Part 7 out of 10
is day, the patrol returns with them and opens the city.
"The royal magazines are in the parade; in them are deposited and kept
all the munitions and supplies, cordage, iron, copper, lead, artillery,
arquebuses, and other things belonging to the royal treasury, with
their special officials and workmen, who are under the command of
the royal officers.
"Close to these magazines is the powder magazine, with its master,
officials, and convicts, in which, on ordinary occasions, thirty
mortars grind powder, and that which is damaged is refined.
"In another part of the city, in a convenient situation, is the
cannon foundry, with its moulds, furnaces, and instrument founders,
and workmen, who carry on the works.
"The royal buildings are very handsome, with a good view, and very
roomy, with many windows opening seaward and to the parade; they are
all of hewn stone, with two courts and high and low corridors with
The city of to-day verifies the descriptive talent and accuracy of
The Southern Philippines.
Important Facts About the Lesser Islands of the Philippine
Archipelago--Location, Size and Population--Capitals and
Principal Cities--Rivers and Harbors--Surface and Soil--People and
Products--Leading Industries--Their Commerce and Business Affairs--The
Monsoons and Typhoons--The Terrors of the Tempests and How to Avoid
The island and province of Mindoro lies in the strait of its name
and south of Luzon. It has in the center an elevated plain, we quote
from the military notes issued by the War Department, from which
many sierras extend in different directions to the coast, making the
latter rugged and dangerous. The island is of an oval form, with
a prolongation of the northern portion toward the west. Though an
easy day's sail from Manila, it is one of the least populous islands
of the archipelago, being extremely mountainous, covered with dense
forests, and in the more level parts near the coast full of marshes,
and very unhealthful. The inhabitants of the coast are Tagals, but in
the interior there is a low tribe of the Malayan race, probably the
indigenes of the island, and called Manguianos, speaking a peculiar
language and living in a very miserable manner on the products of
a rude agriculture. There are also said to be some Negritos, but of
these very little is known. There are many short streams. The island is
110 miles long and has an area of 3,087 square miles. The population
is 106,170. There is little known of the mountains of the interior,
as the inhabitants dwell mainly on the coasts. Mindoro constitutes
one of the provinces of the Philippines under an alcalde.
The capital is Calapan, with a population of 5,585. It is situated to
the north, on the harbor of its name, defended by a fort of regular
construction; it has about 500 houses, among the notable stone ones
being the parish, court house and jail, and casa real. It is the
residence of the alcalde mayor and several public functionaries. The
city is situated 96 miles from Manila.
Mount Kalavite is a long-backed promontory, the western slope of
which forms Cape Kalavite, and the northern slope Point del Monte;
the summit, about 2,000 feet high, appears dome-shaped when seen from
the west, but from the north or south it shows a long ridge fairly
level; the western end of this ridge is the highest part.
The capital of the province, Calapan, is a coast town. The inhabitants
are occupied in hunting, fishing, and ordinary weaving. The commerce
is insignificant. Sand banks extend in front of the town to a distance
of one-half mile. To clear these, the northern Silonai islet should
not be shut out by Point Calapan. On this line, near the north edge
of the banks, the soundings are 36 to 46 fathoms.
The Semirara Islands form a group of eight islands, all surrounded
Semirara, the largest of the group, is hilly, about 512 feet high
at the highest part. The west coast includes several little bays
almost entirely obstructed by reefs, on the edge of which are depths
of 4 3/4 to 13 fathoms; and off the town of Semirara, which stands
on the top of the hill facing the largest bay, the anchorage is
very bad, even for coasters. The east coast is bordered by a reef,
which extends about a mile from the northeast part of the island; on
coming from the north this coast of the island must not be approached
within three miles until the town of Semirara bears full west. There
is anchorage at the south of the island in 5 to 8 fathoms, sand,
during the northeast monsoon. Good coal for steaming purposes was
found on the island by Captain Villavicencio, of the Spanish navy.
Tablas Island is, mountainous, and on its northern extremity is
the peak Cabezo de Tablas, 2,405 feet high; generally the coasts
are clear and steep-to. Off the north end are two rocky islets,
distant one cable from the coast; the larger one is clear and steep,
the smaller one has rocks around it.
The west coast of Mindoro Island has no soundings off it excepting in
the bays, or within one or two miles of the shore in some places. In
the interior double and treble chains of mountains extend through
the island, and some low points of land project from them into the sea.
Paluan Bay affords excellent shelter in the northeast monsoon, and is
also a convenient place for vessels to obtain supplies when passing
through Mindoro Strait. The bay is five miles wide at the entrance,
of a semi-circular form, running back three miles in a northerly
direction. There are no dangers in it.
A small river disembogues where good water can be obtained with
facility; and on the beach there is plenty of driftwood. The coral
projects one-half mile from the entrance of the river, and has 10
and 12 fathoms close to its edge.
Care must be taken when working into Paluan Bay, for the squalls
come violently off the high land, and very sudden, and at night do
not give the least warning.
The Calamianes are a group of high islands lying between the northeast
end of Palawan and Mindoro, and extending between the parallels of
11 degrees 39 minutes and 12 degrees 20 minutes N., and the meridians
of 119 degrees 47 minutes and 120 degrees 23 minutes E. Busuanga, the
largest island of the group, is about 34 miles in extent NW. by W. and
SE. by E., and 18 miles broad. It is very irregular in form, being
indented with numerous deep bays. The islands and reefs which front
its northeast side form the western side of Northumberland Strait.
These islands form, with the northern part of Palawan and the
Cuyos Islands, a province, the capital of which is at Port
Tai Tai. The climate of these islands is in general hot and
unhealthful. Intermittent fevers and cutaneous diseases prevail,
attributable, in all probability, to the great moisture and the
insalubrious quality of the drinking water. All these islands are,
generally speaking, hilly and broken. The industry of the locality
is in collecting Salanganes (edible birds' nests), honey, and wax;
but cultivation is not practiced to any great extent. The forests
produce good timber for building or cabinet work.
Tara Island, when seen from the northward, shows a triple summit
to its northwest end; while its southern part looks like a separate
island, saddle-shaped. The island does not appear to be permanently
inhabited; in March, 1885, it was occupied by parties from Busuanga,
burning the grass and digging cassava.
Lagat is a small island 334 feet high, surrounded by a reef with a
narrow passage between it and the reef off the south of Tara.
Botak Island, 800 feet high, is fairly well cultivated. Off its
northern end there is a queer pin-shaped rock, and off its southern
end are same sharp-pointed rocks. The vicinity has not been sounded.
The space included between the Sulu Archipelago to the south and
Mindoro to the north, and having the Philippine Islands on the
east and Palawan on the west, is distinguished by the name of the
Sulu Sea. Although of great depth, 2,550 fathoms, this sea, which
is in connection with the China and Celebes seas, and also with the
Pacific by San Bernardino and Surigao straits, has a minimum deep-sea
temperature of 50.5 degrees, reached invariably at 400 fathoms. As this
temperature in the China Sea is at the depth of 200 fathoms, and in the
Celebes Sea at 180 fathoms, and in the Pacific at 230 fathoms, it may
be inferred that the Sulu Sea is prevented from freely interchanging
its waters with those seas by ridges which do not exceed those depths.
In the Sulu Sea easterly winds with fine weather prevail in October,
and the northeast monsoon is not established until November. In
January and February it blows hardest, but not with the force of
the China seas, and it is felt strongest before the openings between
Panay and Negros, and Negros and Mindanao. At the end of May southwest
winds begin to blow, and in a month become established, to terminate
in October, bringing with them a season made up of rain squalls
and tempests, which take place principally in July and August. In
September a heavy mist hangs about the coast of Mindanao.
The island and province of Paragua is the most western of the
Philippine Archipelago, and is situated to the north of Borneo. It is
long and narrow, following a northeast direction, and nearly closes
on the southwest the Sea of Mindanao, which enters from the China
Sea by Balabac Strait on the south and between Mindoro and Paragua
on the north. A chain of high mountains, some 6,560 feet high, runs
lengthwise of the narrow belt formed by the island, whose length is
266 miles. The northwest and northeast slopes are narrow. The island
has extensive and well protected harbors and bays. The area is 2,315
square miles and the population 45,000.
The capital is Puerto Princesa, with a population of 1,589.
Panay is divided into three provinces, viz: Capiz to the north,
Iloilo to the southeast, and Antique to the southwest. In general
it is wild, with very high coasts, except in the northeastern part,
where the latter are somewhat marshy. A mountain chain crosses the
island from Point Juraojurao on the south as far as Point Potol
on the north, following a direction almost parallel to the western
coast. Large groups of sierras branch out to the right and left of
the central chain; on the eastern slope begins another chain, running
northeast to the extreme northeasterly point of the island. Owing to
its cragginess, it has a great number of streams running in different
directions. The area is 4,540 square miles.
The town of Iloilo stands on a low sandy flat on the right bank of a
river; at the end of this flat is a spit on which a fort is built,
and close to which there is deep water. Vessels of moderate draft
(15 feet) can ascend the river a short distance and lie alongside
wharves which communicate with the merchant houses, but large vessels
must anchor outside near the spit. It is a town of great commercial
importance, and a brisk coasting trade is carried on from it. The
better class of houses in Iloilo are built on strong wooden posts,
2 or 3 feet in diameter, that reach to the roof; stone walls to the
first floor, with wooden windows above, and an iron roof. The poorer
class of dwellings are flimsy erections of nipa, built on four strong
posts. The roads and bridges are in a deplorable condition and almost
impassable in the rainy season.
The chief imports are Australian coal, and general merchandise from
Europe, but most sailing ships arrive in ballast.
The exports are sugar, tobacco, rice, coffee, hides, and hemp; it is
also the principal place of manufacture of pina, juse, and sinamoya,
a tissue greatly in use among the Philippines. In 1883, 93,750 tons
of sugar were exported, principally to America.
Typhoons do not occur regularly, but in most years the tail of
one passes over the place, which suffers also from the visitations
Provisions of all kinds can be obtained, but the prices are higher than
at Manila. In 1886 beef was 12 1/2 cents per pound, bread 11 cents,
vegetables 11 cents, fowls $2 per dozen. Water is scarce and is brought
across from Guimaras in tank boats; it is supplied to the shipping
at the rate of $1 per ton; the Europeans depend mainly upon rain water.
There are generally about 500 tons of coal in store, chiefly
Australian; it is kept for the supply of local steamers that take
in what they require alongside the wharves. Vessels in the roads can
have it brought off in bulk in lighters or schooners at a cost of 50
cents a ton. Coolies can be hired at 75 cents per ton, but they will
not coal vessels if they can get other work. Notice is required the
day before coaling, as men are not kept in readiness. The price of
coal in 1886 was $11.00 per ton.
There is regular weekly communication with Manila, which is 250
The Province of Capiz is bounded on the north by the Archipelago Sea,
on the east by the District of Concepcion, on the south by the ridge
separating it from Iloilo, and on the southwest by the mountains,
separating it from the Province of Antique. Its very high mountains are
covered with luxuriant vegetation, and give rise to many rivers which
water the valleys of the province. There are gold and copper mines, and
much tobacco, sugar, rice, and abaca is raised. During the year three
fairs are held, in which articles of the country are bartered. The
province is divided into two parts, called Ilaya and Aclan, which
are irrigated by the rivers Panay and Adan, respectively. The area
is 1,543 square miles and the population 189,171, distributed among
36 pueblos and 287 barrios.
The capital is Capiz, with a population of 13,676. It is situated 290
miles from Manila. It has a harbor for vessels of ordinary draft, and
highroads to Iloilo, Antique, and the District of Concepcion. There
is a steamer kept by the state, stopping at the harbor every 28 days
and keeping up communication with Manila, Romblon, Iloilo, and Cebu.
The Province of Iloilo is to the southeast of the Province of Capiz and
west of Antique. The ground is generally level, and, being irrigated
by numerous rivers, is fertile, so that tobacco, cacao, sugar cane,
abaca, rice, and maize are grown; besides, there is good pasturage
for raising herds of cattle and horses, and gold and other mines are
known. The principal industry is the manufacture of fabrics of sinamay,
pina, jusi, etc., requiring over 30,000 looms. The dimensions are 99
miles in length by 27 miles in width, and the population is 472,728.
The capital is Iloilo, with a population of 10,380. It is situated
355 miles from Manila, and is the residence of the governor, captain
of port, and a number of treasury, justice, and fomento officials. It
has a pretty cathedral, a seminary, casa real, and court house. It is
one of the most mercantile towns of the Visaya group, and has some
industries, among which are a machine shop and foundry, a carriage
factory, and a hat factory.
The Province of Bohol is bounded on the north by the sea between
Cebu and Leyte, on the east by the Surigao Sea, on the south by
the Sea of Mindanao, and on the west by the channel separating it
from Cebu. The province is composed of the islands of Bohol and
Dauis. They are somewhat mountainous and well wooded, and coffee,
abaca, sugar cane, and tobacco are raised. In the mountains of
Bohol game is plenty, and many coal and phosphate of iron mines are
supposed to exist. Manufactures consist in fabrics of sinamay and other
materials. The area is 1,617 square miles and the population 247,745.
The capital is Tagbilaran, with a population of 8,638. It is situated
365 miles from Manila.
The island and province of Cebu are the most important of the Visayas,
on account of the central position, nature of the soil, and the
industry of its numerous inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by
the sea separating it from Masbate and Leyte, on the east by the sea
separating it from Leyte and Bohol, on the south by the Mindanao Sea,
and on the west by the Tanon Channel and the island of Negros. The
area is 2,092 square miles and the population 504,076. Great mountain
chains cross the island; the chief of these starts at the extreme
north between Point Marab on the west and Baluarte on the east, and,
continuing south between the two coasts, ends almost in the center
of the island. Two other chains run along the coast, and one starts
near Carcas, to the southwest of the city of Cebu, terminating on
the south in Tanon Point. The coasts are high and the rivers of
The capital is Cebu, with a population of 35,243. It is the mercantile
center of the islands, and is situated 460 miles from Manila. It
is an Episcopal see, and has a good cathedral, Episcopal palace,
casa real, court house, and private edifices, simple but tasty;
there is also a post office and telegraph station. On the south,
and at the entrance of the channel, is the castle of Point Cauit,
and north of this the tower of Mandaui; both these fortifications
communicate with the capital by means of a wagon road, the city being
midway between them. At the capital reside the politico-military
governor, a secretary, judge and attorney-general, a number of public
functionaries, a captain of engineers, and the captain of the port.
Maktan Island consists of an old coral reef, raised a few feet (8
or 10 at most) above the present sea level. At the northern part of
the island, where a convent stands, a low cliff fringes the shore,
being an upper stratum of the upheaved reef. The raised reef is here
preserved, but over the portion of the island immediately fronting
Cebu it has been removed by denudation, with the exception of a few
pillar-like blocks which remain, and which are conspicuous from the
anchorage. The surface is scooped out into irregular basins and sharp
projecting pinnacles and covered in all directions with mud, resulting
from the denudation. Nearly all the island is covered by mangroves,
but on the part left dry there are plantations of cocoanuts.
The only town on the island is Opon, on the west coast, SW. of Mandaui
Point in Cebu. It was here that Magellan was killed in 1521, after
making the first passage across the Pacific.
The town of Cebu is the most ancient in the Philippines; it is the
seat of government of the Visayan Islands, which include Cebu, Bohol,
Panay, Negros, and Leyte, and it is the residence of a bishop. It
is built on a large plain at the foot of the chain of hills that
traverse the island throughout its length, and is a well-constructed,
thriving place; the merchants' quarter is situated along the port,
and includes some well-built stone houses, though many are of old
construction. The huts of the Malays, for the most part fishermen,
are on the beach, and form the west part of the city. The fort is a
triangular edifice of stone, painted red, with an open square in front.
The island of Leyte is bounded on the north by the canal separating
it from Samar, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the west by the
sea separating it from Bohol and Cebu, and on the south by the one
separating it from Mindanao. It is extensive and irregular, having
an area of 3,087 square miles and a population of 270,491. A high
and abrupt mountain chain crosses the island nearly parallel to the
west coast; the coasts are high, with good natural harbors. In the
northern part and on the western slopes of the great sierras, streams
of potable water and also many lagoons abound. This is different from
the eastern part, where the latter are scarce. The principal product
of the island is abaca, but rice is also raised and cocoanut oil is
extracted. There are unworked mines of gold, magnetite, and sulphur.
The capital is Tacloban, with a population of 5,226. It is situated
338 miles from Manila. Among the important towns are Baru, population
12,222; Borauen, 21,290; Cauyaia, 13,732; Dagami, 25,000; Hilongos,
13,713; Jaio, 12,475; Massiu, 18,499; Palo, 17,736; Tauauau, 18,509.
The island of Negros is mountainous and wild; its coasts are difficult
of access, and the breakers strong, except on the west coast from Point
Bulucabo on the north of Palompon on the west, where it is marshy. A
high mountain chain crosses it from Point Doong on the north to the
harbor and point Bombonon on the south; from the last third extend
several ramifications of high mountains, terminating on the coast at
the extreme south and in the Sierra Dumaguete. Its streams are not
important, being short and of little value. The ground is uneven but
fertile. The natives irrigate their estates, and produce tobacco,
coffee, sugar cane, and wheat. Manufactures consist in fabrics of
abaca and canonegro, of which boat cables are made. The interior of
the island, covered with thick forests, is almost unexplored, being
inhabited by a few savages.
The Province of Western Negros is situated on Negros Island, it is
bounded on the north by the Visayas Sea, on the west by the Paragua
Sea, and on the south and east by the Province of Eastern Negros. The
area is 1,929 square miles, and the population 226,995.
The capital is Bacolod, with a population of 6,268. It is the
residence of the politico-military governor, the secretary, judge,
attorney-general, and several public functionaries.
It is situated 379 miles from Manila.
The Province of Negros has a population of 94,782--the capital,
The Province of Romblon consists of the following six islands: Romblon
(the principal one), Tablas, Sibuyan, Banton, Simara, and Maestre
Campo. It is bounded on the north by the Tayabas Sea, on the south by
the Visayas Sea, on the east by the Sea of Masbate, and on the west by
the Sea of Mindoro. The area is 813 square miles, and the population
38,633, distributed among 13 barrios and 3 rancherias of infieles.
The capital is Romblon, with a population of 6,764. It is situated
on the harbor of the same name at the north of the island, 204 miles
from Manila, and is the residence of the politico-military commander.
The Island and Province of Samar is situated to the southeast of
Luzon, it is bounded en the north by the Strait of San Bernardino,
on the south by the Jahanetes Canal, separating it from Leyte Island,
on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the Visayas
Sea. It is very mountainous, with high, steep coasts. A number of
sierras and mountains extend in various directions, forming valleys
and glens fertilized by numerous rivers, which, however, have little
current and volume. The length of the island is 155 miles. The chief
products are abaca, rice, and cocoanuts, oil being extracted from
the latter. Among the medicinal plants the most highly valued is the
catbalonga seed. Commerce is quite active in spite of the few means
of communication and the dangerous coasts. The island is visited
yearly by tornadoes which devastate crops and cause much damage to
agriculture. The high mountains and thick forests of the interior are
inhabited by a great number of savages who have sought refuge here. The
area is 4,699 square miles, and the population 200,753, distributed
among 43 pueblos, 208 visitas, and 3 rancherias of subdued infieles.
The capital is Catbalogan, population of 6,459, situated on the harbor
and bay of like name on the west of the island 338 miles from Manila,
and is the residence of the politico-military governor.
The Jolo Archipelago, formed of some 160 islands, is situated southwest
of Mindanao and south of Basilan. It is bounded on the south by the
Jolo Sea, on the northeast by Mindanao and on the west and southwest
by Borneo. The small islands are covered with mangroves, while the
large ones have thick forests of good timber, and the natives raise
rice, maize, and various alimentary roots, ambergris being found
on the coasts. The principal island, called Sulu, or Jolo (ch. 47,
48, 49, 50, p. 285), is occupied in a military way by the Spanish
forces, whose chief, or governor, resides in the old capital,
which has well-constructed and armed forts, a pier, etc. By royal
decree of November 13, 1877, the sultanship was transformed into a
civico-military government. The population consists of 500 aborigines,
612 Chinese traders, and 16,000 negroes.
Next to Luzon, the island of Mindanao is the most extensive and
important of the Philippines.
By decree of July 30, 1860, the territorial division of this island
was definitely established, and a civico-military government, under
the denomination of Mindanao and adjacent islands, was created. It is
divided into eight districts. The island is situated between Visayas
on the north and Borneo on the south; it is bounded on the east by
the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the island of Paragua, the
Strait of Balabac, and Borneo. The area is 16,595 square miles, and
the population 611,300, of which 211,000 are Christians and the rest
Mohammedans and Pagans. It is very extensive and irregular in form,
possessing high and extended mountain chains, which have not been
entirely explored, and which are grown over with very rich woods. It
is inhabited almost throughout the interior by savages. Its rivers,
some of great volume, are as follows: On the north coast and Butuan
Bay, the Jabonga and Butuan: on the Macajalar coast, the Cagayan;
in Eligan Bay, the Malanao and others of minor importance; in the
cove of Dapitan, the Palaven.
In Port Kakule the greatest rise of tide is seven feet. In
Surigao Strait the flood tide sets to the west, and the ebb to the
east. The velocity of the stream in the strait reaches six knots at
springs. There is a difference of about two hours between the time
of high water at Surigao and in Surigao Strait. Fishermen roughly
estimate that when the moon rises the ebb tide commences to run in
Surigao Strait. From January to June there is but one high water
during the twenty-four hours, in Surigao Strait, which occurs during
the night. From July to December the same phenomenon takes place,
but the time of high water is by day.
From observations made by the Spanish surveyors, it appears that the
highest tide on the west coasts of the islands of the strait takes
place at the same hour as the lowest tide on the east coasts.
The Mindanao river disembogues five miles to the south of Palak
Harbor by two wide arms, on the northernmost of which is the town of
Kota-batu, about 5 1/2 miles from the mouth. The river is navigable
for 60 miles by vessels of 3 1/2 feet draught; it flows through a
beautiful valley 30 miles in width, which scarcely shows any change
of level; the valley is capable of producing tobacco, cacao, sugar,
maize, and cotton; but this is only known at present by specimens
produced. The course of the river lies SE. for 45 miles from its
mouth to the lake Ligauasan, out of which it is seen to flow; from
the other side of the lake the direction of the river is NNE. to its
source in the Sugut Mountains. At 21 miles from the northern mouth
the river divides into two arms, which enter the sea 4 1/2 miles apart.
In the northern part of Mindanao is the province of Surigao, bordered
on the north by the Surigao Sea, on the east by the Pacific, on the
south by the District of Davao, and on the west by the territory
of the infieles. It is mountainous, but the Christian population
resides on the coasts and in the northern point of the territory. The
population is 95,775, distributed among 45 pueblos, 10 barrios,
and 30 rancherias of subdued infieles. Abaca and palay are raised,
and in the gold washings considerable gold of good quality is found.
Military notes on the Philippines affirm that the islands are, in many
respects, Spain's best possessions, due to the abundance and variety
of products, numerous and good ports, character of inhabitants, and on
account of the vicinity of certain countries of eastern Asia, which are
now entering upon a stage of civilization and commerce. The group is
composed of some 2,000 islands. In 1762 Manila was taken and held by
the English for a ransom of 1,000,000 pounds sterling. This, however,
was never paid, and the islands were finally returned to Spain.
The archipelago extends from 5 degrees 32 minutes to 19 degrees 38
minutes, north latitude, and from 117 degrees to 126 degrees, east
longitude. It thus covers about 1,000 miles north and south and 600
east and west.
The whole surface of the Philippines is essentially mountainous, the
only plains that occur being alluvial districts at the river mouths
and the spaces left by the intersection of the ranges. The principal
ranges have a tendency to run north and south, with a certain amount of
deflection east and west, as the case may be, so that the orographic
diagram of the archipelago, as a whole, has a similarity to a fan,
with northern Luzon as its center of radiation.
While none of the mountain peaks greatly exceed 8,000 feet in height,
Apo, in Mindanao, is over 9,000 feet; Halson, in Mindoro, is over
8,900 feet; and Mayon, in Luzon, over 8,200. The latter is an active
volcano, which has been the scene of several eruptions during the
present century. Extinct or active craters are relatively as numerous
in the Philippines as in the eastern archipelago, and as a consequence
of these subterranean forces earthquakes are frequent and violent.
In 1627 one of the most elevated mountains of Cagayan disappeared,
and on the island of Mindanao, in 1675, a passage was opened to the
sea and a vast plain emerged. The more recent of the convulsions
occurred in 1863 and in 1880. The destruction of property was great,
especially in Manila.
The general belief is that the Philippines once formed a part of an
enormous continent from which it was separated by some cataclysm. This
continent probably extended from Celebes to the farthest Polinesian
islands on the east, to New Zealand on the south, and the Mariana
and Sandwich islands on the north.
These islands, according to Ramon Jordana, are divided into two
volcanic regions, the eastern and the western. The principal point is
the volcano Taal, located in the northeastern portion of the province
of Batangas. It is situated on a small island in the center of the
Bombon laguna, and has an altitude of 550 feet above sea level. Its
form is conical, and the rock is composed of basalt feldspar with
a small quantity of augite. The crater is supposed to be 232 feet
deep. Its sides are almost vertical, and there are two steaming
lagunas at its bottom.
In the regions embracing the provinces of Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga,
Tarlac, and Pangasinan the soil is mostly composed of clay containing
remnants of sea shells, a circumstance which gives rise to the belief
that the coast of Manila has risen from the sea in not so remote
an epoch. Smooth, dark gray tophus predominates; it forms the bed
of the Rio Pasig, and rising forms hillocks in the vicinity of the
city of Binangonan. Farther on, trachyte and banks of conchiferous
The vast plain of Panpanga extends to the north of Manila Bay, to
the south of which is situated Mount Arayat, of doleritic nature.
The disposition of the mountain ranges in parallel chains affords space
for the development of streams both in Luzon and Mindanao. The larger
islands contain inland seas, into which pour countless small streams
from the inland hills. Many of them open out into broad estuaries,
and in numerous instances coasting vessels of light draft can sail to
the very foot of the mountains. Rivers and inland lakes swarm with
varieties of fish and shellfish. By reason of Spanish restrictions,
but little can be said as to the character of the stream banks
and beds. Four of the rivers are navigable, and, by the statements
of those who have spent some little time on the islands, most are
fordable. Drinking water is obtained by many of the towns from the
rivers at points just above tide limits, and the water is said to be
good. Bridges are few and crude, but are generally built to withstand
The island of Luzon abounds in rivers and streams. The following are
the principal water courses:
Rio Grande de Cagayan, the source of which is in the northern slope
of the Caraballo Norte. It has numerous affluents, among others the
Magat and Bangag, and, after a course of about 200 miles, falls into
the China Sea in the vicinity of Aparri.
Agro Grande starts in the north, in the neighborhood of the ranch
of Loo, receives the affluents Tarlag and Camiling, as well as many
others, has a course of about 112 miles, and falls into the Gulf
Abra has its origin on the opposite slope to that where Agno Grande
takes its rise; runs for about 87 miles, and, after receiving the
affluent Suyoc, divides into three arms and falls into the China Sea
over the sand bars of Butao, Nioig, and Dile.
Rio Grande de la Pampanga is called Rio Chico up to the lake of
Canasen, near Arayat, where it changes its name after its junction
with Rio Gapan. Its course is a little over 38 miles; it receives the
Rio de San Jose and divides into a multitude of arms as it falls into
the sea to the north of Manila Bay.
Rio Pasig has its source in the Bay Lagoon, and falls after a course
of 19 miles into Manila Bay.
The military notes on the climate of the Philippines, the official
record of the temperature and the gales and typhoons, and directions
regarding the handling of ships in the peculiar tempests that prevail
at certain seasons around the islands, are of absorbing popular
interest, and of striking special usefulness.
Climate.--In the region of Manila, the hottest season is from March
to June, the greatest heat being felt in May before the rains set in,
when the maximum temperature ranges from 80 degrees to 100 degrees
in the shade. The coolest weather occurs in December and January,
when the temperature falls at night to 60 or 65 degrees, and seldom
rises in the day above 75 degrees. From November to February the sky
is bright, the atmosphere cool and dry, and the weather in every way
delightful. Observations made at the Observatortio Meteorologico
de Manila have been compiled by the United States Weather Bureau,
covering a record of from seventeen to thirty-two years, from which
the following is an extract:
Temperature, degrees F.:
Mean annual 80 degrees
Warmest month 82 degrees
Coolest month 79 degrees
Highest 100 degrees
Lowest 60 degrees
Relative per cent 78
Absolute grains per cubic foot 8.75
Wind movements in miles:
Daily mean 134
Greatest daily 204
Least daily 95
Prevailing wind direction--N.E., November to April; SW., May to
Cloudiness, annual per cent 53
Days with rain 135
Rainfall in inches:
Mean annual 75.43
Greatest monthly 120.98
Least monthly 55.65
The following is the mean temperature for the three seasons, at
Cold. Hot. Wet.
Manila 72 degrees 87 degrees 84 degrees
Cebu 75 degrees 86 degrees 75 degrees
Davao 86 degrees 88 degrees 87 degrees
Sulu 81 degrees 82 degrees 83 degrees
Seasons vary with the prevailing winds (monsoons or trade winds) and
are classed as "wet" and "dry." There is no abrupt change from one to
the other, and between periods there are intervals of variable weather.
The Spanish description of seasons is as follows:
Seis meses de lodo--six months of mud.
Seis meses de polvo--six months of dust.
Seis meses de todo--six months of everything.
The northern islands lie in the track of the typhoons which, developing
in the Pacific, sweep over the China Sea from NE. to SW. during the
southwest monsoon. They may be looked for at any time between May and
November, but it is during the months of July, August, and September
that they are most frequent. Early in the season the northern region
feels the greatest force, but as the season advances the typhoon
gradually works southward and the dangerous time at Manila is about
the end of October and the beginning of November. Typhoons rarely,
if ever, pass south of 9 degrees N. latitude. Sometimes the typhoon is
of large diameter and travels slowly, so far as progressive movement is
concerned; at others it is of smaller dimensions, and both the circular
and progressive motions are more rapid. However they are always storms
of terrific energy and frequently cause terrible destruction of crops
and property on shore and of shipping at sea. Thunderstorms, often of
great violence, are frequent in May and June, before the commencement
of the rainy season. During July, August, September, and October the
rains are very heavy. The rivers and lakes are swollen and frequently
overflow, flooding large tracts of low country.
At Manila the average rainfall is stated to be from 75 to 120 inches
per annum, and there the difference between the longest and shortest
day is only 1 hour 47 minutes and 12 seconds. This rainfall, immense
though it be, is small as compared with that of other parts of the
archipelago; e.g., in Liano, NE. of Mindanao, the average yearly
downpour is 142 inches.
Gales.--The gales of the Philippines may be divided into three
classes, known by the local names of Colla, Nortada, and Baguio. The
Colla is a gale in which the wind blows constantly from one quarter,
but with varying force and with alternations of violent squalls,
calms, and heavy rains, usually lasting at least three days; these
gales occur during the southwest monsoon and their direction is from
the southwest quarter. The Nortada is distinguished from the Colla,
in that the direction is constant and the force steady, without the
alternations of passing squalls and calms. The Nortada is generally
indicative that a typhoon is passing not very far off. These gales
occur chiefly in the northern islands, and their direction, as the
name implies, is from the northward. Baguio is the local name for the
revolving storm known as the typhoon, which, being the more familiar
term, will be used in these notes.
Typhoons.--These storms have their origin to the east or to the
southeast of the Philippines, whence their course is westward, with
a slight divergence to the north or south, the average direction
appearing to be west by north. They occur in all months of the year,
but the greater number take place about the time of the equinoxes. The
most violent ones occur at the autumnal equinox, and on an average, two
or three occur every year, and sometimes one follows another at a very
short interval. It is believed that when one of these typhoons passes
a high latitude in September there will be another in October of that
year, and one may be looked for in November in a lower latitude. These
tempests are not encountered in latitudes below 9 degrees N. The rate
of progress of these storms is about 13 miles an hour; in none of
those observed has it exceeded 14 miles nor fallen below 11 miles. The
diameter of the exterior revolving circle of the storm varies from 40
to 130 miles, and the diameter of the inner circle or calm region, may
be estimated at from 8 to 15 miles. The duration of the true typhoon
at any one place is never longer than ten hours and generally much
less. These storms are always accompanied by abundant rain, with low,
dense clouds, which at times limit the horizon to a few yards distance,
and are generally accompanied by electrical discharges. The barometer
falls slowly for some days before the typhoon, then falls rapidly
on its near approach, and reaches its lowest when the vortex is but
a little way off. It then rises rapidly as the vortex passes away,
and then slowly when it has gained some distance. Near the vortex
there are usually marked oscillations. The typhoon generally begins
with a northerly wind, light drizzling rain, weather squally and
threatening, a falling barometer and the wind veering to the eastward,
when the observer is to the northward of the path of the storm, and
backing to the westward when he is to the southward of it; the wind
and rain increase as the wind shifts, and the storm generally ends
with a southerly wind after abating gradually.
The following warnings of the approach of a typhoon, and directions
for avoiding the most dangerous part of it, are taken from the China
Sea Directory: The earlier signs of a typhoon are clouds of a cirrus
type, looking like fine hair, feathers or small white tufts of wool,
traveling from east or north, a slight rise in the barometer, clear
and dry weather, and light winds. These signs are followed by the
usual ugly and threatening appearance of the weather which forbodes
most storms, and the increasing number and severity of the gusts with
the rising of the wind. In some cases one of the earliest signs is
a long heavy swell and confused sea, which comes from the direction
in which the storm is approaching and travels more rapidly than the
storm's center. The best and surest of all warnings, however, will
be found in the barometer. In every case there is great barometric
disturbance. Accordingly, if the barometer falls rapidly, or even if
the regularity of its diurnal variation be interrupted, danger may
be apprehended. No positive rule can be given as to the amount of
depression to be expected, but at the center of some of the storms
the barometer is said to stand fully 2 inches lower than outside the
storm field. The average barometric gradient, near the vortex of the
most violent of these storms, is said to be rather more than 1 inch
in 50 nautical miles. As the center of the storm is approached the
more rapid become the changes of wind, until at length, instead of
its direction altering gradually, as is the case on first entering the
storm field, the wind flies around at once to the opposite point, the
sea meanwhile breaking into mountainous and confused heaps. There are
many instances on record of the wind suddenly falling in the vortex
and the clouds dispersing for a short interval, though the wind soon
blows again with renewed fury.
In the northern hemisphere when the falling barometer and other signs
create suspicion that a typhoon is approaching, facing the wind and
taking 10 or 12 points to the right of it, will give the approximate
bearing of its center. Thus, with the wind NE., the center will
probably be from S. to SSE. of the observer's position. However,
it is difficult to estimate the center of the vortex from any given
point. This partly arises from the uncertainty as to the relation
between the bearing of the center and the direction of the wind,
and greatly from there being no means of knowing whether the storm be
of large or small dimensions. If the barometer falls slowly, and the
weather grows worse only gradually, it is reasonable to suppose that
the storm center is distant; and conversely, with a rapidly falling
barometer and increasing bad weather the center may be supposed to
be approaching dangerously near.
Practical Rules.--When in the region and in the season of revolving
storms, be on the watch for premonitory signs. Constantly observe
and carefully record the barometer.
When on sea and there are indications of a typhoon being near, heave to
and carefully observe and record the changes of the barometer and wind,
so as to find the bearing of the center, and ascertain by the shift of
the wind in which semicircle the vessel is situated. Much will often
depend upon heaving to in time. When, after careful observation, there
is reason to believe that the center of the typhoon is approaching,
the following rules should be followed in determining whether to
remain hove to or not, and the tack on which to remain hove to:
In the northern hemisphere, if the right-hand semicircle, heave to on
the starboard tack. If in the left-hand semicircle, run, keeping the
wind if possible, on the starboard quarter, and when the barometer
rises, if necessary to keep the ship from going too far from the
proper course, heave to on the port tack. When the vessel lies in the
direct line of advance of the storm--which position is, as previously
observed, the most dangerous of all--run with the wind on the starboard
quarter. In all cases increase as soon as possible the distance from
the center, bearing in mind that the whole storm field is advancing.
In receding from the center of a typhoon the barometer will rise
and the wind and sea subside. It should be remarked that in some
cases a vessel may, if the storm be traveling slowly, sail from the
dangerous semicircle across the front of the storm, and thus out of
its influence. But as the rate at which the storm is traveling is
quite uncertain, this is a hazardous proceeding, and before attempting
to cross the seaman should hesitate and carefully consider all the
circumstances of the case, observing particularly the rate at which
the barometer is falling.
Northward of the Equator the current is divided into north and south
equatorial currents by the equatorial counter-current, a stream
flowing from west to east throughout the Pacific Ocean. The currents
in the western part of the Pacific, to the northward of the Equator,
are affected by the monsoons, and to the southward of the Equator
they are deflected by the coast of Australia.
The trade drift, which flows to the westward between the parallels
of 9 degrees and 20 degrees N., on reaching the eastern shores of
the Philippine Islands again turns to the northward, forming near the
northern limit of that group the commencement of the Japan stream. The
main body of the current then flows along the east coast of Formosa,
and from that island pursues a northeasterly course through the
chain of islands lying between Formosa and Japan; and sweeping along
the southeastern coast of Japan in the same general direction, it is
known to reach the parallel of 50 degrees N. The limits and velocity
of the Japan stream are considerably influenced by the monsoons in
the China. Sea, and by the prevailing winds in the corresponding
seasons in the Yellow and Japan seas; also by the various drift
currents which these periodic winds produce.
Admiral Dewey has forwarded to the navy department a memorandum
on mineral resources of the Philippines prepared at the admiral's
request by Professor George W. Becker of the United States geological
survey. Only about a score of the several hundred islands, he says,
are known to contain deposits of valuable minerals. He includes a
table showing the mineral bearing islands and their resources. This
"Luzon, coal, gold, copper, lead, iron, sulphur, marble, kaolin;
Sataanduanes, Sibuyan, Bohol and Panaoan, gold only; Marimduque,
lead and silver; Mindoro, coal, gold and copper; Carraray, Batan, Rapu
Rapu, Semarara, Negros, coal only; Masbete, coal and copper; Romblon,
marble; Samar, coal and gold; Panay, coal, oil, gas, gold, copper,
iron and perhaps mercury; Biliram, sulphur only; Leyte, coal, oil and
perhaps mercury; Cebu, coal, oil, gas, gold, lead, silver and iron;
Mindanao, coal, gold, copper and platinum; Sulu archipelago, pearls."
The coal, Mr. Becker says, is analogous to the Japanese coal and that
of Washington, but not to that of the Welsh or Pennsylvania coals. It
might better be characterized as a highly carbonized lignite, likely to
contain much sulphur as iron pyrites, rendering them apt to spontaneous
combustion and injurious to boiler plates. Nevertheless, he says,
when pyrites seams are avoided and the lignite is properly handled,
it forms a valuable fuel, especially for local consumption.
Not least among the promising resources of the Philippines is a curious
natural product. Several vegetable growths appear to possess the
faculty of secreting mineral concretions, in all respects resembling
certain familiar precious stones. The famous James Smithson was the
first to give any real attention to these curious plant gems, but,
though there can be no doubt of their authenticity, neither scientist
nor merchant has followed this lead. One of the jewels, the bamboo
opal, rivals the best stones in its delicate tints of red and green,
but it is among the rarest, and 1,000 stems may be cut up before a
single specimen be found.
Specifications of Grievances of the Filipinos.
An Official Copy of the Manifesto of the Junta Showing the Bad Faith
of Spain in the Making and Evasion of a Treaty--The Declaration
of the Renewal of the War of Rebellion--Complaints Against the
Priests Defined--The Most Important Document the Filipinos Have
Issued--Official Reports of Cases of Persecution of Men and Women in
Manila by the Spanish Authorities--Memoranda of the Proceedings in
Several Cases in the Court of Inquiry of the United States Officers.
The pages following, showing a cynical disregard of a solemn treaty
by the Spaniards, a complete exposure of the reasons the Filipinos had
for renewing the war, and the particulars of cases of individual wrongs
suffered, as they were made known in the course of legal investigation,
have been received direct from Manila, and enable us to complete the
story of the Philippines with the testimony that the depravity of bad
faith in regard to treaties, and incidents of personal cruelties in
Spanish colonial governments, have illustrations in the Philippines
as in Cuba, and demand of the American Nation in the hour of victory
that Spain shall lose now and forever all her possessions in the East
and West Indies, and be restricted to the peninsula and islands--the
Canary and Balearic groups--that is, in two words to home rule. The
circumstances of the treaty between the Philippine Junta--the treaty
of Biyak--and the Spanish authorities, are of great notoriety, but
the Philippine story has not until now reached the English speaking
peoples. We give it from the official paper:
"On signing the Treaty of Biyak na bato, we, the natives of the
Philippines and the government of Spain, agreed that between our
armies be established an armistice which was to last three years from
the date of the mentioned treaty.
"The natives were to lay down their arms and turn them over to the
Spanish authorities with all their depot (maestranza, a manufactory
of ammunition, for repairs of rifles, etc., etc.) their ammunitions
"The Spanish authorities, on the other hand, bound themselves to
consent to the reforms (of public opinion amongst) the natives of the
country claim; reforms which, according to the text of the decree of
9th August, 1897, the Captain and Guberno General assured us were
granted and the execution of which was suspended on account of the
"The reforms asked for and granted were the following:
1. Expulsion or at least exclaustration of the religious orders.
2. Representation of the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes.
3. Application of real justice in the Philippines, equal for the
Indian and for the Peninsular. Unity of laws between Spain and the
Philippines. Participation of the Indians in the chief offices of
the Civil Administration.
4. Adjustment of the property of the Parishes (church property)
and of contributions in favor of the Indians.
5. Proclamation of the individual rights of the Indians, as also of
the liberty of the press and of association.
"The same Spanish government agreed to pay the liberating government a
war indemnity, reduced to the limited sum of 600,000 pesos, in payment
of the arms, ammunitions, depots and forts which were surrendered,
and in order to indemnify those who were to be obliged to live abroad
during the term of the armistice, as an assistance to stay out of
the Philippines while they were trying to establish themselves and
looking for legitimate and decorous means of existence.
"It was agreed in like manner that General Don Fernando Primo de
Rivera, Goberno General of the islands, should remain in his post
during the time of the armistice, as a guarantee that the reforms
"And, finally, said authority promised that he would propose and
there would be conceded a very ample amnesty.
"Contrary to what was stipulated, the mentioned General was removed
from his post shortly after the agreement was signed; and although
the liberating government had fulfilled the laying down and delivery
of the arms, ammunitions, depot and forts of its general encampment,
the reforms were not established, only part of the offered indemnity
has been paid and the amnesty remains a project only, some pardons
"The government of Madrid, deriding the natives, and with contempt
of what had signed as a gentleman the General Commander of their
army in the field, tried, instead of carrying out the expulsion or
exclaustration of the Priests, to elevate them more, nominating at
once for the two bishoprics, vacant in the colonies, two Priests
of those same religious orders that oppressed the country and were
the first cause of the insurrection, the disorder and the general
dissatisfaction in the islands; thus ridiculing the virtue, knowledge
and worth of the numerous secular Spanish clergy, and especially of
that of the Philippines.
"Not contented with this, they have raised and rewarded those
Peninsulars who in the Philippines, as in Madrid, more cowardly and
miserable still, because they abused their position and the protection
of those same authorities who signed the treaty, insulted at banquets,
assemblies and through the press, with epithets and jokes offensive and
vulgar, the patient natives; as happened with the Peninsular Rafael
Comenge, the protege and farcical table companion of the Priest,
who amongst us performs the duties of the Archbishopric of Manila;
the Minister of War has just conceded the said Comenge the grand
cross of military merit, for shouting against us and imputing to
us every kind of baseness and vices, knowing that he was lying, and
for exacting from the gamblers of the Casino Espanol of Manila, as
their president; the contribution of 30,000 pesos, to present General
Primo de Rivera with a golden statute of that value, and, a curious
coincident, this brave was one of the first who escaped from Manila,
full of fear when the news arrived there that an American squadron
would attack that port and that the risk he would run was real.
"You have seen before now, how that insect Wencestao Retana was
rewarded with a cooked up deputyship to the Cortes, that salaried
reptile of the Philippine convents, who, with the aid of that tyrant
General Weyler, his worthy godfather, the despotic incendiary of
the town of Calamba, of ominous memory amongst us, does nothing but
vomit rabid foam, insulting us by day and night with calumnies and
shrieks, in that paper whose expenses the Procurators of the Manila
"Prepare yourselves also for seeing that a titled nobility be given
to the well known 'Quioguiap' (fecer y Temprado), writer in the
'El Liberat,' of Madrid, who, to be in unison with the priests,
does not cease to call us inferior race, troglodytes, without human
nature or understanding, big boy; the same who, in order to deprive
the rich 'Abellas' (father and son) of Carnarines, of the position
they had conquered by their industry, economy and intelligence as
almost exclusive purchasers of the Abaco (Manila hemp) of that region,
tried and succeeded villainously in having them accused and shot in the
camp of Bagumbayan; the same who afterwards sought in vain the reward
of his criminal attempts, although conscious of his perverseness,
to deliver to himself the produce of their harvest and their labor.
"Peace was hardly made, when General Primo de Rivera denied the
existence of the agreement and shot day after day those same persons
whom he had promised to protect, believing foolishly that, the nucleus
of the revolution once destroyed, the insurgents would need thirty or
forty years in order to reunite themselves; but he accepted freely
the pension of the grand cross of San Fernando, which, as a reward
for the peace, he was given.
"The same happened with bloodthirsty Monet, the author of the hecatomb
of Zambales, who was promoted to the rank of a general and honored
by a grand cross; also with his competitor in brutal deeds, General
Tejeirs, the assassin of the Bisayos, and with the Vice Admiral
Montojo, so severely punished later on, by whose orders the city of
Cebu was destroyed and demolished, to revenge the death of an impure
"In eloquent contrast with what the natives had to expect, there has
not been one single concession or reward for the credulous Pedro
A. Paterno, a Filipino, the only real agent of the miracle of the
Peace, to whom they have denied even the modest historical title
"Add to all these infamies and indignities the removal of General
Primo de Rivera, who, we repeat, was bound to remain in Manila during
the three years of the armistice, and the nomination in his stead of
another governor, General Augusti, who, completely without knowledge of
the country, brought with him as his counsellor the unworthy Colonel
Olive, the same who had proceeded with the utmost haste and greatest
partiality and passion against the pretended chieftains, authors,
protectors and followers of the sacred movement begun in August, 1896;
who had, as military prosecutor for the 'Captain General,' exacted
with insolent cynicism, and with the knowledge and consent of his
superior officers, considerable sums of money from those who wished to
be absolved, in order to imprison them again when they did not comply
with all his extortions; the same who, with shameless partiality
worked and used his influence all he could towards the shooting of
the immortal Tagalo martyr, Dr. Jose Rizal; the same finally, who,
during the command of weak General Blanco and of bloodthirsty and
base General Polariyi demanded continually the imprisoning of the
so-called 'Sons of the Country,' the descendants of the Europeans,
that is, who had amongst us any importance by their learning, their
industry, their fortunes or their lineage, and who were not willing
to bribe him so as to be left in liberty.
"In view of this series of acts of faithlessness, of contempt, of
insults, of crimes, and before all, the forgetting of the treaty,
so recently as well as solemnly entered upon, those same who signed
the treaty of Biyak na bato, have considered themselves free of the
obligation to remain abroad and of keeping any longer the promised
"And, taking advantage of the Providential coming to the Philippines
of the revenging squadron of the Great Republic of the United States
of North America, they come back to their native soil proud and
contented, to reconquer their liberty and their rights, counting
on the aid and protection of the brave, decided, and noble Admiral
Dewey, of the Anglo-Saxon squadron which has succeeded in beating
and destroying the forces of the tyrants who have been annihilating
the personality and energy of our industrious people, model of noble
and glorious qualities.
"The moment has come, therefore, for the Filipinos to count themselves
and to enter into rank and file in order to defend with zeal and
resolution and with a virility of strong men, the soil that saw
their birth as well as the honor of their name, making publicly
and universally known their competence, ability and their civic,
political and social virtues.
"Let us all fight united; seconding the revenging and humanitarian
action of the North American Republic; and let us learn from her,
accepting her counsels and her system, the way of living in order,
peace and liberty, copying her institutions, which are the only
adequate ones for the nations who wish to reconquer their personality
in history, in the period we are passing.
"On going to battle, let us inscribe on our flag with clearness and
accuracy the sacred legend of our aspirations.
"We want a stable government, elected by the people themselves; the
laws of which are to be voted for by those same who have to keep them
faithfully, conserving or modifying their present institutions in the
natural times in the life of nations, but modeling them and taking us
their own, the democratic ones of the United States of North America.
"We want the country to vote its taxes; those necessary for public
services and to satisfy (pay in full) the assistance North America
and the corporations, organizations and individuals who help us to
rise out of our lethargic state, are rendering us; taking care at the
same time to abolish all those which have for basis a social vice or an
immoral action, like the lottery, the tax on gambling dens, on galleras
(arenas for fights of game cocks) and the farming out of the sale of
opium. But before all, may there nevermore appear again that repugnant
tax levied on Pederasty, which, to get two thousand pesos offended
the universal conscience and the chaste name of 'Chinese Comedies.'
"We want plainest liberty in all its bearings, including that of
ideas, association and the press, without arriving at lawlessness and
disorder; just as it is established in that great, so well regulated
"We want to see the religion of the natives and of those that come
to this country rigorously respected by the public powers and by the
individuals in particular.
"We want Christianism, the basis of present civilization, to be
the emblem and solid foundation of our religious institutions,
without force or compulsion; that the native clergy of the country
be that which direct and teach the natives in all the degrees of the
"We want the maintenance of this clergy to be effected as the different
regional governments may see fit, or, as the city councils or popular
elective institutions established in every locality may determine.
"We want personal property to be absolutely and unconditionally
respected; and, as a consequence, the recognition to the land holder
of the property he cultivates and has improved by his labor, of the
so-called Haciendas of the religious orders, who have usurped them
and robbed them by the perverse acts of the confessionary, beguiling
the fanaticism of ignorant women and or more than timid aged man,
afraid of the vengeance the priests in their innate wickedness
might meditate against their families, who extorted from them dues
at the last moments of their existence denying them spiritual aid
and divine rewards without the cession of their material interests
before departing from this earth.
"We want the possessions of these land holders to be respected
without their being obliged to pay any canon, lease or tax whatsoever
of religious character, depressive or unjust, ceasing thus their
detainment, anti-juridicial and anti-social, on the part of monarchial
orders, rapacious orders whom, on the strength of their being a
'necessary evil,' the ignorant functionaries of Spanish administration,
like themselves insatiable extortioners, have been aiding, in disdain
of right, reason and equity.
"We want in order to consolidate the property, the ominous 'Inspection
de Montes,' to disappear and cease in its actual functions, as a
disorganizing and fiscalizing center of the titles of property of
the natives, which on pretense of investigating and discovering
the detainment of State lands, had the custom of declaring the
property of the State or of others, such as was already cultivated
and producing by the improvements made by the poor peasant, awarding
such to their friends or to those who bribe them if the legitimate
proprietor refused to give them, in shameless auction, what they asked
for as a remuneration for what they called 'shutting their eyes,'
as has happened lately, amongst other scandalous cases, in Mindoro,
when staking out the limits of the new Hacienda adjudged there to
the Recoleto Priests.
"We want public administration to be founded and to act on a basis
of morality, economy and competence, in the charge of natives of the
country or of such others who by their experience and learning can
serve us as guides and teach us the basis and the system of those
countries who have their economical, political and administrative
offices and proceedings simplified and well organized.
"We want the recognition of all the substantive rights of the human
personality; guaranteed by judicial power, cemented in the principles
in force in all the cultured nations; that the judicial authorities,
when applying the laws, be penetrated by and identified with the
spirit and the necessities of the locality; that the administration of
justice be developed by simple, economical and decisive proceedings;
and that judges and magistrates have their attributions limited by
the functions of a jury and by verbal and public judgment, making
thus disappear the actual state of affairs, of which prevarication
and crooked dealings are the natural and necessary mark.
"We want sensible codes, adapted to our manner of being without
differentiation of races and without odious privileges contrary to
the principle of equality before the law.
"We want the increase and protection of our industries by means of
subventions and of local and transient privileges without putting
barriers to the general exchange of produce and of mercantile
transactions with all the nations of the globe without exception.
"We want liberty of banking business, liberty of mercantile and
industrial societies and companies, commercial liberty, and that the
Philippines cease to be shut up amongst the walls of its convents,
to become again the universal market, like that of Hongkong, that of
Singapore, that of the Straits, that of Borneo, that of the Moluccas,
and that of some of the autonomous colonies of Australia, countries
which surround us; and that capital may with confidence develop all
the elements of wealth of this privileged soil, without more duties
or charges on import and export than those the circumstances of each
epoch may require for determined purposes.
"We want roads, canals and ports, the dredging of our rivers and
other waterways, railroads, tramways and all the means of locomotion
and transport, on water and earth, with such help and assistance as
may be needed to carry them out within a certain time and develop
"We want the suppression of the so-called 'Guardia Civil,' this
pretorian and odious institution in whose malignment and inhuman meshes
so many Philippine martyrs have suffered and expired; that center of
tortures and iniquities, those contemptible flatterers of small tyrants
and of the concupiscense of the priests, those insatiable extortioners
of the poor native; those hardened criminals animated constantly
in their perverseness by the impunity with which their accomplices,
the representatives of despotism and official immorality, covered them.
"In their stead we want a judicial and gubernatorial police, which
is to watch over and oblige the fulfillment of existing laws and
regulations without tortures and abuses.
"We want a local army, composed of native volunteers, strictly limited
to what order and natural defense demands.
"We want a public instruction less levitical and more extensive
in what refers to natural and positive sciences; so that it may be
fitted to industrate woman as well as man in the establishment and
development of the industries and wealth of the country, marine
and terrestrial mining, forestal and industrial of all kinds, an
instruction which is to be free of expenses in all its degrees
and obligatory in its primary portion, leaving and applying to
this object all such property as is destined to-day to supply the
sustainment of the same; taking charge of the administration of such
property a Council of Public Instruction, not leaving for one moment
longer in the hands of religious institutions, since these teach
only prejudice and fanaticism, proclaiming, as did not long since
a rector of the university of Manila, that 'medicine and physical
sciences are materialistic and impious studies,' and another, that
'political economy was the science of the devil.'
"We want to develop this public instruction, to have primary schools,
normal schools, institutes of second degree, professional schools,
universities, museums, public libraries, meteorological observatories,
agricultural schools, geological and botanical gardens and a general
practical and theoretical system of teaching agriculture, arts and
handicraft and commerce. All this exists already in the country,
but badly organized and dispersed, costing the contributors a good
deal without practical results, which might have been expected,
by the incompetency of the teachers and the favoritism employed in
their nominations and remunerations.
"We want laws for hunting and fishing, and teaching and regular
vigilance for the faithful carrying on of pisciculture, well-known
already to the natives, for the advantageous disposing of their marine
products, such as conch shell, mother of pearl, pearls, bichi de mer,
ray skins, fish lime, etc., and for the raising of all kinds of animals
useful for agricultural and industrial purposes and as victuals for
the natives and for export.
"We want liberty of immigration and assistance for foreign settlers and
capitalists, with such restrictions only, when there be an opportunity,
as limit actually Chinese immigration, similar to legislature on this
point in North America and Australia.
"We want, finally, anything that be just, equitable and orderly;
all that may be basis for development, prosperity and well being;
all that may be a propelling element of morality, virtue and respect
to the mutual rights of all the inhabitants, in their minor relations
and in those with the foreigner.
"Do not believe that the American nation is unbelieving or fanatically
protestant, that it take to the scaffold or to the fire those who
do not believe determined principles and practice special religious
creeds; within that admirable organization, masterly and living
model of perfection for the old nations of Europe and Asia, lives
and prospers the Roman Catholic Church.
"There are some seven million inhabitants who profess that religion
directed by natural clergy with their proper ministers, taken from
that fold of Christ.
"Then there are bishops, archbishops, cardinals of the Roman Church,
American subjects, beloved faithful of the Pope Leo XIII.
"There then is a Temporal Apostolical Delegate representative of
the legitimate successor of St. Peter; there are parsons, canons,
dignitaries and provisors, who live and teach in order peace and
prosperity, respected by one and all, as you yourselves will be the
day the American flag will influence in the spiritual direction of
the Philippine people.
"Then there are cathedrals, parish churches, temples and chapels,
sumptuous and admired, where they adore the same God of the Sinai and
Golgotha, where severs and ostensive cult is rendered to Immaculate
Virgin Mary and to the Saints you have on your altars and none dare
to destroy, attack or prostitute them.
"There then are seminaries, convents, missions, fraternities, schools,
everything Catholic, richly furnished, well kept up and perfectly
managed to the glory of the religion.
"There resides His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons, a wise Roman Catholic
prelate, American citizen, who recently and on occasion of the
present war, has ordered, with consent of His Sanctity, that all
the catholic clergy of the American nation raise daily prayers to
the Most High to obtain the triumph of the arms of their country,
for the good of religion and humanity, which cause, in the present
conflict legitimately and unquestionably represents that government.
"And just as Christ, to be Messiah, had to be according to the
prophecies, Jew and of the Tribe of Judah, that is: By right of his
political fatherland, as by that of his native soil, of the chosen
people, thus amongst you who ever wants to be a clergyman or merit
being canon, dignitary, provisor, bishop, archbishop and cardinal,
must as an indispensable condition, have been born on your proper
soil, as is occurring absolutely in all the civilized nations of the
old and new world, with the only exception of the Philippines.
"There may be priests, religious congregations, nuns and convents, but
submissive to the laws of the country and obliged to admit in their
bosom as formerly happened in these isles, as estimable and superior
members of such institutions, those feel a vocation for a conventual
life, as the noble and generous people of North America will demand,
and will, do not doubt it, recognize these your legitimate rights.
_Filipinos and Countrymen._
"The protection of the great American Republic will make you respected
and considered before the cultured powers, legitimately constituted;
and your personality will be proclaimed and sanctioned everywhere.
"We have the duty to exact the rights we have just proclaimed and the
'natives' in all the isles and in all their different races, as well
as the 'Mestizo Sangley,' as the 'Mestizo Espanol,' and the 'Son of
the Country,' we all have the honorable duty of defending ourselves
against the whip and the contempt of the Spaniards, accepting the
protection and direction of the humane North American nation.
Hurrah for liberty and right.
Hurrah for the Grand Republic of the United States of North America.
Hurrah for President McKinley and Rear Admiral Dewey.
[ERROR: unhandled comment start]
-->_The Junta Patriotica_.
"Hongkong, April, 1898."
Under the authority of the United States there have been inquiries
by a court into the causes of the imprisonment of the inmates of the
penitentiary and common jail at Manila, and others who have suffered
from the enmities of the members of the government that ceased when
the Spanish flag was taken down and the American flag raised. The
memoranda following were made in the court proceedings, and state
the facts as judicially established.
This lady was confined in Bilibid seven years ago (though the record
shows July 11, 1898,) by order of the Governor-General, on a charge of
selling counterfeit stamps. She was tried, and sentenced to six years'
confinement; but the Judge accepted a bribe of $900 and released
her about a week after her trial. A year afterwards she was again
arrested by a new judge on the same charge, and $3,000 was demanded
as the price of her liberty. This was refused, and imprisonment
followed. She claims to have bought the stamps (which were telegraph
stamps), from the Government.
This young lady, who was a school teacher in her native province,
Montinlupa, Manila province, was confined in Bilibid, August 8th,
1895, charged with "sacrilege and robbery," and insurrection. She
came to Malate to see about her license as a school teacher, and
was arrested by the civil guard on the above charge. She claims her
arrest was instigated by a priest who had made overtures to her to have
carnal intercourse with him, and had attempted the same, and had been
repulsed and refused. To cover up his ill-doing he caused her arrest on
the charge of having stolen part of the vessels used in the communion
service of the Roman Catholic church. She has never been married and
the Alcalde says, "Her conduct in prison has been very good."
_Senora Maxima Guerrera_.
This woman was born in Santa Cruz, in 1838, and has been confined in
Bilibid since 1890, though the record shows that she was imprisoned
July 11, 1898, by order of the Governor-General. This date, however,
is admitted to be an error by the Alcalde, without any explanation
of the error. The record shows that she was imprisoned because she
objected to the Government taking wood off her property without paying
for it. She claims that since her imprisonment, the Government has
confiscated $10,000 worth of her property.
This prisoner was confined in the year 1889, when only 12 years
old. At that time a revolution was in progress in the province in
which he resided, and he was "captured" by the Spanish forces and
sent to Bilibid Carcel. He did not know with what he was charged,
and while he was tried, he never received any sentence.
"I was put in here June 13th, 1898. Am a civilian and a
'Katipunan.' Was tried, but never sentenced." The foregoing is
the testimony of the prisoner Jose David, and is quoted here as an
example of the testimony of some hundreds of others, which is almost
identical. Large numbers of the natives seem to be members of the
"Katipunan" society, which appears to be a revolutionary brotherhood
of some kind. They have been imprisoned for terms varying from one
or two months to several years (in some cases ten or twelve years),
upon the charge of belonging to this society; in very many cases
without trial, and in the majority with no sentence whatever, and,
very largely, simply "on suspicion."
This man was arrested by the Civil Guard, in July, 1889, in his own
house, and was tried but not sentenced, or rather did not know what
his sentence was. He was told that his sentence was served out, but
he could not be returned to his own province of Negros because the
Governor had no ships available for that purpose. He had no idea why
he was arrested and tried. There are several other cases similar to
this one, in which the charge is "resisting armed forces"--most of
which were tried by court martial, and never sentenced.
This prisoner was confined in Bilibid Carcel on the 25th of November,
1896, the entry on the prison record against his name being "no se
espresa"--"no charge expressed." He was, of course, neither tried nor
sentenced, but had been in prison almost two years, with absolutely
no reason attempted to be made for his confinement. This case is also
cited as an example of many similar ones.
This is the case of a man who was a member of the Katipunan society,
but who was tried and sentenced. He was imprisoned in Bilibid Carcel,
May 5th, 1898, his sentence being confinement "cardena perpetua"--"in
chains forever." He was one of five men who received the same sentence
for a like offence. He, with the others, was set free August 31st,
_Silvino De Castro_.
In this case the prisoner, who was formerly employed as a clerk in
a grocery store, was imprisoned in Bilibid Carcel on the 25th of
December, 1897, charged with having stolen $4.50 (Spanish, which
represents about $2.25 American). His story was that he was sent
out to collect a bill, but lost the said bill, and was therefore
accused by his employer of stealing the money, and was imprisoned,
He was tried, but never received any sentence.
_Don Fernando Sierra_.
The prisoner above named is a full-blooded Spaniard, thirty-eight
years of age, married, and has one child, three months old. He was
confined in Bilibid, May 28, 1893, for "insulting" a civil guard,
while drunk, and was tried and sentenced to six years and six months
imprisonment. He had already served over five years of this sentence,
when he was released September 2nd, 1898.
_Cristan del Carmen_.
This man was confined in the Carcel De Bilibid, the "common prison,"
May 4th, 1898, and his offense was that he was "suspected of being an
American!" For this heinous crime he was neither tried nor sentenced.
In this case the prisoner was confined in Bilibid, March 25th, 1895,
after having been in prison one year in his province on suspicion of
being implicated in the killing of a civil guard at a place colled
Balauga. He was tried by a sergeant of the civil guard, who caused him
to be tortured in order to wring a confession from him. This torture
was inflicted by means of a thin rope or cord, tied very tightly around
the muscles of the arm above the elbow (cutting into the flesh deeply),
and left there in some instances for thirty days. In some cases the
men were also hung up, the weight of the body being sustained by the
cords around the arms. Several of the prisoners have deep scars on
their arms caused by the torture. This man was never sentenced.
The charge against this man was that he had stolen a pig, and he was
confined in Bilibid, March 21st, 1893, after being tried and sentenced
to eight years' imprisonment. He had already served over five years
when released Sept. 3, 1898.
This man was confined in Bilibid Carcel, December loth, 1894, charged
with "insulting the armed forces of Spain." His version of the reason
for his imprisonment is as follows: His cousin and a lieutenant in the
guardia civile were very close friends, and the said cousin, wishing
to present a cow to the lieutenant, applied to the prisoner for one,
which was given to him. Later on the cousin thought he would like to
present his friend with another cow, so applied to the prisoner for
cow No. 2, and was this time refused. In order to take vengeance on the
prisoner, the cousin denounced him to the civil guard lieutenant as a
"bandit," and he was arrested and imprisoned as above. The prisoner
was sixty years of age.
_Anastacio de Mesa_.
The story of this prisoner seems to be particularly sad. He was
a chorister or sacristan in a Roman Catholic church, with several
others, and was arrested, with his companions, by the civil guard,
charged with "sacrilege." The truth of the matter, however, seems to
be as follows: The prisoner had a sweetheart with whom a lieutenant of
the civil guard, named de Vega, appears to have been infatuated. After
imprisoning Anastacio de Mesa and his companions upon the above charge,
which seems to be without foundation entirely, de Vega took the girl,
and compelled her by force and against her will to live with him as
his mistress. The girl soon died, her end, no doubt, being hastened
by the brutal cruelty of de Vega. These young men, hardly more than
boys, were imprisoned on August 3, 1895, after having been tried by
court martial, but not sentenced. They have now been liberated. It
should be stated that de Vega himself constituted the "court martial"
before which these boys were tried.
Note.--There are several cases of arrests for "insulting and resisting
the armed forces of Spain." In the case of Pedro Javier, the accused
was over seventy years old, and in that of Miguel de la Cruz, he was
seventy-five years old; while in one or two other cases boys of ten
or twelve years of age were arrested on the same charge.
Hawaii As Annexed.
The Star Spangled Banner Up Again in Hawaii, and to Stay--Dimensions
of the Islands--What the Missionaries Have Done--Religious Belief
by Nationality--Trade Statistics--Latest Census--Sugar Plantation
Laborers--Coinage of Silver--Schools--Coffee Growing.
The star spangled banner should have been waving in peaceful triumph
over our central possessions in the Pacific for five years. Now Old
Glory has ascended the famous flag-staff, from which it was mistakenly
withdrawn, and is at home. Its lustrous folds are welcomed by a city
that is strangely American, in the sense that it is what the world
largely calls "Yankee," and does not mean bad manners by the most
expressive word that has so vast a distinction. The shops of Honolulu
are Americanized. There is a splendid blossoming of the flag of the
country. The British parties of opposition have faded out. There is
the wisdom in English statesmanship to be glad to see us with material
interest in the Pacific Ocean. In this connection there is something
better than a treaty.
Do not mispronounce the name of the capital city of the Hawaiian
Islands. Call it Hoo-noo-luu-luu and let it sing itself. Remember
that this city is not on the larger of the islands, but the third
in size. The area of Hawaii, the greater island, is 4,210 square
miles. Oahu, the Honolulu island, has 600 square miles, with a
population of 40,205, and Hawaii has 33,285 people. The area of the
islands, told in acres is, Hawaii, 2,000,000; Nani, 400,000; Oahu,
260,000; Kauai, 350,000; Malokai, 200,000; Lauai, 100,000; Nichan,
70,000; Kahloolawe, 30,000. The dimensions of the tremendous volcanoes
that are our property now are startling:
_Dimensions of Kilauea, Island of Hawaii._
(The largest active Volcano in the World.)
Area, 4.14 square miles, or 2,650 acres.
Circumference, 41,500 feet, or 7.85 miles.
Extreme width, 10,300 feet, or 1.95 miles.
Extreme length, 15,500 feet, or 2.93 miles.
Elevation, Volcano House, 1,040 feet.
_Dimensions of Mokuaweoweo_.
(The Summit Crater of Mauna Loa, Island of Hawaii.)
Area, 3.70 square miles, or 2,370 acres.
Circumference, 50,000 feet, or 9.47 miles.
Length, 19,500 feet, or 3.7 miles.
Width, 9,200 feet, or 1.74 miles.
Elevation, 13,675 feet.
_Dimensions of Haleakala_.
(The great Crater of Maui, the Largest in the World.)
Area, 19 square miles, or 12,160 acres. Circumference,
105,600 feet, or 20 miles. Extreme length, 39,500 feet,
or 7.48 miles. Extreme width, 12,500 feet, or 2.37 miles.
Elevation of summit, 10,032 feet. Elevation of principal
cones in crater, 8,032 and 7,572 feet. Elevation of cave
in floor of crater, 7,380 feet.
_Dimensions of Iao Valley, Maui._
Length (from Wailuku) about 5 miles.
Width of valley, 2 miles.
Depth, near head, 4,000 feet.
Elevation of Puu Kukui, above head of valley, 5,788 feet.
Elevation of Crater of Eke, above Waihee Valley, 4,500 feet.
Honolulu's importance comes from the harbor, and the favor of
the missionaries. As to the general judgment of the work of the
missionaries, there is nothing better to do than to quote Mr. Richard
H. Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast." He said in that classic:
"It is no small thing to say of the missionaries of the American Board,
that in less than forty years they have taught this whole people to
read and write, to cipher and to sew. They have given them an alphabet,
grammar and dictionary; preserved their language from extinction;
given it a literature and translated into it the Bible, and works
of devotion, science and entertainment, etc. They have established
schools, reared up native teachers, and so pressed their work that now
the proportion of inhabitants who can read and write is greater than
in New England. And, whereas, they found these islanders a nation of
half-naked savages, living in the surf and on the sand, eating raw
fish, fighting among themselves, tyrannized over by feudal chiefs
and abandoned to sensuality, they now see them decently clothed,
recognizing the law of marriage, knowing something of accounts,
going to school and public worship more regularly than the people
do at home, and the more elevated of them taking part in conducting
the affairs of the constitutional monarchy under which they live,
holding seats on the judicial bench and in the legislative chambers,
and filling posts in the local magistracies."
Take away the tropical vegetation and the gigantic scenery and we have
here, in our new Pacific possessions, a new Connecticut. The stamp of
New England is upon this lofty land, especially in Honolulu, where the
spires of the churches testify. There is much that is of the deepest
and broadest interest in the possible missionary work here, on account
of the remarkable race questions presented. Here are the nations and
the people of mixed blood--the Chinese, Japanese and Portuguese--a
population immensely representative of Oriental Asia. The measure
of success of the missionaries under our flag in dealing with these
people can hardly fail to be accepted by the world as a test of the
practical results of the labor with the Asiatica. In this connection,
the figures following, from the Hawaiian Annual of 1898, furnish a
basis of solid information for study:
_Table of Religious Belief, By Nationality_.
(So Far as Reported in Census Returns, 1896.)
Nationalities. Protestants. Catholics.
Hawaiians................... 12,842 8,427 4,368
Part Hawaiians.............. 3,242 2,633 396
Hawaiian born foreigners.... 1,801 6,622 15
Americans................... 1,404 212 34
British..................... 1,184 180 7
Germans..................... 592 83 2
French...................... 6 57 .....
Norwegians.................. 154 8 .....
Portuguese.................. 146 7,812 1
Japanese.................... 711 49 4
Chinese..................... 837 67 49
South Sea Islanders......... 178 42 3
Other nationalities......... 176 171 7
====== ====== =====
Totals............... 23,273 26,363 4,886
_Note_.--This table shows but 54,522 of the population (just about
one-half) to have made returns of their religious belief. With 21,535
Japanese and 18,429 Chinese (probably Buddhists and Confucians)
unreported because not provided for in the schedules, the great
difference is largely accounted for.
The latest census returns show that of the whole population, 109,020,
there are: Males, 72,517; females, 36,503. The latest information of
labor, under contract for sugar-making, make the number of males on
the island more than double that of the females. There has been an
increase of population of more than 50,000 in the eighteen years from
1878 to 1896. The census of the several islands, taken September 27,
Male. Female. Total. Inhab- habi- Build- Total.
ited. ted. ing.
Oahu.... 26,164 14,041 40,205 6,685 1,065 60 7,010
Hawaii.. 22,632 10,653 33,285 5,033 955 35 6,027
Molokai. 1,335 972 2,307 651 92 3 746
Lanai... 51 54 105 23 13 .. 36
Maui.... 11,435 6,291 17,726 3,156 650 18 3,824
Niihau.. 76 88 164 31 3 .. 34
Kauai .. 10,824 4,404 15,228 2,320 299 8 2,627
====== ====== ======= ====== ===== === ======
72,517 36,503 109,020 17,099 3,081 124 21,104
Hawaii's annual trade balance since 1879 is a notable record:
Excess Export Custom House
Year Imports. Exports. Values. Receipts.
1880 $3,673,268.41 $4,968,444.87 $1,295,176.46 $402,181.63
1881 4,547,978.64 6,885,436.56 2,337,457.92 423,192.01
1882 4,974,510.01 8,299,016,70 3,324,506.69 505,390.98
1883 5,624,240.09 8,133,343.88 2,509,103.79 577,332.87
1884 4,637,514.22 8,184,922.63 3,547,408.41 551,739.59
1885 3,830,544.58 9,158,818.01 5,328,273.43 502.337.38
1886 4,877,738.73 10,565,885.58 5,688,146.85 580,444.04
1887 4,943,840.72 9,707,047.33 4,763,206.61 595,002.64
1888 4,540,887.46 11,903,398.76 7,362,511.30 546,142.63
1889 5,438,790.63 14,039,941.40 8,601,150.77 550,010.16
1890 6,962,201.13 13,142,829.48 6,180,628.35 695,956.91
1891 7,438,582.65 10,395,788.27 2,957,205.62 732,594,93
1892 4,028,295.31 8,181,687.21 4,153,391.90 494,385.10
1893 4,363,177.58 10,962,598.09 5,599,420.51 545,754.16
1894 5,104,481.43 9,678,794.56 4,574,313.13 524,767.37
1895 5,714,017.54 8,474,138.15 2,760,120.61 547,149.40
1896 7,164,561.40 15,515,230.13 8,350,668.73 656,895.82
The percentage of imports from the United States in 1896 was 76.27;
Great Britain, 10.54; Germany, 2.06; France, .25*; China, 4.17;
Japan, 3.86. In 1895 the export of sugar was 294,784,819 pounds;
Nationality of Vessels Employed in Foreign Carrying Trade, 1889-1896.
1889. 1890. 1891. 1892.
Nations. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.
American 185 125,196 224 153,098 233 169,472 212 160,042
Hawaiian 44 56,670 35 43,641 21 26,869* *21 4,340
British 22 21,108 16 22,912 33 52,866 30 58,317
German 5 3,337 9 7,070 9 9,005 5 5,978
Japanese .. ....... ... ....... 5 8,239 3 4,701
All others 9 12,268 9 9,980 10 8,401 11 8,201
=== ======= === ======= === ======= === =======
Total 269 218,579 293 236,701 311 274,852 722 242,579
Bonded Debt, Etc., Hawaiian Islands, June 30, 1897.
Under Loan Act of 1876 7 $ 1,500.00
" " " 1882 6 67,400.00
" " " 1886 6 2,000,000.00
" " " 1888 6 190,000.00
" " " 1890 5 and 6 124,100.00
" " " 1892 5 and 6 82.100.00
" " " 1893 6 650,000.00
" " " 1890 5 222,000.00
Due Postal Savings Bank Depositors 782,074.25
Number and Nationality of Sugar Plantation Laborers.
(Compiled from latest Report of Secretary Bureau of Immigration,
December 31, 1897.)
Hawaii- Portu- Japan- S. S. All
Islands. ans. guese. ese. Chinese. Isl'ders. Others. Total.
Hawaii 594 980 6,245 2,511 24 232 10,586
Mauai 580 526 2,010 1,114 45 110 4,385
Oahu 197 211 1,331 973 16 55 2,783
Kauai 244 551 3,307 1,691 30 203 6,026
===== ===== ====== ===== === === ======
Tot.1896 1,615 2,268 12,893 6,289 115 600 23,780
Tot.1895 1,584 2,497 11,584 3,847 133 473 20,120
===== ===== ====== ===== === === ======
Inc.1896 31 ..... 1,309 2,442 ... 127 3,660
Dec.1899 ..... 231 ...... ..... 18 ... ......
The number of day laborers, 11,917, or a little over one-half of
the total force engaged. The Japanese and South Sea Islanders are
about evenly divided in their numbers as to term and day service,
while Hawaiians and Portuguese show each but a small proportion of
their numbers under contract. Minors are reducing in number. Women
laborers, numbering 1,024 in all, show a gain of 89 over 1875. Only
thirty Hawaiian females are engaged among all the plantations, and
confined to one plantation each in Oahu, Kauai and Maui.
The Hawaiian Annual of 1898 makes this annotation:
During the year various changes have occurred in the labor population
of the country; and under the working of the present law, requiring
a proportion of other than Asiatic of all immigrant labor introduced,
there has already arrived one company of Germans, comprising 115 men,
25 women and 47 children, all of whom found ready engagements with
Chinese arrivals in 1897 to take the place of Japanese whose terms
were expiring, will alter the proportions of these nationalities of
plantation labor, and by the new law Asiatic laborers must return to
their country at the expiration of their term of service, or re-engage;
they cannot drift around the country, nor engage in competition with
artizans or merchants.
The islands comprising the Hawaiian territory are Hawaii, Mauai,
Oaha, Kauai, Molokai, Lauai, Niihau, Kahaalawe, Lehua and Molokini,
"The Leper Prison," and, in addition, Nihoa, or Bird Island, was
taken possession of in 1822; an expedition for that purpose having
been fitted out by direction of Kaahumanu, and sent thither under
the charge of Captain William Sumner.
Laysan Island became Hawaiian territory May 1st, 1857, and on the
10th of the same month Lysiansky Island was added to Kamehameha's
realm by Captain John Paty.
Palmyra Island was taken possession of by Captain Zenas Bent,
April 15th, 1862, and proclaimed Hawaiian territory in the reign
of Kamehameha IV., as per "By Authority" notice in the "Polynesian"
of June 21st, 1862.
Ocean Island was acquired September 20th, 1886, as per proclamation
of Colonel J.M. Boyd, empowered for such service during the reign
Neeker Island was taken possession of May 27th, 1894, by Captain
James A. King, on behalf of the Hawaiian Government.
French Frigate Shoal was the latest acquisition, also by Captain King,
and proclaimed Hawaiian territory July 13th, 1895.
Gardener Island, Mara or Moro Reef, Pearl and Hermes Reef,
Gambia Bank, and Johnston or Cornwallis Island are also claimed as
Hawaiian possessions, but there is some obscurity as to the dates
of acquisition, and it is of record in the Foreign Office articles
of convention between Hen. Charles St. Julien, the Commissioner and
Political and Commercial Agent of His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian
Islands, and John Webster, Esq., the Sovereign Chief and Proprietor
of the group of islands known as Stewart's Islands (situated near the
Solomon Group), whereby is ceded to the Hawaiian Government--subject
to ratification by the King--the islands of Ihikaiana, Te Parena,
Taore, Matua Awi and Matua Ivoto, comprising said group of Stewart's
Islands. But the formalities do not seem to have been perfected,
so that we are not certain that the Stewart's Islands are our
possessions. The latest thorough census of the Hawaiian Islands was
taken in September, 1896, but the population was closely estimated
July 1st, 1897.
Japan- Portu- All Other
Natives. Chinese. ese. guese. Foreigners. Total
Population as per Census,
September, 1896 39,504 21,616 24,407 15,191 8,302 109,020
Excess over departures,
4th quarter, 1896 ...... 1,377 1,673 ...... 339 3,389
Excess over departures,
6 mos. to July 1, 1897. ...... 2,908 396 58 207 3,569
====== ====== ====== ====== ====== ======
Total 39,504 25,901 26,476 15,249 8,848 115,978
The following denominations of Hawaiian silver were coined during
the reign of Kalakaua, at the San Francisco mint, and imported for
the circulating medium of the islands in 1883 and 1884. They are of
the same intrinsic value as the United States silver coins and were
first introduced into circulation January 14th, at the opening of
the bank of Clans Spreckles & Co. in Honolulu. The amount coined was
$1,000,000, divided as follows:
Hawaiian Dollars...................................$ 500,000
" Half Dollars.............................. 350,000
" Quarter Dollars........................... 125,000
" Dimes..................................... 25,000
Schools, Teachers and Pupils for the Year 1896.
Schools. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female.
Government 132 111 169 280 5,754 4,435
Independent 63 72 130 202 1,994 1,840
==== ==== ==== ==== ====== ======
195 183 299 482 7,748 6,275
Nationality of Pupils Attending Schools for the Year 1896.
Nationality. Male. Female.
Hawaiian 3,048 2,432
Part-Hawaiian 1,152 1,296
American 219 198
British 105 151
German 152 136
Portuguese 2,066 1,534
Scandinavian 51 47
Japanese 242 155
Chinese 641 280
South Sea Islanders 15 13
Other foreigners 57 33
Of the Japanese, 8.5 per cent. were born on the islands; of the
Chinese, percentage born here, 10.3. Of a total of 41,711 Japanese
and Chinese, 36,121 are males and 5,590 females. The figures show
that the Asiatics are not at home.
The sugar industry in our new possessions has had great prominence
agriculturally. The sugar interest of these islands has had a
formidable influence in the United States. Recent events and the
ascertained certainties of the future show that the people of
the United States will soon raise their sugar supply on their own
territory. The annexation of these sugar islands was antagonized
because there was involved the labor contract system. As a matter
of course, the United States will not change the labor laws of the
nation to suit the sugar planters of Hawaii, who have been obtaining
cheap labor through a system of Asiatic servitude. There is but one
solution--labor will be better compensated in Hawaii than it has been,
and yet white men will not be largely employed in the cultivation
of sugar cane in our tropical islands. The beet sugar industry is
another matter. There will be an end of the peculiar institution that
has had strength in our new possessions, that brings, under contract,
to Hawaii a mass of forty thousand Chinese and Japanese men, and turns
over the majority of them to the plantations, whose profits have
displayed an unwholesome aggrandizement. Once it was said cotton
could not be grown in the cotton belt of our country without slave
labor, but the latter trouble is, the cotton producers claim, there is
too much of their product raised. A ten-million bale crop depresses
the market. Already experiments have been tried successfully to pay
labor in the sugar fields by the tons of cane delivered at the mills
for grinding. This is an incident full of auspicious significance. A
general feeling is expressed in the current saying that coffee raising
is "the coming industry." The confidence that there is prosperity
in coffee amounts to enthusiasm. Here are some of the statistics of
coffee growers, showing number of trees and area, trees newly planted
and trees in bearing: