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The Talking Deaf Man by John Conrade Amman

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A Method Proposed, Whereby He Who is Born Deaf, May Learn to Speak.

By the Studious Invention and Industry of _John Conrade Amman_, an
_Helvetian_ of _Shashuis_, Dr. of Physick.

Imprinted at _Amsterdam_, by _Henry Westein_, 1692. And now done
out of Latin into English, by _D.F.M.D._ 1693.

_London_, Printed for Tho. Hawkins, in _George-yard, Lumbard street_,

Price bound One Shilling.

_To his most Approved Good Friend Mr. PETER KOLARD, the Author, with
all Submission, Dedicateth this his Treatise of the Talking Deaf Man._

_My much honoured Friend_,

This little endeavour, how small soever it be, is upon many Accounts
due to you; For besides that, the Truth of the matter here exposed, is
to no one, (except my Self) more apparent, you did heap on me so many
Favours, whilst I abode in your House, upon account of teaching your
Daughter, and rendred me to be so much Yours, as no less could be
sufficient, than to erect a publick, and as much as in me lay, an
eternal Monument of Gratitude to you. How great the Incredulity of
this Age is, no Man almost knows better than your self; there have
been, and still are, such as boldly deny, that it is possible to bring
the _Deaf_ to speak; others, though they should be admitted to be
Eye-Witnesses, yet would not stick to doubt still of the matter:
Wherefore, what-ever it was that I performed to your Daughter, and to
some others, and by what Artifice I did it, I now ingenuously expose
to the Eyes of all the World. I heartily wish that they may so make
use of this my labour, as that for the future, no more _Dumb_ Persons
may be found.

In the number of these doubting Persons, you have confessed to me,
that you your self had formerly been, until you had heard a certain
Maiden, who before had been _Dumb_, talking with me at _Amsterdam_;
perhaps I should have been so my self, if, when I was ignorant in the
thing, I had received narratively only, that some such thing was
performed by another; wherefore I resolved rather to convince the
Incredulity of Men (which now is accounted Prudence amongst most Men)
of an Error, than to reprove them for their Rashness.

It is now three Years since I first thought to make this my Method
publick; but had I then done it, I should now have repented it,
because in this Interval I have much more polished it; and rendered it
more easie by far; and as to what belongs to the practise thereof,
more certain, yea, and all to that degree, as I dare confidently
assert, that henceforth there shall be no _Deaf_ Person, (provided he
be of a sound Mind, and be not Tongue-tied, nor of an immature Age)
who by my Instruction shall not in the space of two Months speak
readily enough. Perhaps also I shall hereafter repent, that I have
published this small Treatise, as yet too immature; yet I had rather
confess an Error, if I shall any where commit one, or in any future
Edition augment it, than wholly to pass it over in Silence; for if I
should be snatcht away by a hasty Death, (even as a tender state of
Health doth threaten me) I should not know how to render to God an
Account of the Talent committed to me, as he may require it of me.

Nothing therefore remained, most Worthy Sir, than that I should beg
your Pardon, that I have made bold thus to interrupt you in the midst
of Affairs, which almost swallow you wholly up; but I believe you will
the more readily give it me, because this little Script may make my
Absence less troublesome to you, because, according to the precepts
here given, you yourself will be able to take care that your Daughter
shall not only not forget all what she already knows, but more and
more accomplish them. However, I humbly beseech you, that him whom you
have begun to love, yea, though he be removed far from you, that you
will persist still therein, and to take upon your self as need shall
require it, the Patronage of the Truth it self. Farewel, and be well.

_J. Conrade Amman._

_Dated from my Study_, Aug. 10th, 1692.

* * * * *

_To his Learned friends_ Richard Waller, _and_ Alexander Pittfield,
_Esquires, of the_ Royal Society.


The holding of a Candle to the Sun is not more absurd, than thus to
present you with an _English_ Version of a _Latin_ Treatise. All who
know you, know you to be Masters of not only most of the _European_,
but also of the Learned Languages. But my excuse is, that what I have
done for the sake of English Readers, I expose under your learned
Names; the Subject-matter of which may be useful, and therefore
acceptable to your selves and others. However, I am willing to
discover my Ambitious aim herein, which is to let the World know who
are my Friends, and what Names may give Honour to mine. I know, that
several very considerable Members of that great Society, to which you
so nearly relate, have already, both in Theory and Practise,
acquainted the World with very remarkable things of this nature; and
whether what is here published, will in the least, either elucidate or
add to those already taught, and done by those very knowing persons, I
neither dare nor will determine; but if neither one nor the other be
here found, yet it is sometimes grateful to us, to see how good and
great wits do jump, and in such Circumstances as these no Man can
account Store to be a Soare. _I_ have only this to further mention,
that the _Author_ chose the _High-German_ Tongue to become his
exemplar, rather than any other Modern or Antique; it therefore is
necessary, that he who would put his Rules in practice in any other
Language, must observe a due Analogy in _mutatis mutandis_. Thus (my
Friends) I have exposed both you and my self, if any blame happen, let
that be all mine, who (without your Knowledge and Concession) did this
Indignity to you, and to aggravate it, thus publickly to stile my


Your Cordial Friend and Servant,

_Dan. Foot._

* * * * *


Candid Reader,

_In these few Pages, I expose to thee openly and ingenuously, by what
means I can learn the Deaf, (and because they were born so) the Dumb
to speak articulately_, and easily to understand others also when they
are speaking, so as they may be able both to read, and to understand a
Book, or Letter, and to discover their own Minds, either by Speach or

How important a Benefit is this? How advantageous is the not hearing
supplied by this Art? If Envy, or the detestable greedy Desire of
Gain_ _could have prevailed with me, I had retained this Art, as lockt
up in my own Breast. But alass! How miserable is the condition of the
Deaf? How lame and defective is that Speach, which is performed by
Signs and Gestures? How little are they capable to receive of those
things which concern their eternal Salvation? Who doth not
commiserate_ _this sort of Persons? Who can refuse to help them by all
means which are possible? For my part, I, by the help of God's Grace,
will not only help them, but will make publick and vulgar what is best
to be done therein, yea, and have done so already, that they can
understand others speaking, even with the softest_ Voice, _or rather

_This Doctrin will seem new and incredible to most Men, yet is not
plainly altogether unheard of; for, as I heard, there have been some,
who engaged themselves in this cure; but what they effected therein, I
must acknowledge is unknown to me; yea, I Religiously attest, that
before I did excogitate this Matter, I met not with the least_
_foot-step thereof in any Author. Notwithstanding, some there be, who
reject at first sight this Doctrin as fabulous; others, and those
perhaps the same also; who when I shall have discovered to them the
manner thereof, will cry, that they could do the same thing: I, for my
part; am not concerned at either of them, well knowing, that those who
are just in their_ _Estimation of things, will judge otherwise.

When thou, by reading shalt arrive thus far (good_ Reader) _stop a
little (I pray thee) and use the liberty granted to every one, and
attentively revolve in thy Mind, what thou thy self would'st do, if
such a case as this was committed to thy care. If so be thou shaltst
find out the right way, give God_ _thanks, and let it suffice, that I
have admonished thee; if not, go on to read what follows, where thou
wilt find it, with very little trouble. This very way is that, by
which I taught_ Ehster Kolard, (_a young Virgin of great Hopes, the
only Daughter of Mr_ Peter Kolard, _who was born Deaf) not only to
read, but also to speak readily, yea, and to_ _hold Discourse with
others and in a short time she profited so much, as to remember a many
Questions and Answers in the Catechism, yea, and as far as her young
Years were capable, she understood the Sense of them also: She
rejoyced greatly when I told her, that I was willing to make this
Method, by which she learned to speak, common_ to all. Friendly_
Reader, _use and accept well these things; and if thou knowest any
things better, Candidly impart them, and make not thy self Ungrateful.

* * * * *

An Advertisement to the _English Reader_.

About 26 Years since, the Honourable, Learned, and Pious F.M. Baron of
_Helmont_ caused to be published in Latin a small Treatise; wholly and
fully to the same purpose, with what is here published: Which said
Treatise, entituled, _The Alphabet of Nature_, is now in Hand to be
Translated, and Publish'd in _English_; of which it was thought fit
here to give thee this Notice.

Thou art also (kind _Reader_) to be advertised, that there is very
lately Translated into the _English_ a very learned Tract, entituled,
_The Divine Being, and its Attributes_; demonstrated from the Holy
Scriptures, and Original Nature of things, according to the Principles
of the aforesaid F.M. Baron of _Helmont_. Written in _Low-Dutch_, by
_Paulus Buchius_, Dr. of Physick, &c. and Licensed according to Order,
and are to be sold by _T. Howkins_, Bookseller, in _George-yard,



_An Inquiry into the Nature of a_ Voice, _and in what respect it
differs from the Breath_.

Let no Man presume, that he shall ever attain to this noble Art, if he
remain Ignorant in what it is that the nature of the Letters, as well
in general, as special, doth consist; for it was this very thing which
gave occasion to the composing of this small Treatise: Wherefore,
before I treat of the manner of instructing _Deaf_ Persons, I shall
bring into examination, First, the material part of the _Letters_,
viz. _Voice_ and _Breath_; Secondly, the _Letters themselves_, and
their Differences: Thirdly, and Lastly, I will teach the _Practise_ of
the Art.

I have oftentimes heard from some Persons, that it was little beneath
a Miracle, that God should give Men, to express the Thoughts of the
Mind, rather by Motions, which are effected by the Lips, the Tongue,
the Teeth, &c. than otherwise, and that so universally, that there is
no Nation so Barbarous, no not excepting the _Hottentots_, which
cannot speak in a Language. But let (I pray) these Men consider, what
it is that Men rightly Instituted would have, whilst they mutually
talk one with another; for they desire to open the most inward
Recesses of the Heart, yea, and to transfuse their own proper Life
into others, which thing cannot be more commodiously done, than by
Speaking; for there is nothing which floweth forth from us, which
carrieth with it a more vivid Character of the Life, than our _Voice_
doth; yea, in the _Voice_ is the _Breath_ of Life, part of which
passeth into the _Voice_; for indeed the _Voice_ is the Child of the
Heart, which is the Seat of the Affections, and of Desire. Hence it
is, that sometimes we are not able to keep back the impetuous Motions
of the Affections; but _out of the abundance of the Heart, the Mouth
speaketh._ Thus, when we desire something in our selves, and yet are
afraid to express it, the Heart labours like a Woman with Child, and
becomes Anxious; but if we can pour it forth into the Bosom of a
Friend, there presently ariseth great Tranquility, and we say, that we
have emptied our Hearts: Yea, so full is the _Voice_ of the Life,
which immediately flows from the Heart, that to talk long, extreamly
wearieth us; but especially the Sick, who oftentimes can scarce utter
three or four words, but they faint away. Therefore, to comprehend
much in a few words, the _Voice_ is an Emanation from that very
Spirit, which God breathed inth Man's Nostrils, when he Created him a
living Soul. Hence also, _The Word of God, the Son of God, the
Omnipotence of God_, &c. are in Holy Scripture oftentimes homonymous,
or of the like, and same import.

It is no wonder therefore, if _Voice_ be natural to a Man, though he
be _Deaf_, because _Deaf Men_ Laugh, Cry out, Hollow, Weep, Sigh, and
Waile, and express the chief Motions of the Mind, by the _Voice_ which
is to an Observant Hearer, various, yea, they hardly ever signifie any
thing by Signs, but they mix with it some _Sound_ or _Voice_. Thus the
Exclamations of almost all Nations are alike; [_a_] is the _Sound_ of
him chiefly, who rejoyceth; [_i_] of him who is in Indignation, and
Angry; [_o_] of one in Commiseration, or Exclamation; not to mention
many such other-like.

Now I shall briefly declare, wherein the nature of the _Voice_
consisteth, where it is formed, and how it is formed: I shall also
discover, together therewith, wherein is the difference betwixt
_Voice_ and _Breath simply_, as what is in truth, of so much weight,
that if it be unknown, some Deaf Persons cannot learn to speak, as
shall be taught in the Third Chapter. Men ordinarily speak after two
manner of ways, viz. either when they may be heard by any one, who is
not too far distant from them, and that is properly call'd _Voice_; or
else, when they speak privately in another's Ear, and then they
pronounce a _Breath which is simple, but not Sonorous_. Deaf Men also
do know a _Voice_ to be different from a _Simple Breath_; for they can
speak both ways, and I also have learned this Distinction partly from

The Humane _Voice_ is Air, impregnated, and made Sonorous by the
impressed Character of the Life, or is such, as whilst it is in
breathing forth, doth smite upon the Organs of the _Voice_, so, as
_they tremble thereupon_; for indeed, without this tremulous Motion,
no _Voice_ is made: Yea, not only the _Larynx_, or Wind-pipe, doth
thereupon tremble, but the whole Skull also; yea, and sometimes _all
the Bones_ _of the whole Body_, which any one may easily find in
himself, by his applying his Hand to his Throat, and laying it on the
top of his Head. This trembling is very perceptible in most sounding
Bodies, and is (if I mistake not) owing for the most part to the
_Springiness_ of the Air; which, did I not study to be brief, I could
more fully explicate. Now the _Simple Breath_ is Air, breathed forth
by the opening of the Mouth or Nostrils, simply, and without any
smiting on the parts, which rather exciteth a whispering than a sound.
Hence is it, that Animals, whose Wind-pipe is cut beneath the Throat,
do indeed render a _Breathing_, but no _Voice_; for the Tube of the
Wind-pipe is too large, and too smooth, than that the Air can strike
upon it any where; and being thus reflected on its self, it can also
imprint a tremulous Motion on its neighbouring Bodies: This the
Physicians Pupils do know; who being about to dissect live Dogs, they
cut their Throats, that they may not be troubled with their barking:
For _Voice_ differs as much from a _Simple Breath_, as doth that
hoarse Sound, which we excite, by rubbing the tops of our Fingers hard
upon some Glass or Table, which is quite differing from that same
_soft whistling Sound_, which is heard when we lightly rub with the
Hand the same Glass or Table.

The _Voice_ therefore, as it is the _Voice_, is generated in the
_Cartilages of the Wind-pipe_, then afterwards is formed into such or
such _Letters_; but that it may become a lovely _Voice_, it's
requisite, that those Cartilages be _smooth_, and _lined with no
mucous Matter_, else the _Voice_ will become Hoarse, and sometimes be
utterly lost, viz. when they have lost their Springy power.

For _Pipes_; and other _Wind-Instruments_ do most notably explain to
us the nature of the _Voice_; for in them we see a certain _Voice_ or
_Sound_ to be generated out of Simple Air, whilst it is as it were,
rent in pieces, and forced into a tremulous Motion: Now, that in these
Instruments there is a little Tongue; or which is instead of a Tongue,
the same in a Man is the _Epiglott_, or Cover of the _Wind-pipe_, and
the _Uvula_, or Pallate of the Mouth; but the rest of the _Cartilages_
of the _Throat_, besides that, they contribute much to the making of
the _Voice_, yet are they chiefly serviceable to it, in rendering it
to be more flat, and more sharp, and that especially by the _Bone of
the Tongue_, and the adjoyning Muscles: But I am unwilling to put from
this Office the Muscles which are proper to the _Wind-pipe_; for they
all unanimously conspire to make the _Cleft of the Throat_ either
wider, or narrower. But above all, here is that wonderful Faculty of
modifying the _Voice_, according to Will and Pleasure; which, even as
_Speech_ also, is not natural to us, but a Habite, contracted by long
Use or Custom. Hence it is, that the Unskilful are not only Ignorant
how to Sing, but also cannot so much as imitate others who are
Singing; so also such as are ignorant of any Language, do not only not
understand others who are speaking that Language, but also do not know
how presently to repeat that _Voice_ which they received by their

Things principally requisite to the _Voice_, are, that the
_Wind-pipe_, the former thereof be solid, dry, and of the nature of
_Resounding_ Bodies. By this _Hypothesis_, two of the most Eminent
_Phaenomena's of the Voice_ are discovered; why the _Voice_ should then
at length become firm and ripe, when the Bones have attained unto
their full Strength, and due Hardness, which cometh to pass much about
the Years of ripe age, when the vital Heat, doth in a greater degree
exert itself: The other Phaenomenon is _Hoarsness_ or an utter loss of
the _Voice_, which is, when the _Cartilages_, or _Gristles of the
Throat_, especially the _Epiglott_, or Coverlid of the _Wind-pipe_, is
lined or besmeared all over with a slimy Viscosity, whereby they lose
their _Elasticity_, or Springiness. Now these Symptoms of the _Voice_
are also common to other _Wind-instruments_, when they become too much
moistned by any vapourous wetting Air. The same reason also is to be
assigned why the _Voice_ doth at last quite cease in those who have
made too long Harrangues, in speaking, and whose Jaws are quite dried
with an immoderate Heat; for in both these cases the top of the
_Wind-pipe_ is covered over with a clammy _Tenacious Phlegm_.

There remains yet two other Symptoms of the _Voice_, which I have
undertaken to explicate, viz. why the _Voice_ sometimes leaps from one
_Eighth_ to another; and, as it is rightly said by the Vulgar
Expression, that it is broken: and why, when we strive to make our
_Voice_ either too sharp, or too flat, it at last plainly faileth us.
As to the first, let us consider when and how it cometh to pass; and
first, it's what principally happeneth to _Orators_, when they
endeavour to lift up their _Voice_ too high, or strongly; but how this
cometh to be, _Organ-pipes_, and the _Monochorde_, do teach us, _viz._
when some Impediment interposing, doth divide the _ordinary Sound_
into two; if therefore those parts are equal, either of them is by one
_Eighth_ more sharp than the former Sound, neither are they
distinguished from one another; but if they prove to be unequally
divided, then two _distinct Sounds_ are made at the same time, whereof
one is flatter than the ether, and this is commonly called a _broken
Voice_: But why our _Voice_ should fail us, when we endeavour to make
it more sharp, or more flat than it ought to be, the reason is,
because we strive either so to contract the _Cleft_ of the
_Wind-pipe_, and to press the _Spout-like Cartilage_, by help of the
_Bone of Tongue_, towards the _Epiglott_, that the going forth of the
_Voice_, and of the _Breath_, may be precluded, or else, on the
contrary, because that the said _Cleft_, through the drawing down of
the _Cartilages_, is so much widened, that the departing out of the
_Breath_, finds no hinderance.

But here I had almost forgot to compare the _more dry_, the _more
moist_, the _more solid_, and the _more thin_ Constitution of the
_Larynx_, or _Wind-pipe_, which also make very much to the rendering
the _Voice_, to be either sharp, or flat. That same humming Noise,
which _many flying Insects_ make, not so much by the Wings, (for when
they are cut off, the humming still remains) as by a most swift and
brisk Motion of certain Muscles, hid in the Cavity of their Breasts,
seems to have somewhat of an affinity to the _Voice_; wherefore I
desire the Learned to examine, whether those small _Muscles, which are
proper to the Cartilages of the Wind-pipe_, cannot perform somewhat
like to that.

Many more Particulars concerning the _Voice_ might yet further be
inquired into, such as, how it is, that every one may be known by his
_Voice_? How that _Sound_, which in Singing is called _Quavering_, or
_Trilling_, by a peculiarity, is excited, &c, But seeing that these
things do not properly respect the nature of the _Voice_, I, for
Brevities sake, do omit them.


_Expounding the Nature of the_ Letters, _and the manner how they are

Hitherto we have treated concerning the _Voice_ and _Breath_, and of
the manner of the formation of both of them, in general; now let us
see how the said _Voice_ and _Breath_ are, as a fit Matter for them,
framed into such or such _Letters_; for the _Voice_ and _Breath_ are
alone the material part of _Letters_, but the form of them is to be
sought out from the various Configurations of those hollow Channels,
thorough which they pass; _Letters_ therefore, not as they be certain
Characters, but as they are Pronounced or Spoken, are the _Voice_ and
_Breath_, diversly Figured by the Instruments ordained for the Speech.

But here we must be pre-admonished concerning the _Letters_; that
there is a great Latitude almost amongst them all, and that one and
the same Character is not pronounced by one and the same Configuration
of the Mouth, yea, in one and the same Language; thus [_a_] and [_e_]
sometimes are sounded open, and sometimes close; also [_o_] hath its
own Latitude, so as many other Letters also may have; yea, as many as
are the divers Modes, by which the _Voice_ and _Breath_ can be
Figured, by the Organs of Speech; but the most easie, only, and the
most Conspicuous are received by all Nations, whose number never
almost exceedeth Twenty four, and have certain Characters annexed to
them: But seeing that these Characters are not every where pronounced
alike, yea, one and the same Letter sometimes is variously sounded by
one and the same People, therefore I have made choice of the _German
Letters_, which are of my Mother-Tongue, and the most _Simple_ of all
Letters, to be examined in this place: in as much as they are for the
most part sounded every where alike, their _Vowels_ are very _Simple_,
and agreeable to the nature of the thing, the _Diphthongs_ compounded
of them, do retain the Nature of their compounding _Vowels_, because
they are always heard pronounced in them, otherwise, than as it is in
most other Languages, which they stile living ones; for sometimes they
make their _Diphthongs_ out of the most _Simple Vowels_, as are [_au_]
[_ou_] [_ai_] amongst the _French_, and [_oe_] and [_eu_] amongst the
_Dutch_, or else they have such improper _Diphthongs_, that scarce
either of their compounding _Vowels_ can be heard, such are [_oi_] of
the _French_, and [_uy_] of the _Dutch_, not to mention more Examples,
or else they are variously sounded according to their various
Placings, so as if I were to teach some Deaf _French-man_, I would
from the beginning teach him, not the _French_, but the _German
Letters_, or else he would be plainly confounded. Nor is the state of
the _Consonants_ in better case for the Pronunciation of some of them,
is so very different, that there are scarce two Nations, which
pronounce the Character [_g_] after the same manner.

But in the _German_ Alphabet, that which most disliketh me, is, their
Order; which, in good truth, is none; because scarce two Letters of
the same rank do follow mutually after one another, which would render
the information of Deaf Persons to be so much the more difficult;
wherefore I have reduced them into this following order, which seemed
to me to be the most natural.

_a. e. i. j. y. o. u. ae. oe.
ue. m. n. ng. l. r. h. g. ch. s.
f. v. k. c. q. d. t. b. p.
x. z._

To those who observe well, it will from this order alone, appear, that
I have divided this whole Alphabet into _Vowels_, _Semi-vowels_, and
_Consonants_. The _Vowels_ are a _Voice_ or _Sound_ modified by a
various opening of the Mouth only, and are either _Simple_, or
Uniform, as _a. e. i. j. y. o. u. w._ Or else they are mixt, which out
of two, do so melt down into one, as that they are pronounced
together, and are different from _Diphthongs_, in as much as their
_Vowels_ are successively pronounced: Now these mixt _Vowels_, are ae.
oe. ue. which some Nations either have not at all, or else do write them
evilly; but of the manner of Formation, more shall be said hereafter.

The _Semi-vowels_ are a middle sort between the _Genuine Voice_, and a
_Simple Breath_, and may at pleasure be brought forth in the manner as
_Vowels_ are; and they are either of the _Nose_, or _Nasall_ such are
_m. n. ng._ or else they be of the _Mouth_, or _Orall_, as _l. r._
_Consonants_ are a _Simple Breath_, not sonorous, yet
variously modified, and are of three kinds:

For they are either pronounced successively, and may be produced at
pleasure, as _g. ch. s. f. v._

Or are suddainly _shot forth_; which upon that score I call them
_explosive_, as _k. c. q. t. d. b. p._

Or else being _Compounded_ out of two foregoing ones, their number is
diverse in divers Nations; the _Germans_ have two; _viz._ _x._ and

To this Division, in which I have had respect chiefly to the nature,
and manner of pronouncing the _Letters_, may not impertinently be
added, that those _Letters_ are formed mostly in three _Regions of the
Mouth_, _viz._ in the bottom, or _Throat_; in the middle, or in the
_Palate_ and _Teeth_; and lastly, in the utmost part thereof, or in
the _Lips_: Hence it is, from every one of their Classes almost, are
three sorts; one _Guttural_, another _Dental_, and a third _Labial_;
but of these, more hereafter.

I will here prevent the _Readers_ who may object to me in the
following Chapter, that this my Doctrin will be always lame, because
all Deaf Persons, whom we would teach by the Tongue, Lips, _&c._ will
never by their Sight attain unto these motions: But, besides that the
Sight doth not give place to the Hearing, as to a quick sensibility, I
affirm, that there is no need thereof, if once they have made but any
Progress; for even we our selves do very often not hear in
Pronunciation those Letters which I call _Consonants_, but we collect
them from the _Vowels_ and _Semi-vowels_, commixed together with them:
No Man, for Example, shall so pronounce _b. g._ or _d._ as that he may
be heard at a hundred Paces distant. And this seems to me to be the
principal reason why we can most rarely pronounce or repeat at the
first blush, any word spoken in a foreign Language.

But before I shall unfold the nature, and manner of forming the
_Letters_ in special, I judged that it was not here to be omitted, how
that as all the _Letters_, yea also, and the _Vowels_ them-selves,
cannot by any means be pronounced, as they are a _Simple Breath_, and
not sonorous; for when we, for Example, do whisper somewhat to one in
his Ear, so the _Consonants_ also, excepting those which I call
_Explosive_, may be pronounced vocally, or with the _Voice_ conjoyned;
and there are Nations which pronounce thus, as the _French_ do their
_z._ and their _v._

I shall now treat of the _Letters_ especially, and will examine them
so, as both the absolute Simplicity of the _German Letters_ may be
manifested; and other Nations, from their Mode of Formation, may
learn, how they ought to pronounce them; upon this account also, I
shall add how improperly some Nations do render the same Letters in
their own Language. Now in this Explication I shall observe the same
order as I did in the Division of them, where readily it will appear,
that _Voice_ and _Breath_ are according to a triple Region of the
Mouth, triply figured or formed spontaneously.

Therefore the Simple and Uniform _Vowels_ are, _a._ _e._ _i._ _j._
_y._ _o._ _u._ _w._ and are formed after the following manner.

_a._ is a _Gutteral Vowel_, and the most Simple of all; the Key of the
_Alphabet_, and therefore is by all Nations set first of all,
excepting only (as far as I know) the _Abyssines_, by whom, as Ludolf
testifieth, it is placed as the Thirteenth _Letter_. True indeed it
may be pronounced by various Placings of the _Tongue_, yet the common,
and most convenient is, that the _Tongue_ should be in its posture of
rest; and then being gently stretched forth in the _Mouth_, it may
only lightly, or not at all touch upon the utmost Border of the lower
_Teeth_; if therefore the lower _Jaw_ be drawn downwards, and thereby
the _Mouth_ be opened, that the _Voice_ formed in the _Throat_,
strikes not neither against the _Teeth_, nor against the _Lips_, than
a plain open [_a_] is heard, _e. i. j. y._ are _Dental Vowels_, or the
_Voice_, which in coming forth, smites more or less against the
_Teeth_; Hence it is that Infants, although they can say _Pappa, bo,
&c._ yet can they not pronounce these Letters until they have Teeth,
especially _the Cutters_, or _fore-Teeth_; and indeed [_e_] is
formed, when the _Voice_, (the _Lips_ being gently opened), strikes
against the _Teeth_ also moderately opened; now the
posture of the _Tongue_ is such, that it somewhat presses on each side
upon the _Dog-Teeth_ of the Inferior _Jaw_, for so the passage of the
_Voice_ is made narrower, and the [_e_] much more clear.

_i. j._ and _y._ are the same _Vowel_, pronounced one while more
short, and another more long, nor doth it stand upon any Foundation,
[_i_] sometimes doth become a _Consonant_, but then is pronounced only
more swiftly, so as together with the following _Vowel_, it can make a
_Diphthong_; but [_i_] is formed after the same manner almost,
as [_e_] except that the _Teeth_ are for the most part, more stricken,
and the _Tongue_ put close to the _Teeth_, the passage of the _Voice_
is rendred more strait, whence a more smart Sound also breaks forth,
which notwithstanding, can sometimes be hardly distinguished from
[_e_] [_y_,] also is [_i_] pronounced longer then usually, or [_i_]
doubled. _o. u. w._ are _Labial Vowels_, that is, such as are formed
by a different positure of the _Lips_; also [_o._] and [_u._] are
different from one another, just as much as [_e._] and [_i_]: But
[_w._] is to [_u._] just as _j._ is to [_i._] for indeed _a. u. w._
are formed, when the _Teeth_ and _Tongue_ keep the same posture; but
the _Lips_ are more or less contracted, even as the _Teeth_ are in
[_e._] and [_i._] and so when they are less stricken, [_o._] is
produced, but when a little more [_u._] or [_w._]; but we ought
carefully to beware, whilst [_o._] or [_u._] are pronounced, least the
_Teeth_ should be seen; for else a certain kind of a soft _e._ will be
mingled; and instead of _oe._ or _ue._ there will be produced _o._ or
_u._ These Letters belong to the _French_, _au_ and _ou_, when
nevertheless they are nothing else but _Diphthongs_, also _oe._ of the
_Dutch_ is our _u._ but very improperly.

Mixt _Vowels_ are _ae. oe. ue._ These Characters are peculiar to our
Language, and were invented very ingeniously by our Ancients, though
our Moderns mostly know not the reason thereof. Each hath its simple
Character, because the Sound which they signifie, is only one, tho'
mixt; for _a._ _o._ and _u._ are so pronounced, that the passage of
the _Voice_, the _Tongue_ and _Teeth_ being conjoyned for to
pronounce, _e._ becomes Straiter, and so _e._ together with the said
Letters, _a._ _o._ _u._ doth constitute but one only, yet a _mixt
vowel_. The _French_ utter them by _ai._ _eu._ and _u._ and in good
truth, badly enough, as any one may see. The _Dutch_ want _[ae]._
_[oe]._ and express them by _eu._ but _[ue]._ by _u._ in no better a way
than the _French_.

Concerning the _Diphthongs_ composed out of these _Vowels_, and which
may be thence compounded, I judge it needless to say much; for they
are nothing else in our Language than a more then usual swift
Pronunciation of the Component _Vowels_, yet successive; and thus they
differ from the _mixt Vowels_, but how improper and absurd
_Diphthongs_ some Nations have, any one may easily gather from what
hath been already said.

The other sort of Letters are _Semi-Vowels_, which are therefore so
called, because that they be formed indeed out of a _Sounding Breath_
or _Voice_, but such as in its progress is much broken. They are, as I
said, either _Nasalls_, or such as are pronounced through that open
passage, by which the _Nose_ opens into the Hollow of the _Mouth_: Now
the _Voice_ is forced to go that way, either when it flows to the
_Lips_ shut close, and rebounding from thence, is formed into [_m_;]
or when the _Tip of the Tongue_ is so applied to the roof of the
Mouth, and to the upper _Teeth_, the _Voice_ is made to rebound
through the _Nostrils_, and so [_n_] becomes formed; or lastly, when
together with the hinder part of the _Tongue_, the _Voice_ being
applied to the _Roof_, is so straitned that there is no Egress left
open for it, but through the _Nose_, and so [_n_] is formed; which is
a Sound, which hath no peculiar Character in any Language, as I know
of, yet it differs no less from the rest of the _Nasals_, (_k_) is
divers from (_t_) or (_p_,) if any one desires to try this by himself,
let him endeavour to pronounce; having his _Nose_ held close with his
Fingers, one of these three Letters, and he will not be able to do it.

Or else these _Semivowels_ are _Orall_, which are indeed such as are
pronounced thro' the _Mouth_, but not so freely as are the _Genuin
Vowels_, and they be two, (_l_) and (_r;_) (_l_) is formed when the
_Tongue_ is so applied to the _Roof_, and the upper _Teeth_, that the
_Voice_ cannot, but by a small Thred, as it were, get forth by the
Sides of the _Tongue_; for if you compress the _Cheeks_ to the
_Grinders_, you stop up the Passage of the _Voice_, and it will be
very difficult for you to pronounce this _Letter_, (_r_,) is a _Voice_
fluctuating with great swiftness, and is formed, when the more movable
part of the _Tongue_ does in the twinkling of an Eye, oftentimes
strike upon the _Roof of the Mouth_, and as often is drawn back again
from it; for thus the _Voice_ formed in the _Throat_, in its
pronouncing, flows and ebbs back again, and is uttered, as it were by
_Leaps_. Hence it is, that they, whose _Tongues_ be too heavy and
moist, and less voluble, will never pronounce this Letter, whether
they can Hear, or are Deaf.

Now there still remains the _Consonants_, or the Letters, which are
formed out of an unsounding or mute _Breath_; yet, out of which, some
of the _Semi-vowels_ may be made, as _g. ch. s. f. v._

As the _Voice_ is the common matter of the _Consonants_, the sharper
part of which is (_h_) which is the most simple of them all, and out
of which diversly figurated, the rest of them are framed: And they are
either the _Sibilants_, which are formed out of _Breath_, which is
somewhat compressed or straitned, that the passing _Breath_ breaks
forth with a certain kind of _Hissing_, and with violence.

Here _I_ judge that we are not to pass over in silence, how that there
are some parts in _Germany_, where there is so much of Affinity of
(_g_) with (_k_,) as (_b_) has with (_p_) and (_d_) with (_t_,) or
where (_g_) is pronounced like (_k_) but softer, so also the _French_
do pronounce their (_g_) before _a. o. u._ and _ou._

(_s_) is formed, when the _Teeth_ and _Tongue_ are so clapt together,
that the _Breath_ cannot come forth, but by the _Spaces of the Teeth_:
But (_f_) or (_v_) (which differs not from (_f_) in our Language) is
formed, when the _neather Lip_ is so moved to the _Teeth_ above, that
the _Breath_ must break out thro' the said _Spaces of the Teeth_;
_ph._ is (_f_) being a Stranger in the _German_ Tongue, and differs
from it only in the _Character_.

The other kind of _Consonants_ are explosive; which, _viz._ are
discharged at one push, and as it were, in the twinkling of an Eye and
are nothing else but _Breath_, which being got close together, either
in the fore, middle, or hinder Region of the Mouth, is discharged on a
suddain; and (_k_) is indeed formed in the hinder Region, when the
hinder part of the _Tongue_ is moved to the _Roof_, that the _Breath_
cannot break forth, neither by the _Mouth_, nor by the _Nose_, but is
suddenly let loose again: For thus the imprisoned _Breath_ breaks out,
and by breaking out, maketh _k. c._ or _q._ which in _Germany_ are all
the same Letter; in the middle Region are _d._ and t. formed, when,
_viz._ the _Breath_, by help of the Tongues being moved to the
_Teeth_, or _Roof_, and suddainly drawn back again, being more or less
compressed, rusheth out by its own Springiness, and so _d._ or _t._ is
made, which only differs, as _b._ and _p._ according to the more or
less; in the outermost Region of the _Mouth_ are formed, (_b_) and
(_p_) when, _viz._ the _Breath_ being compressed in the whole _Cavity
of the Mouth_, they get out through the _Lips_ opened.

Lastly; here follows those _Consonants_, which are compounded of
_Hissing and Explosion_, such are (_x_) or _ks._ and (_z_) or _ts._
which only are the alone anomalous or irregular ones of the _German_
Language; for if I may speak what I think; we might well enough want
these _Characters_; yet I disapprove not of the use of them, but only
shew what might be more convenient, _viz._ that _Voice_ or _Breath_
which is simple, might be expressed also by a simple _Character_, and
on the contrary, that a _Character_, which is simple and only one,
would signifie but one only _Voice_ or _Breath:_ But if the commodious
use of _Short-hand_ may be objected, I would perswade to express all
possible Combinations, of _Vowels_, with _Semi-vowels_, and
_Consonants_, by simple _Characters_.

This is what I determined to say concerning the Letters, and their
Formation; and seeing I am not willing to write a _Grammar_, what
might yet further be said of them, I pass by; but what I have
performed, I leave it to others to judge thereof, not so much to teach
them, as by what is here presented to excite them, being desirous, as
it becomes a young Man, to learn of them: I hope they will pardon my
Errors, because of my Youth. Yet certain I am, had the ancient
_Hebrews_, _Greeks_ and _Romans_, thus describ'd their Letters, there
would have been no contention about the manner of Pronounciation.


_Teacheth the Method its self, by which such as are Deaf, and
consequently Dumb, may learn to Speak._

What hath been hitherto said may enough suffice to observant
_Readers_, inasmuch as the Fundamentals of the whole Artifice, are
therein contained; but least the curious should complain, that I have
only made their Mouth water, I shall ingeniously discover to them what
in four Years time, wherein I have endeavoured to instruct some Deaf
Persons, I have observed what is worthy, and most necessary to be

Now what I have effected by this my Method, especially to the Daughter
of Mr. _Kolard_, a Merchant of _Harlem_, I can appeal to a great part
of _Holland_, and universally almost to the whole City of _Harlem_,
and to innumerable other Witnesses, of all Ranks and Conditions.

The first thing which I require in the Person I am to teach, is, that
he be of a docible Wit, and not too young of age; than that the
_Organs of Speech_ be rightly constituted in him; for stupid Persons
are capable of no Teaching, whose Age is yet too tender; nor do they
mind enough, nor know how Teaching will be for their Use and Benefit;
but those whose _Organs of Speech_ are altogether unfit, they may
learn indeed to understand others when they speak, and discover their
own Mind by Writing; but they will never learn to speak.

Having therefore a fit subject, my first Care is to make him to sound
forth a _Voice_, without which, almost all labour is lost, but that
one point, whereby Deaf Persons do discern a _Voice_ from a _Mute
Breath_, is a great Mystery of Art; and if I may have leave to say so,
it is the _Hearing of Deaf Persons_, or at least equivolent thereunto,
_viz._ that trembling Motion and Titillation, which they perceive in
their own _Throat_, whilst they of their own accord do give forth a
_Voice_; that therefore the Deaf may know, that I open my Mouth _to
emitt a Voice_; not simply to yawn, or to draw forth a _Mute Breath_,
I put their Hand to my _Throat_ that they may be made sensible of that
tremulous Motion, when I utter my _Voice;_ then I put the same Hand of
theirs to their own _Throat_, and command them to imitate me; nor am I
discouraged, if at the beginning their _Voice_ is harsh and difficult;
for in time it becomes more and more polite.

If I gain their _Voice_, which for the most part I do at the first
time, I soon learn them to pronounce _Vowels_, _viz._ I bid them so to
moderate the _opening of their Mouth_, whilst they do form a _Voice_
in their _Throat_, as I have said above, concerning the Formation of
the _Vowels_; but that they may do that the more easily, I hold a
_Looking-Glass_ to them, because they cannot from Sight alone imitate
those diverse Motions of the _Jaws_, of the _Tongue_, and of the
_Lips_, unless they had oftentimes tried it before a Looking-Glass.
Thence I learned, that that common belief, (that so soon as Hearing is
restored to Deaf Persons, they will speak) to be false, for it seems
not to me, that there is so great a consent betwixt the Organs of
_Voice_, and of Hearing, that at the first blush they can imitate a
_Voice_ that is heard; but by often imitating a _Voice_ or _Breath_
received from another, and also by hearing their own at the same time,
we find at length a likeness between both, and after this manner we
all learn to speak; for he who learns to speak, it is all one, as if
he did learn some other Art; for by a long accustoming, the Organs are
rendered apt and pliable: Hence it is, that sometimes we come not to
pronounce aright Foreign Letters but after a long time. Now, it would
be well observed or considered, that I presently prescribe all the
Letters to Deaf Persons, or else they could not fix in their Minds
their _Idea's_ of them, and I seldom teach more than two or three
Letters in one day, least the _Idea's_ be confounded; but I bid them
very often to repeat them, and to write them down as they are
pronounced by me.

But if by chance, as it sometimes happeneth, that they should
pronounce one Letter for another; I blame them not, but rather commend
them, and grant with a nodd that they have satisfied me, and forthwith
I write down the Character of that Letter upon Paper, that they may
knit together the _Idea_ thereof with its figure. In the interim,
whilst they learn the _Vowels_, I very often put their Hand to my
_Throat_, that they may be accustomed to give forth a Sound.

When the _Vowels_ are become familiar to them, I go next to the
_Semi-vowels_, which sometimes are more difficult, especially the
_Nasals_; for Deaf Persons, unless they be taught, never give forth
the _Voice_ by the _Nose_, thereupon I begin with [_m._] as that which
is most plain, and easier learnt than the rest, so that they thereby
may be accustomed to give a Sound at least thro' the _Nose_; therefore
I bid them shut together their _Lips_, and putting their Hand to their
_Throat_, to give forth a _Voice_, and by that means they necessarily
pronounce [_m._] and not [_em._] as it's vulgarly pronounced.

The Daughter of Mr. _Kolard_, before she was committed to my Care,
could indeed say _Pappa_; for indeed it is a little word, which is
almost born with us; but her Father did confess, that he had more than
1000 times tried in vain to make her say _Mamma_, which yet I I
brought her to in a small time.

And now, _Reader_, I commit to thee another Secret, _viz._ that if a
Deaf Person be committed to thee to teach, beware that you do not
teach him to pronounce together _Semi-vowels_ and _Consonants_,
together with their annexed _Vowels_; as for example, _em. en. ka. ef.
te, &c._

For thus they would learn neither to read, nor rightly to pronounce
any word. The power and force of _Semi-vowels_ and _Consonants_
consists not in the adjoyned _Vowels_, but in a peculiar _Voice_ or
_Breath_; and when you would have a Deaf Person to say _Tafel_ or
_Swartz_, you shall hear from him nothing else but _Te. a. ef. e. el._
or _Es. we. a. er. te. zet._ which is very uncouth, nor can you easily
mend it: But by this Method, so soon as ever they know their Letters,
they begin to read; for _to read is only to pronounce the Letters

Here note well, that in the Schools this very thing would be of great
use, chiefly when they are taught Languages, whose Letters are
expressed by whole words, as _Alpha, Omega, Gimel, double u, zet, &c._
For more time is lost, and the desire of Learning taken away from
Children, before they are able to abstract the Letters of these
Sounds, and to connect them together in _Reading_; so that it is very
much to be wonder'd at, that this most eminent short way of reading
hath hitherto lain hid in the dark.

The other _Nasalls_ [_u_] and [_ng_] have nothing peculiar, unless it
be that I shew the Deaf the posture of the _Tongue_ in a
Looking-Glass, and put their Hand to my _Nose_, whereby they may be
sensible, that there comes forth thorough the _Nostrils_ a _Sounding
Breath_. When I teach them [_l._] I bid them to apply the _Tongue_ to
the _upper Teeth_; but to the _Cutters_, and to the _Dog-Teeth_ only,
that then they may emit a _Voice_ thro' the Mouth I make a Sign with
my Hand; but least, instead of [_l._] they should pronounce [_n._]
which comes to pass when the _Tongue_ doth so hinder the coming forth
of the _Voice_, that it returns to get out by the _Nostrils_;
therefore, till they are better accustomed, I gently compress the
_Nostrils_ with my Fingers.

The Letter [_r_] is the most difficult of all the rest, yet amongst
six Deaf Persons, which I have hitherto instructed, four of them
pronounce it with the greatest easiness; the other two cannot form it,
but in their Jaws; but I teach them, by moving the Hand one while to
the _Throat_, and another while to the _Mouth_, whereby they may, as
it were, feel the subsulting and interrupted Expulsion of the _Voice_;
also I bid them to look often in the Glass, to observe the tremulous
and fluctuating Motion of the _Tongue_; but no one can expect at the
first trial, the genuin Pronounciation of this Letter.

When the _Vowels_ and _Semi-vowels_ are well inculcated into them,
_the Consonants_ are learnt without any trouble almost, for they are a
_Simple and Mute Breath_, coming forth, either successively, or
suddenly, according to the various _Openings of the Mouth_, and only
with putting the Hand to the Mouth almost, they may all easily be

[_h_] is the most simple of all, nor is it any thing else but Air,
which is breathed out thicker, and more swiftly.

[_g_] or _ch._ is sharper than [_h_] which I teach thus, when I shew
to my Deaf Patients the posture of the _Tongue_ in a Looking-Glass,
and give them to feel the expiring _Breath_; it is so in like manner
with [_s_] and [_f_] insomuch, as nothing is more easie than they, and
which may most easily be learned by the fore-going Description.

I can teach a Deaf Man, (though he were blind) the _Explosive
Consonants_; for if I cause him to feel the _Breath_ discharged upon
him, he would necessarily pronounce one of the three; for I bid him to
look simply on my _Mouth_ and _Tongue_, and then having put his Hand
to my _Mouth_, I pronounce either [_k._] or [_b._] [_p._] or [_d._]
[_t._] and command him to do the like.

(_x._) and (_z._) are pronounced no otherwise than is (_ks._) or
(_gs._) (when (_g_) is an _Explosive Consonant_) and (_ts._) wherefore
I shall add nothing concerning them.

Deaf Persons are to be diligently accustomed to pronounce these
_Semi-vowels_, _n. ng. l. r._ also the following _Consonants_; _h. g.
k. t._ with some kind of opening the _Mouth_, else they may joyn them
sometimes with certain _Vowels_, not without a notable yawning, & a
discordant noise. Now in general, Winter-time is fitter almost for to
instruct the Deaf, because then they see the _Breath_ coming forth
from the _Mouth_, whilst Pronounciation is in doing.

When therefore I taught any Deaf Person to pronounce the Letters
hitherto enumerated, and that one by one, I taught him so to utter two
or three of the easiest, that there should be interstice between them;
as for example, _ab. am. da. fa. ef. &c._ so that they might be
accustomed to pronounce the Letters successively; then by degrees I
use them to the more difficult Combinations, mutually mixing _Vowels_,
_Semi-vowels_ and _Consonants_, and thus with little trouble they
learn to read; but if when they have read any thing, I bid them look
upon my _Mouth_, and to repeat the same after it hath been pronounced
by me; for thus they become by degrees to be accustomed to imitate the
humane _Voice_, only by looking on; but I am unwilling to tire them
out with this labour, troublesome enough, until they have profited
much, because they may be frighted with it.

In the mean time we must endeavour diligently; that when one
_Consonant_ follows another _Consonant_, as _ps. kt. ks. sch. &c._ or
a _Semi-vowel_, as _ls. lk. md. &c._ that they do immediately joyn
them in Pronounciation, least some (_i_) or (_e_) be heard between
them, which unless it be cautiously avoided, often happens.

When they can read, and in a manner understand others when they speak,
I treat them like new-born Babes; first, I teach them _Nouns_, which
are obvious, as well _Substantives_ as _Adjectives_, so also the most
necessary _Verbs_ and _Adverbs_, than _Declinations_ and
_Conjugations_; but here that five-fold turning Orb was of most
excellent use to me, it being a rich Treasury of the whole _German_
Tongue, which I found in the Mathematical Delights of _Swenter_, I
augmented it, and applied it also to the _Dutch_ Idiome; out of it may
they quickly, and with pleasure learn all possible _Combinations_ of
_Vowels_, _Semi-vowels_, and _Consonants_, also all terminations of
_German_ words, and that as well Derivatives as Compounds. The first
Orb contains _Prepositions_ and small _Mono-Syllables_, with which
_Nouns_ and _Verbs_ are compounded; the second, the _Initial Letters_;
the third, _Vowels_ and _Diphthongs_; the fourth, the _Final Letters_;
lastly, all the _German Terminations_.

But there seems to be a great difficulty, that some Letters, as _e._
and _i. a._ and _u._ are uttered by the same opening of the Mouth, and
consequently they must needs be confounded; but in good truth, it's of
small moment, because for the most part the difference is not heeded,
and the Letters, which according to their nature, are by far, more
different, are written almost after the same manner, chiefly when they
are pronounced hastily, as _m._ and _n. r._ and _n. a._ and _o. &c._
which yet puts no stop to an exercised _Reader_.

Others object, that the _Deaf_ thus taught, will, it may be,
understand no Body but my self: Indeed, this difficulty Teems to have
something of weight in it; but we must know, that Menst Men pronounce
most Letters badly alike, and write their Characters negligently; but
with such a one who learns to speak, it is all one as it is with him,
who is taught to read other Men's Writings: For first, he can scarce
read any thing but what is written by his Master, and then the
Writings of his School-fellows; and lastly, there is nothing which he
cannot read, tho' very badly written, it is therefore not to be
wondred at, if those I teach to speak, do at the beginning more easily
understand me, than others; (for I pronounce the Letters in their full
_extension_) and not _lamely_ (as many are wont to do) and after that
they come to understand their Domesticks and Familiars, and at last,
any Body.

Here in the end I add, that most of the Letters may be formed, as well
by inspiring as by expiring, which thing I have very much wondred at
in some Persons, who _speak out of the Belly_: And once at _Amsterdam_
I heard an old Woman speaking both ways, and made answers to her self,
as to questions, so as I would have sworn that she talked with her
Husband two or three Paces distant from her; for the _Voice_ being
swallowed up in her in Breathing, would seem to come from far.

Behold, _Reader_, a small Tract of three days; if thou wilt offer any
thing more, right and true, I will receive it with thank: There are
yet some other things, _viz._ how a deaf Person may be made, so as to
be able to discern from one the other, some Letters pronounced by
another, as _m._ from _b. n._ from _d. ng._ from _k. &c._ or how the
quantity of Syllables is to be govern'd. But these, and the like, can
scarce be learnt, but by teaching.

_A word is enough to the Wise._


The _Author_ is thinking to turn this small Treatise into the _Dutch_,
and very speedily, God willing, to publish it for the good of the
Nation, and will so adapt it to the Idiom thereof, as to make it to be
accounted proper. Nothing being more in the _Authors_ care than that
by this his slender endeavour, he shall stir up some one to perform
the like, or at least to attempt it: Now if there occurs to any Body,
any thing, either too hard, or not sufficiently explained, he may
expect a more full Edition, or else let him repair to the _Author_,
who according to the Light granted unto him, will refuse nothing to
any Man.


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