Part 1 out of 9
Produced by David Starner, Leah Moser and the Online Distributed
The Story of CRISCO
The Procter & Gamble Co.
_Price Twenty-Five Cents_
[Illustration: _The Story of CRISCO_]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Story of Crisco
Things To Remember
Hints To Young Cooks
How To Choose Foods
Methods of Cooking
Time Table for Cooking
The Art of Carving
Calendar of Dinners
Lettuce Cocktail 153
Onion Cocktail 161
Apple Strudel 221
Boston Brown 98
Brown Nut 98
Coffee, Swedish 113
Crisco Milk 101
Fruit, Yorkshire 114
Nut, Steamed 112
Raisin and Buttermilk 109
Raisin and Nut 221
Rolled Oats 109
Rye, Swedish 113
Southern Spoon 112
Wheat, Entire 102
Biscuits, Rolls, Etc.
Baking Powder Biscuit 97
Buttermilk Biscuit 98
Citron Buns 99
Cornmeal Rolls 100
Crisco Batter Cakes 101
Dessert Biscuit 101
Fruit Rolls 104
Hot Cross Buns 106
Lunch Rolls 107
Maryland Beaten Biscuits 107
Scones, Cream 100
Scones, Oven 108
Soda Beaten Biscuit 111
Sour Milk Biscuit 111
Twin Biscuit 113
Bran Gems 98
Columbia Muffins 100
Corn Cakes 194
Ginger Gems 104
Golden Corn Muffins 105
Imperial Muffins 106
Pop Overs 198
Rye Muffins 110
Sour Milk Tea Cakes 112
Almond and Citron 130
Black Cake with Prune Filling 119
Boiling Water 120
Chocolate, Black 181
Cream Puffs 123
Cream Puff Balls 123
Devil's Food 124
Dutch Apple 214
Fruit Cake, Apple Sauce 119
Fruit Cake, Crisco 123
Fruit Cake, Southern 132
Fruit Drops 103
Gingerbread, Whole Wheat 132
Golden Orange 126
Hurry Up 126
Jelly Roll 129
Lady Baltimore 127
Layer Cake, Cocoanut 122
Layer Cake, Cocoanut 226
Layer Cake, Coffee 112
Layer Cake, Lemon 127
Lord Baltimore 128
Lunch Cakes 128
Queen Cakes 215
Rose Leaf 131
Shortcake, Oyster 57
Shortcake, Peach 124
Shortcake, Red Raspberry 195
Shortcake, Strawberry 124
Shortcake, Scotch 131
Seed Cake, Old Fashioned 130
Silver Nut 131
Wholesome Parkin 132
Chocolate Fudge 144
Clear Almond Taffy 144
Cocoanut Caramels 144
Cream Candy 145
Crisco Drops 145
Crisco Fruit Fudge 145
Everton Taffy 145
Fig Fudge 146
Honey Squares 146
Maple Candy 146
Molasses Candy 146
Peanut Fudge 147
Cheese Balls 196
COOKIES, WAFERS, Etc.
Almond Fingers 211
Chocolate Wafers 99
Chocolate Brownies 99
Crisco Brownies 101
Filled Cookies 102
Fruit Cookies 103
Ginger Crisps 203
Ginger Snaps 104
Lemon Wafers 106
Maple Cookies 107
Oatmeal Cookies 108
Rose Leaves 110
Spice Cookies 112
White Cookies 114
Chestnut Boulettes 231
Potato and Nut 136
Caramel Custard 178
Eggs with Cucumbers 141
Eggs with Tomatoes 141
Egg Sandwiches, Fried 85
Eggs with Cucumbers 141
Eggs with Tomatoes 141
Egg Sandwiches, Fried 85
Blue, Baked 194
Cassolettes of Fish 53
Clams, Scalloped 183
Clams, Steamed 225
Codfish Balls 152
Cod, Boiled 169
Cod, Curried 54
Cod, Steamed 218
Crabs, Dressed 53
Fish, Fried 56
Fish, Fried 198
Fish Pudding 55
Flounder, a la Creme 54
Flounder, a la Turque 55
Gateau of Fish 56
Halibut, Baked 52
Halibut, Grilled with Parmesan 214
Halibut, a la Paulette 166
Halibut Ramekins 192
Halibut Turbans 154
Lobster, Broiled 171
Lobster, Fried with Horseradish Sauce 56
Lobster Newburg 175
Mackerel, Broiled Spanish 167
Mackerel, a la Claudine 175
Mackerel, Cold Vinaigrette 184
Oysters, Fried 171
Oyster Shortcake 57
Salmon, Baked with Colbert Sauce 52
Salmon, Boiled 167
Salmon Croquettes 155
Salmon Mold 57
Salmon, Planked 189
Sardine Canapes 167
Shad, Baked 53
Shad, Planked 170
Scallops, Baked in Shells 220
Smelts, Broiled 214
Smelts, Fried 222
Smelts, Planked 207
Terrapin, a la Maryland 230
Trout, Baked 190
FRITTERS, GRIDDLE CAKES, Etc.
Apple Fritters 78
Apricot Fritters 172
Anchovy Fritters 157
Carrot Fritters 175
Corn Fritters 68
Crisco Battercakes 101
French Pancake 199
Fried Cornmeal Nut Cakes 102
Fried Cakes with Apple Sauce 103
Fruit Pancake 195
Italian Fritters 222
Salsify Fritters 160
Sour Milk Griddle Cakes 111
Strawberry Fritters 187
Apples with Red Currant Jelly 224
Apple Sauce 225
Baked Apples 229
Baked Bananas 181
Devilled Bananas 134
Beef, a la Mode 191
Beef, Braised Fillet 158
Beef Croquettes 193
Beef Collope 59
Beef, Chipped in Cream 183
Beef, Fillet 205
Beef Loaf 151
Beef Loaf 186
Beef Olives 200
Beef Steak Pudding 205
Beef Steak and Kidney Pie 151
Beef Tournedos with Olives 191
Brains, Baked 189
Calf's Head Vinaigrette 161
Chops, Breaded 166
Ham, Baked 209
Hearts, Baked Stuffed 164
Indian Dry Curry 213
Kidneys, Broiled with Green Peppers 162
Kidney Omelet 63
Lamb, Casserole 218
Lamb Chops, Broiled 168
Lamb Chops, Stuffed 221
Lamb, Crown, with Peas 180
Lamb, Fricassee with Dumplings 197
Lamb, Leg, Boiled Stuffed 186
Lamb, Salmi 189
Lamb, Spring, Steak, a la Minute 173
Lamb, Tournedos 198
Live, Baked and Bacon 201
Liver, Stewed with Mushrooms 206
Mutton, Braised Loin 60
Mutton, Braised with Mushrooms 157
Mutton, Boiled 204
Mutton Cutlets 152
Mutton, a la Soubise 168
Meat Cakes 63
Ox Tongue, Braised 176
Ox Tongue, Curried 61
Roast, with Spaghetti 64
Roast, Pot, with Tomato 181
Shepherd's Pie 210
Steak, Beef, Baked 224
Steak, Flank, Stuffed 200
Steak, Porterhouse 208
Steak, Round with Macaroni 63
Steak, Swiss 199
Steak, Sirloin with Fried Apples 65
Stew, Irish 156
Sweet Breads 183
Sweet Breads, Fried 62
Sweet Breads with Mushroom Puree 173
Tripe, Baked 229
Tripe, Fricasseed 197
Toad in the Hole 163
Veal, Blanquette 197
Veal, Braised Fillet 169
Veal Chops 196
Veal Cutlets, Breaded 193
Veal Goulash 159
Veal Haricot 216
Veal and Ham Pie 165
Veal Loaf 180
Veal Pot Pie 172
Venison, Cutlets 220
Venison, Spiced 224
Country Club 201
Fried, Mexican Style 62
Fried, Swiss Style 213
Fricassee, Brown 153
Hot Pot 226
A la King 178
Roast Stuffed 150
Stewed with Olives 168
A la Tartare 60
Duck, Braised with Turnips 217
Duckling, Roast 187
Fowl, Roast with Chestnuts and Mushrooms 202
Fowl, Pilau 211
Guinea Hen, Roasted 168
Guinea, Roast Chicken 218
Pigeons, Fried 169
Squab, Stewed 208
Turkey, Roast 64
Hare and Rabbit
Belgian en Casserole 230
A la Marengo 217
Cornstarch Pastry 90
Crisco, Plain 90
Crisco, New 90
Flake No. 1 91
Flake No. 2 92
Hot Water 93
Puff, Rough 93
Sugar for Tartlets 94
Tip Top 90
Cobblers and Dumplings
Apple Dumplings 78
Fig and Apple Cobbler 226
Peach Cobbler 204
Almond Layer 91
Beer Steak and Kidney 151
Chocolate Cream 218
Rhubarb Custard 94
Veal and Ham 165
Veal Pot 174
Lemon and Apple 226
Maids of Honor 190
Pastry Fingers 230
Peach Delights 82
Puffs, Orange 213
Puffs, Raisin 227
Roly Poly, Cherry 189
Roly Poly, Raisin 227
Rhubarb Fanchonettes 192
Almond and Apple 221
Apple, Charlotte 212
Baba with Syrup 222
Baked Indian 220
Beef Steak 205
Black Cap 216
Bird's Nest 165
Bread, with Cherries 210
Canned Corn 179
Caramel Bread 79
Caramel Rice 79
Cherry Blanc-Mange 199
Chestnut Dainty 217
Chocolate Bread 188
Chocolate Jelly 80
Chocolate with Macaroons 209
Graham, Steamed 166
St. Leonard's 204
Macaroni, Baked 223
Molasses Sponge 81
Plum, English 229
Plum, Mrs. Vaughn's 82
Raisin Batter 213
Raspberry Batter 191
Rhubarb, Baked 78
Rice, Ground 193
Snow Balls 197
Snow Balls, Fruit 158
Snow Pudding, with Custard 206
Brown Bread 219
Apple, Celery and Nut 74
Celery and Almond 74
Cream Cheese and Pimiento 154
Orange and Tomato 75
Pear and Pimiento 189
Potato and Nut 75
Potato and Pimiento 76
Egg and Anchovy 85
Fried Egg 85
Hot Cheese 211
Pimiento Cheese 86
Tomato and Horseradish 87
Bean, Black 149
Bonne Femme 228
Hotch Potch 180
Pepper Pot 179
Pilau a la Turque 198
Red Pottage 173
Rice (Thick) 50
Scotch Broth 164
Turtle, Mock 176
Corn, a la Creole 213
Artichokes, Jerusalem 69
Asparagus Loaf 177
Asparagus, Italian Style 209
Asparagus, Plain 187
Beans, Baked 200
Bean Croquettes 178
Beans, Lima, Curried 220
Beans, String 188
Beets, Buttered 208
Beets, Creamed 177
Beets, New 203
Beets, Stuffed 71
Brussels Sprouts with Crisco 67
Cabbage, a la Creme 219
Cabbage, German Sour 179
Cabbage, Ladies' 154
Carrot Fritters 175
Carrots, Glazed 188
Carrots, a la Poulette 203
Carrots, Viennese 72
Corn Creole 207
Corn Fritters 68
Corn Okra and Tomatoes 68
Cauliflower, Curried 68
Cauliflower, au Gratin 155
Cauliflower, Fried 208
Egg Plant, en Casserole 69
Eggplant, Fried 205
Eggplant, Stuffed 71
Eggplant, Stuffed 216
Kohl Rabi, Creamed 203
Lentils and Rice 67
Lentils, Savory 70
Lettuce, Stewed 162
Mushrooms au Gratin 70
Mushrooms Cooked Under Glass Bells 154
Mushrooms, Grilled 164
Onions, Stewed 202
Onions, Stuffed 207
Onions, Stuffed with Nuts 184
Parsnips, Baked 67
Parsley, Fried 69
Peas, Green, a la Maitre d'Hotel 69
Peppers, Stuffed Green 162
Potatoes, Anna 184
Potatoes, Chantilly 203
Potatoes, Creamed au Gratin 68
Potato Croquettes 152
Potatoes, Duchesse 170
Potatoes, Franconia 157
Potatoes, French Fried 180
Potatoes, Grilled 215
Potatoes, Hashed Brown 203
Potatoes, New a la France 70
Potato Pone 70
Potato Puffs 174
Potatoes, Savory 215
Potato Souffle Austrian Style 181
Potatoes, Stuffed 71
Potatoes, Stuffed 186
Potatoes, Sweet, Baked 225
Potatoes, Sweet Candied 153
Potatoes, Sweet Southern Style 209
Scalloped Pumpkin and Rice 216
Slaw, Cold 210
Spinach, a la Creme 166
Spinach, Martha 184
Squash, Souffled 201
Squash, Summer 194
Tomatoes, Baked Stuffed 208
Tomato Croquettes 228
Tomatoes, Escalloped 153
Tomatoes, Grilled 174
Tomatoes, Stewed 150
Turnips, Creamed 170
Turnips, Mashed 202
Vegetable Souffle 212
Asparagus Loaf 177
Bananas, Devilled 134
Bean Cutlets 133
Cauliflower Snow 134
Craigie Toast 134
Croquettes Marchette 135
Duck, Mock 210
Goose, Mock 174
Mincemeat, Lemon 134
Nut Loaf 212
Nut and Macaroni Savory 136
Nut Roast 220
Potato and Nut Croquettes 136
Potato Sausage 136
Potato Sefton 137
Rice a la Maigre 137
Rice, Spanish 137
Timbale, Molds 138
Veal Roast, Mock 162
Vegetable Souffle, Mixed 136
Vegetable Pie 138
Bombay Toast 160
Croutes, a la Marie 156
Croutes, a la Rosamonde 156
Macaroni a l'Italienne 182
_"Man's most important food, fat."
"Those who say--'The old fashioned things are good enough for us.'"
"The difference between substitute and primary."
"That 'Lardy' taste."
"Fry fish, then onions, then potatoes in the same Crisco."
"We all eat raw fats."
"A woman can throw out more with a teaspoon than a man can bring home
in a wagon."
"Keeping parlor and kitchen strangers."
"Recipes tested by Domestic Scientists."_
The word "fat" is one of the most interesting in food chemistry. It
is the great energy producer. John C. Olsen, A.M., Ph.D., in his book,
"Pure Food," states that fats furnish half the total energy obtained
by human beings from their food. The three _primary_, solid cooking
fats today are:
[Illustration: _Butter Lard Crisco_]
There are numbers of substitutes for these, such as butterine,
oleomargarine and "lard compounds."
The following pages contain a story of unusual interest to _you_. For
See Page 233
_The Story of Crisco_
The culinary world is revising its entire cook book on account of the
advent of Crisco, a new and altogether different cooking fat.
Many wonder that any product could gain the favor of cooking experts
so quickly. A few months after the first package was marketed,
practically every grocer of the better class in the United States was
supplying women with the new product.
This was largely because four classes of
people--housewives--chefs--doctors--dietitians--were glad to be shown
a product which at once would make for more _digestible_ foods, more
_economical_ foods, and better _tasting_ foods.
Cooking and History
Cooking methods have undergone a marked change during the past few
years. The nation's food is becoming more and more wholesome as
a result of different discoveries, new sources of supply, and the
intelligent weighing of values. Domestic Science is better understood
and more appreciated.
People of the present century are fairer to their stomachs,
realizing that their health largely depends upon this faithful and
long-suffering servant. Digestion and disposition sound much the same,
but a good disposition often is wrecked by a poor digestion.
America has been termed a country of dyspeptics. It is being changed
to a land of healthy eaters, consequently happier individuals. Every
agent responsible for this national digestive improvement must be
It seems strange to many that there can be anything _better_ than
butter for cooking, or of greater utility than lard, and the advent of
Crisco has been a shock to the older generation, born in an age less
progressive than our own, and prone to contend that the old fashioned
things are good enough.
But these good folk, when convinced, are the greatest enthusiasts.
Grandmother was glad to give up the fatiguing spinning wheel. So the
modern woman is glad to stop cooking with expensive butter, animal
lard and their inadequate substitutes.
And so, the nation's cook book has been hauled out and is being
revised. Upon thousands of pages, the words "lard" and "butter" have
been crossed out and the word "Crisco" written in their place.
A Need Anticipated
Great foresight was shown in the making of Crisco.
The quality, as well as the quantity, of lard was diminishing
steadily in the face of a growing population. Prices were rising. "The
high-cost-of-living" was an oft-repeated phrase. Also, our country was
outgrowing its supply of butter. What was needed, therefore, was not
a _substitute_, but something _better_ than these fats, some product
which not only would accomplish as much in cookery, but _a great deal
When, therefore, Crisco was perfected, and it was shown that here
finally was an altogether _new_ and _better_ fat, cookery experts were
quick to show their appreciation.
In reading the following pages, think of Crisco as a _primary_ cooking
fat or shortening with even more individuality (because it does
greater things), than all others.
Man's Most Important Food, Fat
No other food supplies our bodies with the _drive_, the vigor, which
fat gives. No other food has been given so little study in proportion
to its importance.
Here are interesting facts, yet few housewives are acquainted with
Fat contains more than twice the amount of energy-yielding power or
calorific value of proteids or carbohydrates. One half our physical
energy is from the fat we eat in different forms. The excellent book,
"Food and Cookery for the Sick and Convalescent," by Fannie Merritt
Farmer, states, "In the diet of children at least, a deficiency of fat
cannot be replaced by an excess of carbohydrates; and that fat seems
to play some part in the formation of young tissues which cannot be
undertaken by _any other constituent of food_...."
The book entitled "The Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning," by the two
authorities, Ellen H. Richards and S. Maria Elliott, states that the
diet of school children should be regulated carefully with the fat
supply in view. Girls, especially, show at times a dislike for fat.
It therefore is necessary that the fat which supplies their growing
bodies with energy should be in the purest and most inviting form and
should be one that their digestions _welcome_, rather than repel.
The first step in the digestion of fat is its melting. Crisco melts
at a lower degree of heat than body temperature. Because of its low
melting point, thus allowing the digestive juices to mix with it, and
because of its vegetable origin and its purity, Crisco is the easiest
of all cooking fats to digest.
When a fat smokes in frying, it "breaks down," that is, its chemical
composition is changed; part of its altered composition becomes a
non-digestible and irritating substance. The best fat for digestion
is one which does _not_ decompose or break down at frying temperature.
Crisco does not break down until a degree of heat is reached _above_
the frying point. In other words, Crisco does not break down at all
in normal frying, because it is not necessary to have it "smoking hot"
for frying. No part of it, therefore, has been transformed in cooking
into an irritant. That is one reason why the stomach welcomes Crisco
and carries forward its digestion with ease.
Working Towards an Ideal
A part of the preliminary work done in connection with the development
of Crisco, described in these pages, consisted of the study of
the older cooking fats. The objectionable features of each were
considered. The good was weighed against the bad. The strength and
weakness of each was determined. Thus was found what the ideal fat
should possess, and what it should _not_ possess. It must have every
good quality and no bad one.
After years of study, a process was discovered which made possible the
The process involved the changing of the composition of vegetable food
oils and the making of the richest fat or solid _cream_.
The Crisco Process at the first stage of its development gave, at
least, the basis of the ideal fat; namely, a purely _vegetable_
product, differing from all others in that absolutely no animal fat
had to be added to the vegetable oil to produce the proper stiffness.
This was but one of the many distinctive advantages sought and found.
Not Marketed Until Perfect
It also solved the problem of eliminating certain objectionable
features of fats in general, such as rancidity, color, odor, smoking
properties when heated. These weaknesses, therefore, were not a part
of this new fat, which it would seem was the parent of the Ideal.
Then after four years of severe tests, after each weakness was
replaced with strength the Government was given this fat to analyze
and classify. The report was that it answered to none of the tests for
fats already existing.
A Primary Fat
It was neither a butter, a "compound" nor a "substitute," but _an
entirely new product_. A _primary_ fat.
In 1911 it was named Crisco and placed upon the market.
Today you buy this rich, wholesome cream of nutritious food oils in
sanitary tins. The "Crisco Process" alone can produce this creamy
white fat. No one else can manufacture Crisco, because no one else
holds the secret of Crisco and because they would have no legal right
to make it. Crisco is Crisco, and nothing else.
At first, it looked very much as if Crisco must be a high-priced
product. It cost its discoverers many thousands of dollars before ever
a package reached the consumer's kitchen.
Crisco was not offered for sale as a _substitute_, or for housewives
to buy only to save money. The chief point emphasized was, that
Crisco was a richer, more wholesome food fat for cooking. Naturally,
therefore, it was good news to all when Crisco was found also to be
Crisco is more economical than lard in another way. It makes richer
pastry than lard, and one-fifth less can be used. Furthermore it can
be used over and over again in frying all manner of foods, and because
foods absorb so little, Crisco is in reality more economical even than
lard of _mediocre_ quality. The _price_ of Crisco is lower than the
average price of the best pail lard throughout the year.
[Illustration: COOLING IN A ROOM WITH GLASS WALLS]
[Illustration: FILLING BY MACHINERY]
[Illustration: AUTOMATIC LABELLING]
It would be difficult to imagine surroundings more appetizing than
those in which Crisco is manufactured. It is made in a building
devoted exclusively to the manufacture of this one product. In
sparkling bright rooms, cleanly uniformed employees make and pack
The air for this building is drawn in through an apparatus which
washes and purifies it, removing the possibility of any dust entering.
The floors are of a special tile composition; the walls are of white
glazed tile, which are washed regularly. White enamel covers metal
surfaces where nickel plating cannot be used. Sterilized machines
handle the oil and the finished product. No hand touches Crisco until
in your own kitchen the sanitary can is opened, disclosing the smooth
richness, the creamlike, appetizing consistency of the product.
The Banishment of That "Lardy" Taste in Foods
It was the earnest aim of the makers of Crisco to produce a
strictly _vegetable_ product without adding a hard, and consequently
indigestible animal fat. There is today a pronounced partiality from
a health standpoint to a vegetable fat, and the lardy, greasy taste
of food resulting from the use of animal fat never has been in such
disfavor as during the past few years.
So Crisco is absolutely _all_ vegetable. No stearine, animal
or vegetable, is added. It possesses no taste nor odor save the
delightful and characteristic aroma which identifies Crisco, and is
suggestive of its purity.
Explanation of "Hidden" Food Flavors.
When the dainty shadings of taste are over-shadowed by a "lardy"
flavor, the _true_ taste of the food itself is lost. We miss the
"hidden" or _natural_ taste of the food. Crisco has a peculiar power
of bringing out the very best in food flavors. Even the simplest foods
are allowed a delicacy of flavor.
Take ginger bread for example: The real _ginger_ taste is there. The
_molasses_ and spice flavors are brought out.
Or just plain, every-day fried potatoes; many never knew what the real
_potato_ taste was before eating potatoes fried in Crisco.
Fried chicken has a newness of taste not known before.
New users of Crisco should try these simple foods first and later take
up the preparation of more elaborate dishes.
Butter, Ever Popular
It is hard to imagine anything taking the place of butter upon the
dining table. For seasoning in cooking, the use of butter ever will
be largely a matter of taste. Some people have a partiality for the
"butter flavor," which after all is largely the salt mixed with the
fat. Close your eyes and eat some fresh unsalted butter; note that it
is practically tasteless.
Crisco contains richer food elements than butter. As Crisco is richer,
containing no moisture, one-fifth or one-fourth less can be used in
Crisco always is uniform because it is a manufactured fat where
quality and purity can be controlled. It works perfectly into any
dough, making the crust or loaf even textured. It keeps sweet and pure
indefinitely in the ordinary room temperature.
Keep Your Parlor and Your Kitchen Strangers
Kitchen odors are out of place in the parlor. When frying with Crisco,
as before explained, it is not necessary to heat the fat to _smoking_
temperature, ideal frying is accomplished without bringing Crisco to
its smoking point. On the other hand, it is necessary to heat lard
"smoking hot" before it is of the proper frying temperature. Remember
also that, when lard smokes and fills the house with its strong odor,
certain constituents have been changed chemically to those which
irritate the sensitive membranes of the alimentary canal.
[Illustration: The Lard Kitchen.]
[Illustration: The Crisco Kitchen--No Smoke.]
Crisco does not smoke until it reaches 455 degrees, a heat higher
than is necessary for frying. You need not wait for Crisco to smoke.
Consequently the house will not fill with smoke, nor will there be
black, burnt specks in fried foods, as often there are when you use
lard for frying.
Crisco gives up its heat very quickly to the food submerged in it and
a tender, brown crust almost _instantly_ forms, allowing the inside of
the potatoes, croquettes, doughnuts, etc., to become _baked_, rather
[Illustration: Fry this, Then this, Then this--in the same Crisco.]
The same Crisco can be used for frying fish, onions, potatoes, or
any other food. Crisco does not take up food flavors or odors. After
frying each food, merely strain out the food particles.
We All Eat Raw Fats
The shortening fat in pastry or baked foods, is merely distributed
throughout the dough. No chemical change occurs during the baking
process. So when you eat pie or hot biscuit, in which animal lard
is used, _you eat raw animal lard_. The shortening used in all baked
foods therefore, should be just as pure and wholesome as if you were
eating it like butter upon bread. Because Crisco digests with such
ease, and because it is a pure vegetable fat, all those who realize
the above fact regarding pastry making are now won over to Crisco.
A hint as to Crisco's purity is shown by this simple test: Break open
a hot biscuit in which Crisco has been used. You will note a sweet
fragrance, which is most inviting.
A few months ago if you had told dyspeptic men and women that they
could eat pie at the evening meal and that distress would not follow,
probably they would have doubted you. Hundreds of instances of
Crisco's healthfulness have been given by people, who, at one time
have been denied such foods as pastry, cake and fried foods, but who
_now_ eat these rich, yet digestible Crisco dishes.
You, or any other normally healthy individual, whose digestion does
not relish greasy foods, can eat rich pie crust. The richness is
there, but not the unpleasant after effects. Crisco digests _readily_.
The Importance of Giving Children Crisco Foods
A good digestion will mean much to the youngster's health and
character. A man seldom seems to be stronger than his stomach, for
indigestion handicaps him in his accomplishment of big things.
As more attention is given to _present_ feeding, less attention need
be given to _future_ doctoring. Equip your children with good stomachs
by giving them wholesome Crisco foods--foods which digest with ease.
They may eat the rich things they enjoy and find them just as
digestible as many apparently simple foods, if Crisco be used
They may eat Crisco doughnuts or pie without being chased by
nightmares. Sweet dreams follow the Crisco supper.
The Great Variety of Crisco Foods
There are thousands of Crisco dishes. It is impossible to know the
exact number, because Crisco is used for practically every cooking
purpose. Women daily tell us of new uses they have found for Crisco.
Many women _begin_ by using Crisco in simple ways, for frying, for
baking, in place of lard. Soon, however, they learn that Crisco _also_
takes the place of butter. "Butter richness without butter expense,"
say the thousands of Crisco users.
Tasty scalloped dishes, salad dressing, rich pastry, fine grained
cake, sauces and hundreds of other dishes, where butter formerly was
used, now are prepared with Crisco.
"A Woman Can Throw Out More with a Teaspoon Than a Man Can Bring Home
in a Wagon"
Kitchen expense comes by the _spoonful_. Think of the countless
spoonfuls of expensive butter used daily, where economical Crisco
would accomplish the same results at one-third the cost.
It should be remembered that one-fifth less Crisco than butter may be
used, because Crisco is _richer_ than butter. The moisture, salt and
curd which butter contains to the extent of about 20 per cent are not
found in Crisco, which is _all_, (100 per cent) shortening.
Remember also that Crisco will average _a lower price per pound
throughout the year than the best pail lard_. And you can use less
Crisco than lard, which is a further saving. [Illustration: Hotel
[Illustration: Domestic Scientists Use Crisco]
Brief, Interesting Facts
Crisco is being used in an increasing number of the better class
hotels, clubs, restaurants, dining cars, ocean liners.
Crisco has been demonstrated and explained upon the Chautauqua
platform by Domestic Science experts, these lectures being a part of
the regular course.
Domestic Science teachers recommend Crisco to their pupils and use it
in their classes and lecture demonstrations. Many High Schools having
Domestic Science departments use Crisco.
Crisco has taken the place of butter and lard in a number of
hospitals, where purity and digestibility are of _vital_ importance.
[Illustration: Hospital Dietetic Class]
Crisco is Kosher. Rabbi Margolies of New York, said that the Hebrew
Race had been waiting 4,000 years for Crisco. It conforms to the
strict Dietary Laws of the Jews. It is what is known in the Hebrew
language as a "parava," or neutral fat. Crisco can be used with
both "milchig" and "fleichig" (milk and flesh) foods. Special Kosher
packages, bearing the seals of Rabbi Margolies of New York, and Rabbi
Lifsitz of Cincinnati, are sold the Jewish trade. But all Crisco is
Kosher and all of the same purity.
[Illustration: The Kosher Seal]
Campers find Crisco helpful in many ways. Hot climates have little
effect upon its wholesomeness.
It is convenient; a handy package to pack and does not melt so quickly
in transit. One can of Crisco can be used to fry fish, eggs, potatoes
and to make hot biscuit, merely by straining out the food particles
after each frying and pouring the Crisco back into the can to harden
to proper consistency before the biscuit making.
Practically every grocer who has a good trade in Crisco, uses it in
his own home.
Crisco is sold by net weight. You pay _only_ for the Crisco--not the
can. Find the net weight of what you have been using.
Bread and cake keep fresh and moist much longer when Crisco is used.
Women have written that they use empty Crisco tins for canning
vegetables and fruits, and as receptacles for kitchen and pantry use.
Crisco's Manufacture Scientifically Explained
To understand something of the Crisco Process, it is necessary first
to know that there are three main constituents in all the best edible
Linoline, Oleine, Stearine.
The chemical difference between these three components is solely
in the percentage of hydrogen contained, and it is possible by the
addition of hydrogen, to transform one component into another.
Though seemingly so much alike, there is a marked difference in the
physical properties of these components.
Linoline which has the lowest percentage of hydrogen, is unstable and
tends to turn rancid.
Oleine is stable, has no tendency to turn rancid and is easily
Stearine is both hard and indigestible.
The Crisco process adds enough hydrogen to change almost all the
linoline into nourishing digestible oleine.
Mark well the difference in manufacture between Crisco and lard
compounds. In producing a lard compound, to the linoline, oleine and
stearine of the original oil is added more stearine (usually animal),
the hard indigestible fat, in order to bring up the hardness of the
oil. The resultant compound is indigestible and very liable to become
* * * * *
The following pages contain 615 recipes which have been tested by
Domestic Science Authorities in the Cooking Departments of different
colleges and other educational institutions, and by housewives in
their own kitchens. Many have been originated by Marion Harris Neil
and _all_ have been tested by her.
We have undertaken to submit a comprehensive list of recipes for your
use, which will enable you to serve menus of wide variety.
We hope that you have enjoyed reading this little volume and that you
will derive both help and satisfaction from the recipes.
We will go to any length to help you in the cause of Better Food. We
realize that women must study this product as they would any other
altogether new article of cookery, and that the study and care used
will be amply repaid by the palatability and healthfulness of all
foods. A can of Crisco is no Aladdin's Lamp, which merely need be
touched by a kitchen spoon to produce magical dishes. But _any_ woman
is able to achieve excellent results by mixing thought with Crisco.
Let us know how you progress.
[Illustration: The Procter & Gamble Co.]
_Things to Remember in Connection with These Recipes_
No need for Crisco to occupy valuable space in the refrigerator.
In fact, except in most unusual summer heat, it will be of a better
consistency outside the refrigerator. Crisco keeps sweet indefinitely,
summer and winter, at ordinary room temperature.
[Illustration: Use level measurements]
In making sauces, thoroughly blend the flour and Crisco before adding
In using melted Crisco in boiled dressing, croquettes, rolls,
fritters, etc., be sure that the melted Crisco is cooled sufficiently
so that the hot fat will not injure the texture of the foods.
When using in place of butter, add salt in the proportion of one level
teaspoonful to one cup of Crisco.
Remember that Crisco, like butter, is susceptible to cold. It readily
becomes hard. In creaming Crisco in winter use the same care as when
creaming butter. Rinse pan in boiling water and have the Crisco of
the proper creaming stiffness before using. Unlike butter, however,
Crisco's purity is not affected by weather. It remains sweet and pure
indefinitely without refrigeration.
In deep frying, do not wait for Crisco to smoke. (See page 35.)
_When pie crust is tough:_ It is possible you have not used Crisco
properly. Perhaps the measurements were not correct. Perhaps the water
was too warm, or the dough was handled too much. Shortening cannot
make pastry tough.
_When fried foods absorb:_ It is because Crisco is not hot enough, or
because you have not used enough Crisco. Use plenty and the raw foods,
if added in small quantities, will not reduce the heat of the fat. The
absorption in deep Crisco frying should be less than that of another
_When cake is not a success:_ It is not the fault of the Crisco.
Either too much was used, the oven heat not perfectly controlled or
some important ingredient was used in the wrong proportion. Crisco
should be creamed with the sugar more thoroughly than butter, as
Crisco contains no moisture to dissolve the sugar.
_When cake or other food is not flavory:_ Salt should have been added
to the Crisco, for Crisco contains no salt.
_When there is smoke in the kitchen:_ Crisco has been burned or heated
too high for frying. Or some may have been on the _outside_ of the pan
_When Crisco is too hard:_ Like butter, it is susceptible to heat and
cold. Simply put in a warmer place.
_Hints to Young Cooks_
_Also, How to Choose Foods, Methods of Cooking, Cooking Time Table,
The Art of Carving_, by MARION HARRIS NEIL.
Before commencing to cook, look up the required recipe, read and think
it out. Note down on a slip of paper the materials and quantities
required. Collect all utensils and materials required before
commencing. Success in cookery depends on careful attention to every
detail from start to finish. Quantities, both liquid and dry, should
be exact. Small scales and weights should form part of the kitchen
equipment where possible, and the measuring cups cost so little that
no one need be without them.
Throughout this book the measurements are level
_How to Choose Foods_
Money can be spent to infinitely better advantage in the store, than
by giving orders at the door, by phone or mail. Every housekeeper
knows how large a proportion of the housekeeping money is swallowed up
by the butcher's bill, so that with the meat item careful selection is
most necessary in order to keep the bills within bounds.
In choosing meat of any kind the eye, the nose and the touch really
are required, although it is not appetizing to see the purchaser use
more than the eye.
In choosing meat it should be remembered that without being actually
unwholesome, it varies greatly in quality, and often an inferior joint
is to be preferred from a first class beast to a more popular cut from
a second class animal. To be perfect the animal should be five or six
years old, the flesh of a close even grain, bright red in color and
well mixed with creamy white fat, the suet being firm and a clear
white. Heifer meat is smaller in the bone and lighter in color than
ox beef. Cow beef is much the same to look at as ox beef, though being
older it is both coarser in the grain and tougher; bull beef, which
is never seen however, in a first class butcher's may be recognized by
the coarseness and dark color of the flesh, and also by a strong and
almost rank smell.
To be in perfection, mutton should be at least four, or better five
or six years old, but sheep of this age are rarely if ever, met with
now-a-days, when they are constantly killed under two years. To know
the age of mutton, examine the breast bones; if these are all of a
white gristly color the animal was four years old or over, while the
younger it is the pinkier are the bones, which, in a sheep of under a
year, are entirely red.
Good mutton should be of a clear dark red, the fat firm and white,
and not too much of it; when touched the meat should feel crisp yet
tender. If the fat is yellow and the lean flabby and damp, it is bad.
A freshly scraped wooden skewer run into the meat along the bone
will speedily enable anyone to detect staleness. For roasting mutton
scarcely can be hung too long, as long as it is not tainted; but for
boiling it must not be kept nearly so long or the meat will be of a
bad color when cooked.
The freshness of lamb is comparatively easy to distinguish, as if
fresh the neck vein will be a bright blue, the knuckles stiff, and the
eyes bright and full.
Veal is at its best when the calf is from three to four months old.
The meat should be of a close firm grain, white in color and the fat
inclining to a pinkish tinge. Veal is sometimes coarser in the grain,
and redder in the flesh, not necessarily a mark of inferiority, but
denoting the fact that calf has been brought up in the open. Like all
young meat, veal turns very quickly, therefore it never should hang
more than two or three days. In choosing veal always examine the suet
under the kidney; if this be clammy and soft, with a faint odor, the
meat is not good, and always reject any that has greenish or yellowish
spots about it. The head should be clean skinned and firm, the eyes
full and clear, the kidneys large and well covered with fat, the liver
a rich dark clear color, free from any spots or gristle, while the
sweetbreads should be firm, plump, of a delicate color, and free from
The flesh of pork, when in good condition, is a delicate pinky white,
with a close fine grain; the fat, which should not be too abundant, of
a white color, very faintly tinged with pink; the skin should be thin
and elastic to the touch, and the flesh generally cool, clean, and
smooth looking; if, on the contrary, the flesh is flabby and clammy
when touched, it is not fresh.
Pork, like all white meat, is quick to taint, and never should be kept
long before cooking. If you have the slightest doubt about pork, it is
best to reject it, for unlike other meat which may be quite wholesome
and usable, though not of precisely prime quality, pork _must_ be
in really first class condition to be wholesome, and therefore it
is impossible to be too particular in the choice of it. Always if
possible look at the tongue, for, as in beef, this is a very fair
criterion of the condition of the animal; a freshly scraped new
wooden skewer run into the meat along the bone is a good test of the
freshness of the pork, and be careful especially to examine the fat,
for if there be little kernels in it the pork is "measly," a very
common disease among pigs, and one particularly unwholesome to the
Pigs for fresh pork should be of medium size, not over fat, and
under a year old. Pigs destined to become bacon are usually older and
larger. Sucking pigs should be small, and are best when about three
weeks old. A sucking pig should be cooked as soon as possible after
it is killed, as it taints very quickly; unless fresh, no care in the
cooking will make the crackling crisp, as it should be.
Good bacon has the lean of a bright pink and fine in the grain, while
the fat is white and firm. If the lean is high colored, it probably
has been over salted and is old besides, and in consequence will
be hard and salty; while if there be yellow marks in the fat, and
a curious, rather musty smell, it will have an unpleasant taste. In
choosing a ham always run a clean knife or skewer in at the knuckle,
and also at the center; if it comes out clean and smelling sweet,
the ham is good; but if out of order the blade of the knife will be
smeared and greasy looking, and have a disagreeable, strong odor.
The condition of venison is judged chiefly by the fat, which should be
a clear creamy white color, and close in texture. Always try venison
by running a sharp knife along the haunch bone, which is usually the
first to turn; if, in taking it out, the knife has a blackish-green
look and an unpleasant odor, the meat is tainted, and unfit for use.
Venison requires to be kept a considerable time before it is in proper
condition, and needs great care in its management. It must be examined
carefully every day, and if there is the slightest doubt, it should
be washed in lukewarm milk and water, then dried in clean cloths, and
when perfectly dry, should be covered thickly all over with ground
ginger and pepper; when required for use, dust off the pepper and
ginger, and wash the meat in a little lukewarm water, and dry it
thoroughly. Venison, like mutton, improves with age, and this can be
judged by the condition of the hoof, which in a young animal has a
small, smooth cleft, while in an old one it is deeply cut and rugged.
The haunch is the prime joint, its perfection depending on the greater
or less depth of the fat on it. The neck and shoulder also are very
good. They are used chiefly for stews or pies.
Hares and Rabbits
A hare when fresh killed is stiff and red; when stale, the body is
supple and the flesh in many parts black. If the hare be old the
ears will be tough and dry, and will not tear readily. Rabbits may
be judged in the same manner. In both, the claws should be smooth and
sharp. In a young hare the cleft in the lip is narrow, and the claws
are cracked readily if turned sideways.
Poultry to be perfect, should have just reached their full growth (the
only exceptions to this are "spring chickens," ducklings, goslings,
etc., which are considered delicacies at certain seasons); they should
be plump, firm fleshed, and not over fatted. Over-fed fowls are often
a mass of greasy fat, which melts in the cooking and spoils the flavor
of the bird. A hen is at her best just before she begins to lay; her
legs should be smooth, her comb small, bright, and soft. A young cock
has the comb full, bright colored, and smooth, the legs smooth, the
spurs short, and in both the toes should break easily when turned
back, and the weight of the birds should be great in proportion to
their size. Contrary to the practice with game, poultry never should
be kept long, as they turn easily, and are spoilt if the least high.
They also require longer cooking, in proportion to their size, than
game, and never should be underdone. Dark-legged fowls are best for
roasting, as their flesh is moister and better flavored cooked in this
way than the white-legged ones, which from their greater daintiness of
appearance are to be preferred for boiling.
_Turkeys_ should be plump, white-fleshed, young, the legs plump and
firm, black and smooth, with (in the cock) short spurs, the feet soft
and supple; the eyes should be full and clear, the neck long, and
the wattles of a bright color. A hen turkey is best for boiling.
Like fowls, an old turkey is fit for nothing but the stewpan or the
stockpot. Turkeys require hanging for at least a week, though they
must never be "high" or "gamey."
_Geese_ always should be chosen young, plump, and full breasted, a
white skin, a yellow smooth bill, the feet yellow and pliable. If the
feet and bill are red and hard, and the skin hairy and coarse, the
bird is old. Geese should be hung for a few days. Ducks, like geese,
should have yellow, supple feet; the breasts full and hard, and the
skin clear. Wild ducks should be fat, the feet small, reddish, and
pliable, the breast firm and heavy. If not fresh, there will be a
disagreeable smell when the bill is open. The male is generally the
more expensive, though the female is usually more delicate in flavor.
_Pigeons_ always should be young and extremely fresh, and when so,
they are plump and fat, with pliable smooth feet.
NOTE--In selecting game pluck a few feathers from the under part of
the leg; if the skin is not discolored the bird is fresh. The age may
be known by placing the thumb into the beak, and holding the bird up
with the jaw apart; if it breaks it is young; if not, it is old, and
requires longer keeping before cooking to be eatable.
_Guinea-fowl_ are judged like poultry, but require hanging for some
Fish in good condition usually is firm and elastic to the touch, eyes
bright and prominent, gills fresh and rosy. If the fish is flabby,
with sunken eyes, it either is stale or out of condition.
_Salmon_ should have a small head and tail, full thick shoulders,
clean silvery scales, and its flesh of a rich yellowish pink. When
quite fresh there is a creamy curd between the flakes, which are stiff
and hard; but if kept this melts, softening the flesh and rendering it
richer, but at the same time less digestible.
_Trout_, in spite of the difference in size, may be judged by the
same rule as salmon. However, it will not bear keeping, deteriorating
_Cod_, unlike salmon, should have a large head and thick shoulders;
the flesh being white and clear, and separating easily into large
flakes, the skin clean and silvery. Most people consider cod improves
by being kept for a day or two and very slightly salted.
_Herrings_ must be absolutely fresh to be good, and when in this state
their scales shine like silver. If kept over long their eyes become
suffused with blood.
_Mackerel_ also must be quite fresh. They never should be bought
if either out of condition or season. If fresh they are peculiarly
beautiful fish, their backs of an iridescent blue green barred with
black, and their bellies of a pearly whiteness.
_Smelts_ should be stiff and silvery, with a delicate perfume faintly
suggestive of cucumber.
_Halibut_ is a wholesome fish. It should be middling size, thick and
of a white color.
_Lobsters, Crabs, Prawns, and Shrimps_ are stiff, and with the tails
tightly pressed against the body. With the former, weight is a great
guide, as the heavier they are the better; but if there be the least
sign of wateriness, they should be rejected at once.
Green vegetables always are at their best when cheapest and most
plentiful. Out of season they never have the same flavor, however well
they may be grown. Excepting artichokes, all summer vegetables,
as lettuce, peas, beans, and asparagus should be cooked as soon as
possible after gathering. The freshness of most vegetables may be
ascertained easily by taking a leaf or a pod between the fingers. If
fresh this will snap off short and crisp, while if stale it will be
limp and soft. It is an economy to buy winter vegetables, such as
carrots, parsnips, turnips, beets, celery, and potatoes in large
quantities, if you have storage room, as if buried in sand and kept
from the frost they may be kept a considerable time. Onions should
be kept hung up in a cool, dry place. If allowed to sprout the flavor
becomes rank and coarse.
A mode of ascertaining the freshness of eggs is to hold them before a
lighted candle or to the light, and if the egg looks clear, it will
be tolerably good; if thick, it is stale; and if there is a black
spot attached to the shell, it is worthless. No egg should be used for
culinary purposes with the slightest taint in it, as it will render
perfectly useless those with which it has been mixed. Eggs may be
preserved, however, for a considerable time without any further
special precaution than that of keeping them in a cool place. A very
effective method of preserving eggs for winter use is to rub a little
melted Crisco over each to close the pores, and then to pack the eggs
in bran, salt or sawdust, not allowing them to touch each other.
_Methods of Cooking_
There are seven chief methods of cooking meat--roasting, boiling,
baking, stewing, frying, broiling and poaching.
The first three are most suitable for joints weighing four pounds
or more, but not satisfactory for smaller pieces which are liable to
become hard and flavorless by the drying up or loss of their juices.
Of the other three methods, stewing may be applied to fairly large and
solid pieces, but it is better for smaller thin ones, while frying and
broiling can be used only for steaks, chops, and similar cuts.
Braising and steaming are combinations and modifications of these
Roasting is one of the oldest methods of cooking on record, and still
remains the favorite form of cooking joints of meat or birds. The
success of every method of cooking depends largely upon the correct
management of the fire. In roasting, this is particularly the case,
as a clear, brisk and yet steady fire is needed. To roast a joint it
should be placed before great heat for the first ten minutes and then
allowed to cook more slowly. The great heat hardens the outside of the
meat and keeps in the juices. If allowed to cook quickly all the time
the meat is likely to be tough. The fire should be bright and clear.
The joint should be basted about every ten minutes, as this helps to
cook it, keeps it juicy and improves the flavor. The time allowed
is fifteen minutes for every pound, twenty minutes over for beef and
mutton; for veal and pork twenty minutes for every pound and thirty
Roasting in the oven of ordinary coal stoves or ranges is not
considered so good as roasting before an open fire; nevertheless it
may be said safely that the greatest part of meat roasting is done in
close ovens. It appears, from various experiments that meat roasted or
baked in a close oven loses rather less of its weight than if roasted
by an open fire.
The excellence of a roast depends to a great extent upon the amount of
basting it receives.
Some cooks season a joint before it is cooked, while others season it
with salt and pepper just before it is served. There is a difference
of opinion as to which is the more correct way of the two. Meat of
newly killed animals requires longer cooking than meat which has been
hung for a time.
In warm weather joints require slightly less time for roasting than in
Boned and rolled or stuffed meats require longer cooking than the same
joints would if neither rolled nor stuffed. The meat of young animals
and that of old ones requires different treatment. As a rule young
flesh, containing less fibrine, requires longer cooking. White meat,
such as pork, veal and lamb, always should be well cooked and never
must be served rare. The exact time and process of roasting must
be left to the good management of the cook, who must be guided by
circumstances and conditions. The cook's business is to serve the
joint as full of nourishing qualities as possible. Though roasting is
considered one of the easiest and most simple processes of cookery, it
really requires quite as much attention to obtain perfect results as
is necessary to prepare so-called "made" dishes, the recognized test
for good cooks.
Boiling (of fresh meat).--This is cookery by immersion in boiling
liquid, which after a few minutes is reduced to simmering. The object
of the high temperature at first is to harden the surface albumen and
so seal the pores and prevent the escape of the juices. If continued
too long, this degree of heat would tend to toughen the joint
throughout; after the first few minutes, therefore, the heat must be
reduced to about 180 deg. F. The pan used for boiling meat should be only
just large enough to hold the joint, and the quantity of liquid no
more than is required to cover it. For the boiling of salt meat the
general rule of first hardening the surface is not to be followed. The
salting of meat withdraws a large proportion of its juices, while at
the same time the salt hardens the fibres, and this hardness would
be intensified by extreme heat. Very salt meat sometimes is soaked in
cold water to extract some of the salt, but whether this is done or
not, the rule for boiling salt meat is to immerse it in cold or tepid
water and bring slowly to boiling point; boil for five minutes to seal
the pores and prevent any further loss of juice, then reduce to 180 deg.
F., and maintain a uniform temperature till the meat is cooked. Salt
meat takes longer to cook than fresh meat, and the saltness may be
qualified by boiling vegetables with the meat, turnips especially
being useful for this purpose.
The actual differences between roasting and baking are not great, the
terms being frequently interchanged. Meat loses rather less weight
when baked than when roasted, but the flavor of meat is inferior
and less developed. The heat of an oven being steadier, baking takes
somewhat less time than roasting. In a gas oven having an open
floor the current of air is not impeded, and such baking very nearly
approaches roasting, and the flavor generally is acknowledged to be
Stewing is cooking slowly with a small quantity of liquid in a covered
vessel. The method is specially suitable for the coarser and cheaper
parts of meat, which are rendered tender without loss of their juices.
The usual plan is to make a gravy flavored and colored to suit the
stew, and after the ingredients are well blended and cooked to lay
the meat in the boiling liquid. After about two minutes boiling,
the temperature is reduced to simmering, about 160 deg. F., a lower
temperature than that required for a large joint of "boiled" meat. The
time depends greatly on the quality of the meat, but none will stew
satisfactorily in less than from one and a half to two hours, and the
longer allowance is to be preferred.
Broiling, sometimes called grilling, is cooking by the direct action
of fire brought almost into contact with the meat. The outer surface
is burned or seared, the albumen hardened and the juices, which have
a tendency to escape on the side turned from the heat, are retained
in the meat by frequent turning. The fire for broiling must be very
clear, intensely hot and high in the grate. The utensil required for
broiling is a gridiron, the bars of which are greased and heated to
prevent sticking and subsequent tearing of the meat. The gridiron is
laid quite close over the heat, so that the lower surface is dried and
hardened at once.
The meat must be turned at very short intervals before the juices have
been driven from the heat to the opposite surface. If once allowed to
reach the surface, they will be thrown off in turning and lost, the
meat being correspondingly impoverished. By constant turning the
juices are kept moving backwards and forwards, and the meat remains
moist and full of flavor. Each side should be exposed to the fire
about three times, and it is not desirable to use meat less than one
inch or more than one and a half to two inches thick for the purpose.
The thinner pieces should have even greater heat applied than the
thick ones, as the longer thin ones are exposed to the fire the
more dry and tasteless they become, while the thicker pieces may be
slightly withdrawn after thoroughly hardening the surface and cooked