Part 4 out of 10
"We therefore, submit, without prejudice to the high sentiments of
honor and duty which your excellency entertains, that surrounded on
every side as you are by a constantly increasing force, with a powerful
fleet in your front and deprived of all prospect of reinforcement and
assistance, a most useless sacrifice of life would result in the event
of an attack, and therefore every consideration of humanity makes it
imperative that you should not subject your city to the horrors of
a bombardment. Accordingly, we demand the surrender of the city of
Manila and the Spanish forces under your command."
The Captain-General wanted time to hear from Madrid, and was refused.
The language of General Greene, in stating the fact that he took
possession of the intrenchments of the insurgents, is in these words:
"On the morning of July 29, in compliance with verbal instructions
received the previous day from the Adjutant-General of the Eighth
Army Corps, I occupied the insurgent trenches, from the beach to the
Calle Real, with one battalion Eighteenth United States Infantry,
one battalion First Colorado Infantry, and four guns--two from each
of the Utah batteries--these trenches being vacated at my request
by the insurgent forces under Brigadier-General Noriel. As these
trenches were badly located and insufficient in size and strength,
I ordered another line constructed about 100 yards in advance of
them, and this work was completed, mainly by the First Colorado,
during the night of July 29-30. The length of this line was only
270 yards, and on its right were a few barricades, not continuous,
occupied by the insurgents, extending over to the large rice swamp,
just east of the road from Pasay to Paco (shown on the accompanying
map). Facing these was a strong Spanish line, consisting of a stone
fort, San Antonio de Abad, near the beach, intrenchments of sandbags
and earth about seven feet high and 10 feet thick, extending in a
curved direction for about 1,200 yards and terminating in a fortified
blockhouse, known as No 14, beyond our right on the Pasay road. It
faced our front and enveloped our right flank."
General Greene, reporting the fighting on his front, says of the
Spanish position and first attack.
Mounted in and near the stone fort were seven guns in all, viz.,
three bronze field guns of 3.6 inches caliber, four bronze mountain
guns of 3.2 inches caliber, and in the vicinity of Blockhouse No. 14
were two steel mountain guns of 3.2 inches caliber. The line was
manned throughout its length by infantry, with strong reserves at
Malate and at the walled city in its rear.
Shortly before midnight of July 31-August 1 the Spaniards opened
a heavy and continuous fire with both artillery and infantry from
their entire line. Our trenches were occupied that day by the two
battalions of the Tenth Pennsylvania Infantry, one foot battery (H),
nearly 200 strong, of the Third Artillery, and four guns, two of
Battery A and two of Battery B, Utah Artillery. For about an hour
and a half the firing on both sides, with artillery and infantry,
was very heavy and continuous, our expenditure of ammunition being
160 rounds of artillery and about 60,000 rounds of infantry. That of
the Spaniards was nearly twice as much.
The American loss was ten killed and forty-three wounded.
General Greene says: "Major Cuthbertson, Tenth Pennsylvania, reports
that the Spaniards left their trenches in force and attempted to
turn our right flank, coming within 200 yards of his position. But as
the night was intensely dark, with incessant and heavy rain, and as
no dead or wounded were found in front of his position at daylight,
it is possible that he was mistaken and that the heavy fire to which
he was subjected came from the trenches near Block House 14, beyond
his right flank, at a distance of about 700 yards. The Spaniards
used smokeless powder, the thickets obscured the flash of their guns,
and the sound of the Mauser bullets penetrating a bamboo pole is very
similar to the crack of the rifle itself.
"This attack demonstrated the immediate necessity of extending our
intrenchments to the right and, although not covered by my instructions
(which were to occupy the trenches from the bay to Calle Real, and to
avoid precipitating an engagement), I ordered the First Colorado and
one battalion of the First California, which occupied the trenches at 9
a. m., August 1, to extend the line of trenches to the Pasay road. The
work was begun by these troops, and continued every day by the troops
occupying the trenches in turn, until a strong line was completed by
August 12, about 1,200 yards in length, extending from the bay to the
east side of the Pasay road. Its left rested on the bay and its right
on an extensive rice swamp, practically impassible. The right flank was
refused, because the only way to cross a smaller rice swamp, crossing
the line about 700 yards from the beach, was along a cross-road in
rear of the general line. As finally completed the works were very
strong in profile, being five to six feet in height and eight to ten
feet in thickness at the base, strengthened by bags filled with earth.
"The only material available was black soil saturated with water,
and without the bags this was washed down and ruined in a day by the
heavy and almost incessant rains. The construction of these trenches
was constantly interrupted by the enemy's fire. They were occupied
by the troops in succession, four battalions being usually sent out
for a service of twenty-four hours, and posted with three battalions
in the trenches, and one battalion in reserve along the crossroad
to Pasay; Cossack posts being sent out from the latter to guard the
camp against any possible surprise from the northeast and east. The
service in the trenches was of the most arduous character, the rain
being almost incessant, and the men having no protection against it;
they were wet during the entire twenty-four hours, and the mud was
so deep that the shoes were ruined and a considerable number of men
rendered barefooted. Until the notice of bombardment was given on
August 7, any exposure above or behind the trenches promptly brought
the enemy's fire, so that the men had to sit in the mud under cover
and keep awake, prepared to resist an attack, during the entire tour
of twenty-four hours.
"After one particularly heavy rain a portion of the trench contained
two feet of water, in which the men had to remain. It could not be
drained, as it was lower than an adjoining rice swamp, in which the
water had risen nearly two feet, the rainfall being more than four
inches in twenty-four hours. These hardships were all endured by
the men of the different regiments in turn, with the finest possible
spirit and without a murmur of complaint."
This is a vivid picture of hard service. General Greene continues:
"August 7 the notice of bombardment after forty-eight hours, or sooner
if the Spanish fire continued, was served, and after that date not
a shot was fired on either side until the assault was made on August
13. It was with great difficulty, and in some cases not without force,
that the insurgents were restrained from opening fire and thus drawing
the fire of the Spaniards during this period.
"Owing to the heavy storm and high surf it was impossible to
communicate promptly with the division commander at Cavite, and I
received my instructions direct from the major-general commanding,
or his staff officers, one of whom visited my camp every day, and I
reported direct to him in the same manner. My instructions were to
occupy the insurgent trenches near the beach, so as to be in a good
position to advance on Manila when ordered, but meanwhile to avoid
precipitating an engagement, not to waste ammunition, and (after August
1) not to return the enemy's fire unless convinced that he had left
his trenches and was making an attack in force. These instructions
were given daily in the most positive terms to the officer commanding
in the trenches, and in the main they were faithfully carried out.
"More ammunition than necessary was expended on the nights of August
2 and 5, but in both cases the trenches were occupied by troops under
fire for the first time, and in the darkness and rain there was ground
to believe that the heavy fire indicated a real attack from outside
the enemy's trenches. The total expenditure of ammunition on our side
in the four engagements was about 150,000 rounds, and by the enemy
very much more.
"After the attack of July 31-August I, I communicated by signal
with the captain of the U. S. S. Raleigh, anchored about 3,000 yards
southwest of my camp, asking if he had received orders in regard to the
action of his ship in case of another attack on my troops. He replied:
"Both Admiral Dewey and General Merritt desire to avoid general action
at present. If attack too strong for you, we will assist you, and
another vessel will come and offer help. "In repeating this message,
Lieutenant Tappan, commanding U. S. S. Callao, anchored nearer the
beach, sent me a box of blue lights, and it was agreed that if I
burned one of these on the beach the Raleigh would at once open fire
on the Spanish fort."
General Merritt speaks of the Colorado skirmishers leaving their
breastworks when the navy ceased firing on the 13th of August, and
advancing swiftly, finding the Spanish trenches deserted, "but as
they passed over the Spanish works they were met by a sharp fire from
a second line, situated in the streets of Malate, by which a number
of men were killed and wounded, among others the soldier who pulled
down the Spanish colors still flying on the fort and raised our own."
General Greene is complimentary to the officers and who conducted
the reconnaissances while he was at Camp Dewey twenty-five days,
"Captain Grove and Lieutenant Means, of the First Colorado, had been
particularly active in this work and fearless in penetrating beyond
our lines and close to those of the enemy. As the time for attack
approached, these officers made a careful examination of the ground
between our trenches and Fort San Antonio de Abad, and, finally,
on August 11, Major J. F. Bell, United States Volunteer Engineers,
tested the creek in front of this fort and ascertained not only that
it was fordable, but the exact width of the ford at the beach, and
actually swam in the bay to a point from which he could examine the
Spanish line from the rear. With the information thus obtained it was
possible to plan the attack intelligently. The position assigned to
my brigade extended from the beach to the small rice swamp, a front
of about 700 yards.
"After the sharp skirmish on the second line of defense of the
Spaniards, and after Greene's brigade moved through Malate, meeting
a shuffling foe, the open space at the luneta, just south of the
walled city, was reached about 1 p. m. A white flag was flying at the
southwest bastion, and I rode forward to meet it under a heavy fire
from our right and rear on the Paco road. At the bastion I was informed
that officers representing General Merritt and Admiral Dewey were on
their way ashore to receive the surrender, and I therefore turned east
to the Paco road. The firing ceased at this time, and on reaching this
road I found nearly 1,000 Spanish troops who had retreated from Santa
Ana through Paco, and coming up the Paco road had been firing on our
flank. I held the commanding officers, but ordered these troops to
march into the walled city. At this point, the California regiment
a short time before had met some insurgents who had fired at the
Spaniards on the walls, and the latter in returning the fire had
caused a loss in the California regiment of 1 killed and 2 wounded.
"My instructions were to march past the walled city on its surrender,
cross the bridge, occupy the city on the north side of the Pasig,
and protect lives and property there. While the white flag was flying
on the walls yet, very sharp firing had just taken place outside,
and there were from 5,000 to 6,000 men on the walls, with arms in
their hands, only a few yards from us. I did not feel justified
in leaving this force in my rear until the surrender was clearly
established, and I therefore halted and assembled my force, prepared
to force the gates if there was any more firing. The Eighteenth
Infantry and First California were sent forward to hold the bridges
a few yards ahead, but the second battalion, Third Artillery, First
Nebraska, Tenth Pennsylvania, and First Colorado were all assembled
at this point. While this was being done I received a note from
Lieutenant-Colonel Whittier, of General Merritt's staff, written from
the Captain-General's office within the walls, asking me to stop the
firing outside, as negotiations for surrender were in progress."
And General Greene continues: "I then returned to the troops outside
the walls and sent Captain Birkhimer's battalion of the Third Artillery
down the Paco road to prevent any insurgents from entering. Feeling
satisfied that there would be no attack from the Spanish troops
lining the walls, I put the regiments in motion toward the bridges,
brushing aside a considerable force of insurgents who had penetrated
the city from the direction of Paco, and were in the main street
with their flag expecting to march into the walled city and plant
it on the walls. After crossing the bridges the Eighteenth United
States Infantry was posted to patrol the principal streets near the
bridge, the First California was sent up the Pasig to occupy Quiapo,
San Miguel, and Malacanan, and with the First Nebraska I marched down
the river to the Captain of the Port's office, where I ordered the
Spanish flag hauled down and the American flag raised in its place."
The insurgents were disposed to disregard the white flag and the
process of the capitulation, but "a considerable force" of them
was "brushed aside." General Greene's losses before Manila were 16
killed and 66 wounded: his force 5,100. He remarks: "The resistance
encountered on the 13th was much less than anticipated and planned for,
but had the resistance been greater the result would have been the
same, only the loss would have been greater. Fortunately, the great
result of capturing this city, the seat of Spanish power in the East
for more than three hundred years, was accomplished with a loss of
life comparatively insignificant."
Captain T.B. Mott, detached from General Merritt's temporarily,
served on General Greene's staff, and received this mention:
"In posting troops in the trenches, in making reconnaissances,
in transmitting orders under fire, and in making reports, he has
uniformly exhibited courage, military ability, and sound judgment,
the qualities, in short, which are most valuable in a staff officer."
Captain Bates, Lieutenant Schieflie, and Captain D.F. Millet, artist
and author, are praised for activity, intelligence and valuable
service. Millet was with Greene before Plevna, during the Russo-Turkish
campaign. Greene was appointed the senior member of the committee to
arrange the terms of the capitulation.
General Anderson had instructions to extend his line to crowd
the insurgents out of their trenches with their consent, but this
was not attempted, for that would have brought on an engagement
prematurely. Anderson had purchased wire-cutters with insulated handles
in San Francisco, and they were useful! Anderson had his trenches with
the insurgents. McArthur's division was before a "circulated line of
earthworks faced with sand bags," and the problem of the advance was
made difficult because "we could not be sure whether our first attack
was to be tentative or serious, this depending on action of the navy;
second, from our orders not to displace the insurgents without their
consent from their position to the right of their guns on the Pasay
road. This to the very last the insurgent leaders positively refused
to give. Yet, if we could not go far enough to the right to silence
their field guns and carry that part of their line, they would have
a fatal cross fire on troops attacking blockhouse No. 14. I therefore
directed General MacArthur to put the three 2.10 inch guns of Battery
B, Utah Volunteer Artillery, in the emplacement of the insurgent gun
and to place the Astor Battery behind a high garden wall to the right
of the Pasay road, to be held there subject to orders.
"I assumed that when the action became hot at this point, as I knew
it would be, that the insurgents would voluntarily fall back from
their advanced position, and that the Astor Battery and its supports
could take position without opposition."
General Anderson got a message from General MacArthur. "I knew from
this that he wished to push the insurgents aside and put in the
Astor Battery. I then authorized him to attack, which he did, and,
soon after, the Twenty-third Infantry and the Thirteenth Minnesota
carried the advance line of the enemy in the most gallant manner,
the one gun of the Utah Battery and the Astor Battery lending most
It was General Anderson's opinion that MacArthur should counter march
and go to Malate by the beach, but he had gone too far, for "the guns
of the Astor Battery had been dragged to the front only after the
utmost exertions, and were about being put into battery. At the same
time I received a telegram stating that the insurgents were threatening
to cross the bamboo bridge on our right; and to prevent this and guard
our ammunition at Pasay, I ordered an Idaho battalion to that point."
Again the insurgents were making mischief, and General Anderson,
as well as General Greene had the experience of the continuance of
fire when the white flag was flying. The loss of General Anderson in
the taking of the city was nineteen men killed and one hundred and
three wounded. He concludes by saying:
"The opposition we met in battle was not sufficient to test the
bravery of our soldiers, but all showed bravery and dash. The losses
show that the leading regiments of the First Brigade--Thirteenth
Minnesota, Twenty-third Infantry, and the Astor Battery--met the most
serious opposition and deserve credit for their success. The Colorado,
California, and Oregon regiments, the Regulars, and all the batteries
of the Second Brigade showed such zeal that it seems a pity that they
did not meet foemen worthy of their steel."
General MacArthur says: "Several hours before the operations of the
day were intended to commence, there was considerable desultory firing
from the Spanish line, both of cannon and small arms, provoked no
doubt by Filipino soldiers, who insisted upon maintaining a general
fusilade along their lines."
General MacArthur's personal mention is remarkably spirited, and
makes stirring reading. We quote:
"The combat of Singalong can hardly be classified as a great military
event, but the involved terrain and the prolonged resistance created
a very trying situation, and afforded an unusual scope for the display
of military qualities by a large number of individuals.
"The invincible composure of Colonel Ovenshine, during an exposure
in dangerous space for more than an hour, was conspicuous and very
inspiring to the troops; and the efficient manner in which he took
advantage of opportunities as they arose during the varying aspects
of the fight was of great practical value in determining the result.
"The cool, determined, and sustained efforts of Colonel Reeve, of the
Thirteenth Minnesota, contributed very materially to the maintenance
of the discipline and marked efficiency of his regiment.
"The brilliant manner in which Lieutenant March accepted and discharged
the responsible and dangerous duties of the day, and the pertinacity
with which, assisted by his officers and men, he carried his guns over
all obstacles to the very front of the firing line, was an exceptional
display of warlike skill and good judgment, indicating the existence
of many of the best qualifications for high command in battle.
"The gallant manner in which Captain Sawtelle, brigade quartermaster,
volunteered to join the advance party in the rush; volunteered
to command a firing line, for a time without an officer, and again
volunteered to lead a scout to ascertain the presence or absence of the
enemy in the blockhouse, was a fine display of personal intrepidity.
"The efficient, fearless, and intelligent manner in which Lieutenant
Kernan, Twenty-first United States Infantry, acting assistant
adjutant-general of the brigade, and Second Lieutenant Whitworth,
Eighteenth United States Infantry, aid, executed a series of dangerous
and difficult orders, was a fine exemplification of staff work
"The splendid bravery of Captains Bjornstad and Seebach, and Lieutenant
Lackore, of the Thirteenth Minnesota, all wounded, and, finally,
the work of the soldiers of the first firing line, too, all went to
make up a rapid succession of individual actions of unusual merit."
Major General Merritt's account of the capture of the city must be
given in full, for there are no words wasted, and he clears the field
of all confusion.
"The works of the second line soon gave way to the determined advance
of Greene's troops, and that officer pushed his brigade rapidly
through Malate and over the bridges to occupy Binondo and San Miguel,
as contemplated in his instructions. In the meantime the brigade
of General MacArthur, advancing simultaneously on the Pasay road,
encountered a very sharp fire, coming from the blockhouses, trenches,
and woods in his front, positions which it was very difficult to carry,
owing to the swampy condition of the ground on both sides of the roads,
and the heavy undergrowth concealing the enemy. With much gallantry
and excellent judgment on the part of the brigade commander and the
troops engaged these difficulties were overcome with a minimum loss
(see report of brigade commander appended), and MacArthur advanced
and held the bridges and the town of Malate, as was contemplated in
"The city of Manila was now in our possession, excepting the walled
town, but shortly after the entry of our troops into Malate a white
flag was displayed on the walls, whereupon Lieutenant-Colonel C. A
Whittier, United States Volunteers, of my staff, and Lieutenant Brumby,
United States Navy, representing Admiral Dewey, were sent ashore to
communicate with the Captain-General. I soon personally followed
these officers into the town, going at once to the palace of the
Governor-General, and there, after a conversation with the Spanish
authorities, a preliminary agreement of the terms of capitulation
was signed by the Captain-General and myself. This agreement was
subsequently incorporated into the formal terms of capitulation,
as arranged by the officers representing the two forces, a copy of
which is hereto appended and marked.
"Immediately after the surrender the Spanish colors on the sea front
were hauled down and the American flag displayed and saluted by the
guns of the navy. The Second Oregon Regiment, which had proceeded
by sea from Cavite, was disembarked and entered the walled town as
a provost guard, and the colonel was directed to receive the Spanish
arms and deposit them in places of security. The town was filled with
the troops of the enemy driven in from the intrenchments, regiments
formed and standing in line in the streets, but the work of disarming
proceeded quietly and nothing unpleasant occurred.
"In leaving the subject of the operations of the 13th, I desire here
to record my appreciation of the admirable manner in which the orders
for attack and the plan for occupation of the city were carried out
by the troops exactly as contemplated. I submit that for troops to
enter under fire a town covering a wide area, to rapidly deploy and
guard all principal points in the extensive suburbs, to keep out the
insurgent forces pressing for admission, to quietly disarm an army
of Spaniards more than equal in numbers to the American troops,
and finally by all this to prevent entirely all rapine, pillage,
and disorder, and gain entire and complete possession of a city of
300,000 people filled with natives hostile to the European interests,
and stirred up by the knowledge that their own people were fighting
in the outside trenches, was an act which only the law-abiding,
temperate, resolute American soldier, well and skillfully handled by
his regimental and brigade commanders, could accomplish.
The trophies of Manila were nearly $900,000,000, of which $240,000,000
were copper coin, 13,000 prisoners and 22,000 arms.
Three days after the surrender, General Merritt received news of the
protocol, and soon was ordered to Paris. In parting he says of the
insurgent chief that he had written communication with him on various
occasions, and "he recognized my authority as military governor of the
town of Manila and suburbs, and made professions of his willingness
to withdraw his troops to a line which I might indicate, but at
the same time asking certain favors for himself. The matters in this
connection had not been settled at the date of my departure. Doubtless
much dissatisfaction is felt by the rank and file of the insurgents
that they have not been permitted to enjoy the occupancy of Manila,
and there is some ground for trouble with them owing to that fact,
but notwithstanding many rumors to the contrary, I am of the opinion
that the leaders will be able to prevent serious disturbances, as
they are sufficiently intelligent and educated to know that for them
to antagonize the United States would be to destroy their only chance
of future political improvement.
The Commanding General's personal acknowledgments are very handsome,
"Brigadier-General E.P. Hughes, my inspector-general at San Francisco,
was especially noticeable in accomplishing the instruction of the green
troops that came to the city, many of them without arms, clothing, or
equipment of any kind. His services will undoubtedly be duly recognized
by Major-General Otis, with whom I left him to continue the good work.
"I desire especially to express my acknowledgments to Brigadier-General
Babcock, my adjutant-general and chief of staff, for his most valuable
services from the inception of the campaign in San Francisco to the
close of the work at the present time. This officer is too well known
to require special mention of his services in any one direction. He
was my right arm, not only in the office but in the field, and
much of the success that has attended the expedition is due to his
"I desire especially to mention Major McClure and Major Whipple,
of the pay department, who volunteered their services after they
had completed their legitimate duties, and performed excellent work
whenever called upon. Major McClure was especially important in his
services immediately after the surrender, taking long rides under
my orders to the Spanish lines, and bearing instructions to them
which resulted in effecting their withdrawal in such manner as to
prevent the incursion of the insurgents in the northern portions of
the city. Other officers have been named in my special reports and
have been recommended for brevets and promotion.
"I especially call attention to the services of Captain Mott,
as mentioned in the report of Brigadier-General Greene. He was
cheerful, willing, intelligent, and energetic in the discharge of the
multifarious duties imposed upon him in connection with our troops
and trenches during the rainy season, and in the final action showed
these rare characteristics which stamp him as a very superior soldier."
_The Terms of Capitulation_
The undersigned having been appointed a commission to determine the
details of the capitulation of the city and defenses of Manila and
its suburbs and the Spanish forces stationed therein, in accordance
with the agreement entered into the previous day by Major General
Wesley Merritt, United States Army, American commander in chief in the
Philippines, and His Excellency Don Fermin Jaudenes, acting General
in chief of the Spanish Army in the Philippines, have agreed upon
1. The Spanish troops, European and native, capitulate with the city
and its defenses, with all the honors of war, depositing their arms
in the places designated by the authorities of the United States, and
remaining in the quarters designated and under the orders of their
officers, and subject to the control of the aforesaid United States
authorities, until the conclusion of a treaty of peace between the
two belligerent nations.
All persons included in the capitulation remain at liberty, the
officers remaining in their respective homes, which shall be respected
as long as they observe the regulations prescribed for their government
and the laws in force.
2. Officers shall retain their side arms, horses, and private property.
3. All public horses and public property of all kinds shall be turned
over to staff officers designated by the United States.
4. Complete returns in duplicate of men by organizations, and full
lists of public property and stores shall be rendered to the United
States within ten days from this date.
5. All questions relating to the repatriation of officers and men of
the Spanish forces and of their families, and of the expenses which
said repatriation may occasion, shall be referred to the Government
of the United States at Washington.
Spanish families may leave Manila at any time convenient to them.
The return of the arms surrendered by the Spanish forces shall take
place when they evacuate the city or when the American Army evacuates.
6. Officers and men included in the capitulation shall be supplied by
the United States, according to their rank, with rations and necessary
aid as though they were prisoners of war, until the conclusion of a
treaty of peace between the United States and Spain.
All the funds in the Spanish treasury and all other public funds
shall be turned over to the authorities of the United States.
7. This city, its inhabitants, its churches and religious worship,
its educational establishments, and its private property of all
descriptions are placed under the special safeguard of the faith and
honor of the American Army.
_F.V. Greene_, Brigadier-General of Volunteers, United States Army.
_B.P. Lamberton_, Captain, United States Navy.
_Charles A. Whittier_, Lieutenant-Colonel and Inspector-General.
_E.H. Crowder_, Lieutenant-Colonel and Judge-Advocate.
_Nicholas de la Petra_, Auditor General Excmo.
_Carlos_, Coronel de Ingenieros.
_Jose_, Coronel de Estado Major.
The Spaniards wanted a long array of specifications as to what the
Americans might and should not do, but finally were struck with the
sufficiency of the shining simple words, "under the special safeguard
of the faith and honor of the American Army."
The Administration of General Merritt.
The Official Gazette Issued at Manila--Orders and Proclamations Showing
the Policy and Detail of the Administration of Major-General Wesley
Merritt, Who, as Commander of the Philippine Expedition, Became, Under
the Circumstances of the Capture of Manila, the Governor of That City.
_General Merritt's Proclamation to the Filipinos._
Headquarters Department of the Pacific, August 14, 1898.
To the People of the Philippines:
I. War has existed between the United States and Spain since April 21
of this year. Since that date you have witnessed the destruction by an
American fleet of the Spanish naval power in these islands, the fall
of the principal city, Manila, and its defenses, and the surrender
of the Spanish army of occupation to the forces of the United States.
II. The commander of the United States forces now in possession has
instructions from his Government to assure the people that he has
not come to wage war upon them, nor upon any part or faction among
them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and
in their personal and religious rights. All persons who, by active
aid or honest submission, co-operate with the United States in its
efforts to give effect to this beneficent purpose, will receive the
reward of its support and protection.
III. The government established among you by the United States is a
government of military occupation; and for the present it is ordered
that the municipal laws such as affect private rights of persons and
property, regulate local institutions, and provide for the punishment
of crime, shall be considered as continuing in force, so far as
compatible with the purposes of military government, and that they be
administered through the ordinary tribunals substantially as before
occupation, but by officials appointed by the government of occupation.
IV. A Provost-Marshal-General will be appointed for the city
of Manila and its outlying districts. This territory will be
divided into sub-districts, and there will be assigned to each a
The duties of the Provost-Marshal-General and his deputies will be
set forth in detail in future orders. In a general way they are
charged with the duty of making arrests of military, as well as
civil offenders, sending such of the former class as are triable by
courts-martial to their proper commands, with statements of their
offenses and names of witnesses, and detaining in custody all other
offenders for trial by military commission, provost courts, or native
criminal courts, in accordance with law and the instructions hereafter
to be issued.
V. The port of Manila, and all other ports and places in the
Philippines which may be in the actual possession of our land and naval
forces, will be open, while our military occupation may continue, to
the commerce of all neutral nations as well as our own, in articles
not contraband of war, and upon payment of the prescribed rates of
duty which may be in force at the time of the importation.
VI. All churches and places devoted to religious worship and to the
arts and sciences, all educational institutions, libraries, scientific
collections, and museums are, so far as possible, to be protected; and
all destruction or intentional defacement of such places or properly,
of historical monuments, archives, or works of science and art, is
prohibited, save when required by urgent military necessity. Severe
punishment will be meted out for all violations of this regulation.
The custodians of all property of the character mentioned in this
section will make prompt returns thereof to these headquarters, stating
character and location, and embodying such recommendations as they may
think proper for the full protection of the properties under their care
and custody, that proper orders may issue enjoining the co-operation
of both military and civil authorities in securing such protection.
VII. The Commanding General, in announcing the establishment of
military government, and in entering upon his duty as Military Governor
in pursuance of his appointment as such by the government of the United
States, desires to assure the people that so long as they preserve
the peace and perform their duties toward the representatives of the
United States they will not be disturbed in their persons and property,
except in so far as may be found necessary for the good of the service
of the United States and the benefit of the people of the Philippines.
Major-General, United States Army, Commanding.
The general orders following are full of curious interest, as they
declare the true intent and meaning of the Philippine Expedition,
and define the situation at Manila, with extraordinary precision,
and are in the strictest sense by authority:
_Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps_
Manila Bay, August 9th, 1898.
_General Orders_, No. 3.
1. In view of the extraordinary conditions under which this Army is
operating, the Commanding General desires to acquaint the officers
and men composing it, with the expectations which he entertains as
to their conduct.
You are assembled upon foreign soil situated within the western
confines of a vast ocean separating you from your native land. You have
come not as despoilers and oppressors, but simply as the instruments
of a strong free government, whose purposes are beneficent and which
has declared itself in this war, the champion of those oppressed by
It is therefore the intention of this order to appeal directly to your
pride in your position as representatives of a high civilization,
in the hope and with the firm conviction that you will so conduct
yourselves in your relations with the inhabitants of these islands,
as to convince them of the lofty nature of the mission which you come
It is not believed that any acts of pillage, rapine, or violence will
be committed by soldiers or other in the employ of the United States,
but should there be persons with this command who prove themselves
unworthy of this confidence, their acts will be considered not only
as crimes against the sufferers, but as direct insults to the United
States flag, and they will be punished on the spot with the maximum
penalties known to military law.
By Command of Major-General Merritt: _J.B. Babcock_, Adjutant-General.
Official: _Bentley Mott_, Aid.
_Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps._
Manila, P. I., August 15th, 1898.
_General Orders_, No. 4.
1. In addition to his duties as Division Commander, Brigadier-General
T.M. Anderson, U. S. Vols., is hereby assigned to the command of the
District of Cavite and will remove his headquarters to that point. The
garrison of the District of Cavite will be augmented upon the arrival
of the next transports containing troops for this command.
2. In addition to his duties as Brigade Commander, Brigadier-General
Arthur MacArthur, U. S. Vols., is hereby appointed Military Commandant
of the walled city of Manila, and Provost-Marshal-General of the City
of Manila, including all the outlying districts within the municipal
jurisdiction. General MacArthur will remove his headquarters within the
walled city and will bring with him one strong regiment of his command
to take station within the walled town. The Commanding Officer of the
2nd Oregon Vol. Inf., now stationed in the walled city, will report to
General MacArthur, and the Companies of the 2nd Oregon Vol. Inf., now
at Cavite, will, upon being relieved by other troops, be sent to Manila
to join the regiment. General MacArthur will relieve the Civil Governor
of his functions, and take possession of the offices, clerks and all
machinery of administration of that office, retaining and employing
the present subordinate officers of civil administration until,
in his judgment, it is desirable to replace them by other appointments.
3. Colonel James S. Smith, 1st California Vol. Inf., in addition to his
duties as Regimental Commander, is appointed Deputy Provost-Marshal
for the Districts of the city north of the Pasig River, and will
report to General MacArthur. Colonel S. Ovenshine, 23rd U. S. Inf.,
is appointed Deputy Provost-Marshal for the districts of the city,
including Ermita and Malate, outside of the walled town and south of
the Pasig River, and will report to General MacArthur.
4. Under paragraphs "3" and "4" of the terms of capitulation, full
lists of public property and stores, and returns in duplicate of the
men by organizations, are to be rendered to the United States within
ten days, and public horses and public property of all kinds are to be
turned over to the staff officers of the United States designated to
receive them. Under these paragraphs the Chief of Artillery at these
headquarters, and the Chiefs of the Staff Departments, will take
possession of the public property turned over as above, pertaining
to their respective departments.
The returns of the prisoners will be submitted to the Military
Commandant of the City, who will assign the men for quarters in such
public buildings and barracks as are not required for the use of United
States troops. The horses and private property of the officers of the
Spanish forces are not to be disturbed. The Chief Paymaster at these
headquarters will turn over such portion of the Spanish public funds
received by him, by virtue of this order, to the administration of
5. All removals and appointments of subordinate officers of civil
administration, and transfers of funds authorized by this order, must
receive the approval of the Commanding General, before action is taken.
6. The Chief Quartermaster and Chief Commissary of Subsistence at
these headquarters will establish depots of supply in Manila with as
little delay as possible.
Quartermaster and Subsistence depots will also be retained at Cavite.
By Command of Major-General Merritt:
_J. B. Babcock_,
Official: _Bentley Mott_, Aid.
_Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps._
Manila, P. I., August 17th, 1898.
_General Orders_ No. 5.
1. In addition to the command of his Brigade, Brigadier-General
F. V. Greene, U. S. Vols., will perform the duties hitherto performed
by the Intendente General de Hacienda, and will have charge, subject
to instructions of the Major General Commanding, of all fiscal affairs
of the Government of Manila.
2. Lieutenant-Colonel C. A. Whittier, U. S. Vols., is appointed
Collector of Customs, and the Chief Paymaster, Department of the
Pacific, will designate a bonded officer of the Pay Department as
custodian of all public funds. Both of these officers will report to
Brigadier-General Greene for instructions.
By Command of Major-General Merritt:
_J. B. Babcock_,
Official: _Bentley Mott_, Aid.
_Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps._
Manila, P. I., August 17th, 1898.
_General Orders_, No. 6.
The Major-General Commanding desires to congratulate the troops of
this command upon their brilliant success in the capture, by assault,
of the defenses of Manila, on Saturday, August 13, a date hereafter
to be memorable in the history of American victories.
After a journey of seven thousand miles by sea, the soldiers of
the Philippine Expedition encountered most serious difficulties in
landing, due to protracted storms raising high surf, through which it
was necessary to pass the small boats which afforded the only means
of disembarking the army and its supplies. This great task, and the
privations and hardships of a campaign during the rainy season in
tropical lowlands, were accomplished and endured by all the troops, in
a spirit of soldierly fortitude, which has at all times during these
days of trial, given the Commanding General the most heartfelt pride
and confidence in his men. Nothing could be finer than the patient,
uncomplaining devotion to duty which all have shown.
Now it is his pleasure to announce that within three weeks after the
arrival in the Philippines of the greater portion of the forces,
the capital city of the Spanish possessions in the East, held by
Spanish veterans, has fallen into our hands, and he feels assured
that all officers and men of this command have reason to be proud of
the success of the expedition.
The Commanding General will hereafter take occasion to mention to
the Home Government, the names of officers, men and organizations,
to whom special credit is due.
By Command of Major-General Merritt:
_J. B. Babcock_,
Official: _Bentley Mott_, Aid.
_Headquarters of the Provost-Marshal-General and Military Commandant._
City of Manila, P. I., August 18th, 1898.
_General Orders_, No. 1.
1. In obedience to the provisions of General Orders, No. 3, dated
Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, Manila,
P. I., August l5th, 1898, the undersigned hereby assumes the office
and duties of Military Commandant of the walled city of Manila;
Provost-Marshal-General of the city of Manila, including the outlying
districts within the municipal jurisdiction, and also the functions
of Civil Governor.
2. Until further orders the preservation of law and order throughout
the city will be maintained according to the arrangements which
3. The location of these Headquarters will be at the office of the
Civil Governor, corner of San Juan de Letran and Anda Streets, and to
the above address will be referred all papers requiring action by the
undersigned. To insure prompt investigation, all claims, complaints,
and petitions should be presented in the English language.
4. Major Harry C. Hale, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Volunteers;
aide de camp to the Commanding General, having been assigned
for temporary duty at these Headquarters, is hereby appointed
Adjutant-General to the undersigned.
5. Colonel S. Overshine having been appointed by proper authority
Deputy Provost-Marshal of the districts of the city (including Ermita
and Malate) outside of the walled town and south of the Pasig river,
will organize and establish his office as soon as possible, and report
the location thereof to these Headquarters.
6. Colonel James S. Smith, 1st California Volunteer Infantry, having
been appointed by proper authority Deputy Provost-Marshal of the
districts of the city north of the Pasig river, will organize and
establish his office as soon as possible and report location thereof
to these Headquarters.
(Sgd.) _Arthur MacArthur_,
Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers.
Military Commandant and Provost-Marshal-General.
The Official Gazette of Aug. 23 is a record of the organization of
the Military Government of Manila.
_Office Chief of Police._
_Manila_, P. I.
_Order_ No. 1.
By command of Brigadier-General MacArthur and Military Commandant,
the Thirteenth Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry is designated
to perform the police duty of this city and the commanding officer
thereof is appointed Chief of Police, and Major Ed. S. Bean, Inspector
Companies D, G, J and S are hereby detailed to at once take charge
of the police stations and perform the necessary duties pertaining
to the position of police and maintenance of order.
C. McC. _Reeve_,
Colonel 13th Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry and Chief of Police.
Aug. 22d. 1898.
_Office Chief of Police._
_Manila_, P. I.
_Order_ No. 2.
1. The following is published for the information of the police of
2. Bulletin hoards will be kept in all stations and all orders issued
from this office will be posted thereon.
3. Armed native and Spanish soldiers must be disarmed before being
allowed to pass through gates, either way.
4. Arrest drunk and disorderly persons.
5. Spanish officers are allowed to wear their side arms.
6. Commanding officers will have their respective districts patroled
at least once each hour during the day and night.
7. Shoes must be blacked and all brasses bright and shining at
8. Be courteous in your contact with both natives and Spaniards and
see that all soldiers of other commands observe this rule.
9. Particular attention must be given by men at the gates to the
saluting of officers in passing through, and particularly so to the
Ed. S. Bean,
Major 13th Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, and Inspector
Aug. 22d, 1898.
Colonel 13th Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry and Chief of Police.
_Headquarters of the Provost-Marshal and Military Commandant._
Adjutant-General's Office, City of Manila, P. I., August 22nd, 1898.
_General Orders_, No. 3.
Colonel McC. Reeve, 13th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, is hereby
directed to relieve the Commandante of the Guardia Civil Veterana of
his functions, and will take possession of his office and will employ
such officers and soldiers of his regiment _as may_ be necessary for
the adequate police protection of this city.
By Command of Brigadier-General MacArthur,
Provost-Marshal-General and Military Commandant,
Harry C. Hale,
_Order_ No. 3.
_Office Chief of Police. Manila_, P.I.
To Commanding Officer.
Notify all livery stables and other places in your districts,
depositing large quantities of manure and other refuse in the streets,
that they must cart it away daily, themselves.
Failure to do so will result in the arrest of the offending party.
_Ed. S. Bean_, Major 13th Minnesota Volunteers, and Inspector of
August 22d, 1898.
_Reeve_, Colonel 13th Minnesota Volunteers, and Chief of Police.
_Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps._
Manila, Philippine Islands, August 22nd, 1898.
_General Orders_, No. 8.
I. For the maintenance of law and order in those portions of the
Philippines occupied or controlled by the Army of the United States,
and to provide means to promptly punish infraction of the same,
Military Commissions and Provost Courts, composed and constituted in
accordance with the laws of war, will be appointed from time to time
as occasion may require.
II. The local courts, continued in force for certain purposes in
proclamation from these headquarters, dated August 14th, 1898, shall
not exercise jurisdiction over any crime or offense committed by any
person belonging to the Army of the United States, or any retainer
of the Army, or person serving with it, or any person furnishing
or transporting supplies for the Army; nor over any crime or offense
committed on either of the same by any inhabitant or temporary resident
of said territory. In such cases, except when Courts Martial have
jurisdiction, jurisdiction to try and punish is vested in Military
Commissions and the Provost Court, as hereinafter set forth.
III. The crimes and offenses triable by Military Commission are murder,
manslaughter, assault and battery with intent to kill, robbery, rape,
assault and battery with intent to rape, and such other crimes,
offenses, or violations of the laws of war as may be referred to
it for trial by the Commanding General. The punishment awarded by
Military Commission shall conform, as far as possible, to the laws
of the United States, or the custom of war. Its sentence is subject
to the approval of the Commanding General.
IV. The Provost Court has jurisdiction to try all other crimes and
offenses, referred to in Section II of this order; not exclusively
triable by Courts Martial or Military Commission, including violations
of orders or the laws of war, and such cases as may be referred to
it by the Commanding General. It shall have power to punish with
confinement, with or without hard labor, for not more than six (6)
months, or with fine not exceeding Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars
($250.00) or both. Its sentence does not require the approval of the
Commanding General, but may be mitigated or remitted by him.
V. The Judge of the Provost Court will be appointed by this
Commanding General. When in the opinion of the Provost Court its
power of punishment is inadequate, it shall certify the case to the
Commanding General for his consideration and action.
By Command of Major-General Merritt:
_J.B. Babcock_, Adjutant-General.
Official: _Bentley Mott_, Aid.
_Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps._
Manila, P.I., August 22nd, 1898.
_Special Orders_, No. 32.
1. Upon the recommendation of the Intendente General de Hacienda,
Major R.B.C. Bement, Engineer Officer, U.S. Volunteers, is hereby
appointed Administrator de Hacienda (Collector of Internal Revenue),
and will report without delay to Brigadier-General F.V. Greene,
U.S. Volunteers, Intendente General, Manila.
2. The following orders are confirmed: Special Orders No. 5,
Headquarters Second Division, Eighth Army Corps, August 6th, 1898,
placing First Lieutenant W.G. Haan, 3rd U. S. Artillery, in command
of a separate battery to be organized by details from batteries of
3rd U.S. Artillery, to man the Hotchkiss revolving cannon brought on
the transport Ohio.
3. Private H.J. Green, Company E, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry,
detailed on special duty at these headquarters, will be paid
commutation of rations at the rate of seventy-five cents per diem, it
being entirely impracticable for him to cook or utilize rations. He
will also be paid commutation of quarters at the usual rate. Both
commutations to be paid while this man is employed on his present
duty and stationed in this city, and to date from and inclusive of
the 16th inst.
4. Corporal Jerome Patterson, Company H, 23rd U.S. Infantry, Corporal
James Maddy, Company F, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry, Private Emmett
Manley, Company D, 23rd U.S. Infantry, Private Robert M. Nichols,
Company A, 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry, Private P.H. Sullivan,
Company F, 23rd U.S. Infantry, are hereby detailed on special duty at
these Headquarters., and will report at once to the Adjutant-General
5. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles L. Jewett, Judge Advocate,
U.S. Volunteers, is hereby appointed Judge of the Provost Court,
for the city of Manila. He will hold the sessions of his court at
the headquarters of the Provost-Marshal-General. The Quartermaster
Department will provide the necessary offices and office furniture.
The Provost Court will be attended by one or more Assistant
Provost-Marshal, to be detailed by the Provost-Marshal-General, who
will be charged with the duty of enforcing its orders and executing
its processes. The form of accusation in the Provost Court will be
substantially the same as that used in Courts Martial, and a record
of all cases tried, assimilated to that of the summary court, will
6. Upon the recommendation of the Chief Commissary of the Department
of the Pacific, the issue to Spanish Prisoners by Major S.A. Cloman,
C.S., U.S. Vols., Depot Commissary, Cavite, P.I., of one (1) box of
soap (60 lbs. net) is hereby confirmed.
7. Sergeant Charles H. Burritt, Company C, 1st Wyoming Volunteer
Infantry, will report to Lieutenant Morgareidge, 1st Wyoming Volunteer
Infantry, on board Steamer Ohio, for temporary duty in unloading
Upon completion of this duty Sergeant Burritt will rejoin his Company.
8. Lieutenant Charles H. Sleeper, 1st Colorado Volunteer Infantry,
is hereby appointed Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, and will
report to Major R.B.C. Bement, U.S. Vols., Administrator de Haciena
(Collector of Internal Revenue), for instructions.
9. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles L. Potter, U.S. Vols., Chief Engineer
Officer, Eighth Army Corps, will assume charge of the water supply
of this city, and will report to Brigadier-General Arthur MacArthur,
U.S. Vols., Military Commandant of Manila, for instructions.
By Command of Major-General Merritt:
Official: _Bentley Mott_, Aid.
The responsibilities of General Merritt in his Manila, campaign were
graver than the country understands, and his success was regarded as so
much a matter of course that there has been forgetfulness to take into
account the many circumstances that gave anxiety preceding decisions
that seem easy now that they have been vindicated by events. The
departure from San Francisco of the Major-General commanding the
Philippine expedition was as well known to the Spanish as to the
American cabinet, and there is reason to think there were no important
particulars of the sailing of the third division of our Philippine
soldiers unknown to enemies. There were in gold coin, a million and
a half dollars in the strong box of Merritt's ship, the Newport. The
Spanish spies were not as well posted as an average hackman, if they
did not report the shipment of gold. It would have been a triumph
for Spain to have captured the commanding general and the gold, the
Astor Battery and the regular recruits with the headquarters ship,
The Spanish were known to have a gunboat or two lurking in the islands
within striking distance of our transports, unarmed vessels--except
a few deck pieces of field artillery--with more than a thousand men
on each. General Merritt wanted the escort of ships of war to make
all secure, and application to Admiral Dewey to send one of his war
boats, brought the statement that he could not spare a ship. Just at
that time he heard of the run by Camara with the Cadiz fleet Eastward
on the Mediterranean, and soon he had word that the Pelayo and her
companions were in the Suez canal. General Greene had not arrived
at Manila at that time, and the monitors Monterey and Monadnock were
getting along slowly. Dewey knew he would have to evacuate the scene
of his victory in case Camara was fully committed to go to Manila, and
wait for the Monitors, and when he got them he said he would return
and sink another Spanish fleet, but that was something it might be
critical to explain, and General Merritt, after leaving San Francisco,
did not get any news for twenty-six days. All that time he would have
had no justification for surprise if he had been attacked by a Spanish
gunboat, and if the Spaniards had pushed on their Rapide--the converted
German liner the Normania--she could have been handled to cut off the
American reinforcements on the way to the camps of the little American
army already landed. When General Merritt reached Cavite, he found the
situation difficult for the army and pushed things as the only way to
get out of trouble. He had two armies to deal with, one the Spaniards,
fiercely hostile, and the other, the Filipinos, factional and jealous,
each outnumbering by five thousand the American forces with which
the city was assailed and finally captured. There was no time lost,
and if there had been any delay, even two days, the peace protocol
would have found our army in the trenches, and the city belonging to
the Spaniards. It was the energy of General Merritt, heartily shared
by his division commanders, that prevented this embarrassment,
which would have been a moral and military misfortune. We have
given the General's orders to his troops and the Filipinos after
the fall of the city--also his original statement of policy, and
noted how cleverly they supported each other, and how smoothly the
work of organization and administration is carried on the world is
well aware. The orders deputing the officers to discharge certain
duties are plain business. There was no departure from the strict,
straight line of military government, and the threatened entanglements
firmly touched passed away. There was nothing omitted, or superfluous,
and the purpose and programme of policy was made clear by events. The
confusion overcome by the genius of common sense there was order, all
rights respected, the administration was a success from the beginning
and continued, and is to be continued--security is established, there
is public confidence in the air--the "faith and honor of the army"
are inviolable, Manila is ours, and there is peace. If war comes in
that quarter of the globe we shall stand on ground that earthquakes
The American Army in Manila.
Why the Boys Had a Spell of Home Sickness--Disadvantages of the
Tropics--Admiral Dewey and his Happy Men--How Our Soldiers Passed
the Time on the Ships--General Merritt's Headquarters--What Is Public
Property--The Manila Water Supply--England Our Friend--Major-General
Otis, General Merritt's Successor.
The American soldiers in the Philippines were most devoted and
cheerful, patient under hardship and pleasantly satisfied that they
were as far to the front as anybody and seeing all there was to see
during the siege of Manila. They were out in tropical rains, and the
ditches they waded were deep with mud unless filled with water. They
were harassed by the Spanish with the long-range Mausers at night and
insufficiently provided a part of the time with rations. At best they
had a very rough experience, but kept their health and wanted to go
into the city with a rush. They would rather have taken chances in
storming the place than sleep in the mud, as they did for twenty days.
When the defenders of Manila concluded that the honor of Spain would
be preserved by the shedding of only a little blood in a hopeless
struggle and fell back from very strong positions before the advance
of skirmish lines, and the American columns entered the city, keeping
two armies--the Spaniards and the insurgents--apart, and, taking
possession, restored order and were sheltered in houses, it soon
began to occur to the boys, who came out of the wet campaign looking
like veterans and feeling that they had gained much by experience,
that they were doing garrison duty and that it was objectionable. The
soldiers who arrived on the Peru, City of Pueblo and Pennsylvania
were shocked that they had missed the fight and disgusted with the
news of peace. They had made an immense journey to go actively into
war, and emerged from the ocean solitude to police a city in time of
peace. It was their notion that they lacked occupation; that their
adventure had proved an enterprise that could not become glorious.
The romance of war faded. Unquiet sensations were produced by the
stories that there was nothing to do but go home, and they would
soon be placed aboard the transports and homeward bound. Besides,
the climate was depressing. The days were hot and the nights were not
refreshing. The rations were better and there were dry places to sleep,
but there was no inspiring excitement, and it was not a life worth
living. War--"the front"--instead of offering incomparable varieties,
became tedious--it was a bore, in fact. How could a crowded city and
thronged streets be attractive in a military sense, or the scene of
patriotic sacrifice, when the most arduous duty was that of police? Was
it for this they had left homes in Oregon, Montana, Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin, Tennessee, Nebraska, Utah, California and Colorado?
There came an episode of homesickness. It was about time in a soldier's
life to contrast it with the farms and the villages, the shops,
mines and manufactories. They were kept busy on guard and in caring
for themselves, in activities as the masters of a strange community,
but the novelties of the tropics lost their flavor. What did a man
want with oranges when there were apples? What was a rice swamp
compared with a corn field? Think of the immeasurable superiority,
as a steady thing, of an Irish potato to a banana, or a peach to a
pineapple! What was a Chinese pony alongside a Kentucky horse, or a
water buffalo with the belly of a hippopotamus and horns crooked as
a saber and long as your arm to one who had seen old-fashioned cows,
and bulls whose bellowing was as the roaring of lions? The miserable
but mighty buffaloes were slower than oxen and, horns and all, tame
as sheep--the slaves of serfs!
As for the Chinese, if there were no other objection, they should
be condemned because too numerous--faithful, perhaps, in a way, but
appearing with too much frequency in the swarming streets. And the
women, with hair hanging down their backs, one shoulder only sticking
out of their dresses, the skin shining like a scoured copper kettle; a
skirt tight around the hips and divided to show a petticoat of another
tint, a jacket offering further contrasts in colors, slippers flapping
under naked heels, faces solemn as masks of death heads--oh, for the
rosy and jolly girls we left behind us in tears! How beautiful were
the dear golden-haired and blue-eyed blondes of other days! The boys
wanted at least tobacco and aerated waters to soothe themselves with,
and if there was not to be any more fighting, what was the matter
with going home?
They also serve, however, who only stand and wait--there are no
soldiers or sailors in the world who are in a position of greater
interest and usefulness than those of the American army and navy who
hold fast with arms the capital city of the Philippines. The army,
though much exposed, has not suffered severely from sickness. There
has been an intense and protracted strain upon the men of the ships,
but they have recovered from the amiable weakness for home, and they
are not merely well; they are more than plain healthy--they are hearty
and happy! There is the light of good times in their faces. One thing
in their favor is they have not been allowed to eat unwholesome food,
and the floors of the warboats and every piece of metal or wood that
is in sight is polished and glistening with cleanliness. The soldiers
will feel better when the postoffice is in working order and they
will do better by their organs of digestion when they are not deluged
with fizz--that is, pop, and beer made without malt, and the strange,
sweetish fruits that at first were irresistible temptations.
"Come with me and see the men of the Olympia," said Admiral Dewey,
"and see how happy they are, though they have been shut up here
four months." And the men did look jolly and bright, and proud of
the Admiral as he of them, and they were pleased when he noticed,
kindly, the hostile little monkey, who is the mascot, and the other
day bit the Captain.
The health of the boys was preserved at sea by systematic exercise. Not
a transport crossed the Pacific that was not converted into a military
school, and each floating schoolhouse had about 1,000 pupils. They
were put through gymnastics and calisthenics when, as a rule,
they were barefooted and wore no clothes but their undershirts and
trousers. There was even a scarcity of suspenders. The drill-masters
were in dead earnest, and their voices rang out until the manifestation
of vocal capacity excited admiration. The boys had to reach suddenly
for heaven with both hands and then bring their arms to their sides
with swinging energy. Then they had to strike out right and left to
the order "Right!" "Left!" until the sergeant was satisfied. Next each
foot had to be lifted and put down quickly at the word of command;
then it was needful that the legs should he widely separated in a jump
and closed up with vigor; then the spinal columns swayed forward and
back and all the joints and muscles had something to do. This was
no laughing matter to any one, though it was funny enough from the
ordinary standpoint of civil life. This medicine was taken day after
day, and seemed to vindicate itself.
It was esteemed a good thing for the boys to perspire from
exercise. There was no trouble, though, when south and west of
Honolulu, in having substantially Turkish baths in the bunks at
night, and there were queer scenes on deck--men by hundreds scantily
clothed and sleeping in attitudes that artists might have chosen to
advantage for life studies. It was necessary for those who walked
about, during the hours thus given to repose, where the enlisted
men took their rest with their undershirts and drawers around them,
to be careful not to tramp on the extended limbs. Once I feared I had
hit a soldier's nose with my heavy foot when stepping over him in a
low light, and was gratified that my heel had merely collided with
a big boy's thumb. He had gone to sleep with his head protected by
his hand. I paused long enough to note that the sheltering hand if
clinched would have been a mighty and smiting fist; and I was doubly
pleased that I had not tramped on his big nose.
Not infrequently, when we were steaming along the 20th parallel of
north latitude--that is to say, well in the torrid zone--and were
wafted by the trade winds that were after us at about our own speed,
heavy showers came up in the night and spoiled the luxurious content of
those who were spread on the decks. The boys got in good form through
the longest journey an army ever made--for the distance is greater from
the United States to the Philippines than from Spain--and every week
the skill of a soldier in acquiring the lessons of the climate and the
best methods of taking care of himself will become more useful, and the
tendency will be to settle down to the business of soldiering, make the
best of it and accept it as educational--an experience having in it the
elements of enduring enjoyments. "The days when I was in Manila, away
down in the south seas, but a little way from the island from which
came the wild man of Borneo," will be pleasant in remembrance, and
there will be perpetually an honorable distinction in identification
with an ambitious yet generous enterprise, one of the most remarkable
a nation can undertake--not excepting the Roman conquests all around
the Mediterranean, and that touched the northern sea, invading England.
In the later days of August there were in the prisons of Manila,
which answer to the penitentiary and jail in the American States,
2,200 prisoners, one of whom was a Spaniard! The prisons are divided
only by a high wall and contain many compartments to assist in
classification. There are considerable spaces devoted to airing the
prisoners, and one in which the privileged are permitted to amuse
themselves with games. The guard consisted, when I visited the place,
of sixty-three soldiers from Pennsylvania. There were many women
imprisoned. One who had been shut up for more than a year was taken
into custody because she had attempted rather informally to retake
possession of a house of which she had been proprietor and out of
which she had been fraudulently thrown. Her crime was a hysterical
assertion of her rights and her uninvited tenants were Spaniards.
One of the buildings contained the criminals alleged to be desperate,
and as they stood at the windows the chains on their right legs were
in sight. It was plainly seen in several cases that the links of the
chains used were about three inches long and that three or four turns
were taken around the right ankle. In a group of prisoners waiting
for supper to be handed them in pans in the open air a large number
wore chains. Many of the prisoners were incarcerated as insurgents,
having offended by refusing to espouse the Spanish cause or by some
other capital criminality in that line of misconduct! A commission was
investigating their cases and the Filipinos who had not satisfied the
Spanish requirements were represented by an able lawyer who was well
informed and disposed to do justice. Sixty-two of the inmates of the
penitentiary held for discontent with the Spanish system of government
were to be discharged as soon as the papers could be made out.
Many most interesting questions arise in connection with the
capitulation of the Spanish army. It was agreed that the Spaniards,
upon surrendering and giving up the public property, should be entitled
to the honors of war. It was expressly understood that the arms the
troops gave up were to be retained. In case the Americans abandoned
the islands or the Spaniards departed the rifles should be given them,
and usage would seem to determine that this return of weapons must
include the Mausers in the hands of the troops now prisoners of war
and the cartridges they would carry if they took the field.
Then arises a difficulty as to the precise meaning of the words
"public property." There were laid down by the Spaniards about 12,000
Mausers and Remingtons, and there were 10,000 in the arsenals--22,000
in all. It is admitted that 12,000 personally surrendered rifles go
back to the Spaniards, whether they or we go away from the islands--as
one or the other is sure to do--but the 10,000 stand of arms in the
arsenals come under the head of "public property," and so should be
retained permanently by the Americans. The number of ball cartridges
a soldier starting out to make a march carries is 100. There were
surrendered more than 500 rounds to the man. The public money was
public property, of course, and General Greene demanded the keys to
the vault containing it. The Spanish authorities objected, but yielded
after presenting a written protest. The money consisted of Spanish
and Mexican dollars, a lot of silver bars and change fused into one
mass, and some gold in the same state, also $247,000 in copper coin,
which was regarded, under the old dispensation, good stuff to pay
poor wages to poor men and women.
There are some fine points about customs. The American flag floats
over the city, and the importers and exporters want to know what the
charges are and how much the private concessions must be. Some of
these people ran around for several days with the object of placing
a few hundred Mexican dollars in the hands of officials, where they
would do the most good, and could not find anybody ready to confer
special favors for hard cash. These pushing business men had been
accustomed to meet calls for perquisites, and did not feel safe for a
moment without complying with that kind of formality. They turned away
embarrassed and disappointed, and were surprised to learn that they
were on a ground floor that was wide enough to accommodate everybody.
It should be mentioned in this connection, also, a Mexican dollar
passes in Manila for 50 cents American. The price of Mexican dollars
in the banks of San Francisco and Honolulu is 46 and 47 cents. The way
it works is illustrated in paying in a restaurant for a lunch--say
for two. If the account is $2 you put down a $5 United States gold
piece and receive in change eight Mexican dollars. If you buy cigars
at $40 per 1,000 a $20 American gold piece pays the $40 bill. There is
now pretty free coinage of Mexican dollars and they answer admirably
as 50-cent coins. That is one of the ways in which free coinage of
silver removes prejudices against the white metal; no one thinks of
objecting to a Mexican dollar as a half-dollar, and our boys, paid
in American gold, have a feeling that their wages are raised because
all over the city one of their dollars counts two in the settlement
of debts. These useful American dollars are admitted free of duty.
The headquarters of the American administration in Manila are in the
city hall, situated in the walled city, with a park in front that
plainly has been neglected for some time. It also fronts upon the same
open square as the cathedral, while beyond are the Jesuit College and
the Archbishop's palace. Just around the corner is a colossal church,
and a triangular open space that has a few neglected trees and ought
to be beautiful but is not. A street railroad passes between the
church and the triangle, and the mule power is sufficient to carry at
a reasonable rate a dozen Spanish officers and as many Chinamen. The
fare is 1 cent American--that is, 2 cents Philippine--and the other
side of the river you are entitled to a transfer, but the road is short
and drivers cheap. There is a system of return coupons that I do not
perfectly understand. The truth about the street railway system is
that there is very little of it in proportion to the size of the city,
but the average ride costs about 1 cent. If the Americans stay there
is an opening for a trolley on a long line.
There is no matter of business that does not depend upon the question:
Will the Americans stay? If they do all is well; if they do not all
is ill, and enterprise not to be talked of.
The most important bridge across the Pasig is the bridge of Spain. The
street railway crosses it. The carriages and the coolies, too, must
keep to the left. It is the thoroughfare between the new and old
cities, and at all hours of the day is thronged. It is a place favored
by the native gig drivers to whip heavily laden coolies out of the
way. A big Chinaman with powerful limbs, carrying a great burden,
hastens to give the road to a puny creature driving a puny pony,
lashing it with a big whip, and scrambles furiously away from a
two-wheeler whirling along a man able to pay a 10-cent fare.
In other days when one passed this bridge he faced the botanical
gardens, which had a world-wide reputation, an attraction being
a wonderful display of orchids. There were also beautiful trees;
now there are only stumps, disfigurements and desolation--some of
the horrors of war. The gardens were laid waste by the Spaniards as
a military precaution. As they seem to have known that they could
not or would not put up a big fight for the city, what was the use
of the destructiveness displayed in the gardens, parks and along the
boulevards? The fashion of taking a garden and making a desert of it
and calling it one of the military necessities of war is, however,
not peculiar to the chieftains of Spain.
Crossing the bridge of Spain to the walled city and turning to the
right there are well-paved streets bordered with strips of park
beside the river, that is rushing the same way if you are going to
headquarters; and the object that tells where to turn off to find
the old gateway through the wall, with a drawbridge over the grassy
moat, is a Monument to Alphonse, whose memory it is the habit of
these people to celebrate. Approaching the city hall (headquarters)
there is a white-walled hospital to note; then comes a heavy mass of
buildings on a narrow street, and the small square already styled
in this article a park, and we arrive at the grand entrance of the
official edifice. The room devoted to ceremony is so spacious that one
must consent that magnitude is akin to grandeur. There is the usual
double stairway and a few stone steps to overcome. On the right and
left under the second lift of stairs were corded the Spanish Mausers
and Remingtons and many boxes of cartridges. I have several times
noticed soldiers tramping on loose cartridges as though they had no
objection at all to an explosion. You can tell the Mauser ammunition,
because the cartridges are in clips of five, and the little bullets
famous for their long flight are covered with nickel. The Remington
bullets are bigger and coated with brass. Something has been said to
the effect that the Remington balls used by the Spaniards are poisonous
and that it is uncivilized to manufacture them. The object of the
Mauser and Remington system in covering the bullets, the one with
nickel and the other with brass, is not to poison, but to prevent the
lead from fouling the rifles. The point is almost reached in modern
guns of 2,000 and 3,000 yards range where the friction of the gun
barrel and the speed of the missile at the muzzle are sufficient to
fuse unprotected lead, and at any rate so much of the soft material
would soon he left in the grooves as to impair accuracy and endanger
the structure of the arm.
Right ahead when the first stairs are cleared is a splendid hall,
with a pair of gilded lions on a dais, and some of the boys had
adorned these beasts with crowns of theatrical splendor. The arms
of Spain are conspicuous, and in superb medallions illustrious
warriors, statesmen, authors, artists and navigators, look down
from the walls upon desks now occupied by American officers. Above
this floor the stairs are blocks of hardwood, the full width of the
stairway and the height of the step, and this earthquake precaution
does not detract from the dignity of the building, for the woodwork is
massive and handsome. A marvelous effect might be produced in some of
the marble palaces of private citizens in our American cities by the
construction of stairways with the iron-hard and marble-brilliant wood
that is abundant in Puerto Rico, Cuba and Luzon. The hall in which
the city council met, now the place of the provost-marshal's court,
is furnished in a style that puts to shame the frugality displayed
in the council chambers of our expensively governed American cities,
where men of power pose as municipal economists.
In the elevated chair of the President, faced by the array of chairs
of the Spanish councilmen, or aldermen, sits the provost-marshal
judge, and before him come the soldiers who have forgotten themselves
and the culprits arrested by the patrol. On the wall above him is a
full-length likeness of the Queen Regent--a beautiful, womanly figure,
with a tender and anxious mother's solicitous face. She looks down with
sad benignity upon the American military government. There is also
a portrait of the boy king, who becomes slender as he gains height,
and rather sickly than strong. It may be that too much care is taken
In the corner room at the end of the corridor Major-General Otis
received at his desk the news that Generals Merritt and Greene
were ordered home, and that he was the major-general commanding and
the chief of the civil, as well as the military department of the
government. He had already found much to do and tackled the greater
task with imperturbable spirit and a habit of hard work with, his
friends say, no fault but a habit that is almost impracticable of
seeing for himself almost everything he is himself held responsible
for. If he has a weakness of that sort he has a rare opportunity to
indulge it to the full extent of his personal resources. He certainly
dispatches business rapidly, decides the controverted points quickly
and has a clear eye for the field before him. His record is a good
one. When the war of the States came on he was a New York lawyer--his
home is at Rochester. Near the close of the war he was wounded on the
Weldon road, along which Grant was extending his left wing to envelop
Petersburg. He was struck by a musket ball almost an inch from the
end of the nose, and the course of it was through the bones of the
face under the right eye, passing out under the right ear. He was
"shot through the head," and suffered intensely for a long time,
but maintained his physical vitality and mental energy. His face
is but slightly marked by this dreadful wound. He has been a hard
student all his life, and is an accomplished soldier, as well as
an experienced lawyer. His judicial services in court-martials have
been highly estimated. Altogether he is well equipped for executing
the various duties of his position. He will "hold the fort in good
shape." In an adjacent room, Assistant Adjutant-General Strong, son
of the ex-mayor of New York, a young man of much experience in the
national guard and a sharp shooter, sticks to business with zeal and
knowledge, and in a very few days established a reputation as a helper.
So much has been said in disparagement of the "sons of somebodies"
that it is a pleasure to put in evidence the cleverness and intelligent
industry of Captain Strong, late of the 69th New York, and of Captain
Coudert, of New York.
General Merritt took possession of the palace of the governor-general,
overlooking the river, a commodious establishment, with a pretentious
gate on the street, a front yard full of shrubbery and rustling with
trees, a drive for carriages and doors for their occupants at the side
and a porte cochere, as the general said with a twinkle of his eye, for
the steam launch which was a perquisite of the Governor. The commanding
general of the Philippine expedition enjoyed the life on the river,
along which boats were constantly passing, carrying country supplies
to the city and returning. The capacity of canoes to convey fruit
and vegetables and all that the market called for was an unexpected
disclosure. There were unfailing resources up the river or a multitude
of indications were inaccurate. The General's palace is more spacious
than convenient; the dining room designed for stately banquets, but
the furniture of the table was not after the manner of feasts, though
the best the country afforded, and the supply of meat improved daily,
while the fruit told of the kindly opulence of the tropics.
There was a work of art in the palatial headquarters that the
commanding general highly appreciated--a splendid but somber painting
of the queen regent in her widow's weeds, holding the boy king as a
baby on her right shoulder, her back turned to the spectator, gloomy
drapery flowing upon the carpet, her profile and pale brow and dark
and lustrous hair shown, her gaze upon the child and his young eyes
fixed upon the spectator. This picture has attracted more attention
than any other in Manila, and the city is rich in likenesses of the
queen mother and the royal boy, who, without fault have upon them
the heavy sorrows of Spain in an era of misfortune and humiliation;
and it will take some time for the Spanish people, highly or lowly
placed, to realize that the loss of colonies, as they have held them,
is a blessing to the nation and offers the only chance of recuperation
and betterment in Spain's reputation and relations with the world.
The governor-general's palace, with General Merritt for General, was
a workshop, and the highly decorated apartments, lofty and elaborate,
were put to uses that had an appearance of being incongruous. The
cot of the soldier, shrouded in a mosquito bar, stood in the midst of
sumptuous furniture, before towering mirrors in showy frames, and from
niches looked down marble statues that would have been more at home
in the festal scenes of pompous life in the sleepy cities of dreamy
lands. There was no more striking combination than a typewriting
machine mounted on a magnificent table, so thick and resplendent
with gold that it seemed one mass of the precious metal--not gilt,
but solid bullion--and the marble top had the iridescent glow of a sea
shell. This was in the residence of the General, his dining and smoking
rooms and bedrooms for himself and staff, the actual headquarters
being next door in the residence of the secretary-general. Here was
a brilliant exhibition of mirrors, upon some of which were paintings
of dainty design and delicate execution, queerly effective. The
tall glasses stood as if upon mantles. There were other glasses that
duplicated their splendors; through the open doors down the street,
which was the one for the contemplation of the gorgeous--and down the
street means into the modern end of the city--was the residence of the
Spanish Admiral of the annihilated fleet, Montijo. It had been the
property of and was the creation of a German, who got rich and got
away in good time with $1,000,000 or more, selling his house to one
of the rich Chinese, who had the fortune, good, bad or indifferent,
to become the landlord of the Admiral whose ships disappeared in a
vast volume of white vapor on the May morning when the Americans came
and introduced themselves.
General Greene's headquarters were in the house the German merchant
built, the Chinese millionaire bought, and the Admiral, without a
fleet since the 1st of May, rented. The furnishing was rich; there were
frescoes that were aglow with the tropic birds and window curtains that
were dreams. The vast mansions of the ex-officials were not, however,
such as would have been sought as accommodations for the management of
the military and other affairs, and there was much lacking to comfort;
but as the hotels after the siege were not tolerable, the officers
had to discover houses in which they could develop resources, and
the public property was that of those who conquered to the extent to
which it had belonged to those displaced.
The Americans got out of the chaotic hotels soon as possible, for there
were some things in them simply not endurable. They rent houses and
employ servants and set up housekeeping. The newspaper correspondents
have been driven to this, and they are comparatively happy. They have
found ponies almost a necessary of life, and food that is fair is
attainable, while the flowing hydrants remove a good deal of privation
and apprehension. The water is from an uncontaminated stream, and
though slightly soiled after heavy rainfalls, it is not poisonous,
and that is what many American and European cities cannot truthfully
say of their water supplies. The demand for houses by the Americans
has raised the views of the proprietors. The street on which the
official Spaniards meant to flourish, as Weyler, Blanco and others
had done before them, and had not time to reap a harvest of plunder
before the days of doom came, would be called by the citizens of
Cleveland, O., the Euclid avenue of the town. It runs out to the old
fort where the Spaniards made their stand "for the honor of the arms
of Spain." The English and German and Chinese successful men reside
in this quarter. The majority of those who have provided themselves
with houses by the river and fronting on the street most approved,
looking out through groves and gardens, are Chinese half-castes,
claiming Chinese fathers and Philippine mothers. These are the most
rapacious and successful accumulators, and they would all be glad
to see the Americans stay, now that they are there, and have shown
themselves so competent to appreciate desirable opportunities and
understand the ways and means, the acquirements and the dispensations
of prosperity as our troops entered the city by the principal residence
street, it was noticed that guards were left at all the houses that
displayed the British flag--a reward for English courtesy, and the
feeling of the troops that the British are our friends.
The White Uniforms of Our Heroes in the Tropics.
The Mother Hubbard Street Fashion in Honolulu, and That of Riding
Astride--Spoiling Summer Clothes in Manila Mud--The White Raiment
of High Officers--Drawing the Line on Nightshirts--Ashamed of Big
Toes--Dewey and Merritt as Figures of Show--The Boys in White.
Recent experiences of the United States excite attention to the
fashions of the tropics. In Florida our soldiers who invaded Cuba were
in a degree and sense acclimated for the temperature of the island
that has been for so long "so near, and yet so far," so wet and yet so
hot. But the troops of the Philippine expedition were not prepared by
the chilly blasts from the mountains of California for the exceedingly
soft airs of Hawaii, though Honolulu was a pleasant introductory school
to Manila. Our new possession two thousand miles from the continent,
has been preparing for the destiny realized for two generations, and
the American ladies who dwell in the islands of perpetual summer in
the Pacific, have not submitted wholly to the dominion of the climate
and composed themselves to languish in loose and gauzy garments when
on the streets. But the Honolulu women, in general, who largely are
in the possession of luxuriant proportions, are enveloped in the
blandishments of Mother Hubbards, and do not even tie strings about
themselves to show where they would have spectators to infer their
waists ought to be. They go about flowing and fluttering in freedom,
and have all the advantages due the total abandonment of corsets,
and suffer none of the horrors of tight lacing recorded in medical
publications. The Mother Hubbard gown is not without its attractions,
but we can hardly say they are too obvious, and slender figures are
lost in voluminous folds that are billowy in the various ways and
means of embracing the evolutions of beauty. And the native singers
seem fully justified in throwing the full force of their lungs and
the rapture of their souls into the favorite chorus, "The Honolulu
Girls Are Good Enough for Me." The refrains of the Hawaiian songs
are full of a flavor of pathos, and there is the cry of sorrows,
that seem to be in the very air, but belong to other ages. The
Honolulu females of all races have flung away side saddles with
their corsets, and bestride horses and mules with the confidence
in the rectitude of their intentions that so besets and befits the
riders of bicycles. People would stare with disapproval in Honolulu
to see a woman riding with both legs on the same side of a horse,
and those wandering abroad in the voluminous folds of two spacious
garments disapprove the unusual and unseemly spectacle.
It is as hot in some parts of Texas, Arizona and California as in
any of the islands of the seas of the South, but we had not been
educated in the art of clothing armies for service in the torrid
zone, until the Philippine expedition was undertaken, and we were
making ready for challenging the Spaniards in their Cuban fastnesses,
when it speedily was in evidence that we wanted something more than
blue cloth and blankets. The Spanish white and blue stuff and straw
hats were to our eyes unsightly and distasteful, and we began with a
variety of goods. Our army hats were found good, but we tried nearly
all things before holding onto anything as sufficient for trousers
and coats. The officers on long journeys speedily resolved, if we
may judge from the results, that the suit most natty and nice for
wear within twenty degrees of the Equator was the perfect white, and
so the snowy figures below shoulder straps became familiar. This did
not, of course, indicate acute stages of active service. Never were
campaigns more destructive of good looks in clothing, than those in
assailing Santiago and Manila, in which the thin stuffs were tested in
torrential rain and ditches full of mud. The compensation was that the
volunteers fresh from the camps of instruction, put on in a few days
the appearance of veteran campaigners. In Manila there was an edifying
contrast between the Spaniards who had surrendered and the Americans
who did not pause when the Mausers were fired into their ranks, not
with the faintest hope of successful resistance, but for the "honor
of Spain." The Spanish soldiers had been well sheltered and came out
in fairly clean clothes, while the soldiers of our nation closed up
dingy ranks, suited for hunting in swamps and thickets, their coats,
hats and trousers the color of blasted grass and decayed leaves. The
passage of the line from the new to the old clothes was sudden, and
the gallant boys in blue were not in the least disconsolate over the
discoloration of their uniforms, having reached the stage where it
was a luxury to sleep on a floor or pavement, without wasting time
to find a soft or quiet spot.
The sombre taste of the Spanish ladies in dress, so famous and
effective that the black mantillas and skirts, and the fans that do
such execution in the hands of the dark-eyed coquettes, as to have
sway where empires have been lost and won--control Cuba, but does
not dominate the Philippines. The Pope of the period, it will be
remembered, divided the new worlds discovered by the navigators of
Spain and Portugal, awarding to the best of his knowledge, by a line
drawn south from the southern shore of the Caribbean Sea. Portugal
holding that to the eastward and Spain that to the westward. Hence
the separation of South America between Brazil and the rest of the
central and south American states, to await the inevitable end of the
evolutions that were the revolutions of independence. Magellines,
a Portuguese, who, being slighted in his own country, went over to
the Spaniards, and pointed out that by sailing west the east would
be attained, and so found the straits that bear his name, and the
Ladrones and Philippines, annihilating the Papal boundary line by
taking and breaking it from the rear.
The conquest of the Philippines by the Spaniards has not been complete
as a military achievement or the enforcement of the adoption of customs
and costumes according to the habits and taste of the conquerors,
who have nibbled at the edges of the vast archipelago, greater in its
length and breadth and its natural riches than the West Indies. The
Spanish ladies in the Philippines are dressed as in the ancient cities
of their own renowned peninsula. The Filipinos are of the varied
styles that adorn Africans and the Asiatics. They are gay in colors
and curious in the adjustment of stuffs, from the flimsy jackets to
the fantastic skirts. The first essential in the dress of a Filipino
is a jacket cut low, the decolette feature being obscured to some
extent by pulling out one shoulder and covering the other, taking
the chances of the lines that mark the concealment and disclosure
of breast and back. There is no expression of immodesty. The woman
of the Philippines is sad as she is swarthy, and her melancholy eyes
are almost always introspective, or glancing far away, and revising
the disappointed dreams of long ago. Profounder grief than is read
in the faces of bronze and copper no mourning artist has wrought nor
gloomy poet written. Below the jacket, the everlasting blazer, is a
liberal width of cloth tightly drawn about the loins, stomach and hips,
making no mistake in revelations of the original outline drawings, or
the flexibilities which the activities display. There are two skirts,
an outer one that opens in front, showing the tunic, which is of a
color likely to be gaudy and showing strangely with the outer one. The
feet are exposed, and if not bare, clothed only in clumsy slippers
with toe pieces, and neither heels nor uppers. Women carry burdens on
their heads, and walk erect and posed as if for snap photographs. The
young girls are fond of long hair, black as cannel coal, and streaming
in a startling cataract to the hips. It seems that the crop of hair
is unusually large, and it shines with vitality, as the breeze lifts
it in the sunshine. The Philippine boys are still more lightly clad
than the girls, who have an eye to queer combinations of colors, and
the revelation of the lines that distinguish the female form without
flagrant disclosure. There is much Philippine dressing that may under
all the surroundings be called modest, and the prevalent expression
of the Filipino is that of fixed but bewildered grief. The males are
rather careless, and display unstinted the drawings of legs, that are
copper-colored and more uniform in tint than symmetry. Two or three
rags do a surprisingly extensive service, and all the breezes cause
the fluttering of fantastic but scanty raiment. It is a comfort to
return to a country where people wear clothing not as a flimsy and
inadequate disguise. What will be the influence of our armies bent to
the tropics, upon the dress of Americans? It is a question that may
be important. The "wheel" has introduced knickerbockers and promises
to result in knee breeches. On the transports that have traversed the
Pacific the soldiers were fond of taking exercise in undershirts and
drawers only and they swarmed from their bunks at night, to sleep on
deck, sometimes condescending to spread blankets to take the edge
off the cruelty of the hard wood, but reluctant to be encumbered
with undershirts. Their favorite night dress was drawers only,
and they acted upon the false theory that one cannot take cold at
sea. The authority of officers was often necessary to impress the
average soldier that he ought to have an undershirt between his skin
and the sky. The boys were during their long voyage very sparing
in the use of shoes and stockings, and it has perhaps never before
occurred in American experiences that there was such an opportunity
to study the infinite variety of the big toe, and, indeed, of all the
toes. In active army service the care of the feet is essential. The
revelations on shipboard disclose the evils of ill-fitting shoes
to be most distrusting. One of the claims of West Point for high
consideration is in teaching the beauty of white trousers, and our
tropical army experiences will extend the fashion. When General Merritt
and Admiral Dewey parted on the deck of the China in Manila harbor,
both were clad in spotless white, their caps, coats and trousers making
a showy combination. There was also a group of sea captains who had
gathered to give the Captain of the China a good send-off, and they
with the staff officers, were all in radiant white. There was not a
boy in blue among them. The illustrious General and Admiral reminded
me of Gabriel Ravel, when in his glory as The White Knight. It would
be hard to say which wore the nattier cap, but that of the Admiral
was of the more jaunty cut, while the General--gold cord for a band
and gold buttons, especially became his blue eyes. If the officers of
the army, navy and transports could be photographed as they stood in
dazzling array, as if hewn from marble, the fashion plate resulting
would be incomparably attractive, and in the summers to come we shall
find among the influences of our tropical adventure and possessions
a heightening of the colors worn by American ladies, and a whitening
of the suits of gentlemen, involving the necessity of "calling in"
white coats, as well as straw hats on stated days in early September.
A Martyr to the Liberty of Speech.
Dr. Jose Rizal, the Most Distinguished Literary Man of the Philippines,
Writer of History, Poetry, Political Pamphlets, and Novels, Shot on the
Luneta of Manila--A Likeness of the Martyr--The Scene of His Execution,
from a Photograph--His Wife Married the Day Before His Death--Poem
Giving His Farewell Thoughts, Written in His Last Hours--The Works
That Cost Him His Life--The Vision of Friar Rodriguez.
There is history, romance and tragedy in the martyrdom of Dr. Rizal,
whose execution by shooting on the Luneta two years ago is a notable
incident of the cruelties of Spanish rule. This was on account of the
scholarship, the influence, the literary accomplishments, and the
personal distinction of the man. Dr. Rizal was easily the foremost
writer his race and country has produced. He was a poet, novelist,
political essayist, and historian, and his execution was for the
crime of loving his country, opposing the Spaniards, criticising and
lampooning the priests. He is called the Tagalo Martyr, for he was of
the tribe of Malay origin, the most numerous and rebellious in the
Philippine Islands. His fate was shocking. He was an intelligent,
learned man, an enthusiastic patriot, who had been educated in
Spain and France. For writing a book against Spanish oppression he
was exiled to the Island of Dapitan. There he met a young woman of
Irish parentage, with whom he fell in love. They were engaged to be
married, when, on some pretext, the Doctor was brought back to Manila,
sent to Madrid to be tried, and then sent back to Manila. The unhappy
girl to whom he was betrothed tells the rest of the story:
"Everyone knew that Dr. Rizal was innocent. All that could be brought
against him was the publication of his book, and the Spanish officials
who tried him had never even read it. Nevertheless, he was condemned to
death. I then asked permission to be married to him, and they granted
my request, thinking to add to the horror of his martyrdom. The
marriage was celebrated by a friar the same day on which he was
sentenced. I passed the whole night on my knees in prayer before
the prison door, which shut my husband from me. When morning dawned,
the Doctor came out, surrounded by soldiers, his hands bound behind
his back. They took him to the Luneta, the fashionable promenade of
the city, where all military executions take place. The lieutenant in
command of the firing party asked my husband where he would prefer
to be shot. He replied 'Through the heart.' 'Impossible,' said the
lieutenant. 'Such a favor is granted only to men of rank. You will be
shot in the back.' A moment after my husband was dead. The soldiers
shouted, 'Hurrah for Spain,' and I, 'Hurrah for the Philippines and
death to Spain.' I asked for the body. It was refused me. Then I swore
to avenge his death. I secured a revolver and dagger and joined the
rebels. They gave me a Mauser rifle, and the Philippines will be free."
In his poem, filled with his last thoughts--his exalted dreams that
had faded, his patriotic sentiments that were bloody dust and ashes,
his love for the woman he was allowed to marry a few hours before
he was shot, his woeful love for his troop of devoted friends, who
would have died for him and with him if the sacrifice then and there
had not been hopeless--it will be discovered that he was a true poet,
and we give one of his stories that was hostile to the orders of the
Church, and a satire on Spanish rule, showing why he was a martyr.
The following is a prose translation from the Spanish of the poem
Dr. Rizal wrote the night before he was executed:
_My Last Thoughts._
Farewell! my adored country; region beloved of the sun; pearl of the
Orient sea; our lost Eden! I cheerfully give for thee my saddened life,
and had it been brighter, happier and more rosy, I would as willingly
give it for thy sake.
Unhesitatingly and without regret others give thee their lives in
frenzied fight on the battlefield. But what matter the surroundings! Be
they cypress, laurel or lilies, scaffold or open country, combat
or cruel martyrdom, it is all the same, when for country and home's
I die while watching the flushing skies announce through dark mantle
the advent of a day. Should it need purple to tint its dawn, here
is my blood; I gladly will shed it if only it be gilded by a ray of
My dreams while only a boy, and when of vigor full, a youth, were
always to see thee, jewel of the Orient sea! thy black eyes dry,
thy frownless face uplifted, and spotless thine honor.
Dream of my life! My fervent anxiety! Shouts the soul that soon is
to depart, Hail! It is glorious to fall to give thee flight; to die
to give thee life; to die under thy Skies, and in thy maternal bosom
eternally to sleep.
Shouldst thou find some day over my grave, a lonesome, humble flower,
blossoming through the dense foliage, take it to your lips and kiss
my soul. Let me feel upon my forehead under the cold tomb your warm
and tender breath.
Let the moon with her soft and silent light watch over me; let dawn
spread its fulgent splendor; let the wind moan with solemn murmur. And
should a bird descend and repose upon my cross, let it there proclaim
a canticle of peace.
Let the burning sun evaporate the dew, spreading through space the
notes of my songs. Let a friendly being mourn my early end, praying
on calm evenings, when thou also, oh, dear country! should pray to
God for me.
Pray for all those who died unhonored; for those who suffered unequaled
torments; for our poor mothers who silently grieve; for orphans and
for widows; for prisoners in torture; and pray for thyself that thou
mayest attain thy final redemption.
And when the dark shades of night enwrap the cemetery, and the dead
are left alone to watch, do not disturb their rest, do not disturb
their mystery. Shouldst thou hear chords of a zither, it is I,
beloved country! who sings to thee.
And when my grave, by all forgotten, is marked by neither cross
nor stone, let the ploughman scatter its mould; and my ashes before
returning to nothing will become the dust of your soil.
Then, I will not mind if thou castest me into oblivion. Thy atmosphere,
thy space, thy valleys I will cross. A vibrating, limpid note I
will be in your ear; aroma, color, rumor, song, a sigh, constantly
repeating the essence of my faith.
My idolized country! grief of my griefs! My adored Philippines! Hear my
last farewell. I leave them all with thee; my fathers and my loves. I
go where there are no slaves, no oppressors, no executioners; where
faith is not death; where He who reigns is God.
Farewell! fathers and brothers, parts of my soul! Friends of my
infancy in the lost home. Give thanks that I should rest from the
fatiguing day. Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, my joy. Farewell,
beloved beings. To die is to rest.