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The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, by Murat Halstead

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of Asia and America. Europe is for gold, Asia for silver, and the
Americas divided. Japan is an object lesson, her approximation to
the gold standard has caused in the Empire an augmentation of the
compensation of labor. This is not wholly due to the change in the
standard. The war with China, the increase in the army and navy, and
the absorption of laborers in Formosa, the new country of Japan, have
combined with the higher standard of value, to elevate wages. All facts
are of primary excellence in the formation of the policies of nations.


The Philippine Islands As They Are.

Area and Population--Climate--Mineral Wealth--Agriculture--Commerce
and Transportation--Revenue and Expenses--Spanish Troops--Spanish
Navy--Spanish Civil Administration--Insurgent Troops--Insurgent Civil
Administration--United States Troops--United States Navy--United
States Civil Administration--The Future of the Islands.

General Frank V. Greene made an exhaustive study of all reports
of an official character regarding the area, population, climate,
resources, commerce, revenue and expenses of the Philippines Islands,
and prepared a memorandum for the general information that is the
most thorough and complete ever made, and is the latest and highest
authority on all the subjects to which it relates, and they include
the solid information the business men of the United States want
respecting our Asiatic associations. The memorandum is herewith
submitted in substance, and all the particulars of public concern.

Area and Population.

These islands, including the Ladrones, Carolinas and Palaos, which
are all under the Government of Manila, are variously estimated at
from 1,200 to 1,300 in number. The greater portion of these are small
and of no more value than the islands off the coast of Alaska. The
important islands are less than a dozen in number, and 90 per cent. of
the Christian population live on Luzon and the five principal islands
of the Visayas group.

The total population is somewhere between 7,000,000 and 9,000,000. This
includes the wild tribes of the mountains of Luzon and of the islands
in the extreme south. The last census taken by the Spanish Government
was on December 31, 1887, and this stated the Christian population
to be 6,000,000 (in round numbers). This is distributed as follows:

Area. Population. Sq. Mile.
Luzon 44,400 3,426,000 79
Panay 4,700 735,000 155
Cebu 2,400 504,000 210
Leyte 3,300 279,000 71
Bohol 1.300 245,000 188
Negros 3,300 242,000 73
====== ========= ===
59,800 5,422,000 91

The density of population in these six islands is nearly 50 per
cent. greater than in Illinois and Indiana (census of 1890), greater
than in Spain, about one-half as great as in France, and one-third
as great as in Japan and China, the exact figures being as follows:

Area. Population. Per Sq. Mile.
Illinois 56,000 3,826,351 68
Indiana 35,910 2,192,494 61
------ --------- ---
91,910 6,018,755 64

Spain 197,670 17,565,632 88
France 204,092 38,517,975 189
Japan 147,655 42,270,620 286
China 1,312,328 383,253,029 292

The next most important islands, in the order of population, are:

Area. Population. Per Sq. Mile.
Mindanao 34,000 209,000 6
Samar 4,800 186,000 38
Mindoro 4,000 67,000 17
Nomblon 600 35,000 58
Masbate 1,400 21,000 15
------ ------- --
44,800 518,000 11

Various smaller islands, including the Carolinas, Ladrones and Palaos,
carry the total area and Christian population to--

140,000 6,000,000 43

This is considerably greater than the density of population in the
States east of the Rocky Mountains. Owing to the existence of mountain
ranges in all the islands, and lack of communication in the interior,
only a small part of the surface is inhabited. In many provinces the
density of population exceeds 200 per square mile, or greater than
that of any of the United States, except Massachusetts and Rhode
Island. The total area of the Philippines is about the same as that
of Japan, but its civilized population is only one-seventh.

In addition to the Christian population, it is estimated (in the
Official Guide) that the islands contain the following:

Chinese (principally in Manila) 75,000
Moors or Mohametans in Paragon and Jok 100,000
Moors or Mohametans in Mindanao and Basilan 209,000
Heathen in the Philippines 830,000
Heathen in the Carolinas and Palaos 50,000

The Official Guide gives a list of more than thirty different races,
each speaking a different dialect; but five-sixths of the Christian
population are either Tagalos or Visayas. All the races are of the
Malay type. Around Manila there has been some mixture of Chinese and
Spanish blood with that of the natives, resulting in the Mestizos or
Half-breeds, but the number of these is not very great.

As seen in the provinces of Cavite and Manila, the natives (Tagalos)
are of small stature, averaging probably 5 feet 4 inches in height,
and 120 pounds in weight for the men, and 5 feet in height, and 100
pounds in weight for the women. Their skin is coppery brown, somewhat
darker than that of the mulatto. They seem to be industrious and
hard-working, although less so than the Chinese. By the Spaniards they
are considered indolent, crafty, untruthful, cowardly and cruel, but
the hatred between the Spaniards and the native races is so intense
and bitter that the Spanish opinion of the natives is of little
or no value. To us they seem industrious and docile, but there are
occasional evidences of deceit and untruthfulness in their dealings
with us. The bulk of the population is engaged in agriculture, and
there were hardly any evidences of manufactures, arts or mining. The
greater number seemed to be able to read and write, but I have been
unable to obtain any exact figures on this subject. They are all
devout Roman Catholics, although they hate the monastic orders.

In Manila (and doubtless also in Cebu and Iloilo) are many thousands of
educated natives, who are merchants, lawyers, doctors and priests. They
are well informed and have accumulated property. They have not traveled
much, but there is said to be quite a numerous colony of rich Filipinos
in Madrid, as well as in Paris and London. The bibliography of the
Philippines is said to number 4,500 volumes, the greater part of which
have been written by Spanish priests and missionaries. The number of
books on the subject in the English language is probably less than
a dozen.


The climate is one of the best known in the tropics. The islands extend
from 5 to 21 deg. north latitude, and Manila is in 14d. 35m. The
thermometer during July and August rarely went below 79 or above
85. The extreme ranges in a year are said to be 61 and 97, and the
annual mean, 81. There are three well-marked seasons, temperate
and dry from November to February, hot and dry from March to May,
and temperate and wet from June to October. The rainy season reaches
its maximum in July and August, when the rains are constant and very
heavy. The total rainfall has been as high as 114 inches in one year.

Yellow fever appears to be unknown. The diseases most fatal among
the natives are cholera and smallpox, both of which are brought from
China. Low malarial fever is brought on by sleeping on the ground
or being chilled by remaining, without exercise, in wet clothes;
and diarrhea is produced by drinking bad water or eating excessive
quantities of fruit. Almost all of these diseases are preventable
by proper precautions, even by troops in campaign. The sickness in
our troops was very small, much less than in the cold fogs at camp
in San Francisco.

Mineral Wealth.

Very little is known concerning the mineral wealth of the islands. It
is stated that there are deposits of coal, petroleum, iron, lead,
sulphur, copper and gold in the various islands, but little or
nothing has been done to develop them. A few concessions have been
granted for working mines, but the output is not large. The gold
is reported on Luzon, coal and petroleum on Cebu and Iloilo, and
sulphur on Leyte. The imports of coal in 1894 (the latest year for
which the statistics have been printed) were 91,511 tons, and it came
principally from Australia and Japan. In the same year the imports
of iron of all kinds were 9,632 tons.

If the Cebu coal proves to be good quality there is a large market
for it in competition with the coal from Japan and Australia.


Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Philippines,
yet only one-ninth of the surface is under cultivation. The soil is
very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas, it is
probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended,
and that the islands can support a population equal to that of Japan

The chief products are rice, corn, hemp, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts
and cacao. Coffee and cotton were formerly produced in large
quantities--the former for export and the latter for home consumption;
but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated by insects, and the
home made cotton clothes have been driven out by the competition of
those imported from England. The rice and corn are principally produced
in Luzon and Mindoro, and are consumed in the islands; the rice crop
is about 765,000 tons; it is insufficient for the demand and 45,000
tons of rice were imported in 1894, the greater portion from Saigon,
and the rest from Hongkong and Singapore; also 8,669 tons (say 60,000
barrels) of flour, of which more than two-thirds came from China and
less than one-third from the United States.

The cacao is raised in the southern islands, the best quality of it
in Mindanao. The production amounts to only 150 tons, and it is all
made into chocolate and consumed in the islands.

The sugar cane is raised in the Visayas. The crop yielded, in 1894,
about 235,000 tons of raw sugar, of which one-tenth was consumed in
the islands and the balance, or 210,000 tons, valued at $11,000,000,
was exported, the greater part to China, Great Britain and Australia.

The hemp is produced in southern Luzon, Mindoro, the Visayas and
Mindanao. It is nearly all exported in bales. In the year 1894 the
amount was 96,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000.

Tobacco is raised in all the islands, but the best quality and the
greatest amount in Luzon. A large amount is consumed in the islands,
smoking being universal among the women as well as the men, but the
best quality is exported. The amount, in 1894, was 7,000 tons of leaf
tobacco, valued at $1,400,000, and 1,400 tons of manufactured tobacco,
valued at $1,750,000. Spain takes 30 per cent, and Egypt 10 per cent
of the leaf tobacco. Of the manufactured tobacco, 70 per cent, goes to
China and Singapore, 10 per cent. to England, and 5 per cent. to Spain.

Cocoanuts are grown in southern Luzon and are used in various ways. The
products are largely used in the islands, but the exports, in 1894,
were valued at $2,400,000.

Cattle, goats and sheep have been introduced from Spain, but they
are not numerous. Domestic pigs and chickens are seen around every
hut in the farming districts.

The principal beast of burden is the carabac or water buffalo, which
is used for ploughing rice fields, as well as drawing heavy loads on
sledges or on carts.

Large horses are almost unknown, but there are great numbers of native
ponies, from nine to twelve hands high, but possessing strength and
endurance far beyond their size.

Commerce and Transportation.

The internal commerce between Manila and the different islands is quite
large, but I was unable to find any official records giving exact
figures concerning it. It is carried on almost entirely by water,
in steamers of 500 to 1,000 tons. There are regular mail steamers,
once in two weeks, on four routes, viz.; Northern Luzon, Southern
Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao; also a steamer every two months to the
Carolines and Ladrones, and daily steamers on Manila Bay. These lines
are all subsidized. To facilitate this navigation extensive harbor
works have been in progress at Manila for several years, and a plan for
lighting the coasts has been made, calling for forty-three principal
lights, of which seventeen have already been constructed in the most
substantial manner, besides sixteen lights of secondary importance.

There is only one line of railway, built by English capital, running
from Manila north to Dagupan, a distance of about 120 miles. The roads
in the immediate vicinity of Manila are macadamized and in fairly
good order; elsewhere they are narrow paths of soft, black soil,
which becomes almost impassable in the rainy season. Transportation
is then effected by sledges, drawn through the mud by carabacs. There
are telegraph lines connecting most of the provinces of Luzon with
Manila, and cables to the Visayas and southern islands, and thence
to Borneo and Singapore, as well as a direct cable from Manila to
Hongkong. The land telegraph lines are owned by the Government, and
the cables all belong to an English company, which receives a large
subsidy. In Manila there is a narrow gauge street railway, operated
by horse-power, about eleven miles in total length; also a telephone
system, and electric lights.

Communications with Europe are maintained by the Spanish Trans-Atlantic
Company (subsidized), which sends a steamer every four weeks from
Manila and Barcelona, making the trip in about twenty-seven days. The
same company also sends an intermediate steamer from Manila to
Singapore, meeting the French Messagoric each way. There is also a
non-subsidized line running from Manila to Hongkong every two weeks,
and connecting there with the English, French and German mails for
Europe, and with the Pacific mail and Canadian Pacific steamers for
Japan and America.

There has been no considerable development of manufacturing industries
in the Philippines. The only factories are those connected with the
preparation of rice, tobacco and sugar. Of the manufactures and arts,
in which Japan so excels, there is no evidence.

The foreign commerce amounted, in 1894, to $28,558,552 in imports,
and $33,149,984 in exports, 80 per cent, of which goes through
Manila. About 60 per cent. of the trade is carried in British vessels,
20 per cent. in Spanish and 10 per cent. in German.

The value of the commerce with other countries in 1894 was as follows:

In Millions of Dollars (Silver).

Imports. Exports.
Spain 10.5 2.9
Great Britain 7.1 8.7
China 4.6 6.8
Germany 1.9 ---
Saigon .9 ---
United States .7 7.4
France .7 1.2
Singapore .4 1.7
Japan .2 1.2
Australia .1 2.6
Other Countries 1.5 .6
---- ----
25.6 33.1

It is interesting to note that next to Great Britain we are the
largest customers of the Philippines, and that they export to us
nearly three times as much as to Spain. On the other hand Spain sells
to the Philippines fifteen times as much as we do.

The articles of import and their value in 1894 were as follows:

In Millions of Dollars (Silver).

Spain. Great China. Germany. United Other Total.
Britain. States. Countries
Cotton Goods 3.9 4.O .4 .3 -- .7 9.3
Cotton Yarns 1.2 .9 .2 .1 -- .1 2.5
Wines 1.8 -- -- -- -- .1 1.9
Mineral Oils -- -- .2 -- .4 .8 1.4
Iron .2 .7 -- .2 -- .1 1.2
Rice -- -- 1.0 -- -- .1 1.1
Flour -- -- .7 -- .2 -- .9
Sweet Meats .5 -- -- -- -- .3 .8
Paper .4 -- -- .1 -- .2 .7
Linen Goods .1 .1 .1 -- -- .3 .6
Hats .1 -- -- .3 -- .2 .6
Other Articles 2.3 1.4 2.O .9 .1 .9 7.6
-- -- -- -- -- -- --
10.5 7.1 4.6 1.9 .7 3.8 28.6

The articles of export and their value in 1894 were as follows:

In Millions of Dollars (Silver).

Spain Great China United Austra- Other Total
Britain States lia Countries
Hemp -- 5.3 .9 6.6 .6 1.1 [2] 14.5
Sugar .4 2.7 4.O .7 1.9 1.3 [3] 11.O
Man'f. Tobacco .2 .1 .7 .. .1 .7 [4] 1.3
Leaf Tobacco 1.1 .. .. .. .. .3 1.4
Coffee .3 .. .1 .. .. .. .4
Cocoanuts .. .6 .1 .. .. .. .7
Other Articles .9 .. 1.O .1 .. 1.3 3.3
-- -- -- -- -- -- --
2.9 8.7 6.8 7.4 2.6 4.7 33.16

With these islands in our possession and the construction of railroads
in the interior of Luzon, it is probable that an enormous extension
could be given to this commerce, nearly all of which would come to
the United States. Manila cigars of the best quality are unknown in
America. They are but little inferior to the best of Cuba, and cost
only one-third as much. The coffee industry can be revived and the
sugar industry extended, mainly for consumption in the far East. The
mineral resources can be explored with American energy, and there is
every reason to believe that when this is done the deposits of coal,
iron, gold and lead will be found very valuable. On the other hand,
we ought to be able to secure the greater part of the trade which now
goes to Spain in textile fabrics, and a considerable portion of that
with England in the same goods and in iron.

Revenue and Expenses.

The budget for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, was as follows:


1st. Direct Taxes $8,496,170
2nd. Indirect Taxes (Customs) 6,200,550
3rd. Proceeds of Monopolies 1,222,000
4th. Lottery 1,000,000
5th. Income of Government Property 257,000
6th. Sundry Receipts 298,300
Total $17,474,020


1st. General Expenses, Pensions and Interest $1,506,686
2nd. Diplomatic and Consular Service 74,000
3rd. Clergy and Courts 1,876,740
4th. War Department 6,035,316
5th. Treasury Department 1,392,414
6th. Navy Department 3,562,716
7th. Civil Administration 2,195,378
8th. Education 614,395
Total $17,258,145

The Direct Taxes were as follows:

1st. Real Estate, 5 per cent, on income $ 140,280
2nd. Industry and Commerce 1,400,700
3rd. Cedalas (Poll Tax) 5,600,000
4th. Chinese Poll Tax 510,190
5th. Tribute from Sultan of Jolo 20,000
6th. Railroads, 10 per cent. of
Passenger Receipts 32,000
7th. Income Tax, 10 per cent. on Public
Salaries 730,000
8th. Sundry Taxes 63,000
Total $8,496,170

Indirect Taxes were as follows:

1st. Imports $3,600,000
2nd. Exports 1,292,550
3rd. Loading Tax 410,000
4th. Unloading Tax 570,000
5th. Fines and Penalties 27,000
6th. Special Tax on Liquors, Beer,
Vegetables, Flour, Salt and Mineral
Oils 301,000
Total $6,200,550


1st. Opium Contract $ 576,000
2nd. Stamped Paper and Stamps 646,000
Total $1,222,000


1st. Sale of Tickets, Less Cost of Prizes $ 964,000
2nd. Unclaimed Prizes 30,000
3rd. Sundry Receipts 6,000
Total $1,000,000

Income of Government Property:

1st. Forestry Privileges $170,000
2nd. Sale and Rent of Public Land and
Buildings 85,000
3rd. Mineral Privileges 2,000
Total $257,000

Sundry Receipts:

1st. Mint (Seignorage) $200,000
2nd. Sundries 98,300
Total $298,300

The largest source of income is the Cedala or Poll Tax. Every
man and woman above 18 years of age, residing in the Philippines,
whether Spanish subject or foreigner, is required to have in his or
her possession a paper stating name, age, and occupation, and other
facts of personal identity. Failure to produce and exhibit this when
called upon renders anyone liable to arrest and imprisonment. This
paper is obtained from the internal revenue office annually, on
payment of a certain sum, varying, according to the occupation and
income of the person from $0.75 to $20.00, and averaging about $3.00
for each adult. An extra sum of 2 per cent. is paid for expense of
collection. The tax is collected at the Tribunal in each pueble,
and 20 per cent. is retained for expenses of local administration,
and 80 per cent. paid to the General Treasury. This tax falls heavily
on the poor and lightly on the rich. The tax on industry and commerce
is similarly graded according to the volume of business transacted by
each merchant or merchantile corporation. The tax on real estate is
absurdly low and levied only on municipal property and on the rent,
not the value.

The tax on imports is specific and not ad valorum; it amounts to
about 13 per cent. of estimated values. The free list is very small,
nearly everything of commercial value which is imported being subject
to duty. The revenue from imports has increased from $566,143 in 1865,
to $3,695,446 in 1894. It was about the same in 1897. On the other
hand the export tax, which was nothing in 1892, the loading tax,
which was nothing in 1893, and the unloading tax, which was nothing
in 1894, have all been increased in the last few years in order to
meet the expenses of suppressing the insurrection. These three items
yielded nearly $2,700,000 in 1897.

The monopoly of importing and selling opium is sold, by auction, to
the highest bidder for a term of three years. The present contract
runs until 1899, and yields $48,000 per month.

Every legal document must be drawn up on paper containing a revenue
stamp, engraved and printed in Spain, and every note, check, draft,
bill of exchange, receipt or similar document must bear a revenue
stamp in order to be valid. These stamps and stamped paper yielded
a revenue of $646,000 in 1897.

The lottery is conducted by the Government--the monthly drawings
taking place in the Treasury (Hacienda) Department. The sale of
tickets yielded $1,000,000 over and above prizes in 1897.

In a report to General Merritt, on August 29th, I recommended that
the opium contract be cancelled and the lottery abandoned during our
occupation of Manila; and as the poll tax and the tax on industry
and commerce had been paid for the most part in the early part of
the year, our chief sources of revenue were from the custom house,
the sale of stamps and stamped paper, and the sale of such licenses as
the law allowed (amusements, liquor saloons, etc.), for the benefit
of the city of Manila as distinguished from the general revenue. I
estimated the total at about $500,000 per month.

The expenses of administering the military government of occupation
(apart from the expenses of the army) will consist of the current
expenses of the office at the Provost Marshal General's office and
its various bureaus--at the custom house, internal revenue office,
and other offices--and the salaries of interpreters and minor employes
who are anxious to resume work as soon as they dare do so. An estimate
of these expenses was being prepared at the time I left, but was not
completed. It can hardly exceed $200,000 per month and may be much
less. This should leave $300,000 (silver) excess of income per month,
to go towards the military expenses of occupation.

As soon as it is decided that we are to retain the islands it will
be necessary to make a careful study of the sources of revenue and
items of expenses for all the islands, with a view to thoroughly
understanding the subject, before introducing the extensive changes
which will be necessary.


The standard of value has always, until within a few years, been the
Mexican milled dollar. The Spanish dollar contains a little less silver
and, in order to introduce it and profit by the coinage, the Spaniards
prohibited the importation of Mexican dollars a few years since. Large
numbers of Mexican dollars remained in that country, however, and
others were smuggled in. The two dollars circulate at equal value.

All valuations of goods and labor are based on the silver dollar,
and a change to the gold standard would result in great financial
distress and many failures among the banks and mercantile houses in
Manila. Their argument is that while an American ten-dollar gold
piece will bring twenty-one silver dollars at any bank or house
having foreign connections, yet it will not buy any more labor or
any more hemp and sugar from the original producer than ten silver
dollars. The products of the country are almost entirely agricultural,
and the agricultural class, whether it sells its labor or its products,
would refuse to accept any less than the accustomed wages or prices,
on account of being paid in the more valuable coin. The result of
the change would be that the merchant or employe would have to pay
double for what he buys, and would receive no increase for what he
sells. While trade would eventually adjust itself to the change,
yet many merchants would be ruined in the process and would drag some
banks down with them.

The Mexican dollar is the standard also in Hongkong and China, and the
whole trade of the Far East has, for generations, been conducted on a
silver basis. Japan has, within the last year, broken away from this
and established the gold standard, but in doing so the relative value
of silver and gold was fixed at 32 1/2 to 1, or about the market rate.

Public Debt.

I was unable to obtain any precise information in regard to the
colonial debt. The last book on statistics of imports and exports was
for the fiscal year 1894, and the last printed budget was for 1896-7,
which was approved by the Queen Regent in August, 1896. Subsequent to
this date, according to the statements made to me by foreign bankers,
the Cortes authorized two colonial loans of $14,000,000 (silver)
each, known as Series A and Series B. The proceeds were to be used
in suppressing the insurrection. Both were to be secured by a first
lien on the receipts of the Manila custom house.

Series A is said to have been sold in Spain and the proceeds to have
been paid into the Colonial Office; but no part of them has ever
reached the Philippines. Possibly a portion of it was used in sending
out the 25,000 troops which came from Spain to the Philippines in
the autumn of 1896.

Series B was offered for sale in Manila, but was not taken. An effort
was then made to obtain subscribers in the Provinces, but with little
or no success. The Government then notified the depositors in the
Public Savings Bank (a branch of the Treasury Department similar to the
postal savings bureaus in other countries) that their deposits would no
longer be redeemed in cash, but only in Series B bonds. Some depositors
were frightened and took bonds, others declined to do so. Then came
the blockade of Manila and all business was practically suspended.

No printed report has been made concerning the debt, and I was unable
to obtain any satisfactory statement of the matter from the treasury

The exact in regard to the Series A bonds can be learned in Madrid;
but it will be difficult to learn how many of Series B were issued
and what consideration was received for them.

As already stated, both series of bonds rest for security on the
receipts of the Manila custom house.

Spanish Troops.

The Spanish prisoners of war number about 13,000, including about
400 officers. The infantry arms are about 32,000, the greater part
Mauser model 1895, caliber 28, and the others Remingtons, model
1889, caliber 43. The ammunition is about 22,000,000 rounds. The
field artillery consists of about twelve breech-loading steel guns,
caliber 3 5-10 inches, and ten breech-loading mountain guns, caliber
3 2-10 inches. There are six horses (ponies) for each gun, but the
harness is in bad order. Ammunition, about sixty rounds per gun, with
possibly more in the arsenals. There are about 500 cavalry ponies,
larger than the average of native horses, with saddles and equipments
complete. There is also a battalion of engineers. The fortifications of
the walled city are a fine sample of the Vauban type, on which military
engineers expended so much ingenuity 150 years ago, and of which Spain
possessed so many in her Flemish dominions. The first walls of Manila
were built about 1590, but the present fortifications date from a short
time after the capture and occupation of the place by the English,
in 1762-64. They consist of bastions and curtains, deep, wet ditch,
covered way, lunettes, demilunes, hornworks, and all the scientific
accessories of that day. They are in a good state of preservation, and
mount several hundred bronze guns, but they are chiefly of interest to
the antiquarian. On the glacis facing the bay, and also on the open
space just south of the walls, are mounted 9-inch breech loaders,
four in all, made at Hoatoria, Spain, in 1884. They are well mounted,
between high traverses, in which are bomb-proof magazines. These
guns are practically uninjured, and Admiral Dewey has the breech
blocks. While not as powerful as the guns of the present day of the
same caliber, they are capable of effective service. Their location,
however, is very faulty, as they are on the shore of the bay, with all
the churches, public buildings and most valuable property immediately
behind them. On the day after the naval battle Admiral Dewey sent word
to the Governor-General that if these guns fired a shot at any of his
vessels he would immediately reply with his whole squadron. Owing to
their location, this meant a bombardment of the city. This threat was
effective; these guns were never afterward fired, not even during the
attack of August 13th, and in return the navy did not fire on them,
but directed all their shells at the forts and trenches occupied by
the troops outside of the suburbs of the city.

Within the walled city are the cathedral and numerous churches,
convents and monasteries, the public offices, civil and military,
military workshops and arsenals, barracks for artillery, cavalry and
engineers, storehouses and a few dwellings and shops.

The infantry barracks are outside of the walls, four in number;
viz.: Neysing, Fortin, Calzada and Fruita. They are modern and
well constructed, and will accommodate about 4,000 men. They are
now occupied by the United States troops. Under the terms of the
armistice the arms laid down by the Spanish troops on August 14th
are to be returned to them whenever they evacuate the city, or the
American army evacuates it. All other public property, including
horses, artillery, public funds, munitions, etc., is surrendered to
the United States unconditionally.

The question of sending back the troops to Spain is left absolutely to
the decision of the authorities in Washington. They are all within
the walled city, but as the public buildings are insufficient
to accommodate them, they are quartered in the churches and
convents. These buildings are not adapted for this purpose; they
have no sinks, lavatories, kitchens or sleeping apartments, and
there is great danger of an epidemic of sickness if the troops are
not soon removed.

Pending their removal they are being fed with rations furnished by
the United States Commissary Department, and the officers receive
from the United States sufficient money for their support.

Spanish Navy.

At the outbreak of the war the naval force in the Philippines
consisted of

10 Cruisers.
19 Gunboats.
4 Armed Launches.
3 Transports.
1 Survey Boat.

Of these Admiral Dewey destroyed, on May 1st, ten cruisers and one
transport, and he has since captured two gunboats. The Spaniards have
sunk one transport and two or three gunboats in the Pasig River. There
remain thirteen or fourteen gunboats, which are scattered among
the islands. They are of iron, from 140 to 200 tons each, are armed
with one breech-loading rifle, caliber 3 6-10 inches, and two to four
machine guns, each caliber 44-100 to 1 inch. One of the captured boats,
the Callao, under command of Lieutenant Tappan, United States Navy,
and a crew of eighteen men, rendered very efficient service in the
attack of August 13th. These boats would all be useful in the naval
police of the islands. They will, however, probably be scuttled by
the Spaniards before the islands are surrendered.

The Navy Yard at Cavite has barracks for about 1,500 men (now occupied
by United States troops) and has shops and ways for light work and
vessels of less than 1,000 tons. Many of the gunboats above mentioned
were built there. The shallow depth of water in Canacoa or Cavite Bay
would prevent the enlargement of this naval station to accommodate
large vessels, and the plan of the Spaniards was to create a large
naval station in Subig Bay, on which considerable money has already
been spent.

Spanish Civil Administration.

The Government of the Philippine Islands, including the Ladrones,
Carolinas and Palaos, is vested in the Governor-General, who,
in the language of the Spanish Official Guide, or Blue Book,
"is the sole and legitimate representative in these islands of the
supreme power of the Government of the King of Spain, and, as such,
is the supreme head of all branches of the public service, and has
authority to inspect and supervise the same, not excepting the courts
of justice." The office is held by a Lieutenant-General in the Spanish
army, and he is also Vice Royal Patron of the Indies, exercising in
these islands the ecclesiastical functions conferred on the King of
Spain by various Bulls of the Popes of Rome, Captain-General-in-Chief
of the Army of the Philippines, Inspector-General of all branches of
the service, Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces, and President of
all corporations and societies which partake of an official character.

What corresponds to his Cabinet, or Ministry, consists of

(a) The Archbishop of Manila and four Bishops, who administer
ecclesiastical affairs in the five dioceses into which the islands
are divided for this purpose; the appointment of parish priests
and curates, however, is vested in the Governor-General. The
various religious orders which exercise so large an influence in the
politics and business of the islands, viz.: Augustinians, Dominicans,
Recollects. Franciscans, Capuchins, Benedictines and Jesuits, are
all under the management of the Bishops, subject to the supervision
of the Pope, and the prerogatives of the King as Royal Patron, which
prerogatives are exercised by the Governor-General as Viceroy.

(b) The High Court of Justice in Manila, which is the Court of
Appeals in civil and governmental cases for all the islands. There
are two principal criminal courts in Cebu and Vigan (northern Luzon)
and appeal in criminal cases lies to these courts or to the High Court
of Manila. In every Province there is a court of primary jurisdiction
in both civil and criminal cases.

(c) The General, second in command, who is a General of Division in
the Spanish army. He is the sub-inspector of all branches of the
military service, is Military Governor of the Province and city
of Manila and commands all the troops stationed therein, and in
the absence or sickness of the Captain General he commands all the
military forces in the islands.

(d) The General Commandant of Dock Yards and Squadron. This post is
filled by a Vice Admiral in the Spanish navy, and he commands the
naval forces, ships and establishments in the islands.

(e) The Minister of Finance, or Intendente General de Hacienda,
who is charged with the collection of customs and internal taxes,
the expenditures of public money, and the audit and control of public

(f) The Minister of the Interior, or Director General of Civil
Administration, who is charged with all public business relating
to public instruction, charities, health, public works, forests,
mines, agriculture, industry and commerce, posts and telegraphs
and meteorology.

For the purpose of local administration the islands are divided into
Provinces and Districts, classified as follows:

19 Civil Governments.
24 Political-Military Governments.
23 Political-Military Commands.
15 Military Commands.

The most important of the Provinces are Manila, with a population of
400,238 (of which 10 per cent. are Chinese), and Cebu, with 501,076;
and the least important districts are Balabas and Corregidor, with
420 and 320 respectively.

The governor or commandant has supreme control within his province
or district of every branch of the public service, including the
Courts of Justice, and each reports to the Governor General. The
Guardia Civil or Gendarmerie, is subject only to his orders, and for
arrests and imprisonment for political offenses, he is responsible,
not to the law, but to the Governor General and the King.

The Civil Governments are governed by Civil Governors, of the rank in
the Spanish Civil Service of Chiefs of Administration of the second
class. The Political Military Governments and Commands are in charges
of military and naval officers of various grades, according to their
size and importance; ranging from General of Division at Mindanao,
Brigadier-Generals at Cebu and Iloilo, Captain in the navy at Paragua,
down to Lieutenant at Balabas and Corregidor.

The Civil or Military Governor is assisted by a secretary, a judge,
an administrator of finances, a postmaster and a captain of police.

The affairs of cities are managed by a council (Ayuntamiento)
consisting of a president, a recorder (Sindico), one or more mayors
(Alcaldo), six to ten aldermen (Regidores) and a secretary.

Outside of the cities each province or district is divided into a
number of villages or parishes (Pueblos); the total number of these
is 1,055; in each there is a parish priest, a municipal captain,
a justice of the peace, a school master and school mistress. The
number of cities is very small, and the social life of the community
depends almost wholly on the form of government of the Pueblos, or
villages. In 1893 this was reorganized with the alleged intention of
giving local self-government. The scheme is complicated and curious
and only an outline of it can be given here. It is contained in full
in the Royal Decree of May 19, 1893, a long document, supplemented
by still longer regulations for carrying the same into effect.

In brief every Pueblo in which there are paid more than 1,000 Cedulas
(poll tax) shall have a municipal tribunal consisting of five members,
by whom its local affairs and funds shall be managed. The members are a

Municipal Captain.
Senior Lieutenant.
Lieutenant of Police.
Lieutenant of Agriculture.
Lieutenant of Cattle.

And the Village Priest is required to attend all the important

The Captain holds office for four years, and is eligible for
indefinite re-election; the Lieutenants hold office for four years
also, one-half of them going out of office every two years, and they
are ineligible for re-election until two years after the expiration
of their term. Both Captains and Lieutenants are elected, on a day
designated by the Governor, and in presence of the village priest, and
out going Captain, by the Principalia, or body of principal men of the
village. The village is subdivided into Barangayes, or group of about
100 families each, and for each Barangay there is a Chief or Headman
(Cabeza), who is appointed by the Governor, on the recommendation of
the Municipal Tribunal. The Principalia is made up of

Former Municipal Captains.
Former Municipal Lieutenants.
Former Gobernadorcilles.
Chiefs of Barangayes.
All inhabitants paying more than $50 annually in taxes.

The Principalia choose the 12 electors as follows:

6 from the Chiefs of Barangayes.
3 from Former Municipal Captains.
3 from the largest taxpayers.

The electors hold office for six years, and one-third go out of office
every two years.

The municipal Captain must be a resident of the village, more than 25
years of age, read and speak Spanish and be a Chief of Barangay. While
the Municipal Tribunal nominally controls the local affairs, yet
the Captain has the right to suspend all its acts which he considers
against the public welfare, and report the matter to the Provincial
Governor, who has power to rescind them; the Captain appoints all
village employes, and removes them at will; he can also fine and punish
them for petty offenses; he issues orders to the police and collects
the taxes. He holds a commission as Delegate or Representative of
the Governor General, and, in fact, he exercises within his little
bailiwick the same supreme power that the governor exercises in the
province, and the Governor General in the whole Archipelago.

In each province there is a Junta or Council, whose membership
consists of

The Administrator of Finance.
Two Vicars.
The Public Physician.

The latter Four Members must be residents of the Capital of the
Province, and they are elected by the Municipal Captains, from a
list of names submitted to them by the Junta with the approval of
the Governor.

The functions of this Junta or Council are solely those of inspection
and advice. It watches over affairs of the Municipal Tribunals, and
reports to the Governor its advice and recommendations concerning
them. The Municipal Captain is obliged to deposit the taxes in the
Provincial Treasury, the keys of which are held by three members of
the Council; he draws out the money in accordance with the municipal
budget, and his accounts must be approved by his lieutenants,
countersigned by the village priest, passed upon by the Provincial
Council, and finally approved by the Governor.

The Governor has power to suspend the Municipal Captain or any of his
colleagues for a period of three months, and the Governor General can
remove one or all of them from office at will; and "in extraordinary
cases or for reasons of public tranquility, the Governor shall have
power to decree, without any legal process, the abolition of the
Municipal Tribunals." (Article 45.)

In December, 1896, General Polavieja issued a decree, suspending
the elections which were to take place that month for one-third of
the municipal electors, and directed the Governors of Provinces to
send in names of persons suitable for appointment, together with the
recommendations of the village priest in each case.

An examination of this unique scheme of village government shows
that one-half of the electors are to be chosen from persons holding
a subordinate office and appointed by the Governor; that the village
priest must be present at all elections and important meetings; that
the Captain has all the responsibility, and he must also be of the
class holding a subordinate office by appointment of the governor;
that the acts of Municipal Tribunal can be suspended by the Captain
and rescinded by the Governor; and, finally, if the Municipal Tribunal
is offensive to the Governor General he can either remove its members
and appoint others in their place or can abolish it altogether.

Such is the Spanish idea of self-government; the Minister of the
Colonies, in submitting the decree to the Queen Regent, expatiated
on its merits in giving the natives such full control of their local
affairs, and expressed the confident belief that it would prove
"most beneficent to these people whom Providence has confided to the
generous sovereignty of the Spanish monarchs."

This scheme of government by Municipal Tribunals was highly approved
by the natives, except that feature of it which placed so much power
in the hands of the Governor and Governor General. This, however,
was the essence of the matter, from the Spanish standpoint, and these
portions of the Decree were the ones most fully carried out. The
natives complained, on the one hand, of the delay in putting the
Decree into operation, and on the other hand that so much of it
as was established was practically nullified by the action of the
Governors. Seeing that the Tribunals had really no power, the members
soon turned their sessions (which the Decree required to be secret)
into political meetings in favor of the insurrection. So the whole
project is thus far a failure: and the local administration is in
considerable disorder, apart from that caused by the insurgents. In
point of fact self-government and representation are unknown in these
islands. The Archbishop and the four Bishops are appointed by the Pope;
the Governor General, military and naval officers and all officials
with a salary exceeding about $2.000 (silver) are appointed by the
King or the Minister of the Colonies. Yet all the expenses are paid
from the Philippine Treasury; the salaries of all officials, military,
naval, civil and ecclesiastical, the expenses and pensions of the army,
navy and church, the cost of the diplomatic and consular service in
Japan, China and Singapore, even a portion of the expenses of the
Colonial office, Madrid, and of pensions paid to the descendants
of Columbus--all come out of the taxes raised in the islands. The
natives have no place in the government, except clerks in the public
offices at Manila and the petty positions in the villages and the
Ayentamientos of cities, where their powers and responsibilities,
as we have seen, are at all times limited and subject to revocation
whenever disapproved by the Governor.

Though the population of the islands is 40 per cent. of that of Spain,
they have no representation in the Cortes.

There is a widespread report, almost universally believed by native
Filipinos and by foreign merchants, and even acknowledged by many
Spaniards, that pecuniary dishonesty and corruption exist throughout
the whole body of Spanish office-holders, from the highest to the
lowest. Forced contributions are said to be levied on the salaries
of minor officials; the Regimental Paymasters and Commissaries are
said to have sold part of the regimental stores for their own profit,
the Collector of Customs and the Minister of Finance to have imposed
or remitted fines at the Custom House and Internal Revenue Office,
according to payment or non-payment of presents by merchants, the
judges and court officials to have "borrowed" from attorneys large
sums which are never paid, and even the Governor General is reported
to have organized a regular system of smuggling in Mexican dollars,
the importation of which was prohibited by law, on a fixed scale of
payment to himself. The current report is that Weyler carried away
over $1,000,000 as his savings during the three years from 1888 to
1891 that he held the office of Governor General, on a salary of
$40,000 a year. Of the proof of these reports I have naturally no
personal knowledge, but they are matters of common talk and belief,
and they have been stated to me by responsible persons, who have long
resided in the islands.

As above stated, the Governor General is supreme head of every branch
of the public service, not excepting the Courts of Justice. How
this power was exercised is shown in the hundreds of executions for
alleged political offenses, which took place during the years 1895,
1896 and 1897, by the thousands deported to Mindanao and Fernando Po,
and by the number of political prisoners in jail at the time of our
entry into Manila. On the first examination which General McArthur,
as Military Governor, made of the jail, about August 22nd, he released
over 60 prisoners confined for alleged political offenses. One of
them was a woman who had been imprisoned for eleven years, by order
of the Governor General, but without any charges ever having been
presented against her; another was a woman who had been in jail for
three years on a vague charge, never formulated, of having carried
a basket of cartridges to an insurgent.

The day of reckoning for three centuries of this sort of government
came when Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish squadron on May 1st,
1898. An insurrection had been in progress from August, 1896,
to December, 1897. Unable to suppress it the Government had made a
written treaty with the insurgent leaders, paying them a large sum
of money and promising to introduce various reforms on condition
that they would leave the country. Hardly had the Spanish officials
recovered from this when the appalling disaster of the destruction
of their fleet occurred under their very eyes.

Then followed in rapid succession the naval blockade, the arrival of
the insurgent leaders from Hongkong, the raising of the insurgent army,
which blockaded Manila on the land side, and finally, the American
troops. At the end of 104 days after the destruction of the Spanish
fleet, the city surrendered to a combined land and naval attack of
the American forces. On the day after the capitulation, the American
Commander in Chief issued his proclamation establishing a military
government, appointed a Military Governor, a Minister of Finance,
a Collector of Customs, Collector of Internal Revenue, Postmaster
and Judge of the Provost Court; took possession of all public funds
(about $900,000), and all public offices, and as rapidly as possible
put this government in operation.

The machinery of the Spanish Government was thoroughly disorganized
when we entered Manila. The Courts of Justice, except the inferior
criminal courts, had not been in session since early in May; the
officials had been cut off from communication with the other islands
and with Spain for over three months; there had been no customs to
collect, and, owing to the entire suspension of business, but little
internal revenue; a forced loan of $2,000,000 for military purpose
had been extracted from the Spanish-Philippine Bank, and yet the
troops were several months in arrears of pay; all government offices
outside the walled city had been moved to temporary quarters within
the walls and their records had been lost or thrown into confusion;
the officials seeing the inevitable end in sight, were intent only
on planning for their return to Spain.

This disorganization was completed when the American Military officers
took charge of the Government, and every Spanish official, without
exception, refused absolutely to continue in service. They were
immediately dismissed and dispersed.

The situation thus created is without precedent in American
history. When Scott captured the City of Mexico it was acknowledged
on both sides that his occupation was only to be temporary, and there
were no insurgents to deal with. When the Americans entered California
they found only a scanty population, who were soon outnumbered by
the American immigrants. But in the Philippine Islands there is
a population of more than 7,000,000, governed by an alien race,
whose representatives present in the Islands, including military
and naval forces, clergy and civil employes do not exceed 30,000 in
number. Against this Government an insurrection is in progress, which
claims to have been successful in provinces containing a population of
about 2,000,000. The city and province of Manila, with a population
of 400,000 more, have been captured and occupied by a foreign army,
but whether its occupation is to be temporary or permanent has not
yet been decided.

Finally, the Government officials of all classes refuse to perform
their functions; the desire of most of them is to escape to Spain. It
was stipulated in the capitulation that they should have the right to
do so at their own expense, and numbers of them, as well as friars,
have already taken their departure. The Spanish officials have
intense fear of the Insurgents; and the latter hate them, as well
as the friars, with a virulence that can hardly be described. They
have fought them with success, and almost without interruption for
two years, and they will continue to fight them with increased vigor
and still greated prospects of success, if any attempt is made to
restore the Spanish Government. In its present disorganized condition
the Spanish Government could not successfully cope with them; on the
other hand, it would not surrender to them. The result, therefore, of
an attempted restoration of Spanish power in any of the islands would
simply be civil war and anarchy, leading inevitably and speedily to
intervention by foreign nations whose subjects have property in the
islands which they would not allow to be destroyed.

Insurgent Troops.

It is very difficult to give figures for the exact numbers of insurgent
troops. In his message to foreign governments of August 6th, asking
for recognition of belligerency and independence, Aguinaldo claims
to have a force of 30,000 men, organized into a regular army. This
included the force in the provinces of Luzon outside of Manila. What
was in evidence around Manila varied from 10,000 to 15,000. They were
composed of young men and boys, some as young as fifteen years of age,
recruited in the rural districts, having no property and nothing to
lose in a civil war. They have received no pay and, although Aguinaldo
speaks in his proclamation of his intention and ability to maintain
order wherever his forces penetrate, yet the feeling is practically
universal among the rank and file that they are to be compensated
for their time and services and hardships by looting Manila.

Their equipment consists of a gun, bayonet and cartridge box; their
uniform of a straw hat, gingham shirt and trousers and bare feet;
their transportation of a few ponies and carts, impressed for a day
or week at a time; for quarters they have taken the public building
in each village or pueblo, locally known as the Tribunal, and the
churches and convents; from these details are sent out to man the
trenches. Their food while on duty consists of rice and banana leaves,
cooked at the quarters and sent out to the trenches. After a few days
or a week of active service they return to their homes to feed up or
work on their farms, their places being taken by others to whom they
turn over their guns and cartridges. Their arms have been obtained from
various sources, from purchases in Hongkong, from the supply which
Admiral Dewey found in the arsenal at Cavite, from capture made from
the Spaniards. They are partly Mausers and partly Remingtons. Their
ammunition was obtained in the same way. They have used it freely and
the supply is now rather short. To replenish it they have established
a cartridge factory at the village of Imus, about ten miles south of
Cavite, where they have 400 people engaged in re-loading cartridges
with powder and lead found at Cavite, or purchased abroad. They have
no artillery, except a few antique Columbiads obtained from Cavite,
and no cavalry. Their method of warfare is to dig a trench in front
of the Spanish position, cover it with mats as a protection against
the sun and rain, and during the night put their guns on top of the
trench above their heads and fire in the general direction of the
enemy. When their ammunition is exhausted they go off in a body to
get a fresh supply in baskets and then return to the trenches.

The men are of small stature, from 5 feet to 5 feet 6 inches in
height, and weigh from 110 to 130 pounds. Compared with them our
men from Colorado and California seemed like a race of giants. One
afternoon just after we entered Manila a battalion of the insurgents
fired upon the outposts of the Colorado regiment, mistaking them, as
they claimed, for Spaniards. The outpost retreated to their support,
and the Filipinos followed; they easily fell into an ambush and the
support, numbering about fifty men, surrounded the 250 Filipinos,
wrenched the guns out of their hands and marched them off as unarmed
prisoners--all in the space of a few minutes. Such a force can hardly
be called an army, and yet the service which it has rendered should
not be underestimated. Between 2,000 and 3,000 Spanish native troops
surrendered to it during the months of June and July. It constantly
annoyed and harrassed the Spaniards in the trenches, keeping them up
at night and wearing them out with fatigue; and it invested Manila
early in July so completely that all supplies were cut off and the
inhabitants as well as the Spanish troops were forced to live on horse
and buffalo meat, and the Chinese population on cats and dogs. It
captured the water works of Manila and cut off the water supply, and,
if it had been in the dry season, would have inflicted great suffering
on the inhabitants for lack of water. These results, it is true,
were obtained against a dispirited army, containing a considerable
number of native troops of doubtful loyalty. Yet, from August, 1896,
to April, 1897, they fought 25,000 of the best regular troops sent
out from Spain, inflicting on them a loss of over 150 officers and
2,500 men, killed and wounded, and they suffered still greater losses
themselves. Nevertheless, from daily contact with them for six weeks, I
am very confident that no such results could have been obtained against
an American army, which would have driven them back to the hills and
reduced them to a petty guerilla warfare. If they attack the American
army this will certainly be the result, and, while these guerilla
bands might give some trouble so long as their ammunition lasted, yet,
with our navy guarding the coasts and our army pursuing them on land,
it would not be long before they were reduced to subjection.

Insurgent Civil Administration.

In August, 1896, and insurrection broke out in Cavite, under the
leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo, and soon spread to other provinces
on both sides of Manila. It continued with varying successes on
both sides, and the trial and execution of numerous insurgents,
until December, 1897, when the Governor-General, Primo de Rivera,
entered into written agreement with Aguinaldo, the substance of
the document, which is in possession of Senor Felipe Agoncillo,
who accompanies me to Washington, being attached hereto and marked
"A." In brief, it required that Aguinaldo and the other insurgent
leaders should leave the country, the Government agreeing to pay
them $800,000 in silver, and promising to introduce numerous reforms,
including representation in the Spanish Cortes, freedom of the press,
amnesty for all insurgents, and the expulsion of secularization of
the monastic orders. Aguinaldo and his associates went to Hongkong
and Singapore. A portion of the money, $400,000, was deposited in
banks at Hongkong, and a lawsuit soon arose between Aguinaldo and one
of his subordinate chiefs, named Artacho, which is interesting on
account of the very honorable position taken by Aguinaldo. Artacho
sued for a division of the money among the insurgents, according to
rank. Aguinaldo claimed that the money was a trust fund and was to
remain on deposit until it was seen whether the Spaniards would carry
out their promised reforms, and if they failed to do so it was to
be used to defray the expenses of a new insurrection. The suit was
settled out of court by paying Artacho $5,000.

No steps have been taken to introduce the reforms, more than 2,000
insurgents who had been deported to Fernando Po and other places are
still in confinement, and Aguinaldo is now using the money to carry
on the operations of the present insurrection.

On the 24th day of April Aguinaldo met the United States Consul
and others at Singapore and offered to begin a new insurrection
in conjunction with the operations of the United States navy at
Manila. This was telegraphed to Admiral Dewey and, by his consent, or,
at his request, Aguinaldo left Singapore for Hongkong on April 26th,
and, when the McCullough went to Hongkong early in May to carry the
news of Admiral Dewey's victory, it took Aguinaldo and seventeen other
revolutionary chiefs on board and brought them to Manila Bay. They soon
after landed at Cavite, and the Admiral allowed them to take such guns,
ammunition and stores as he did not require for himself. With these
and some other arms which he had brought from Hongkong Aguinaldo armed
his followers, who rapidly assembled at Cavite and, in a few weeks,
he began moving against the Spaniards. Part of them surrendered,
giving him more arms, and the others retreated to Manila.

Soon afterwards two ships, which were the private property of Senor
Agoncillo and other insurgent sympathizers, were converted into
cruisers and sent with insurgent troops to Subig Bay and other places,
to capture provinces outside of Manila. They were very successful,
the native militia in Spanish service capitulating with their arms
in nearly every case without serious resistance. On the 18th of June
Aguinaldo issued a proclamation from Cavite establishing a Dictatorial
Government, with himself as Dictator. In each village or pueblo a
Chief (Jefe) was to be elected, and in each ward a Nendrum (Cabeza);
also in each pueblo three delegates, one of Police, one of Justice,
and one of Taxes. These were to constitute the Junta, or Assembly, and
after consulting the Junta the Chiefs of pueblos were to elect a Chief
of Province and three Counsellors, one of Police, one of Justice, and
one of Taxes. They were also to elect one or more Representatives from
each Province to form the Bevolutionary Congress. This was followed
on June 20th by a decree giving more detailed instructions in regard
to the elections. On June 23d another decree followed, changing the
title of the Government from Dictatorial to Revolutionary, and of the
chief officer from Dictator to President; announcing a Cabinet with
a Minister of Foreign Affairs, Marine and Commerce, another of War
and Public Works, another of Police and Internal Order, Justice,
Instruction and Hygiene, and another of Taxes, Agriculture and
Manufactures; the powers of the President and Congress were defined,
and a code of military justice was formulated. On the same date a
manifesto was issued to the world explaining the reasons and purposes
of the Revolution. On June 27th another decree was issued containing
instructions in regard to elections. On August 6th an address was
issued to Foreign Governments, stating that the Revolutionary
Government was in operation and control in fifteen Provinces,
and that in response to the petition of the duly elected Chiefs of
these Provinces an appeal is made for recognition of belligerency and
independence. Translations of these various documents are all apended,
marked "B," "C," "D," "E," "F," "G" and "H."

The scheme of Government is set forth in the decree of June 23d,
marked "D." An examination of this document shows that it provides
a Dictatorship of the familiar South American type. All power is
centered in the President, and he is not responsible to any one for
his acts. He is declared to be "the personification of the Philippine
public, and in this view cannot be held responsible while he holds
office. His term will last until the Revolution triumphs." He appoints
not only the heads of the departments, but all their subordinates,
and without reference to Congress. This body is composed of a single
Chamber of Representatives from each Province. The election is to
be conducted by an agent of the President, and the qualifications of
electors are "those inhabitants most distinguished for high character,
social position and honorable conduct."

If any Province is still under Spanish rule its Representative
is to be appointed by the President. Congress is to deliberate on
"all grave and transcendental questions, whose decision admits of
delay and adjournment, but the President may decide questions of
urgent character, giving the reasons for his decision in a message
to Congress." The acts of Congress are not binding until approved by
the President, and he has power of absolute veto.

Congress was to hold its first session at Saloles about September 28th.

While this scheme of Government is a pure despotism, yet it claims
to be only temporary, and intended to "prepare the country so that
a true Republic may be established." It also provides a rude form of
governmental machinery for managing the affairs of the Provinces. To
what extent it has actually gone into operation it is difficult
to say. Aguinaldo claims, in his address of August 6th, that it
is in force in fifteen Provinces, whose aggregate population is
about 2,000,000. They include the island of Mindoro and about half
of Luzon. None of those (except Cavite) have yet been visited by
Americans, and all communication with them by the Spanish Government
at Manila has been cut off since May 1st.

In the province of Cavite and that portion of the Province of
Manila outside of the city and of its suburbs, which was occupied
by the insurgent troops as well as those of the United States,
their military forces, military headquarters, etc., were very much
in evidence, occupying the principal houses and churches in every
village and hamlet, but there were no signs of Civil Government or
administration. It was reported, however, that Aguinaldo's agents
were levying taxes or forced contributions not only in the outside
villages, but (after we entered Manila) by means of secret agents,
in the market places of the city itself. At Aguinaldo's headquarters,
in Bacoor, there were signs of activity and business, and it was
reported that his Cabinet officers were in constant session there.

Aguinaldo never himself failed to claim all the prerogatives due to
his alleged position as the de facto ruler of the country. The only
general officer who saw him or had any direct communication with him
was General Anderson. He did much to thwart this officer in organizing
a native wagon train and otherwise providing for his troops, and he
went so far, in a letter of July 23d (copy herewith marked "J"), as
to warn General Anderson not to land American troops on Philippine
soil without his consent--a notice which, it is hardly necessary
to say, was ignored. The day before the attack on Manila he sent
staff officers to the same General, asking for our plans of attack,
so that their troops could enter Manila with us. The same request had
previously been made to me by one of his Brigade Commanders, to which
I replied that I was not authorized to give the information desired.

Aguinaldo did not call upon General Merritt on his arrival, and this
enabled the latter to avoid any communication with him, either direct
or indirect, until after Manila had been taken. General Merritt then
received one of Aguinaldo's staff officers in his office as Military
Governor. The interview lasted more than an hour. General Merritt
referred to his proclamation as showing the conditions under which
the American troops had come to Manila and the nature of the Military
Government, which would be maintained until further orders from
Washington. He agreed upon the lines outside of the city of Manila,
up to which the insurgent troops could come, but no further with arms
in their hands. He asked for possession of the water works, which
was given, and, while expressing our friendship and sympathy for the
Philippine people, he stated very positively that the United States
Government had placed at his disposal an ample force for carrying
out his instructions, and even if the services of Aguinaldo's forces
had been needed as allies he should not have felt at liberty to
accept them.

The problem of how to deal with Aguinaldo's Government and troops
will necessarily be accompanied with embarrassment and difficulty,
and will require much tact and skill in its solution. The United States
Government, through its Naval Commander, has, to some extent, made use
of them for a distinct military purpose, viz.: to harass and annoy the
Spanish troops, to wear them out in the trenches, to blockade Manila
on the land side, and to do as much damage as possible to the Spanish
Government prior to the arrival of our troops, and for this purpose
the Admiral allowed them to take the arms and munitions which he had
captured at Cavite, and their ships to pass in and out of Manila Bay
in their expeditions against other Provinces. But the Admiral has
been very careful to give Aguinaldo no assurances of recognition
and no pledges or promises of any description. The services which
Aguinaldo and his adherents rendered in preparing the way for attack
on Manila are certainly entitled to consideration, but, after all,
they were small in comparison with what was done by our fleet and army.

There is no reason to believe that Aguinaldo's Government has any
elements of stability. In the first place, Aguinaldo is a young man
of twenty-three years. Prior to the insurrection of 1896 he had been
a schoolmaster, and afterward Gobernadorcillo and Municipal Captain
in one of the pueblos in the Province of Cavite. He is not devoid of
ability, and he is surrounded by clever writers. But the educated and
intelligent Filipinos of Manila say that not only is he lacking in
ability to be at the head of affairs, but if an election for President
was held he would not even be a candidate. He is a successful leader of
insurgents, has the confidence of young men in the country districts,
prides himself on his military ability, and if a Republic could be
established the post he would probably choose for himself would be
General-in-Chief of the Army.

In the next place, Aguinaldo's Government, or any entirely independent
Government, does not command the hearty support of the large body of
Filipinos, both in Manila and outside, who have property, education
and intelligence. Their hatred of the Spanish rule is very keen
and they will co-operate with Aguinaldo or any one else to destroy
it. But after that is done they fully realize that they must have
the support of some strong nation for many years before they will be
in a position to manage their own affairs alone. The nation to which
they all turn is America, and their ideal is a Philippine Republic,
under American protection--such as they have heard is to be granted
to Cuba. But when it comes to defining their ideas of protection and
the respective rights and duties of each under it, what portion of
the Government is to be administered by them and what portion by us;
how the revenues are to be collected, and in what proportion the
expenses are to be divided; they have no clear ideas at all; nor is
it expected that they should have, after generations of Spanish rule
without any experience in self government. The sentiment of this class,
the educated native with property at stake, looks upon the prospect
of Aguinaldo's Government and forces entering Manila with almost as
much dread as the foreign merchants or the Spaniards themselves.

Finally, it must be remembered that this is purely a Tagalo
insurrection. There are upwards of thirty races in the Philippines,
each speaking a different dialect, but five-sixths of the entire
Christian population is composed of the Tagalos and Visayas. The former
live in Mindoro and the southern half of Luzon, and the latter in Cebu,
Iloilo and other islands in the center of the group. The Tagalos are
more numerous than the Visayas, but both races are about equal in
civilization, intelligence and wealth. It is claimed by Aguinaldo's
partisans that the Visayas are in sympathy with his insurrection and
intend to send representatives to the congress. But it is a fact that
the Visayas have taken no active part in the present insurrection
nor in that of 1896, that the Spanish Government is still in full
control at Cebu and Iloilo, and in the Viscayas islands, and that
Aguinaldo has as yet made no effort to attack them. The Visayas
number nearly 2,000,000, or about as many as the population of all
the Tagalo Provinces, which Aguinaldo claims to have captured. There
is no evidence to show that they will support his pretensions, and
many reasons to believe that on account of racial prejudices and
jealousies and other causes they will oppose him.

Upon one point all are agreed, except possibly Aguinaldo and his
immediate adherents, and that is that no native government can maintain
itself without the active support and protection of a strong foreign
government. This being admitted it is difficult to see how any foreign
government can give this protection without taking such an active
part in the management of affairs as is practically equivalent to
governing in its own name and for its own account.

United States Troops and Navy.

I assume that the reports received at the War and Navy Departments
give all the desired information in regard to the military forces of
the United States.

At the time I left (August 30th) the Eighth Corps consisted of two
divisions, numbering in all about 12,000 men, with 16 field guns and
6 mountain guns. No wagons or animals had then arrived.

One regiment was stationed within the walled city guarding its gates,
and the captured guns and ammunition; a small force was at Cavite,
and the bulk of the troops were in Manila, outside of the walled
city. They were quartered in the Spanish barracks, which were all in
good condition, and in convents and private houses. The health of the
troops was excellent, notwithstanding the extraordinary hardships to
which they had been subjected in the trenches before entering Manila.

Admiral Dewey had under his command the Charleston, Monterey and
Monadnock, which arrived in July and August, the Callao and Leyte,
which had been captured from the Spaniards, and the ships which
were in the battle of May 1st, viz: Olympia, Boston, Baltimore,
Raleigh, Concord, Petrel and McCullough. The health of the squadron
was excellent. The Olympia and Concord were being docked and cleaned
at Hongkong. Permission to use the docks at Nagansaki during the
suspension of hostilities had been declined.

United States Civil Administration.

We entered Manila on the afternoon of August 13th. On the 14th the
capitulation was signed, and the same day General Merritt issued his
proclamation establishing a Military Government. On the 15th General
McArthur was appointed Military Commander of the walled city and
Provost Marshal General of the City of Manila and its suburbs, and on
the 17th I was appointed to take charge of the duties performed by the
intendente General de Hacienda, or Minister of Finance, and all fiscal
affairs. Representatives of the Postoffice Department had arrived on
the Steamship China in July and they immediately took charge of the
Manila Post-office, which was opened for business on the 16th. The
Custom House was opened on the 18th, with Lieutenant-Colonel Whittier
as Collector, and the Internal Revenue office, with Major Bement as
Collector on the 22nd. Captain Glass of the Navy was appointed Captain
of the Port, or Naval Officer, and took charge of the office on August
19th. The collections of customs during the first ten days exceeded
$100,000. The collection of internal revenue was small owing to the
difficulty and delay in ascertaining what persons had or had not
paid their taxes for the current year. The administration of Water
Works was put in charge of Lieutenant Connor, of the Engineers, on
August 25th, the Provost Court with Lieutenant-Colonel Jewett, Judge
Advocate United States Volunteers, sitting as Judge, was appointed
and held its first session on August 23rd.

The Provost Marshal General has charge of the Police, Fire, Health
and Street Cleaning Departments, and the issuing of licenses. The
Guardia Civil, or Gendarmerie of the City, proving indifferent and
inefficient, they were disarmed and disbanded; the 13th Minnesota
regiment was detailed for police duty, and one or more companies
stationed in each Police Station, from which patrolmen were sent out
on the streets to take the place of the sentries who had constantly
patrolled them from the hour of entering the city.

The shops were all closed when we entered on Saturday afternoon, the
13th; on Monday some of them opened, and by Wednesday the Banks had
resumed business, the newspapers were published, and the merchants were
ready to declare goods at the Custom House, the tram cars were running
and the retail shops were all open and doing a large business. There
was no disorder or pillage of any kind in the city. The conduct of
the troops was simply admirable, and left no ground for criticism. It
was noted and commented upon by the foreign naval officers in the
most favorable terms, and it so surprised the Spanish soldiers that
a considerable number of them applied for permission to enlist in
our service.

At the time I left General McArthur fully established his office as
Provost Marshal General, and was organizing one by one the various
bureaus connected with it, all with United States military officers in
charge; the Provost Court was in daily session, sentencing gamblers
and persons guilty of petty disturbances, and a military commission
had just been ordered to try a Chinaman accused of burglary.

In various public offices I collected the following Spanish funds:

At the General Treasury $795,517.71
At the Mint 62,856.08
At the Internal Revenue Office 24,077.60

Of this amount there was in

Gold Coin $ 4,200.00
Gold Bars 3,806.08
Silver Coin 190,634.81
Copper Coin 297,300.00
Spanish Bank Notes 216,305.00
Accepted Checks 170,205.50

The money was counted by a board of officers and turned over to
Major C. H. Whipple, Paymaster U. S. A as custodian of Spanish Public
Funds. A few thousand dollars in other public offices were still to
be collected.

The money received at the Custom House and other offices is turned in
daily, at the close of business, to Major Whipple. Money for current
expenses is furnished to heads of departments on their requisition,
by warrant drawn by the Intendente General on the Custodian of
Spanish Public Funds. The heads of the departments are to submit
their vouchers and accounts monthly to an auditing department, which
was being organized when I left.

All these public offices and funds were surrendered to me only on
threat of using force and on granting permission to file a formal
written protest. None of these had been received at the time I left,
but the ground of verbal protest was that the officials recognized no
authority in these islands but the Governor General appointed by the
King of Spain, and without his order they were unwilling to surrender
them. On the other hand, I recognized no authority of the Spanish
Governor General who was merely a prisoner of war; I acted under the
orders of General Merritt as the United States Military Governor,
and in accordance with the terms of capitulation. The claim will
probably be made by the Spanish officials that as we captured Manila
a few hours after the peace protocol had been signed at Washington,
this property still belongs to the Spaniards. But I believe that the
law in such cases was clearly defined in decisions made by the United
States Supreme Court in 1815. We captured Manila, and the capitulation
(under which these funds became United States property) was signed by
both parties, before either had received any notice of the protocol
of suspension of hostilities.

On the opening of the Custom House several important questions arose
for immediate decision. The first was in regard to Mexican dollars. The
importation of these has for several years been prohibited, with
a view of forcing the Spanish coinage (which contains less silver)
into circulation. The large English banks represented that there was
a scarcity of currency, owing to the amount which had been hoarded and
sent away during the seige, and they agreed in consideration of being
allowed to import Mexican dollars free of duty, to guarantee the notes
and accepted checks of the Spanish bank, which should be received
by us in payment of customs up to $200,000 at any one time. The
Spanish bank was in difficulty, owing to the enormous amount which
the Government had taken from it under the form of a forced loan, and
any discrimination on our part against it would result in its failure,
entailing widespread financial disturbance. As there seemed no reason
against allowing the importation of Mexican dollars and many in favor
of it, I recommended that the Custom House continue to receive the
notes and checks of this bank in payment of customs (for which we
were amply protected by the guarantee of the strong English banks)
and with General Merrill's approval wrote to these banks authorizing
them to import Mexican dollars free of duty until further notice.

The next question was in regard to the rate of duties on imports and
exports. After a careful consideration of the matter, I recommended
that the tariff be not changed until the question had been fully
studied and ample notice given. General Merritt approved this and
the customs are being collected on the Spanish tariff.

About a week after the Custom House was opened certain parties came to
me representing that Consul General Wildman, of Hongkong, had informed
them that United States goods would be admitted free of duty in Manila,
that acting on this they had purchased a cargo of American illuminating
oil in Hongkong, and that the payment of the heavy duty on it ($30 per
ton, or about 8c per gallon) would ruin them. On consulting Lieutenant
Colonel Crowder, Judge Advocate of the Eighth Army Corps, he pointed
out the language of paragraph 5 of General Merritt's proclamation,
which followed literally the instructions of the President, viz:
"The Port of Manila will be open while our military occupation may
continue, to the commerce of all neutral nations as well as our own,
in articles not contraband of war, and upon payment of the prescribed
rates of duty which may be in force at the time of the importation."

Under this there was clearly no authority for discriminating in favor
of American goods, either coming direct from a United States Port or
by transshipment at Hongkong.

The Collector of Customs was directed to act accordingly.

Another question was in regard to the importation of Chinamen into
Manila. The Consul at Hongkong telegraphed to know if they would
be admitted. As there had been no time for examining the treaties
and laws in force on this subject, I replied with General Merritt's
approval that for the present it was not practicable to admit Chinese
laborers into Manila.

Another very important question which arose was in regard to trade with
the other Philippine islands. Nearly all the hemp and the greater part
of the sugar is grown in the Visayas. The hemp is bought by foreign
merchants in Manila, who bring it there from the other islands, and
export it, paying large duties to the Manila Custom House. These
merchants were anxious to bring up their stock, of which a large
amount had accumulated during the war, and ship it abroad. The
ships engaged in this island trade were idle in the Pasig. They
belonged to a Spanish corporation, owned entirely by Scotch capital,
and had a Spanish Register. The owners were ready to transfer them
to the American flag. Could these vessels be allowed to clear for
the ports of Cebu and Iloilo, which were in Spanish possession? The
Judge Advocate advised me that they could not, without the express
authority of the President. I so notified the owners of the ships and
the hemp merchants. The day before I left Manila, however, Admiral
Dewey received a cable from the Navy Department stating that Spanish
ships had been granted the privilege of trading to American ports
during the suspension of hostilities, and that American ships could be
granted a similar privilege for Spanish ports. I understood that on
the strength of this cable General Otis intended to allow the United
States Consul at Manila to grant these vessels an American Register
and then allow them to clear for the other islands. I do not know
what the arrangement, if any was made, in regard to the payment of
export duties at Iloilo. Clearly the hemp cannot pay export duties
at both Iloilo and Manila, and the Spaniards are not likely to allow
it to leave Iloilo free while we collect an export duty on it at
Manila. Incidentally, this illustrates the complications and loss
that will arise if the islands are subdivided. The principal merchants
for all the islands are at Manila, and 90 per cent, of the duties in
imports and exports are collected at its Custom House. A large part
of the imports are redistributed through the islands; and all the
hemp and sugar, which form the principal exports, come to Manila from
other islands. If, then, we retain Luzon and give the other islands
back to Spain or some other nation, that nation will impose import
and export duties on everything coming from or to Manila. The foreign
trade of that city as a distributing and collecting point for all the
islands will be lost, and its prosperity will be destroyed; moreover,
the Government revenue from that trade will be lost.

In view of the fact that Spanish officials declined to co-operate or
assist in any way in the American government of Manila, the ease and
rapidity with which order was maintained, the machinery of government
put in operation and business reestablished, after our entry into
Manila is very remarkable. For every position in the Government
service, legal, administrative, financial, mechanical, clerical, men
could be found in our volunteer ranks who were experienced in just
that class of work at home, and they took charge of their Spanish
positions with promptness and confidence.

Even in the matter of language no serious difficulty was encountered,
for no less than 30 good interpreters were found in the California
and Colorado regiments.

The Military Government as now organized and administered, fulfills all
the requirements of preserving order and collecting the public revenue.

The civil courts, however, have yet to be organized, and their
organization will present many difficulties.


Official History of the Conquest of Manila.

The Pith of the Official Reports of the Capture of Manila, by
Major-General Wesley Merritt, Commanding the Philippine Expedition;
General Frank V. Greene, General Arthur McArthur, and General
Thomas Anderson, With the Articles of Capitulation, Showing How
8,000 Americans Carried an Intrenched City With a Garrison of 13,000
Spaniards, and Kept Out 14,000 Insurgents--The Difficulties of American
Generals With Philippine Troops.

One of the most interesting events in the records of the fall of
cities, that carried with them decisive factors affecting nations,
is that of the conquest of Manila, by the army and navy of the United
States in the memorable year of 1898. The victory of Admiral George
Dewey May 1st, in the bay of Manila, nigh Cavite, has been celebrated
in every clime and in all languages, and the great story if related
in this book as one of universal fame, and given in outline and
also in pen pictures meant to show the local coloring, and these are
incidents most illustrative that are not familiar. The names of the
ships and the officers of the victorious fleet, and the force of the
contending squadrons in men and guns are herewith presented as an
indisputable record.

Admiral Dewey held on to his command of the bay and city of Manila,
braving all dangers--and they were many--and as fast as the army could
be organized and equipped, reinforcements were forwarded. General
Wesley Merritt was appointed the Commander in Chief of the expedition
to the Philippines, and arrived at Cavite, July 25th. The official
history of the operations that forced the surrender of the old Spanish
capital in the East Indies has not received the public attention its
unusual and instructive character demands, because the reports were
not received in the States and given to the public until the Paris
peace commission was assembling, and this singularly suggestive
detail has been almost neglected. It is here for the first time
consecutively arranged, annotated and adjusted, so as to tell the
whole story. The part played by the insurgents is one that has not
been stated by authority and with precision combining narrative form
with the internal evidence of authenticity.

The first expeditionary force of the United States to arrive was
that of General Thomas Anderson, on June 30, sixty days after Dewey's
victory. The second expeditionary force, under General Frank V. Greene,
arrived July 17, and the third, under General McArthur, July 30th,
five days later than General Merritt, who found Rear Admiral George
Dewey's war ships "anchored in line off Cavite, and just outside of the
transports and supply vessels engaged in the military service." He was
"in full control of the navigation of the bay, and his vessels passed
and repassed within range of the water batteries of the town of Manila
without drawing the fire of the enemy." This immunity of protected
cruisers from the fire of nine-inch Krupp guns with an abundance of
ammunition that was, and some that was not serviceable, was due to
the terrible prestige of the American Admiral and the consequent power
of his word that if fired upon he would destroy the city. Anderson's
Americans were, General Merritt reports, disposed as follows:

The Second Oregon, detachments of California Heavy Artillery,
Twenty-third Infantry, and Fourteenth Infantry occupied the town of
Cavite; while Brigadier General F.V. Greene, United States Volunteers,
was encamped with his brigade, consisting of the Eighteenth Infantry,
Third United States Artillery, Company A, Engineer Battalion, First
Colorado, First California, First Nebraska, Tenth Pennsylvania, and
Batteries A and B of the Utah Artillery, along the line of the bay
shore near the village of Paranaque, about five miles by water and
twenty-five miles by the roads from Cavite.

The Major General commanding visited General Greene's camp and made
a reconnaissance of the position held by the Spanish, and also the
opposing lines of the insurgent forces, finding General Greene's
command encamped on a strip of sandy land running parallel to the shore
of the bay and not far distant from the beach, but owing to the great
difficulties of landing supplies "the greater portion of the force had
shelter tents only, and were suffering many discomforts, the camp being
in a low, flat place, without shelter from the heat of the tropical
sun or adequate protection during the terrific downpours of rain so
frequent at this season." The General commanding was at once struck
"by the exemplary spirit of patient, even cheerful, endurance shown
by the officers and men under such circumstances, and this feeling of
admiration for the manner in which the American soldier, volunteer
and regular alike, accept the necessary hardships of the work they
have undertaken to do, has grown and increased with every phase of
the difficult and trying campaign which the troops of the Philippine
expedition have brought to such a brilliant and successful conclusion."

The left or north flanks of General Green's camp extended to a point
on the "Calle Real," about 3,200 yards from the outer line of Spanish
defenses of the city of Manila. This Spanish line began at the powder
magazine, or old fort San Antonio, within a hundred yards of the
beach and just south of the Malate suburb of Manila, and stretched
away to the Spanish left in more or less detached works, eastward,
through swamps and rice fields, covering all the avenues of approach
to the town and encircling the city completely."

General Merritt defines with firmness and perspicuity his position
regarding the Filipinos in these terms:

"The Filipinos, or insurgent forces at war with Spain, had, prior
to the arrival of the American land forces, been waging desultory
warfare with the Spaniards for several months, and were at the time
of my arrival in considerable force, variously estimated and never
accurately ascertained, but probably not far from 12,000 men. These
troops, well supplied with small arms, with plenty of ammunition and
several field guns, had obtained positions of investment opposite to
the Spanish line of detached works throughout their entire extent; and
on the particular road called the "Calle Real," passing along the front
of General Greene's brigade camp and running through Malate to Manila,
the insurgents had established an earthwork or trench within 800 yards
of the powder-magazine fort. They also occupied as well the road to
the right, leading from the village of Passay, and the approach by the
beach was also in their possession. This anomalous state of affairs,
namely, having a line of quasi-hostile native troops between our forces
and the Spanish position, was, of course, very objectionable, but it
was difficult to deal with, owing to the peculiar condition of our
relations with the insurgents, which may be briefly stated as follows:

"Shortly after the naval battle of Manila Bay, the principal leader of
the insurgents, General Emilio Aguinaldo, came to Cavite from Hongkong,
and, with the consent of our naval authorities, began active work in
raising troops and pushing the Spaniards in the direction of the city
of Manila. Having met with some success, and the natives flocking to
his assistance, he proclaimed an independent government of republican
form, with himself as president, and at the time of my arrival in the
islands the entire edifice of executive and legislative departments
and subdivision of territory for administration purposes had been
accomplished, at least on paper, and the Filipinos held military
possession of many points in the islands other than those in the
vicinity of Manila.

"As General Aguinaldo did not visit me on my arrival, nor offer his
services as a subordinate military leader, and as my instructions from
the President fully contemplated the occupation of the islands by the
American land forces, and stated that "the powers of the military
occupant are absolute and supreme and immediately operate upon the
political condition of the inhabitants," I did not consider it wise to
hold any direct communication with the insurgent leader until I should
be in possession of the city of Manila, especially as I would not until
then be in a position to issue a proclamation and enforce my authority,
in the event that his pretensions should clash with my designs.

"For these reasons the preparations for the attack on the city were
pressed, and military operations conducted without reference to the
situation of the insurgent forces. The wisdom of this course was
subsequently fully established by the fact that when the troops of
my command carried the Spanish intrenchments, extending from the
sea to the Pasay road on the extreme Spanish right, we were under
no obligations, by prearranged plans of mutual attack, to turn to
the right and clear the front still held against the insurgents,
but were able to move forward at once and occupy the city and suburbs."

General Anderson was the first officer of the American army to arrive,
and says Admiral Dewey gave him "every possible assistance," and
favored him "with a clear statement of the situation." On the second
day after he appeared at Cavite, which was one day after General
Merritt's departure from San Francisco, he had "an interview with
the insurgent chief, Aguinaldo, and learned from him that the Spanish
forces had withdrawn, driven back by his army as he claimed, to a line
of defense immediately around the city and its suburbs. He estimated
the Spanish forces at about 14,000 men, and his own at about the same
number. He did not seem pleased at the incoming of our land forces,
hoping, as I believe, that he could take the city with his own army,
with the co-operation of the American fleet.

"Believing that however successful the insurgents may have been in
guerilla warfare against the Spaniards, that they could not carry their
lines by assault or reduce the city by siege, and suspecting, further,
that a hearty and effective co-operation could not be expected, I
had at once a series of reconnaissances made to exactly locate the
enemy's lines of defense and to ascertain their strength."

The date of the impression made on General Anderson's mind as to
the displeasure of Aguinaldo is important. The insurgent chief would
have preferred the military distinctions to have been reserved for
himself. General Anderson says of the Spanish attacks on General
Greene's lines:

"These conflicts began on the night of July 31, as soon as the
enemy had realized that we had taken the places of the Filipinos,
and began a system of earthworks to the front of their old line. It
may have been merely coincident, but these attacks and sorties began
at the time the Captain General of Manila was relieved by his second
in command. For more than six weeks the insurgents had kept up a
bickering infantry fire on the Spanish trenches, firing occasionally
some old siege pieces captured by Admiral Dewey at Cavite and given
to Aguinaldo. These combats were never serious, and the Spaniards,
so far as I know, made no sorties upon them. But there is no doubt
of the fact that the Spaniards attacked our lines with force and
vindictiveness, until they were informed that the bringing on of a
general engagement would lead to a bombardment of the city. After
this there was for several days a tacit suspension of hostilities."

As to the situation of General Greene, Brigadier General Merritt says:

"The difficulty in gaining an avenue of approach to the Spanish line
lay in the fact of my disinclination to ask General Aguinaldo to
withdraw from the beach and the 'Calle Real,' so that Greene could
move forward. This was overcome by instructions to General Greene
to arrange, if possible, with the insurgent brigade commander in
his immediate vicinity to move to the right and allow the American
forces unobstructed control of the roads in their immediate front. No
objection was made, and accordingly General Greene's brigade threw
forward a heavy outpost line on the "Calle Real" and the beach and
constructed a trench, in which a portion of the guns of the Utah
batteries was placed.

"The Spanish, observing this activity on our part, made a very sharp
attack with infantry and artillery on the night of July 31. The
behavior of our troops during this night attack was all that could
be desired, and I have, in cablegrams to the War Department, taken
occasion to commend by name those, who deserve special mention for
good conduct in the affair. Our position was extended and strengthened
after this and resisted successfully repeated night attacks, our forces
suffering, however, considerable loss in wounded and killed, while the
losses of the enemy, owing to the darkness, could not be ascertained.

"The strain of the night fighting and the heavy details for outpost
duty made it imperative to re-enforce General Greene's troops with
General MacArthur's brigade, which had arrived in transports on
the 31st of July. The difficulties of this operation can hardly be
overestimated. The transports were at anchor off Cavite, five miles
from a point on the beach where it was desired to disembark the
men. Several squalls, accompanied by floods of rain, raged day after
day, and the only way to get the troops and supplies ashore was to
load them from the ship's side into native lighters (called 'cascos')
or small steamboats, move them to a point opposite the camp, and then
disembark them through the surf in small boats, or by running the
lighters head on to the beach. The landing was finally accomplished,
after days of hard work and hardship; and I desire here to express
again my admiration for the fortitude and cheerful willingness of
the men of all commands engaged in this operation.

"Upon the assembly of MacArthur's brigade in support of Greene's,
I had about 8,500 men in position to attack, and I deemed the time
had come for final action. During the time of the night attacks I
had communicated my desire to Admiral Dewey that he would allow his
ships to open fire on the right of the Spanish line of intrenchments,
believing that such action would stop the night firing and loss of
life, but the Admiral had declined to order it unless we were in danger
of losing our position by the assaults of the Spanish, for the reason
that, in his opinion, it would precipitate a general engagement, for
which he was not ready. Now, however, the brigade of General MacArthur
was in position and the Monterey had arrived, and under date of August
6 Admiral Dewey agreed to my suggestion that we should send a joint
letter to the Captain General notifying him that he should remove
from the city all non-combatants within forty-eight hours."

The joint note of General Merritt and Admiral Dewey was as follows:

_Headquarters U.S. Land and Naval Forces_,
Manila Bay,
Philippine Islands,
August 7, 1898.

The General in Chief Commanding Spanish Forces in Manila.

Sir: We have the honor to notify your excellency that operations of
the land and naval forces of the United States against the defenses
of Manila may begin at any time after the expiration of forty-eight
hours from the hour of receipt by you of this communication, or sooner
if made necessary by an attack on your part.

This notice is given in order to afford you an opportunity to remove
all non-combatants from the city.

Very respectfully,

_Wesley Merritt_, Major-General, United States Army, Commanding Land
Forces of the United States.

_George Dewey_, Rear-Admiral, United States Navy, Commanding United
States Naval Forces on Asiatic Station.

The notable words in this are those "against the defenses of Manila,"
instead of against the city itself--the usual way--the city was to
be spared if possible.

Manila, August 7, 1898.

The Governor-General and Captain-General of the Philippines to the
Major-General of the Army and the Rear Admiral of the Navy, commanding,
respectively, the Military and Naval Forces of the United States.

Gentlemen: I have the honor to inform your excellencies that at
half-past 12 to-day I received the notice with which you favor me,
that after forty-eight hours have elapsed you may begin operations
against this fortified city, or at an earlier hour if the forces
under your command are attacked by mine.

As your notice is sent for the purpose of providing for the safety
of non-combatants, I give thanks to your excellencies for the humane
sentiment you have shown, and state that, finding myself surrounded
by insurrectionary forces, I am without places of refuge for the
increased numbers of wounded, sick, women, and children who are now
lodged within the walls.

Very respectfully, and kissing the hands of your excellencies,

_Formire Jaudenes_, Governor-General and Captain-General of the

The second paragraph of the Governor-General and Captain-General's
letter indicates a sense of helplessness, and credits the insurgents
with surrounding the city so that there was no refuge. August 9th
there was a second joint note from Major-General Merritt and Rear
Admiral Dewey, in the terms following:

"The Governor-General and Captain-General of the Philippines.

"Sir: The inevitable suffering in store for the wounded, sick, women,
and children, in the event that it becomes our duty to reduce the
defenses of the walled town in which they are gathered, will, we feel
assured, appeal successfully to the sympathies of a general capable of
making the determined and prolonged resistance which your excellency
has exhibited after the loss of your naval forces and without hope
of succor.

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