to make the journey like a ramble
through the avenues of some English park." Beyond Tingchau however the
country becomes more barren. (I. 268.)

CHAPTER XXXVII.

THE KINGDOM OF TAIANFU.

After riding then those ten days from the city of Juju, you find yourself
in a kingdom called TAIANFU, and the city at which you arrive, which is the
capital, is also called Taianfu, a very great and fine city. [But at the
end of five days' journey out of those ten, they say there is a city
unusually large and handsome called ACBALUC, whereat terminate in this
direction the hunting preserves of the Emperor, within which no one dares
to sport except the Emperor and his family, and those who are on the books
of the Grand Falconer. Beyond this limit any one is at liberty to sport, if
he be a gentleman. The Great Kaan, however, scarcely ever went hunting in
this direction, and hence the game, particularly the hares, had increased
and multiplied to such an extent that all the crops of the Province were
destroyed. The Great Kaan being informed of this, proceeded thither with
all his Court, and the game that was taken was past counting.][NOTE 1]

Taianfu[NOTE 2] is a place of great trade and great industry, for here they
manufacture a large quantity of the most necessary equipments for the army
of the Emperor. There grow here many excellent vines, supplying great
plenty of wine; and in all Cathay this is the only place where wine is
produced. It is carried hence all over the country.[NOTE 3] There is also a
great deal of silk here, for the people have great quantities of
mulberry-trees and silk-worms.

From this city of Taianfu you ride westward again for seven days, through
fine districts with plenty of towns and boroughs, all enjoying much trade
and practising various kinds of industry. Out of these districts go forth
not a few great merchants, who travel to India and other foreign regions,
buying and selling and getting gain. After those seven days' journey you
arrive at a city called PIANFU, a large and important place, with a number
of traders living by commerce and industry. It is a place too where silk is
largely produced.[NOTE 4]

So we will leave it and tell you of a great city called Cachanfu. But
stay--first let us tell you about the noble castle called Caichu.

NOTE 1.--Marsden translates the commencement of this passage, which is
peculiar to Ramusio, and runs "_E in capo di cinque giornate delle predette
dieci_," by the words "At the end of five days' journey _beyond_ the ten,"
but this is clearly wrong.[1] The place best suiting in position, as
halfway between Cho-chau and T'ai-yuan fu, would be CHENG-TING FU, and I
have little doubt that this is the place intended. The title of _Ak-Baligh_
in Turki,[2] or _Chaghan Balghasun_ in Mongol, meaning "White City," was
applied by the Tartars to Royal Residences; and possibly Cheng-ting fu may
have had such a claim, for I observe in the _Annales de la Prop. de la Foi_
(xxxiii. 387) that in 1862 the Chinese Government granted to the R.C.
Vicar-Apostolic of Chihli the ruined _Imperial Palace_ at Cheng-ting fu for
his cathedral and other mission establishments. Moreover, as a matter of
fact, Rashiduddin's account of Chinghiz's campaign in northern China in
1214, speaks of the city of "Chaghan Balghasun which the Chinese call
_Jintzinfu_." This is almost exactly the way in which the name of
Cheng-ting fu is represented in 'Izzat Ullah's Persian Itinerary
(_Jigdzinfu_, evidently a clerical error for _Jingdzinfu_), so I think
there can be little doubt that Cheng-ting fu is the place intended. The
name of Hwai-luh'ien (see Note 2), which is the first stage beyond
Cheng-ting fu, is said to mean the "Deer-lair," pointing apparently to the
old character of the tract as a game-preserve. The city of Cheng-ting is
described by Consul Oxenham as being now in a decayed and dilapidated
condition, consisting only of two long streets crossing at right angles. It
is noted for the manufacture of images of Buddha from Shan-si iron.
(_Consular Reports_, p. 10; _Erdmann_, 331.)

[The main road turns due west at Cheng-ting fu, and enters Shan-si through
what is known among Chinese travellers as the Ku-kwan, Customs'
Barrier.--H.C.]

Between Cheng-ting fu and T'ai-yuan fu the traveller first crosses a high
and rugged range of mountains, and then ascends by narrow defiles to the
plateau of Shan-si. But of these features Polo's excessive condensation
takes no notice.

The traveller who quits the great plain of Chihli [which terminates at
Fu-ch'eng-i, a small market-town, two days from Pao-ting.--H.C.] for "the
kingdom of Taianfu," i.e. Northern Shan-si, enters a tract in which
predominates that very remarkable formation called by the Chinese
_Hwang-tu_ and to which the German name _Loess_ has been attached. With this
formation are bound up the distinguishing characters of Northern Interior
China, not merely in scenery but in agricultural products, dwellings, and
means of transport. This _Loess_ is a brownish-yellow loam, highly porous,
spreading over low and high ground alike, smoothing over irregularities
of surface, and often more than 1000 feet in thickness. It has no
stratification, but tends to cleave vertically, and is traversed in every
direction by sudden crevices, almost glacier-like, narrow, with vertical
walls of great depth, and infinite ramification. Smooth as the loess basin
looks in a bird's-eye view, it is thus one of the most impracticable
countries conceivable for military movements, and secures extraordinary
value to fortresses in well-chosen sites, such as that of Tung-kwan
mentioned in Note 2 to chap. xli.

Agriculture may be said in N. China to be confined to the alluvial plains
and the loess; as in S. China to the alluvial plains and the terraced
hill-sides. The loess has some peculiar quality which renders its productive
power self-renewing without manure (unless it be in the form of a surface
coat of fresh loess), and unfailing in returns if there be sufficient rain.
This singular formation is supposed by Baron Richthofen, who has studied it
more extensively than any one, to be no subaqueous deposit, but to be the
accumulated residue of countless generations of herbaceous plants combined
with a large amount of material spread over the face of the ground by the
winds and surface waters.

[I do not agree with the theory of Baron von Richthofen, of the almost
exclusive Eolian formation of _loess_; water has something to do with it as
well as wind, and I think it is more exact to say that loess _in China_ is
due to a double action, Neptunian as well as Eolian. The climate was
different in former ages from what it is now, and rain was plentiful and to
its great quantity was due the fertility of this yellow soil. (Cf. _A. de
Lapparent, Lecons de Geographie Physique_, 2'e ed. 1898, p. 566.)--H.C.]

Though we do not expect to find Polo taking note of geological features, we
are surprised to find no mention of a characteristic of Shan-si and the
adjoining districts, which is due to the _loess_; viz. the practice of
forming cave dwellings in it; these in fact form the habitations of a
majority of the people in the loess country. Polo _has_ noticed a similar
usage in Badakhshan (I. p. 161), and it will be curious if a better
acquaintance with that region should disclose a surface formation analogous
to the _loess_. (_Richthofen's Letters_, VII. 13 _et passim_.)

NOTE 2.--Taianfu is, as Magaillans pointed out, T'AI-YUAN FU, the capital
of the Province of Shan-si, and Shan-si is the "Kingdom." The city was,
however, the capital of the great T'ang Dynasty for a time in the 8th
century, and is probably the _Tajah_ or _Taiyunah_ of old Arab writers. Mr.
Williamson speaks of it as a very pleasant city at the north end of a most
fertile and beautiful plain, between two noble ranges of mountains. It was
a residence, he says, also of the Ming princes, and is laid out in Peking
fashion, even to mimicking the Coal-Hill and Lake of the Imperial Gardens.
It stands about 3000 feet above the sea [on the left bank of the
Fen-ho.--H.C.]. There is still an Imperial factory of artillery,
matchlocks, etc., as well as a powder mill; and fine carpets like those of
Turkey are also manufactured. The city is not, however, now, according to
Baron Richthofen, very populous, and conveys no impression of wealth or
commercial importance. [In an interesting article on this city, the Rev. G.
B. Farthing writes (_North China Herald_, 7th September, 1894): "The
configuration of the ground enclosed by T'ai-yuan fu city is that of a
'three times to stretch recumbent cow.' The site was chosen and described
by Li Chun-feng, a celebrated professor of geomancy in the days of the
T'angs, who lived during the reign of the Emperor T'ai Tsung of that ilk.
The city having been then founded, its history reaches back to that date.
Since that time the cow has stretched twice.... T'ai-yuan city is square,
and surrounded by a wall of earth, of which the outer face is bricked. The
height of the wall varies from thirty to fifty feet, and it is so broad
that two carriages could easily pass one another upon it. The natives would
tell you that each of the sides is three miles, thirteen paces in length,
but this, possibly, includes what it will be when the cow shall have
stretched for the third and last time. Two miles is the length of each
side; eight miles to tramp if you wish to go round the four of them."--H.
C.] The district used to be much noted for cutlery and hardware, iron as
well as coal being abundantly produced in Shan-si. Apparently the present
Birmingham of this region is a town called Hwai-lu, or Hwo-luh'ien, about
20 miles west of Cheng-ting fu, and just on the western verge of the great
plain of Chihli. [Regarding Hwai-lu, the Rev. C. Holcombe calls it "a
miserable town lying among the foot hills, and at the mouth of the valley,
up which the road into Shan-si lies." He writes (p. 59) that Ping-ting
chau, after the Customs' barrier (Ku Kwan) between Chih-li and Shan-si,
would, under any proper system of management, at no distant day become the
Pittsburg, or Birmingham, of China.--H.C.] (_Richthofen's Letters_, No.
VII. 20; _Cathay_, xcvii. cxiii. cxciv.; _Rennie_, II. 265; _Williamson's
Journeys in North China; Oxenham_, u.s. II; _Klaproth_ in _J. As._ ser. II.
tom. i. 100; _Izzat Ullah's Pers. Itin._ in _J.R.A.S._ VII. 307; _Forke,
Von Peking nach Ch'ang-an_, p. 23.)

["From Khavailu (Hwo-luh'ien), an important commercial centre supplying
Shansi, for 130 miles to Sze-tien, the road traverses the loess hills,
which extend from the Peking-Kalgan road in a south-west direction to the
Yellow River, and which are passable throughout this length only by the
Great Central Asian trade route to T'ai-yuan fu and by the Tung-Kwan,
Ho-nan, i.e. the Yellow River route. (_Colonel Bell, Proc.R.G.S._ XII.
1890, p. 59.) Colonel Bell reckons seven days (218 miles) from Peking to
Hwo-lu-h'ien and five days from this place to T'ai-yuan fu."--H.C.]

NOTE 3.--Martini observes that the grapes in Shan-si were very abundant and
the best in China. The Chinese used them only as raisins, but wine was made
there for the use of the early Jesuit Missions, and their successors
continue to make it. Klaproth, however, tells us that the wine of T'ai-yuan
fu was celebrated in the days of the T'ang Dynasty, and used to be sent in
tribute to the Emperors. Under the Mongols the use of this wine spread
greatly. The founder of the Ming accepted the offering of wine of the vine
from T'aiyuan in 1373, but prohibited its being presented again. The finest
grapes are produced in the district of Yukau-hien, where hills shield the
plain from north winds, and convert it into a garden many square miles in
extent. In the vintage season the best grapes sell for less than a farthing
a pound. [Mr. Theos. Sampson, in an article on "Grapes in China," writes
(_Notes and Queries on China and Japan_, April, 1869, p. 50): "The earliest
mention of the grape in Chinese literature appears to be contained in the
chapter on the nations of Central Asia, entitled _Ta Yuan Chwan_, or
description of Fergana, which forms part of the historical records
(_Sze-Ki_) of Sze-ma Tsien, dating from B.C. 100. Writing of the political
relations instituted shortly before this date by the Emperor Wu Ti with the
nations beyond the Western frontiers of China, the historian dwells at
considerable length, but unluckily with much obscurity, on the various
missions despatched westward under the leadership of Chang K'ien and
others, and mentions the grape vine in the following passage:--'Throughout
the country of Fergana, wine is made from grapes, and the wealthy lay up
stores of wine, many tens of thousands of _shih_ in amount, which may be
kept for scores of years without spoiling. Wine is the common beverage, and
for horses the _mu-su_ is the ordinary pasture. The envoys from China
brought back seeds with them, and hereupon the Emperor for the first time
cultivated the grape and the mu-su in the most productive soils.' In the
Description of Western regions, forming part of the History of the Han
Dynasty, it is stated that grapes are abundantly produced in the country of
K'i-pin (identified with Cophene, part of modern Afghanistan) and other
adjacent countries, and referring, if I mistake not, to the journeys of
Chang K'ien, the same work says, that the Emperor Wu-Ti despatched upwards
of ten envoys to the various countries westward of Fergana, to search for
novelties, and that they returned with grape and mu-su seeds. These
references appear beyond question to determine the fact that grapes were
introduced from Western- or, as we term it, Central-Asia, by Chang K'ien."

Dr. Bretschneider (_Botanicon Sinicum_, I. p. 25), relating the mission of
Chang K'ien (139 B.C. Emperor Wu-Ti), who died about B.C. 103, writes:--"He
is said to have introduced many useful plants from Western Asia into China.
Ancient Chinese authors ascribe to him the introduction of the Vine, the
Pomegranate, Safflower, the Common Bean, the Cucumber, Lucerne, Coriander,
the Walnut-tree, and other plants."--H.C.] The river that flows down from
Shan-si by Cheng-ting-fu is called "Putu-ho, or the Grape River." (_J. As._
u.s.; _Richthofen_, u.s.)

[Regarding the name of this river, the Rev. C. Holcombe (l.c. p. 56)
writes: "Williamson states in his _Journeys in North China_ that the name
of this stream is, properly _Poo-too Ho_--'Grape River,' but is sometimes
written Hu-t'ou River incorrectly. The above named author, however, is
himself in error, the name given above [_Hu-t'o_] being invariably found in
all Chinese authorities, as well as being the name by which the stream is
known all along its course."

West of the Fan River, along the western border of the Central Plain of
Shan-si, in the extreme northern point of which lies T'ai-yuan fu, the Rev.
C. Holcombe says (p. 61), "is a large area, close under the hills, almost
exclusively given up to the cultivation of the grape. The grapes are
unusually large, and of delicious flavour."--H.C.]

NOTE 4.--+In no part of China probably, says Richthofen, do the towns and
villages consist of houses so substantial and costly as in this. Pianfu is
undoubtedly, as Magaillans again notices, P'ING-YANG FU.[3] It is the
_Bikan_ of Shah Rukh's ambassadors. [Old P'ing yang, 5 _Lis_ to the south]
is said to have been the residence of the primitive and mythical Chinese
Emperor Yao. A great college for the education of the Mongols was
instituted at P'ing-yang, by Yeliu Chutsai, the enlightened minister of
Okkodai Khan. [Its dialect differs from the T'ai-yuan dialect, and is more
like Pekingese.] The city, lying in a broad valley covered with the yellow
loess, was destroyed by the T'ai-P'ing rebels, but it is reviving. [It is
known for its black pottery.] The vicinity is noted for large paper
factories. ["From T'ai-yuan fu to P'ing-yang fu is a journey of 185 miles,
down the valley of the Fuen-ho." (Colonel Bell, _Proc.R.G.S._ XII. 1890, p.
61.) By the way, Mr. Rockhill remarks (_Land of the Lamas_, p. 10):
"Richthofen has transcribed the name of this river _Fuen_. This spelling
has been adopted on most of the recent maps, both German and English, but
_Fuen_ is an impossible sound in Chinese." (Read _Fen ho_.)--H.C.]
(_Cathay_, ccxi.; _Ritter_, IV. 516; _D'Ohsson_, II. 70; _Williamson_, I.
336.)

[1] And I see Ritter understood the passage as I do (IV. 515).

[2] _Baligh_ is indeed properly Mongol.

[3] It seems to be called _Piyingfu_ (miswritten Piying_ku_) in Mr. Shaw's
Itinerary from Yarkand (_Pr.R.G.S._ XVI. 253.) We often find the
Western modifications of Chinese names very persistent.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

CONCERNING THE CASTLE OF CAICHU.

On leaving Pianfu you ride two days westward, and come to the noble castle
of CAICHU, which was built in time past by a king of that country, whom
they used to call the GOLDEN KING, and who had there a great and beautiful
palace. There is a great hall of this palace, in which are pourtrayed all
the ancient kings of the country, done in gold and other beautiful colours,
and a very fine sight they make. Each king in succession as he reigned
added to those pictures.[NOTE 1]

[This Golden King was a great and potent Prince, and during his stay at
this place there used to be in his service none but beautiful girls, of
whom he had a great number in his Court. When he went to take the air about
the fortress, these girls used to draw him about in a little carriage which
they could easily move, and they would also be in attendance on the King
for everything pertaining to his convenience or pleasure.[NOTE 2]]

Now I will tell you a pretty passage that befell between the Golden King
and Prester John, as it was related by the people of the Castle.

It came to pass, as they told the tale, that this Golden King was at war
with Prester John. And the King held a position so strong that Prester
John was not able to get at him or to do him any scathe; wherefore he was
in great wrath. So seventeen gallants belonging to Prester John's Court
came to him in a body, and said that, an he would, they were ready to
bring him the Golden King alive. His answer was, that he desired nothing
better, and would be much bounden to them if they would do so.

So when they had taken leave of their Lord and Master Prester John, they
set off together, this goodly company of gallants, and went to the Golden
King, and presented themselves before him, saying that they had come from
foreign parts to enter his service. And he answered by telling them that
they were right welcome, and that he was glad to have their service, never
imagining that they had any ill intent. And so these mischievous squires
took service with the Golden King; and served him so well that he grew to
love them dearly.

And when they had abode with that King nearly two years, conducting
themselves like persons who thought of anything but treason, they one day
accompanied the King on a pleasure party when he had very few else along
with him: for in those gallants the King had perfect trust, and thus kept
them immediately about his person. So after they had crossed a certain
river that is about a mile from the castle, and saw that they were alone
with the King, they said one to another that now was the time to achieve
that they had come for. Then they all incontinently drew, and told the King
that he must go with them and make no resistance, or they would slay him.
The King at this was in alarm and great astonishment, and said: "How then,
good my sons, what thing is this ye say? and whither would ye have me go?"
They answered, and said: "You shall come with us, will ye: nill ye, to
Prester John our Lord."

[Illustration: The "Roi d'Or." (From a MS. in the Royal Asiatic Society's
Collection.)

"Et en ceste chastians ha un mout bians paleis en quel a une grandisme sale
la ou il sunt portrait a mont belles pointures tout les rois de celes
provences que furent ansienemant, et ce est mout belle viste a voir."]

NOTE 1.--The name of the castle is very doubtful. But of that and the
geography, which in this part is tangled, we shall speak further on.

Whilst the original French texts were unknown, the king here spoken of
figured in the old Latin versions as King _Darius_, and in Ramusio as _Re
Dor_. It was a most happy suggestion of Marsden's, in absence of all
knowledge of the fact that the original narrative was _French_, that this
Dor represented the Emperor of the _Kin_ or Golden Dynasty, called by the
Mongols _Altun Khan_, of which _Roi D'Or_ is a literal translation.

Of the legend itself I can find no trace. Rashiduddin relates a story of
the grandfather of Aung Khan (Polo's Prester John), Merghuz Boiruk Khan,
being treacherously made over to the King of the Churche (the Kin
sovereign), and put to death by being nailed to a wooden ass. But the same
author tells us that Aung Khan got his title of Aung (Ch. _Wang_) or king
from the Kin Emperor of his day, so that no hereditary feud seems
deducible.

Mr. Wylie, who is of opinion, like Baron Richthofen, that the _Caichu_
which Polo makes the scene of that story, is Kiai-chau (or Hiai-chau as it
seems to be pronounced), north of the Yellow River, has been good enough to
search the histories of the Liao and Kin Dynasties,[1] but without finding
any trace of such a story, or of the Kin Emperors having resided in that
neighbourhood.

On the other hand, he points out that the story has a strong resemblance to
a real event which occurred in Central Asia in the beginning of Polo's
century.

The Persian historians of the Mongols relate that when Chinghiz defeated
and slew Taiyang Khan, the king of the Naimans, Kushluk, the son of
Taiyang, fled to the Gur-Khan of Karakhitai and received both his
protection and the hand of his daughter (see i. 237); but afterwards rose
against his benefactor and usurped his throne. "In the Liao history I
read," Mr. Wylie says, "that Chih-lu-ku, the last monarch of the Karakhitai
line, ascended the throne in 1168, and in the 34th year of his reign, when
out hunting one day in autumn, Kushluk, who had 8000 troops in ambush, made
him prisoner, seized his throne and adopted the customs of the Liao, while
he conferred on Chih-lu-ku the honourable title of _Tai-shang-hwang_ 'the
old emperor.'"[2]

It is this Kushluk, to whom Rubruquis assigns the role of King (or Prester)
John, the subject of so many wonderful stories. And Mr. Wylie points out
that not only was his father Taiyang Khan, according to the Chinese
histories, a much more important prince than Aung Khan or Wang Khan the
Kerait, but his name _Tai-Yang-Khan_ is precisely "Great King John" as near
as John (or Yohana) can be expressed in Chinese. He thinks therefore that
Taiyang and his son Kushluk, the Naimans, and not Aung Khan and his
descendants, the Keraits, were the parties to whom the character of Prester
John properly belonged, and that it was probably this story of Kushluk's
capture of the Karakhitai monarch (_Roi de Fer_) which got converted into
the form in which he relates it of the _Roi d'Or_.

The suggestion seems to me, as regards the story, interesting and probable;
though I do not admit that the character of Prester John properly belonged
to any real person.

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