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The Scholemaster by Roger Ascham

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choice of // as, by the iudgement of Quintilian, he deserueth
his Argu- // so hie a praise, that no man yet deserued to sit
ment. // in the second degree beneth him. And thus moch
out of my way, concerning my purpose in spending penne, and
paper, & tyme, vpon trifles, & namelie to aunswere some, that
haue neither witte nor learning, to do any thyng them selues,
neither will nor honestie, to say well of other.
To ioyne learnyng with cumlie exercises, Conto Baldesær
The Cor- // Castiglione in his booke, Cortegiano, doth trimlie
tegian, an // teache: which booke, aduisedlie read, and dili-
excellent // gentlie folowed, but one yeare at home in
booke for a // England, would do a yong ientleman more good,
ientleman. // I wisse, then three yeares trauell abrode spent in
Italie. And I meruell this booke, is no more read in the Court,
than it is, seying it is so well translated into English by a worthie
Syr Tho. // Ientleman Syr Th. Hobbie, who was many wayes
Hobbye. // well furnished with learnyng, and very expert in
knowledge of diuers tonges.
And beside good preceptes in bookes, in all kinde of tonges,
this Court also neuer lacked many faire examples, for yong
Examples // ientlemen to folow: And surelie, one example,
better than // is more valiable, both to good and ill, than xx.
preceptes. // preceptes written in bookes: and so Plato, not in
one or two, but diuerse places, doth plainlie teach.

the brynging vp of youth. 219

If kyng Edward had liued a litle longer, his onely example
had breed soch a rase of worthie learned ientlemen, // King Ed. 6.
as this Realme neuer yet did affourde.
And, in the second degree, two noble Primeroses of
Nobilitie, the yong Duke of Suffolke, and Lord // The yong
H. Matreuers, were soch two examples to the // Duke of
Court for learnyng, as our tyme may rather wishe, // Suffolke.
than looke for agayne. // L. H. Mar-
// treuers.
At Cambrige also, in S. Iohns Colledge, in
my tyme, I do know, that, not so much the good statutes, as two
Ientlemen, of worthie memorie Syr Iohn Cheke, // Syr John
and Doctour Readman, by their onely example // Cheke.
of excellency in learnyng, of godlynes in liuyng, of
diligencie in studying, of councell in exhorting, of good order in
all thyng, did breed vp, so many learned men, in // D. Read-
that one College of S. Iohns, at one time, as I // man.
beleue, the whole Vniuersitie of Louaine, in many
yeares, was neuer able to affourd.
Present examples of this present tyme, I list not to
touch: yet there is one example, for all the Ien- // Queene
tlemen of this Court to folow, that may well // Elisabeth.
satisfie them, or nothing will serue them, nor no
example moue them, to goodnes and learning.
It is your shame, (I speake to you all, you yong Ientlemen
of England) that one mayd should go beyond you all, in excel-
lencie of learnyng, and knowledge of diuers tonges. Pointe
forth six of the best giuen Ientlemen of this Court, and all they
together, shew not so much good will, spend not so much tyme,
bestow not so many houres, dayly orderly, & constantly, for the
increase of learning & knowledge, as doth the Queenes Maiestie
her selfe. Yea I beleue, that beside her perfit readines, in
Latin, Italian, French, & Spanish, she readeth here now at
Windsore more Greeke euery day, than some Prebendarie of
this Chirch doth read Latin in a whole weeke. And that
which is most praise worthie of all, within the walles of her
priuie chamber, she hath obteyned that excellencie of learnyng,
to vnderstand, speake, & write, both wittely with head, and
faire with hand, as scarse one or two rare wittes in both the
Vniuersities haue in many yeares reached vnto. Amongest
all the benefites yt God hath blessed me with all, next the

220 The first booke teachyng

knowledge of Christes true Religion, I counte this the greatest,
that it pleased God to call me, to be one poore minister in
settyng forward these excellent giftes of learnyng in this most
excellent Prince. Whose onely example, if the rest of our
Ill Exam- // nobilitie would folow, than might England be,
ples haue // for learnyng and wisedome in nobilitie, a spectacle
more force, // to all the world beside. But see the mishap of
then good // men: The best examples haue neuer such forse
examples. // to moue to any goodnes, as the bad, vaine, light
and fond, haue to all ilnes.
And one example, though out of the compas of learning,
yet not out of the order of good maners, was notable in this
Courte, not fullie xxiiij. yeares a go, when all the actes of
Parlament, many good Proclamations, diuerse strait commanude-
mentes, sore punishment openlie, speciall regarde priuatelie, cold
not do so moch to take away one misorder, as the example of
one big one of this Courte did, still to kepe vp the same: The
memorie whereof, doth yet remaine, in a common prouerbe of
Birching lane.
Take hede therfore, ye great ones in ye Court, yea though
Great men // ye be ye greatest of all, take hede, what ye do,
in Court, // take hede how ye liue. For as you great ones
by their // vse to do, so all meane men loue to do. You be
example, // in deed, makers or marrers, of all mens maners
make or // within the Realme. For though God hath placed
marre, all // yow, to be cheife in making of lawes, to beare
other mens // greatest authoritie, to commaund all others: yet
maners. // God doth order, that all your lawes, all your authoritie, all your
commaundementes, do not halfe so moch with meane men, as
Example // doth your example and maner of liuinge. And
in Religion. // for example euen in the greatest matter, if yow
your selues do serue God gladlie and orderlie for
conscience sake, not coldlie, and somtyme for maner sake, you
carie all the Courte with yow, and the whole Realme beside,
earnestlie and orderlie to do the same. If yow do otherwise,
yow be the onelie authors, of all misorders in Religion, not
onelie to the Courte, but to all England beside. Infinite shall
be made cold in Religion by your example, that neuer were
hurt by reading of bookes.
And in meaner matters, if three or foure great ones in

the brynging vp of youth. 221

Courte, will nedes outrage in apparell, in huge hose, in mon-
strous hattes, in gaurishe colers, let the Prince Pro- // Example
clame, make Lawes, order, punishe, commaunde // in apparell.
euerie gate in London dailie to be watched, let all
good men beside do euerie where what they can, surelie the
misorder of apparell in mean men abrode, shall neuer be
amended, except the greatest in Courte will order and mend
them selues first. I know, som greate and good ones in Courte,
were authors, that honest Citizens of London, shoulde watche
at euerie gate, to take misordered persones in apparell. I know,
that honest Londoners did so: And I sawe, which I saw than,
& reporte now with some greife, that som Courtlie men were
offended with these good men of London. And that, which
greued me most of all, I sawe the verie same tyme, for all theis
good orders, commaunded from the Courte and executed in
London, I sawe I say, cum out of London, euen // Masters,
vnto the presence of the Prince, a great rable of // Vshers, &
meane and light persons, in apparell, for matter, // Scholers
against lawe, for making, against order, for facion, // of fense.
namelie hose, so without all order, as he thought himselfe most
braue, that durst do most in breaking order and was most
monsterous in misorder. And for all the great commaunde-
mentes, that came out of the Courte, yet this bold misorder,
was winked at, and borne withall, in the Courte. I thought,
it was not well, that som great ones of the Court, durst declare
themselues offended, with good men of London, for doinge their
dewtie, & the good ones of the Courte, would not shew them-
selues offended, with ill men of London, for breaking good
order. I fownde thereby a sayinge of Socrates to be most trewe
that ill men be more hastie, than good men be forwarde, to
prosecute their purposes, euen as Christ himselfe saith, of the
Children of light and darknes.
Beside apparell, in all other thinges to, not so moch, good
lawes and strait commaundementes as the example and maner
of liuing of great men, doth carie all meane men euerie where,
to like, and loue, & do, as they do. For if but two or three
noble men in the Court, wold but beginne to // Example
shoote, all yong Ientlemen, the whole Court, all // in shoo-
London, the whole Realme, wold straight waie // tyng.
exercise shooting.

222 The first booke teachyng

What praise shold they wynne to themselues, what com-
moditie shold they bring to their contrey, that would thus
deserue to be pointed at: Beholde, there goeth, the author of
good order, the guide of good men. I cold say more, and yet
not ouermuch. But perchance, som will say, I haue stepte to
farre, out of my schole, into the common welthe, from teaching
Written not // a yong scholer, to monishe greate and noble men:
for great // yet I trust good and wise men will thinke and
men, but for // iudge of me, that my minde was, not so moch,
great mens // to be busie and bold with them, that be great
children. // now, as to giue trewe aduise to them, that may
be great hereafter. Who, if they do, as I wishe them to do,
how great so euer they be now, by blood and other mens
meanes, they shall becum a greate deale greater hereafter, by
learninge, vertue, and their owne desertes: which is trewe praise,
right worthines, and verie Nobilitie in deede. Yet, if som will
needes presse me, that I am to bold with great men, & stray to
Ad Philip. // farre from my matter, I will aunswere them with
S. Paul, siue perc ontentionem, siue quocunqe modo,
modò Christus prædicetur, &c.
euen so, whether in place, or out
of place, with my matter, or beside my matter, if I can hereby
either prouoke the good, or staye the ill, I shall thinke my
writing herein well imployed.
But, to cum downe, from greate men, and hier matters, to
my litle children, and poore scholehouse againe, I will, God
willing, go forwarde orderlie, as I purposed, to instructe
Children and yong men, both for learninge and maners.
Hitherto, I haue shewed, what harme, ouermoch feare
bringeth to children: and what hurte, ill companie, and ouer-
moch libertie breedeth in yougthe: meening thereby, that from
seauen yeare olde, to seauentene, loue is the best allurement to
learninge: from seauentene to seauen and twentie, that wise
men shold carefullie see the steppes of yougthe surelie staide by
good order, in that most slipperie tyme: and speciallie in the
Courte, a place most dangerous for yougthe to liue in, without
great grace, good regarde, and diligent looking to.
Syr Richard Sackuile, that worthy Ientlemen of worthy
Trauelyng // memorie, as I sayd in the begynnynge, in the
into Ita- // Queenes priuie Chamber at Windesore, after he
lie. // had talked with me, for the right choice of a good

the brynging vp of youth. 223

witte in a child for learnyng, and of the trewe difference betwixt
quicke and hard wittes, of alluring yong children by ientlenes
to loue learnyng, and of the speciall care that was to be had, to
keepe yong men from licencious liuyng, he was most earnest
with me, to haue me say my mynde also, what I thought,
concernyng the fansie that many yong Ientlemen of England
haue to trauell abroad, and namely to lead a long lyfe in Italie.
His request, both for his authoritie, and good will toward me,
was a sufficient commaundement vnto me, to satisfie his
pleasure, with vtteryng plainlie my opinion in that matter.
Syr quoth I, I take goyng thither, and liuing there, for a yonge
ientleman, that doth not goe vnder the kepe and garde of such
a man, as both, by wisedome can, and authoritie dare rewle him,
to be meruelous dangerous. And whie I said so than, I will
declare at large now: which I said than priuatelie, and write
now openlie, not bicause I do contemne, either the knowledge
of strange and diuerse tonges, and namelie the // The Ita-
Italian tonge, which next the Greeke and Latin // lian tong.
tonge, I like and loue aboue all other: or else
bicause I do despise, the learning that is gotten, or the experi-
ence that is gathered in strange contries: or for any priuate
malice that beare to Italie: which contrie, and // Italia.
in it, namelie Rome, I haue alwayes speciallie
honored: bicause, tyme was, whan Italie and // Roma.
Rome, haue bene, to the greate good of vs that now liue, the
best breeders and bringers vp, of the worthiest men, not onelie
for wise speakinge, but also for well doing, in all Ciuill affaires,
that euer was in the worlde. But now, that tyme is gone, and
though the place remayne, yet the olde and present maners, do
differ as farre, as blacke and white, as vertue and vice. Vertue
once made that contrie Mistres ouer all the worlde. Vice now
maketh that contrie slaue to them, that before, were glad to
serue it. All men seeth it: They themselues confesse it,
namelie soch, as be best and wisest amongest them. For sinne,
by lust and vanitie, hath and doth breed vp euery where,
common contempt of Gods word, priuate contention in many
families, open factions in euery Citie: and so, makyng them
selues bonde, to vanitie and vice at home, they are content to
beare the yoke of seruyng straungers abroad. Italie now, is not
that Italie, that it was wont to be: and therfore now, not so

224 The first booke teachyng

fitte a place, as some do counte it, for yong men to fetch either
wisedome or honestie from thence. For surelie, they will make
other but bad Scholers, that be so ill Masters to them selues.
Yet, if a ientleman will nedes trauell into Italie, he shall do
well, to looke on the life, of the wisest traueler, that euer
traueled thether, set out by the wisest writer, that euer spake
with tong, Gods doctrine onelie excepted: and that is Vlysses in
Vlysses. // Homere. Vlysses, and his trauell, I wishe our
Homere. // trauelers to looke vpon, not so much to feare
them, with the great daungers, that he many
tymes suffered, as to instruct them, with his excellent wisedome,
which he alwayes and euerywhere vsed. Yea euen those, that
be learned and wittie trauelers, when they be disposed to prayse
traueling, as a great commendacion, and the best Scripture they
haue for it, they gladlie recite the third verse of Homere, in his
first booke of Odyssea, conteinyng a great prayse of Vlysses, for
odys. a. // the witte he gathered, & wisdome he vsed in
his traueling.
Which verse, bicause, in mine opinion, it was not made at
the first, more naturallie in Greke by Homere, nor after turned
more aptlie into Latin by Horace, than it was a good while
ago, in Cambrige, translated into English, both plainlie for the
sense, and roundlie for the verse, by one of the best Scholers,
that euer S. Iohns Colledge bred, M. Watson, myne old frend,
somtime Bishop of Lincolne, therfore, for their sake, that haue
lust to see, how our English tong, in auoidyng barbarous
ryming, may as well receiue, right quantitie of sillables, and
trewe order of versifiyng (of which matter more at large here-
after) as either Greke or Latin, if a cunning man haue it in
handling, I will set forth that one verse in all three tonges, for
an Example to good wittes, that shall delite in like learned
pollon d anthropon iden astea kai noon egno.
Qui mores hominum multorum vidit & vrbes.
M. Watson.
All trauellers do gladly report great prayse of Vlysses,
For that he knew many mens maners, and saw many Cities.

the brynging vp of youth. 225

And yet is not Vlysses commended, so much, nor so oft, in
Homere, bicause he was polytropos, that is, // | {polytropos.
skilfull in many mens manners and facions, as // | Vlyss. {
bicause he was polymetis, that is, wise in all // | { polymetis.
purposes, & ware in all places: which wisedome and warenes
will not serue neither a traueler, except Pallas be // Pallas from
alwayes at his elbow, that is Gods speciall grace // heauen.
from heauen, to kepe him in Gods feare, in all
his doynges, in all his ieorneye. For, he shall not alwayes
in his absence out of England, light vpon a
ientle Alcynous, and walke in his faire gardens // | Alcynous. od. 2.
full of all harmelesse pleasures: but he shall // |
sometymes, fall, either into the handes of some // |
cruell Cyclops, or into the lappe of some wanton // | Cyclops. od. 1.
and dalying Dame Calypso: and so suffer the // | Calypso. od. e.
danger of many a deadlie Denne, not so full of // |
perils, to distroy the body, as, full of vayne // |
pleasures, to poyson the mynde. Some Siren // | Sirenes. }
shall sing him a song, sweete in tune, but // | }
sownding in the ende, to his vtter destruction. // | Scylla. } od.
If Scylla drowne him not, Carybdis may fortune // | Caribdis. }
swalow hym. Some Circes shall make him, of // | Circes. od. k.
a plaine English man, a right Italian. And at
length to hell, or to some hellish place, is he likelie to go: from
whence is hard returning, although one Vlysses, and that by
Pallas ayde, and good counsell of Tiresias once // od. l.
escaped that horrible Den of deadly darkenes.
Therfore, if wise men will nedes send their sonnes into
Italie, let them do it wiselie, vnder the kepe and garde of him,
who, by his wisedome and honestie, by his example and
authoritie, may be hable to kepe them safe and sound, in the
feare of God, in Christes trewe Religion, in good order and
honestie of liuyng: except they will haue them run headling,
into ouermany ieoperdies, as Vlysses had done many tymes, if
Pallas had not alwayes gouerned him: if he had not vsed, to
stop his eares with waxe: to bind him selfe to // od. m.
the mast of his shyp: to feede dayly, vpon that // od. k.
swete herbe Moly with the blake roote and // Moly Her-
white floore, giuen vnto hym by Mercurie, to // ba.
auoide all the inchantmentes of Circes. Wherby, the Diuine

226 The first booke teachyng

Poete Homer ment couertlie (as wise and Godly men do iudge)
Psal. 33. // that loue of honestie, and hatred of ill, which
Dauid more plainly doth call the feare of God:
the onely remedie agaynst all inchantementes of sinne.
I know diuerse noble personages, and many worthie Ientle-
men of England, whom all the Siren songes of Italie, could
neuer vntwyne from the maste of Gods word: nor no inchant-
ment of vanitie, ouerturne them, from the feare of God, and
loue of honestie.
But I know as many, or mo, and some, sometyme my
deare frendes, for whose sake I hate going into that countrey the
more, who, partyng out of England feruent in the loue of
Christes doctrine, and well furnished with the feare of God,
returned out of Italie worse transformed, than euer was any in
Circes Court. I know diuerse, that went out of England, men
of innocent life, men of excellent learnyng, who returned out
of Italie, not onely with worse maners, but also with lesse
learnyng: neither so willing to liue orderly, nor yet so hable to
speake learnedlie, as they were at home, before they went
abroad. And why? Plato yt wise writer, and worthy
traueler him selfe, telleth the cause why. He went into Sicilia,
a countrey, no nigher Italy by site of place, than Italie that is
now, is like Sicilia that was then, in all corrupt maners and
licenciousnes of life. Plato found in Sicilia, euery Citie full of
vanitie, full of factions, euen as Italie is now. And as Homere,
like a learned Poete, doth feyne, that Circes, by pleasant in-
chantmentes, did turne men into beastes, some into Swine, som
into Asses, some into Foxes, some into Wolues etc. euen so
Plat. ad // Plato, like a wise Philosopher, doth plainelie
Dionys. // declare, that pleasure, by licentious vanitie, that
Epist. 3. // sweete and perilous poyson of all youth, doth
ingender in all those, that yeld vp themselues to her, foure
notorious properties.
{1. lethen
The fruits // {2. dysmathian
of vayne // {3. achrosynen
pleasure. // {4. ybrin.
The first, forgetfulnes of all good thinges learned before:
Causes // the second, dulnes to receyue either learnyng or
why men // honestie euer after: the third, a mynde embracing

the brynging vp of youth. 227

lightlie the worse opinion, and baren of discretion // returne out
to make trewe difference betwixt good and ill, // of Italie,
betwixt troth, and vanitie, the fourth, a proude // lesse lear-
disdainfulnes of other good men, in all honest // ned and
matters. Homere and Plato, haue both one // worse ma-
meanyng, looke both to one end. For, if a man // nered.
inglutte himself with vanitie, or walter in filthi- // Homer and
nes like a Swyne, all learnyng, all goodnes, is // Plato ioy-
sone forgotten: Than, quicklie shall he becum // ned and ex-
a dull Asse, to vnderstand either learnyng or //pounded.
honestie: and yet shall he be as sutle as a Foxe, // A Swyne.
in breedyng of mischief, in bringyng in misorder, // An Asse.
with a busie head, a discoursing tong, and a factious harte, in // A Foxe.
euery priuate affaire, in all matters of state, with this pretie
propertie, alwayes glad to commend the worse // aphrosyne,
partie, and euer ready to defend the falser // Quid, et
opinion. And why? For, where will is giuen // vnde.
from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone caryed from right
iudgement, to any fond opinion, in Religion, in Philosophie, or
any other kynde of learning. The fourth fruite of vaine
pleasure, by Homer and Platos iudgement, is pride // hybris.
in them selues, contempt of others, the very
badge of all those that serue in Circes Court. The trewe
meenyng of both Homer and Plato, is plainlie declared in one
short sentence of the holy Prophet of God // Hieremias
Hieremie, crying out of the vaine & vicious life // 4. Cap.
of the Israelites. This people (sayth he) be
fooles and dulhedes to all goodnes, but sotle, cunning and
bolde, in any mischiefe. &c.
The true medicine against the inchantmentes of Circes,
the vanitie of licencious pleasure, the inticementes of all sinne,
is, in Homere, the herbe Moly, with the blacke roote, and white
flooer, sower at the first, but sweete in the end: which,
Hesiodus termeth the study of vertue, hard and // Hesiodus
irksome in the beginnyng, but in the end, easie // de virtute.
and pleasant. And that, which is most to be
marueled at, the diuine Poete Homere sayth plainlie that this
medicine against sinne and vanitie, is not found // Homerus,
out by man, but giuen and taught by God. And // diuinus
for some one sake, that will haue delite to read // Poeta.

228 The first booke teachyng

that sweete and Godlie Verse, I will recite the very wordes of
Homere and also turne them into rude English metre.

chalepon de t oryssein
andrasi ge thnetoisi, theoi de te panta dynantai.

In English thus.

No mortall man, with sweat of browe, or toile of minde,
But onely God, who can do all, that herbe doth finde.

Plato also, that diuine Philosopher, hath many Godly
medicines agaynst the poyson of vayne pleasure, in many
places, but specially in his Epistles to Dionisius the tyrant of
Plat. ad // Sicilie: yet agaynst those, that will nedes becum
Dio. // beastes, with seruyng of Circes, the Prophet
Psal. 32 // Dauid, crieth most loude, Nolite fieri sicut equus et
: and by and by giueth the right medi-
cine, the trewe herbe Moly, In camo & freno maxillas
eorum constringe
, that is to say, let Gods grace be the bitte,
let Gods feare be the bridle, to stay them from runnyng head-
long into vice, and to turne them into the right way agayne.
Psal. 33. // Dauid in the second Psalme after, giueth the
same medicine, but in these plainer wordes,
Diuerte à malo, & fac bonum. But I am affraide, that ouer
many of our trauelers into Italie, do not exchewe the way to
Circes Court: but go, and ryde, and runne, and flie thether,
they make great hast to cum to her: they make great sute to
serue her: yea, I could point out some with my finger, that
neuer had gone out of England, but onelie to serue Circes, in
Italie. Vanitie and vice, and any licence to ill liuyng in
England was counted stale and rude vnto them. And so, beyng
Mules and Horses before they went, returned verie Swyne and
Asses home agayne: yet euerie where verie Foxes with suttle
A trewe // and busie heades; and where they may, verie
Picture of // wolues, with cruell malicious hartes. A mer-
a knight of // uelous monster, which, for filthines of liuyng, for
Circes // dulnes to learning him selfe, for wilinesse in
Court. // dealing with others, for malice in hurting without
cause, should carie at once in one bodie, the belie of a Swyne,
the head of an Asse, the brayne of a Foxe, the wombe of
a wolfe. If you thinke, we iudge amisse, and write to sore

the brynging vp of youth. 229

against you, heare, what the Italian sayth of the English man,
what the master reporteth of the scholer: who // The Ita-
vttereth playnlie, what is taught by him, and what // lians iudge-
learned by you, saying, Englese Italianato, e vn // ment of
diabolo incarnato, that is to say, you remaine men // Englishmen
in shape and facion, but becum deuils in life // brought vp
and condition. This is not, the opinion of one, // in Italie.
for some priuate spite, but the iudgement of all, in a common
Prouerbe, which riseth, of that learnyng, and those maners,
which you gather in Italie: a good Scholehouse // The Ita-
of wholesome doctrine: and worthy Masters of // lian diffa-
commendable Scholers, where the Master had // meth him
rather diffame hym selfe for hys teachyng, than // selfe, to
not shame his Scholer for his learning. A good // shame the
nature of the maister, and faire conditions of the // Englishe
scholers. And now chose you, you Italian English men, // man.
whether you will be angrie with vs, for calling you monsters,
or with the Italianes, for callyng you deuils, or else with your
owne selues, that take so much paines, and go so farre, to make
your selues both. If some yet do not well vnder- // An Eng-
stand, what is an English man Italianated, I will // lish man
plainlie tell him. He, that by liuing, & traueling // Italiana-
in Italie, bringeth home into England out of Italie, // ted.
the Religion, the learning, the policie, the experience, the maners
of Italie. That is to say, for Religion, // | {1 Religion.}
Papistrie or worse: for learnyng, lesse // | {2 Learn- }
commonly than they caried out with // | { ing. }
them: for pollicie, a factious hart, a // | {3 Pollicie. }
discoursing head, a mynde to medle in // |The{ }gotten in
all mens matters: for experience, // | {4 Experi- }Italie.
plentie of new mischieues neuer // | { ence. }
knowne in England before: for maners, // | {5 Maners. }
varietie of vanities, and chaunge of // |
filthy lyuing. These be the inchantementes of Circes, brought
out of Italie, to marre mens maners in England: much, by
example of ill life, but more by preceptes of fonde // Italian
bookes, of late translated out of Italian into // bokes trans-
English, sold in euery shop in London, com- // lated into
mended by honest titles the soner to corrupt // English.
honest maners: dedicated ouer boldlie to vertuous and honor-

230 The first booke teachyng

able personages, the easielier to begile simple and innocent wittes.
hand.gif // It is pitie, that those, which haue authoritie and
charge, to allow and dissalow bookes to be printed,
be no more circumspect herein, than they are. Ten Sermons
at Paules Crosse do not so moch good for mouyng men to trewe
doctrine, as one of those bookes do harme, with inticing men
to ill liuing. Yea, I say farder, those bookes, tend not so moch
to corrupt honest liuyng, as they do, to subuert trewe Religion.
Mo Papistes be made, by your mery bookes of Italie, than by
your earnest bookes of Louain. And bicause our great
Phisicians, do winke at the matter, and make no counte of this
sore, I, though not admitted one of their felowshyp, yet hauyng
bene many yeares a prentice to Gods trewe Religion, and trust
to continewe a poore iorney man therein all dayes of my life,
for the dewtie I owe, & loue I beare, both to trewe doctrine,
and honest liuing, though I haue no authoritie to amend the
sore my selfe, yet I will declare my good will, to discouer the
sore to others.
S. Paul saith, that sectes and ill opinions, be the workes of
Ad Gal. 5. // the flesh, and frutes of sinne, this is spoken, no
more trewlie for the doctrine, than sensiblie for
the reason. And why? For, ill doinges, breed ill thinkinges.
And of corrupted maners, spryng peruerted iudgementes. And
Voluntas} {Bonum. | // how? there be in man two speciall
} Respicit. { | // thinges: Mans will, mans mynde,
Mens } { Verum. | Where will inclineth to goodnes,
the mynde is bent to troth: Where will is caried from goodnes
to vanitie, the mynde is sone drawne from troth to false
opinion. And so, the readiest way to entangle the mynde with
false doctrine, is first to intice the will to wanton liuyng.
Therfore, when the busie and open Papistes abroad, could not,
by their contentious bookes, turne men in England fast enough,
from troth and right iudgement in doctrine, than the sutle and
hand.gif // secrete Papistes at home, procured bawdie bookes
to be translated out of the Italian tonge, whereby
ouer many yong willes and wittes allured to wantonnes, do now
boldly contemne all seuere bookes that sounde to honestie and
godlines. In our forefathers tyme, whan Papistrie, as a standyng
poole, couered and ouerflowed all England, fewe bookes were
read in our tong, sauyng certaine bookes of Cheualrie, as they

the brynging vp of youth. 231

sayd, for pastime and pleasure, which, as some say, were made
in Monasteries, by idle Monkes, or wanton Chanons: as one
for example, Morte Arthure: the whole pleasure // Morte Ar-
of which booke standeth in two speciall poyntes, // thur.
in open mans slaughter, and bold bawdrye: In which booke
those be counted the noblest Knightes, that do kill most men
without any quarell, and commit fowlest aduoulteries by
sutlest shiftes: as Sir Launcelote, with the wife of king Arthure
his master: Syr Tristram with the wife of king Marke his
vncle: Syr Lamerocke with the wife of king Lote, // hand.gif
that was his own aunte. This is good stuffe, for
wise men to laughe at, or honest men to take pleasure at. Yet
I know, when Gods Bible was banished the Court, and Morte
receiued into the Princes chamber. What toyes, the
dayly readyng of such a booke, may worke in the will of a yong
ientleman, or a yong mayde, that liueth welthelie and idlelie,
wise men can iudge, and honest men do pitie. And yet ten
Morte Arthures do not the tenth part so much harme, as one of
these bookes, made in Italie, and translated in // hand.gif
England. They open, not fond and common
wayes to vice, but such subtle, cunnyng, new, and diuerse
shiftes, to cary yong willes to vanitie, and yong wittes to
mischief, to teach old bawdes new schole poyntes, as the simple
head of an English man is not hable to inuent, nor neuer was
hard of in England before, yea when Papistrie ouerflowed all.
Suffer these bookes to be read, and they shall soone displace all
bookes of godly learnyng. For they, carying the will to
vanitie, and marryng good maners, shall easily // hand.gif
corrupt the mynde with ill opinions, and false
iudgement in doctrine: first, to thinke ill of all trewe Religion,
and at last to thinke nothyng of God hym selfe, one speciall
pointe that is to be learned in Italie, and Italian // hand.gif
bookes. And that which is most to be lamented,
and therfore more nedefull to be looked to, there be moe of
these vngratious bookes set out in Printe within these fewe
monethes, than haue bene sene in England many score yeare
before. And bicause our English men made Italians, can not
hurt, but certaine persons, and in certaine places, therfore these
Italian bookes are made English, to bryng mischief enough

232 The first booke teachyng

openly and boldly, to all states great and meane, yong and old,
euery where.
And thus yow see, how will intised to wantonnes, doth
easelie allure the mynde to false opinions: and how corrupt
maners in liuinge, breede false iudgement in doctrine: how sinne
and fleshlines, bring forth sectes and heresies: And therefore
suffer not vaine bookes to breede vanitie in mens willes, if yow
would haue Goddes trothe take roote in mens myndes.
That Italian, that first inuented the Italian Prouerbe
against our Englishe men Italianated, ment no more their
The Ita- // vanitie in liuing, than their lewd opinion in
lian pro- // Religion. For, in calling them Deuiles, he carieth
uerbe ex- // them cleane from God: and yet he carieth them
pounded. // no farder, than they willinglie go themselues,
that is, where they may freely say their mindes, to the open
contempte of God and all godlines, both in liuing and doctrine.
And how? I will expresse how, not by a Fable of Homere,
nor by the Philosophie of Plato, but by a plaine troth of
Goddes word, sensiblie vttered by Dauid thus. Thies men,
abhominabiles facti in studijs suis, thinke verily, and singe
gladlie the verse before, Dixit insipiens in Corde suo, non est
Psa. 14. // Deus: that is to say, they geuing themselues vp to
vanitie, shakinge of the motions of Grace, driuing
from them the feare of God, and running headlong into all
sinne, first, lustelie contemne God, than scornefullie mocke his
worde, and also spitefullie hate and hurte all well willers
thereof. Than they haue in more reuerence, the triumphes of
Petrarche: than the Genesis of Moses: They make more
accounte of Tullies offices, than S. Paules epistles: of a tale in
Bocace, than a storie of the Bible. Than they counte as
Fables, the holie misteries of Christian Religion. They make
Christ and his Gospell, onelie serue Ciuill pollicie: Than
neyther Religion cummeth amisse to them: In tyme they be
Promoters of both openlie: in place againe mockers of both
priuilie, as I wrote once in a rude ryme.

Now new, now olde, now both, now neither,
To serue the worldes course, they care not with whether.

For where they dare, in cumpanie where they like, they

the brynging vp of youth. 233

boldlie laughe to scorne both protestant and Papist. They
care for no scripture: They make no counte of generall
councels: they contemne the consent of the Chirch: They passe
for no Doctores: They mocke the Pope: They raile on Luther:
They allow neyther side: They like none, but onelie
themselues: The marke they shote at, the ende they looke for,
the heauen they desire, is onelie, their owne present pleasure,
and priuate proffit: whereby, they plainlie declare, of whose
schole, of what Religion they be: that is, Epicures in liuing,
and atheoi in doctrine: this last worde, is no more vnknowne
now to plaine English men, than the Person was vnknown
somtyme in England, vntill som Englishe man tooke peines, to
fetch that deuelish opinion out of Italie. Thies men, thus
Italianated abroad, can not abide our Godlie // The Ita-
Italian Chirch at home: they be not of that // lian Chirche
Parish, they be not of that felowshyp: they like // in London.
not yt preacher: they heare not his sermons: Excepte som-
tymes for companie, they cum thither, to heare the Italian tonge
naturally spoken, not to hear Gods doctrine trewly preached.
And yet, thies men, in matters of Diuinitie, openlie pretend
a great knowledge, and haue priuatelie to them selues, a verie
compendious vnderstanding of all, which neuertheles they will
vtter when and where they liste: And that is this: All the
misteries of Moses, the whole lawe and Cerimonies, the
Psalmes and Prophetes, Christ and his Gospell, GOD and the
Deuill, Heauen and Hell, Faith, Conscience, Sinne, Death, and
all they shortlie wrap vp, they quickly expounde with this one
halfe verse of Horace.
Credat Iudæus Appella.
Yet though in Italie they may freely be of no Religion, as
they are in Englande in verie deede to, neuerthelesse returning
home into England they must countenance the profession of
the one or the other, howsoeuer inwardlie, they laugh to
scorne both. And though, for their priuate matters they can
follow, fawne, and flatter noble Personages, contrarie to them
in all respectes, yet commonlie they allie them- // Papistrie
selues with the worst Papistes, to whom they be // and impie-
wedded, and do well agree togither in three // tie agree in
proper opinions: In open contempte of Goddes // three opini-
worde: in a secret securitie of sinne: and in // ons.

234 The first booke teachyng

a bloodie desire to haue all taken away, by sword or burning,
Pigius. // that be not of their faction. They that do
read, with indifferent iudgement, Pygius and
Machiaue- // Machiauel,/i>, two indifferent Patriarches of thies
lus. // two Religions, do know full well that I say trewe.
Ye see, what manners and doctrine, our Englishe men fetch
out of Italie: For finding no other there, they can bring no
Wise and // other hither. And therefore, manie godlie and
honest tra- // excellent learned Englishe men, not manie yeares
uelers. // ago, did make a better choice, whan open crueltie
draue them out of this contrie, to place themselues there, where
Germanie. // Christes doctrine, the feare of God, punishment
of sinne, and discipline of honestie, were had in
speciall regarde.
I was once in Italie my selfe: but I thanke God, my
Venice. // abode there, was but ix. dayes: And yet I sawe
in that litle tyme, in one Citie, more libertie to
sinne, than euer I hard tell of in our noble Citie of London in
London. // ix. yeare. I sawe, it was there, as free to sinne,
not onelie without all punishment, but also
without any mans marking, as it is free in the Citie of London,
to chose, without all blame, whether a man lust to weare Shoo
or pantocle. And good cause why: For being vnlike in troth
of Religion, they must nedes be vnlike in honestie of liuing.
Seruice of // For blessed be Christ, in our Citie of London,
God in // commonlie the commandementes of God, be more
England. // diligentlie taught, and the seruice of God more
reuerentlie vsed, and that daylie in many priuate mens houses,
Seruice of // than they be in Italie once a weeke in their
God in I- // common Chirches: where, masking Ceremonies,
talie. // to delite the eye, and vaine soundes, to please
the eare, do quite thrust out of the Chirches, all seruice of
The Lord // God in spirit and troth. Yea, the Lord Maior
Maior of // of London, being but a Ciuill officer, is com-
London. // monlie for his tyme, more diligent, in punishing
sinne, the bent enemie against God and good order, than all
The In- // the bloodie Inquisitors in Italie be in seauen yeare.
quisitors in // For, their care and charge is, not to punish
Italie. // sinne, not to amend manners, not to purge
doctrine, but onelie to watch and ouersee that Christes trewe

the brynging vp of youth. 235

Religion set no sure footing, where the Pope hath any
Iurisdiction. I learned, when I was at Venice, that there it is
counted good pollicie, when there be foure or fiue // An ungod-
brethren of one familie, one, onelie to marie: & // lie pollicie.
all the rest, to waulter, with as litle shame, in
open lecherie, as Swyne do here in the common myre. Yea,
there be as fayre houses of Religion, as great prouision, as
diligent officers, to kepe vp this misorder, as Bridewell is, and
all the Masters there, to kepe downe misorder. And therefore,
if the Pope himselfe, do not onelie graunt pardons to furder
thies wicked purposes abrode in Italie, but also (although this
present Pope, in the beginning, made som shewe of misliking
thereof) assigne both meede and merite to the maintenance of
stewes and brothelhouses at home in Rome, than let wise men
thinke Italie a safe place for holsom doctrine, and godlie
manners, and a fitte schole for yong ientlemen of England to
be brought vp in.
Our Italians bring home with them other faultes from
Italie, though not so great as this of Religion, yet a great deale
greater, than many good men can well beare. For commonlie
they cum home, common contemners of mariage // Contempt
and readie persuaders of all other to the same: // of mariage.
not because they loue virginitie, but, being free in Italie, to go
whither so euer lust will cary them, they do not like, that lawe
and honestie should be soch a barre to their like libertie at
home in England. And yet they be, the greatest makers of
loue, the daylie daliers, with such pleasant wordes, with such
smilyng and secret countenances, with such signes, tokens,
wagers, purposed to be lost, before they were purposed to be
made, with bargaines of wearing colours, floures, and herbes,
to breede occasion of ofter meeting of him and her, and bolder
talking of this and that &c. And although I haue seene some,
innocent of all ill, and stayde in all honestie, that haue vsed
these thinges without all harme, without all suspicion of harme,
yet these knackes were brought first into England by them,
that learned them before in Italie in Circes Court: and how
Courtlie curtesses so euer they be counted now, yet, if the
meaning and maners of some that do vse them, were somewhat

236 The first booke teachyng

amended, it were no great hurt, neither to them selues, nor to
An other propertie of this our English Italians is, to be
meruelous singular in all their matters: Singular in knowledge,
ignorant of nothyng: So singular in wisedome (in their owne
opinion) as scarse they counte the best Counsellor the Prince
hath, comparable to them: Common discoursers of all
matters: busie searchers of most secret affaires: open flatterers
of great men: priuie mislikers of good men: Faire speakers,
with smiling countenances, and much curtessie openlie to all
men. Ready bakbiters, sore nippers, and spitefull reporters
priuilie of good men. And beyng brought vp in Italie, in some
free Citie, as all Cities be there: where a man may freelie
discourse against what he will, against whom he lust: against
any Prince, agaynst any gouernement, yea against God him
selfe, and his whole Religion: where he must be, either
Guelphe or Gibiline, either French or Spanish: and alwayes
compelled to be of some partie, of some faction, he shall neuer
be compelled to be of any Religion: And if he medle not ouer
much with Christes true Religion, he shall haue free libertie to
embrace all Religions, and becum, if he lust at once, without
any let or punishment, Iewish, Turkish, Papish, and Deuillish.
A yong Ientleman, thus bred vp in this goodly schole, to
learne the next and readie way to sinne, to haue a busie head,
a factious hart, a talkatiue tonge, fed with discoursing of
factions: led to contemne God and his Religion, shall cum
home into England, but verie ill taught, either to be an honest
man him self, a quiet subiect to his Prince, or willyng to serue
God, vnder the obedience of trewe doctrine, or within the
order of honest liuing.
I know, none will be offended with this my generall
writing, but onelie such, as finde them selues giltie priuatelie
therin: who shall haue good leaue to be offended with me,
vntill they begin to amende them selues. I touch not them
that be good: and I say to litle of them that be nought. And
so, though not enough for their deseruing, yet sufficientlie for
this time, and more els when, if occasion so require.
And thus farre haue I wandred from my first purpose of
teaching a child, yet not altogether out of the way, bicause

the brynging vp of youth. 237

this whole taulke hath tended to the onelie aduauncement of
trothe in Religion, and honestie of liuing: and hath bene wholie
within the compasse of learning and good maners, the speciall
pointes belonging in the right bringyng vp of youth.
But to my matter, as I began, plainlie and simplie
with my yong Scholer, so will I not leaue him,
God willing, vntill I haue brought him a per-
fite Scholer out of the Schole, and placed
him in the Vniuersitie, to becum a fitte
student, for Logicke and Rhetoricke:
and so after to Phisicke, Law, or
Diuinitie, as aptnes of na-
ture, aduise of frendes, and
Gods disposition shall
lead him.

The ende of the first booke.

The second booke.

AFter that your scholer, as I sayd before, shall cum in
deede, first, to a readie perfitnes in translating, than, to a
ripe and skilfull choice in markyng out hys sixe pointes, as,
{1. Proprium.
{2. Translatum.
{3. Synonymum.
{4. Contrarium.
{5. Diuersum.
{6. Phrases.
Than take this order with him: Read dayly vnto him,
Cicero. // some booke of Tullie, as the third booke of
de Senectute, Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, de Amicitia,
or that excellent Epistle conteinyng almost the
whole first book ad Q. fra: some Comedie of
Terentius. // Terence or Plautus: but in Plautus, skilfull
Plautus. // must be vsed by the master, to traine his Scholler
to a iudgement, in cutting out perfitelie ouer old and vnproper
Iul. Cæsar. // wordes: Cæs. Commentaries are to be read with
all curiositie, in specially without all exception to
be made, either by frende or foe, is seene, the vnspotted
proprietie of the Latin tong, euen whan it was, as the Grecians
say, in akme, that is, at the hiest pitch of all perfitenesse: or
T. Liuius. // some Orations of T. Liuius, such as be both longest
and plainest.
These bookes, I would haue him read now, a good deale at
euery lecture: for he shall not now vse dalie translation, but
onely construe againe, and parse, where ye suspect, is any nede:
yet, let him not omitte in these bookes, his former exercise, in

The ready way to the Latin tong. 239

marking diligently, and writyng orderlie out his six pointes.
And for translating, vse you your selfe, euery second or thyrd
day, to chose out, some Epistle ad Atticum, some notable
common place out of his Orations, or some other part of
Tullie, by your discretion, which your scholer may not know
where to finde: and translate it you your selfe, into plaine
naturall English, and than giue it him to translate into Latin
againe: allowyng him good space and tyme to do it, both with
diligent heede, and good aduisement. Here his witte shalbe
new set on worke: his iudgement, for right choice, trewlie
tried: his memorie, for sure reteyning, better exercised, than
by learning, any thing without the booke: & here, how much
he hath proffited, shall plainly appeare. Whan he bringeth it
translated vnto you, bring you forth the place of Tullie: lay
them together: compare the one with the other: commend his
good choice, & right placing of wordes: Shew his faultes iently,
but blame them not ouer sharply: for, of such missings, ientlie
admonished of, proceedeth glad & good heed taking: of good
heed taking, springeth chiefly knowledge, which after, groweth
to perfitnesse, if this order, be diligentlie vsed by the scholer &
iently handled by the master: for here, shall all the hard
pointes of Grammer, both easely and surelie be learned vp:
which, scholers in common scholes, by making of Latines, be
groping at, with care & feare, & yet in many yeares, they
scarse can reach vnto them. I remember, whan I was yong,
in the North, they went to the Grammer schole, litle children:
they came from thence great lubbers: alwayes learning, and
litle profiting: learning without booke, euery thing, vnder-
standyng within the booke, litle or nothing: Their whole
knowledge, by learning without the booke, was tied onely to
their tong & lips, and neuer ascended vp to the braine & head,
and therfore was sone spitte out of the mouth againe: They
were, as men, alwayes goyng, but euer out of the way: and
why? For their whole labor, or rather great toyle without
order, was euen vaine idlenesse without proffit. In deed,
they tooke great paynes about learning: but employed small
labour in learning: Whan by this way prescribed in this
booke, being streight, plaine, & easie, the scholer is alwayes
laboring with pleasure, and euer going right on forward with
proffit: always laboring I say, for, or he haue construed

240 The second booke teachyng

parced, twise translated ouer by good aduisement, marked out
his six pointes by skilfull iudgement, he shall haue necessarie
occasion, to read ouer euery lecture, a dosen tymes, at the
least. Which, bicause he shall do alwayes in order, he shall do
it alwayes with pleasure: And pleasure allureth loue: loue hath
lust to labor: labor alwayes obteineth his purpose, as most
Rhet. 2 // trewly, both Aristotle in his Rhetoricke & Oedipus
In Oedip. Tyr. // in Sophocles do teach, saying, pan gar ekponou-
Epist. lib. 7. // menon aliske. et. cet. & this oft reading, is the
verie right folowing, of that good Counsell, which
Plinie doth geue to his frende Fuscus, saying, Multum, non
. But to my purpose againe:
Whan, by this diligent and spedie reading ouer, those
forenamed good bokes of Tullie, Terence, Cæsar, and Liuie, and
by this second kinde of translating out of your English, tyme
shall breed skill, and vse shall bring perfection, than ye may
trie, if you will, your scholer, with the third kinde of translation:
although the two first wayes, by myne opinion, be, not onelie
sufficent of them selues, but also surer, both for the Masters
teaching, and scholers learnyng, than this third way is: Which
is thus. Write you in English, some letter, as it were from
him to his father, or to some other frende, naturallie, according
to the disposition of the child, or some tale, or fable, or plaine
narration, according as Aphthonius beginneth his exercises of
learning, and let him translate it into Latin againe, abiding in
soch place, where no other scholer may prompe him. But yet,
vse you your selfe soch discretion for choice therein, as the
matter may be within the compas, both for wordes and
sentences, of his former learning and reading. And now
take heede, lest your scholer do not better in some point, than
you your selfe, except ye haue bene diligentlie exercised in these
kindes of translating before:
I had once a profe hereof, tried by good experience, by
a deare frende of myne, whan I came first from Cambrige, to
serue the Queenes Maiestie, than Ladie Elizabeth, lying at
worthie Syr Ant. Denys in Cheston. Iohn Whitneye, a yong
ientleman, was my bedfeloe, who willyng by good nature and
prouoked by mine aduise, began to learne the Latin tong, after
the order declared in this booke. We began after Christmas:
I read vnto him Tullie de Amicitia, which he did euerie day

the ready way to the Latin tong. 241

twise translate, out of Latin into English, and out of English
into Latin agayne. About S. Laurence tyde after, to proue
how he proffited, I did chose out Torquatus taulke de Amicitia,
in the later end of the first booke de finib. bicause that place
was, the same in matter, like in wordes and phrases, nigh to
the forme and facion of sentences, as he had learned before in
de Amicitia. I did translate it my selfe into plaine English,
and gaue it him to turne into Latin: Which he did, so choislie,
so orderlie, so without any great misse in the hardest pointes of
Grammer, that some, in seuen yeare in Grammer Scholes, yea,
& some in the Vniuersities to, can not do halfe so well. This
worthie yong Ientleman, to my greatest grief, to the great
lamentation of that whole house, and speciallie to that most
noble Ladie, now Queene Elizabeth her selfe, departed within
few dayes, out of this world.
And if in any cause, a man may without offence of God
speake somewhat vngodlie, surely, it was some grief vnto me,
to see him hie so hastlie to God, as he did. A Court, full of
soch yong Ientlemen, were rather a Paradise than a Court vpon
earth. And though I had neuer Poeticall head, to make any
verse, in any tong, yet either loue, or sorrow, or both, did wring
out of me than, certaine carefull thoughtes of my good will
towardes him, which in my murning for him, fell forth, more
by chance, than either by skill or vse, into this kinde of
misorderlie meter.

Myne owne Iohn Whitney, now farewell, now death doth parte vs
No death, but partyng for a while, whom life shall ioyne agayne.
Therfore my hart cease sighes and sobbes, cease sorowes seede to sow,
Wherof no gaine, but greater grief, and hurtfull care may grow.
Yet, whan I thinke vpon soch giftes of grace as God him lent,
My losse, his gaine, I must a while, with ioyfull teares lament.
Yong yeares to yelde soch frute in Court, where seede of vice is sowne,
Is sometime read, in some place seene, amongst vs seldom knowne.
His life he ledde, Christes lore to learne, with will to worke the
He read to know, and knew to liue, and liued to praise his name.
So fast to frende, so foe to few, so good to euery weight,
I may well wishe, but scarcelie hope, agayne to haue in sight.

242 The second booke teachyng

The greater ioye his life to me, his death the greater payne:
His life in Christ so surelie set, doth glad my hearte agayne:
His life so good, his death better, do mingle mirth with care,
My spirit with ioye, my flesh with grief, so deare a frend to spare.
Thus God the good, while they be good, doth take, and leaues vs ill,
That we should mend our sinfull life, in life to tary still.
Thus, we well left, be better rest, in heauen to take his place,
That by like life, and death, at last, we may obteine like grace.
Myne owne Iohn Whiteney agayne fairewell, a while thus parte in
Whom payne doth part in earth, in heauen great ioye shall ioyne

In this place, or I procede farder, I will now declare, by
whose authoritie I am led, and by what reason I am moued, to
thinke, that this way of duble translation out of one tong into
an other, in either onelie, or at least chiefly, to be exercised,
speciallie of youth, for the ready and sure obteining of any
There be six wayes appointed by the best learned men, for
the learning of tonges, and encreace of eloquence, as

{1. Translatio linguarum.
{2. Paraphrasis.
{3. Metaphrasis.
{4. Epitome.
{5. Imitatio.
{6. Declamatio.

All theis be vsed, and commended, but in order, and for
respectes: as person, habilitie, place, and tyme shall require.
The fiue last, be fitter, for the Master, than the scholer: for
men, than for children: for the vniuersities, rather than for
Grammer scholes: yet neuerthelesse, which is, fittest in mine
opinion, for our schole, and which is, either wholie to be
refused, or partlie to be vsed for our purpose, I will, by good
authoritie, and some reason, I trust perticularlie of euerie
one, and largelie enough of them all, declare orderlie vnto you.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 243

Translatio Linguarum.

Translation, is easie in the beginning for the scholer, and
bringeth also moch learning and great iudgement to the
Master. It is most common, and most commendable of all
other exercises for youth: most common, for all your con-
structions in Grammer scholes, be nothing els but translations:
but because they be not double translations, as I do require,
they bring forth but simple and single commoditie, and bicause
also they lacke the daily vse of writing, which is the onely
thing that breedeth deepe roote, buth in ye witte, for good
vnderstanding, and in ye memorie, for sure keeping of all that
is learned. Most commendable also, & that by ye iudgement of
all authors, which intreate of theis exercises.
Tullie in the person of L. Crassus, whom he // 1. de Or.
maketh his example of eloquence and trewe iudgement in
learning, doth, not onely praise specially, and chose this way of
translation for a yong man, but doth also discommend and
refuse his owne former wont, in exercising Paraphrasin &
Metaphrasin. Paraphrasis
is, to take some eloquent Oration,
or some notable common place in Latin, and expresse it with
other wordes: Metaphrasis is, to take some notable place out of
a good Poete, and turn the same sens into meter, or into other
wordes in Prose. Crassus, or rather Tullie, doth mislike both
these wayes, bicause the Author, either Orator or Poete, had
chosen out before, the fittest wordes and aptest composition for
that matter, and so he, in seeking other, was driuen to vse the
Quintilian also preferreth translation before all other
exercises: yet hauing a lust, to dissent, from // Quint. x.
Tullie (as he doth in very many places, if a man
read his Rhetoricke ouer aduisedlie, and that rather of an
enuious minde, than of any iust cause) doth greatlie commend
Paraphrasis, crossing spitefullie Tullies iudgement in refusing
the same: and so do Ramus and Talæus euen at this day in
France to. But such singularitie, in dissenting from the best
mens iudgementes, in liking onelie their owne opinions, is
moch misliked of all them, that ioyne with learning, discretion,
and wisedome. For he, that can neither like Aristotle in
Logicke and Philosophie, nor Tullie in Rhetoricke and

244 The second booke teachyng

Eloquence, will, from these steppes, likelie enough presume, by
like pride, to mount hier, to the misliking of greater matters:
that is either in Religion, to haue a dissentious head, or in the
common wealth, to haue a factious hart: as I knew one
a student in Cambrige, who, for a singularitie, began first to
dissent, in the scholes, from Aristotle, and sone after became
a peruerse Arrian, against Christ and all true Religion: and
studied diligentlie Origene, Basileus, and S. Hierome, onelie to
gleane out of their workes, the pernicious heresies of Celsus,
, and Heluidius, whereby the Church of Christ, was so
poysoned withall.
But to leaue these hye pointes of diuinitie, surelie, in this
quiet and harmeles controuersie, for the liking, or misliking of
Paraphrasis for a yong scholer, euen as far, as Tullie goeth
beyond Quintilian, Ramus, and Talæus, in perfite Eloquence,
* Plinius // euen so moch, by myne opinion, cum they
Secundus. // behinde Tullie, for trew iudgement in teaching
Plinius de- // the same.
dit Quin- // * Plinius Secundus, a wise Senator, of great
tiliano // experience, excellentlie learned him selfe, a liberall
præceptori // Patrone of learned men, and the purest writer, in
suo, in ma- // myne opinion, of all his age, I except not
trimonium // Suetonius, his two scholemasters Quintilian and
filiæ, 50000 // Tacitus, nor yet his most excellent learned Vncle, the Elder
numum. // Plinius, doth expresse in an Epistle to his frende
Epist. lib. 7, // Fuscus, many good wayes for order in studie:
Epist. 9. // but he beginneth with translation, and preferreth
it to all the rest: and bicause his wordes be notable, I will
recite them.

Vtile in primis, vt multi præcipiunt, ex Græco in Latinum, & ex
Latino vertere in Græcum: Quo genere exercitationis, proprietas
splendorque verborum, apta structura sententiarum, figurarum
copia & explicandi vis colligitur. Præterea, imitatione optimorum,
facultas similia inueniendi paratur: & quæ legentem, fefellissent,
transferentem fugere non possunt. Intelligentia ex hoc, & iudicium

Ye perceiue, how Plinie teacheth, that by this exercise of
double translating, is learned, easely, sensiblie, by litle and litle,
not onelie all the hard congruities of Grammer, the choice of

the ready way to the Latin tong. 245

aptest wordes, the right framing of wordes and sentences,
cumlines of figures and formes, fitte for euerie matter, and
proper for euerie tong, but that which is greater also, in marking
dayly, and folowing diligentlie thus, the steppes of the best
Autors, like inuention of Argumentes, like order in disposition,
like vtterance in Elocution, is easelie gathered vp: whereby
your scholer shall be brought not onelie to like eloquence, but
also, to all trewe vnderstanding and right iudgement, both for
writing and speaking. And where Dionys. Halicarnassæus hath
written two excellent bookes, the one, de delectu optimorum
, the which, I feare, is lost, the other, of the right
framing of wordes and sentences, which doth remaine yet in
Greeke, to the great proffet of all them, that trewlie studie for
eloquence, yet this waie of double translating, shall bring the
whole proffet of both these bookes to a diligent scholer, and that
easelie and pleasantlie, both for fitte choice of wordes, and apt
composition of sentences. And by theis authorities and reasons
am I moued to thinke, this waie of double translating, either
onelie or chieflie, to be fittest, for the spedy and perfit atteyning
of any tong. And for spedy atteyning, I durst venture a good
wager, if a scholer, in whom is aptnes, loue, diligence, &
constancie, would but translate, after this sorte, one litle booke
in Tullie, as de senectute, with two Epistles, the first ad Q. fra:
the other ad lentulum, the last saue one, in the first booke, that
scholer, I say, should cum to a better knowledge in the Latin
tong, than the most part do, that spend foure or fiue yeares, in
tossing all the rules of Grammer in common scholes. In deede
this one booke with these two Epistles, is not sufficient to
affourde all Latin wordes (which is not necessarie for a yong
scholer to know) but it is able to furnishe him fully, for all
pointes of Grammer, with the right placing ordering, & vse of
wordes in all kinde of matter. And why not? for it is read,
that Dion. Prussæus, that wise Philosopher, & excellent orator of
all his tyme, did cum to the great learning & vtterance that was
in him, by reading and folowing onelie two bookes, Phædon
, and Demosthenes most notable oration peri parapres-
beias. And a better, and nerer example herein, may be, our
most noble Queene Elizabeth, who neuer toke yet, Greeke nor
Latin Grammer in her hand, after the first declining of a
nowne and a verbe, but onely by this double translating of

246 The second booke teachyng

Demosthenes and Isocrates dailie without missing euerie forenone,
and likewise som part of Tullie euery afternone, for the space
of a yeare or two, hath atteyned to soch a perfite vnderstanding
in both the tonges, and to soch a readie vtterance of the latin,
and that wyth soch a iudgement, as they be fewe in nomber in
both the vniuersities, or els where in England, that be, in both
tonges, comparable with her Maiestie. And to conclude in
a short rowme, the commodities of double translation, surelie
the mynde by dailie marking, first, the cause and matter: than,
the wordes and phrases: next, the order and composition: after
the reason and argumentes: than the formes and figures of both
the tonges: lastelie, the measure and compas of euerie sentence,
must nedes, by litle and litle drawe vnto it the like shape of
eloquence, as the author doth vse, which is red.
And thus much for double translation.


Paraphrasis, the second point, is not onelie to expresse at
Lib. x. // large with moe wordes, but to striue and contend
(as Quintilian saith) to translate the best latin
authors, into other latin wordes, as many or thereaboutes.
This waie of exercise was vsed first by C. Crabo, and taken
vp for a while, by L. Crassus, but sone after, vpon dewe profe
thereof, reiected iustlie by Crassus and Cicero: yet allowed and
made sterling agayne by M. Quintilian: neuerthelesse, shortlie
after, by better assaye, disalowed of his owne scholer Plinius
, who termeth it rightlie thus Audax contentio. It is
a bold comparison in deede, to thinke to say better, than that is
best. Soch turning of the best into worse, is much like the
turning of good wine, out of a faire sweete flagon of siluer, into
a foule mustie bottell of ledder: or, to turne pure gold and
siluer, into foule brasse and copper.
Such kinde of Paraphrasis, in turning, chopping, and
changing, the best to worse, either in the mynte or scholes,
(though M. Brokke and Quintilian both say the contrary) is
moch misliked of the best and wisest men. I can better allow
an other kinde of Paraphrasis, to turne rude and barbarus, into
proper and eloquent: which neuerthelesse is an exercise, not
fitte for a scholer, but for a perfite master, who in plentie hath

the ready way to the Latin tong. 247

good choise, in copie hath right iudgement, and grounded skill,
as did appeare to be in Sebastian Castalio, in translating Kemppes
booke de Imitando Christo.
But to folow Quintilianus aduise for Paraphrasis, were euen
to take paine, to seeke the worse and fowler way, whan the
plaine and fairer is occupied before your eyes.
The olde and best authors that euer wrote, were content
if occasion required to speake twise of one matter, not to change
the wordes, but rhetos, that is, worde for worde to expresse it
againe. For they thought, that a matter, well expressed with
fitte wordes and apt composition, was not to be altered, but
liking it well their selues, they thought it would also be well
allowed of others.
A scholemaster (soch one as I require) knoweth that I say
He readeth in Homer, almost in euerie booke, and speciallie
in Secundo et nono Iliados, not onelie som verses, // Homerus.
but whole leaues, not to be altered with new, // {2.
but to be vttered with the old selfe same wordes. // {IL. {
He knoweth, that Xenophon, writing twise of // {9.
Agesilaus, once in his life, againe in the historie // Xenophon.
of the Greekes, in one matter, kepeth alwayes the selfe same
wordes. He doth the like, speaking of Socrates, both in the
beginning of his Apologie and in the last ende of apomnemoneu-
Demosthenes also in 4. Philippica doth borow his owne
wordes vttered before in his oration de Chersoneso.
He doth the like, and that more at large, in his // Demost-
orations, against Androtion and Timocrates. // henes.
In latin also, Cicero in som places, and Virgil in mo, do
repeate one matter, with the selfe same wordes. // Cicero.
Thies excellent authors, did thus, not for lacke // Virgilius.
of wordes, but by iudgement and skill: whatso-
euer, other, more curious, and lesse skilfull, do thinke, write,
and do.
Paraphrasis neuerthelesse hath good place in learning, but
not, by myne opinion, for any scholer, but is onelie to be left
to a perfite Master, eyther to expound openlie a good author
withall, or to compare priuatelie, for his owne exercise, how
some notable place of an excellent author, may be vttered with

248 The second booke teachyng

other fitte wordes: But if ye alter also, the composition, forme,
and order than that is not Paraphrasis, but Imitatio, as I will
fullie declare in fitter place.
The scholer shall winne nothing by Paraphrasis, but onelie,
if we may beleue Tullie, to choose worse wordes, to place them
out of order, to feare ouermoch the iudgement of the master, to
mislike ouermuch the hardnes of learning, and by vse, to gather
vp faultes, which hardlie will be left of againe.
The master in teaching it, shall rather encrease hys owne
labor, than his scholers proffet: for when the scholer shall bring
vnto his master a peece of Tullie or Cæsar turned into other
latin, then must the master cum to Quintilians goodlie lesson de
, which, (as he saith) is the most profitable part of
teaching, but not in myne opinion, and namelie for youthe in
Grammer scholes. For the master nowe taketh double paynes:
first, to marke what is amisse: againe, to inuent what may be
sayd better. And here perchance, a verie good master may
easelie both deceiue himselfe, and lead his scholer into error.
It requireth greater learning, and deeper iudgement, than is
to be hoped for at any scholemasters hand: that is, to be able
alwaies learnedlie and perfitelie

{Mutare quod ineptum est:
{Transmutare quod peruersum est:
{Replere quod deest;
{Detrahere quod obest:
{Expungere quod inane est.

And that, which requireth more skill, and deaper conside-

{Premere tumentia:
{Extollere humilia:
{Astringere luxuriantia:
{Componere dissoluta.

The master may here onelie stumble, and perchance faull in
teaching, to the marring and mayning of the Scholer in learning,
whan it is a matter, of moch readyng, of great learning, and
tried iudgement, to make trewe difference betwixt

the ready way to the Latin tong. 249

{Sublime, et Tumidum:
{Grande, et immodicum:
{Decorum, et ineptum:
{Perfectum, et nimium.

Some men of our time, counted perfite Maisters of eloquence,
in their owne opinion the best, in other mens iudgements very
good, as Omphalius euerie where, Sadoletus in many places, yea
also my frende Osorius, namelie in his Epistle to the Queene &
in his whole booke de Iusticia, haue so ouer reached them selues,
in making trew difference in the poyntes afore rehearsed, as
though they had bene brought vp in some schole in Asia, to
learne to decline rather then in Athens with Plato, Aristotle, and
Demosthenes, (from whence Tullie fetched his eloquence) to
vnderstand, what in euerie matter, to be spoken or written on,
is, in verie deede, Nimium, Satis, Parum, that is for to say, to
all considerations, Decorum, which, as it is the hardest point, in
all learning, so is it the fairest and onelie marke, that scholers, in
all their studie, must alwayes shote at, if they purpose an other
day to be, either sounde in Religion, or wise and discrete in any
vocation of the common wealth.
Agayne, in the lowest degree, it is no low point of learnyng
and iudgement for a Scholemaster, to make trewe difference

{Humile & depressum:
{Lene & remissum:
{Siccum & aridum:
{Exile & macrum:
{Inaffectatum & neglectum.

In these poyntes, some, louing Melancthon well, as he was
well worthie, but yet not considering well nor wiselie, how he
of nature, and all his life and studie by iudgement was wholly
spent in genere Disciplinabili, that is, in teaching, reading, and
expounding plainlie and aptlie schole matters, and therfore
imployed thereunto a fitte, sensible, and caulme kinde of
speaking and writing, some I say, with very well louyng,
but not with verie well weying Melancthones doinges,
do frame them selues a style, cold, leane, and weake,
though the matter be neuer so warme & earnest, not moch
vnlike vnto one, that had a pleasure, in a roughe, raynie, winter

250 The second booke teachyng

day, to clothe him selfe with nothing els, but a demie, bukram
cassok, plaine without plites, and single with out lyning: which
will neither beare of winde nor wether, nor yet kepe out the
sunne, in any hote day.
Some suppose, and that by good reason, that Melancthon
Paraphra- // him selfe came to this low kinde of writing, by
sis in vse of // vsing ouer moch Paraphrasis in reading: For
teaching, // studying therebie to make euerie thing streight
hath hurt // and easie, in smothing and playning all things to
Melanch- // much, neuer leaueth, whiles the sence it selfe be
tons stile in // left, both lowse and lasie. And some of those
writing. // Paraphrasis of Melancthon be set out in Printe, as,
Pro Archia Poeta, & Marco Marcello: But a scholer, by myne
opinion, is better occupied in playing or sleping, than in
spendyng time, not onelie vainlie but also harmefullie, in soch
a kinde of exercise.
If a Master woulde haue a perfite example to folow, how,
in Genere sublimi, to auoide Nimium, or in Mediocri, to atteyne
Satis, or in Humili, to exchew Parum, let him read diligently
Cicero. // for the first, Secundam Philippicam, for the meane,
De Natura Deorum, and for the lowest, Partitiones.
Or, if in an other tong, ye looke for like example, in like
Demost- // perfection, for all those three degrees, read Pro
henes. // Ctesiphonte, Ad Leptinem, & Contra Olympiodorum,
and, what witte, Arte, and diligence is hable to
affourde, ye shall plainely see.
For our tyme, the odde man to performe all three perfitlie,
whatsoeuer he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfullie,
Ioan. Stur. // what so euer he list, is, in my poore opinion,
Ioannes Sturmius.
He also councelleth all scholers to beware of Paraphrasis,
except it be, from worse to better, from rude and barbarous, to
proper and pure latin, and yet no man to exercise that neyther,
except soch one, as is alreadie furnished with plentie of learning,
and grounded with stedfast iudgement before.
All theis faultes, that thus manie wise men do finde with
the exercise of Paraphrasis, in turning the best latin, into other,
as good as they can, that is, ye may be sure, into a great deale
worse, than it was, both in right choice for proprietie, and trewe
placing, for good order is committed also commonlie in all

the ready way to the Latin tong. 251

common scholes, by the scholemasters, in tossing and trobling
yong wittes (as I sayd in the beginning) with that boocherlie
feare in making of Latins.
Therefore, in place, of Latines for yong scholers, and of
Paraphrasis for the masters, I wold haue double translation
specially vsed. For, in double translating a perfite peece of
Tullie or Cæsar, neyther the scholer in learning, nor ye
in teaching can erre. A true tochstone, a sure metwand lieth
before both their eyes. For, all right congruitie: proprietie of
wordes: order in sentences: the right imitation, to inuent good
matter, to dispose it in good order, to confirme it with good
reason, to expresse any purpose fitlie and orderlie, is learned
thus, both easelie & perfitlie: Yea, to misse somtyme in this
kinde of translation, bringeth more proffet, than to hit right,
either in Paraphrasi or making of Latins. For though ye say
well, in a latin making, or in a Paraphrasis, yet you being but
in doute, and vncertayne whether ye saie well or no, ye gather
and lay vp in memorie, no sure frute of learning thereby: But
if ye fault in translation, ye ar easelie taught, how perfitlie to
amende it, and so well warned, how after to exchew, all soch
faultes againe.
Paraphrasis therefore, by myne opinion, is not meete for
Grammer scholes: nor yet verie fitte for yong men in the
vniuersitie, vntill studie and tyme, haue bred in them, perfite
learning, and stedfast iudgement.
There is a kinde of Paraphrasis, which may be vsed, without
all hurt, to moch proffet: but it serueth onely the Greke and
not the latin, nor no other tong, as to alter linguam Ionicam aut
into meram Atticam: A notable example there is left
vnto vs by a notable learned man Diony: Halicarn: who, in his
booke, peri syntaxeos, doth translate the goodlie storie of
Candaules and Gyges in 1. Herodoti, out of Ionica lingua,
Atticam. Read the place, and ye shall take, both pleasure and
proffet, in conference of it. A man, that is exercised in reading,
Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, and Demosthenes, in vsing to turne,
like places of Herodotus, after like sorte, shold shortlie cum to
soch a knowledge, in vnderstanding, speaking, and writing the
Greeke tong, as fewe or none hath yet atteyned in England.
The like exercise out of Dorica lingua may be also vsed, if a
man take that litle booke of Plato, Timæus Locrus, de Animo et

252 The second booke teachyng

natura, which is written Dorice, and turne it into soch Greeke,
as Plato vseth in other workes. The booke, is but two leaues:
and the labor wold be, but two weekes: but surelie the proffet,
for easie vnderstanding, and trewe writing the Greeke tonge,
wold conteruaile wyth the toile, that som men taketh, in
otherwise coldlie reading that tonge, two yeares.
And yet, for the latin tonge, and for the exercise of Para-
, in those places of latin, that can not be bettered, if some
yong man, excellent of witte, corragious in will, lustie of nature,
and desirous to contend euen with the best latin, to better it, if
he can, surelie I commend his forwardnesse, and for his better
instruction therein, I will set before him, as notable an example
of Paraphrasis, as is in Record of learning. Cicero him selfe,
doth contend, in two sondrie places, to expresse one matter,
with diuerse wordes: and that is Paraphrasis, saith Quintillian.
The matter I suppose is taken out of Panætius: and therefore
being translated out of Greeke at diuers times, is vttered for his
purpose, with diuers wordes and formes: which kinde of exercise,
for perfite learned men, is verie profitable.

2. De Finib.

a. Homo enim Rationem habet à natura menti datam quæ, &
causas rerum et consecutiones videt, & similitudines, transfert, &
disiuncta coniungit, & cum præsentibus futura copulat, omnemque
complectitur vitæ consequentis statum.
b. Eademque ratio facit
hominem hominum appetentem, cumque his, natura, & sermone in vsu
congruentem: vt profectus à caritate domesticorum ac suorum, currat
longius, & se implicet, primò Ciuium, deinde omnium mortalium
societati: vtque non sibi soli se natum meminerit, sed patriæ, sed suis,
vt exigua pars ipsi relinquatur.
c. Et quoniam eadem natura
cupiditatem ingenuit homini veri inueniendi, quod facillimè apparet,
cum vacui curis, etiam quid in cœlo fiat, scire auemus, &c.

1. Officiorum.

a. Homo autem, qui rationis est particeps, per quam conse-
quentia cernit, & causas rerum videt, earumque progressus, et quasi
antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines, comparat, rebusque præsentibus
adiungit, atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitæ cursum videt, ad

the ready way to the Latin tong. 253

eamque degendam præparat res necessarias. b. Eademque natura vi
rationis hominem conciliat homini, & ad Orationis, & ad vitæ
societatem: ingeneratque imprimis præcipuum quendam amorem in
eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque vt hominum cœtus & celebrari
inter se, & sibi obediri velit, ob easque causas studeat parare ea,
quæ suppeditent ad cultum & ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi,
liberis, cæterisque quos charos habeat, tuerique debeat.
c. Quæ cura
exsuscitat etiam animos, & maiores ad rem gerendam facit: impri-
misque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque inuestigatio: ita cum
sumus necessarijs negocijs curisque vacui, tum auemus aliquid videre,
audire, addiscere, cognitionemque rerum mirabilium. &c.

The conference of these two places, conteinyng so excellent
a peece of learning, as this is, expressed by so worthy a witte,
as Tullies was, must needes bring great pleasure and proffit to
him, that maketh trew counte, of learning and honestie. But
if we had the Greke Author, the first Patterne of all, and therby
to see, how Tullies witte did worke at diuerse tymes, how, out
of one excellent Image, might be framed two other, one in face
and fauor, but somwhat differing in forme, figure, and color,
surelie, such a peece of workemanship compared with the
Paterne it selfe, would better please the ease of honest, wise,
and learned myndes, than two of the fairest Venusses, that euer
Apelles made.
And thus moch, for all kinde of Paraphrasis, fitte or vnfit,
for Scholers or other, as I am led to thinke, not onelie, by mine
owne experience, but chiefly by the authoritie & iudgement of
those, whom I my selfe would gladliest folow, and do counsell
all myne to do the same: not contendyng with any other, that
will otherwise either thinke or do.


This kinde of exercise is all one with Paraphrasis, saue it is
out of verse, either into prose, or into some other kinde of
meter: or els, out of prose into verse, which was // Plato in
Socrates exercise and pastime ( as Plato reporteth) // Phædone.
when he was in prison, to translate Æsopes Fabules
into verse. Quintilian doth greatlie praise also this exercise:
but bicause Tullie doth disalow it in yong men, by myne
opinion, it were not well to vse it in Grammer Scholes, euen

254 The second booke teachyng

for the selfe same causes, that be recited against Paraphrasis.
And therfore, for the vse, or misuse of it, the same is to be
thought, that is spoken of Paraphrasis before. This was
Sulpitius exercise: and he gathering vp therby, a Poeticall kinde
of talke, is iustlie named of Cicero, grandis et Tragicus Orator:
which I think is spoken, not for his praise, but for other mens
warning, to exchew the like faulte. Yet neuertheles, if our
Scholemaster for his owne instruction, is desirous, to see a
perfite example hereof, I will recite one, which I thinke, no
man is so bold, will say, that he can amend it: & that is
Hom. 1. Il. // Chrises the Priestes Oration to the Grekes, in
Pla. 3. Rep. // beginnyng of Homers Ilias, turned excellentlie
into prose by Socrates him selfe, and that aduised-
lie and purposelie for other to folow: and therfore he calleth
this exercise, in the same place, mimesis, that is, Imitatio, which
is most trew: but, in this booke, for teachyng sake, I will name
it Metaphrasis, reteinyng the word, that all teachers, in this
case, do vse.

Homerus. I. Iliad.

o gar elthe thoas epi neas Achaion,
lysomenos te thygatra, pheron t apereisi apoina,
stemmat echon en chersin ekebolou Apollonos,
chryseo ana skeptro kai elisseto pantas Achaious,
Atreida de malista duo, kosmetore laon.
Atreidai te, kai alloi euknemides Achaioi,
ymin men theoi doien, Olympia domat echontes,
ekpersai Priamoio polin eu d oikad ikesthai
paida d emoi lysai te philen, ta t apoina dechesthai,
azomenoi Dios uion ekebolon Apollona.
enth alloi men pantes epeuphemesan Achaioi
aideisthai th ierea, kai aglaa dechthai apoina
all ouk Atreide Agamemnoni endane thymo,
alla kakos aphiei, krateron d epi mython etellen.
me se, geron, koilesin ego para neusi kicheio,
e nyn dethynont, e ysteron autis ionta,
me ny toi ou chraisme skeptron, kai stemma theoio
ten d ego ou lyso, prin min kai geras epeisin,
emetero eni oiko, en Argei telothi patres

the ready way to the Latin tong. 255

iston epoichomenen, kai emon lechos antioosan.
all ithi, me m erethize saoteros os ke neeai.
os ephat eddeisen d o geron, kai epeitheto mytho
be d akeon para thina polyphloisboio thalasses,
polla d epeit apaneuthe kion erath o geraios
Apolloni anakti, ton eukomos teke Leto.
klythi meu, argyrotox, os Chrysen amphibebekas,
killan te zatheen, Tenedoio te iphi anasseis,
smintheu, ei pote toi Charient epi neon erepsa,
e ei de pote toi kata piona meri ekea
tauron, ed aigon, tode moi kreenon eeldor
tiseian Danaoi ema dakrua soisi belessin.

Socrates in 3. de Rep. saith thus,

Phraso gar aneu metrou,
ou gar eimi poietikos.

elthen o Chryses tes te thygatros lytra pheron, kai iketes
ton Achaion, malista de ton basileon: kai eucheto, ekeinois
men tous theous dounai elontas ten Troian, autous de sothenai,
ten de thygatera oi auto lysai, dexamenous apoina, kai ton
theon aidesthentas. Toiauta de eipontos autou, oi men alloi
esebonto kai synenoun, o de Agamemnon egriainen, entel-
lomenos nyn te apienai, kai authis me elthein, me auto to te
skeptron, kai ta tou theou stemmata ouk eparkesoi. prin
de lythenai autou thygatera, en Argei ephe gerasein meta ou.
apienai de ekeleue, kai me erethizein, ina sos oikade elthoi.
o de presbytes akousas edeise te kai apeei sige, apocho-
resas d ek tou stratopedou polla to Apolloni eucheto,
tas te eponymias tou theou anakalon kai ypomimneskon kai
apaiton, ei ti popote e en naon oikodomesesin, e en ieron
thysiais kecharismenon doresaito. on de charin kateucheto
tisai tous Achaious ta a dakrua tois ekeinon belesin.

To compare Homer and Plato together, two wonders of
nature and arte for witte and eloquence, is most pleasant and
profitable, for a man of ripe iudgement. Platos turning of
Homer in this place, doth not ride a loft in Poeticall termes,
but goeth low and soft on foote, as prose and Pedestris oratio
should do. If Sulpitius had had Platos consideration, in right

256 The second booke teachyng

vsing this exercise, he had not deserued the name of Tragicus
, who should rather haue studied to expresse vim Demos-
, than furorem Poætæ, how good so euer he was, whom he
did folow.
And therfore would I haue our Scholemaster wey well
together Homer and Plato, and marke diligentlie these foure
pointes, what is kept: what is added: what is left out: what
is changed, either, in choise of wordes, or forme of sentences:
which foure pointes, be the right tooles, to handle like a worke-
man, this kinde of worke: as our Scholer shall better vnder-
stand, when he hath bene a good while in the Vniuersitie:
to which tyme and place, I chiefly remitte this kinde of exercise.
And bicause I euer thought examples to be the best kinde
of teaching, I will recite a golden sentence out of that Poete,
which is next vnto Homer, not onelie in tyme, but also in
worthines: which hath bene a paterne for many worthie
wittes to follow, by this kind of Metaphrasis, but I will content
my selfe, with foure workemen, two in Greke, and two in Latin,
soch, as in both the tonges, wiser & worthier, can not be looked
for. Surelie, no stone set in gold by most cunning workemen,
is in deed, if right counte be made, more worthie the looking
on, than this golden sentence, diuerslie wrought vpon, by soch
foure excellent Masters.

Hesiodus. 2.

1. outos men panariotos, os auto panta noese,
phrassamenos ta k epeita kai es telos esin ameino:
2. esthlos d au kakeinos, os eu eiponti pithetai,
3. os de ke met autos noee, met allou akouon
en thymo balletai, o d aut achreios aner.

¶ Thus rudelie turned into
base English.

1. That man in wisedome passeth all,
to know the best who hath a head:

2. And meetlie wise eeke counted shall,
who yeildes him selfe to wise mens read:

3. Who hath no witte, nor none will heare,
amongest all fooles the bell may beare.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 257

Sophocles in Antigone.

1. Phem egoge presbeuein poly,
Phynai ton andra pant epiotemes pleon:
2. Ei d oun (philei gar touto me taute repein),
Kai ton legonton eu kalon to manthanein.

Marke the wisedome of Sophocles, in leauyng out the last
sentence, because it was not cumlie for the sonne to vse it to
his father.

D. Basileus in his Exhortation to youth.

Memnesthe tou Esiodou, os phesi, ariston men einai
ton par eautou ta deonta xynoronta. 2. Esthlon de kakei-
non, ton tois, par eteron ypodeicheisin epomenon. 3. ton
de pros oudeteron epitedeion achreion einai pros apanta.

¶ M. Cic. Pro A. Cluentio.

1. Sapientissimum esse dicunt eum, cui, quod opus sit, ipsi veniat in
2. Proxime accedere illum, qui alterius bene inuentis
3. In stulticia contra est: minus enim stultus est
is, cui nihil in mentem venit, quam ille, qui, quod stultè alteri venit
in mentem comprobat.

Cicero doth not plainlie expresse the last sentence, but doth
inuent it fitlie for his purpose, to taunt the folie and simplicitie
in his aduersarie Actius, not weying wiselie, the sutle doynges
of Chrysogonus and Staienus.

¶ Tit. Liuius in Orat. Minutij. Lib. 22.

1. Sæpe ego audiui milites; eum primum esse virum, qui ipse
consulat, quid in rem sit:
2. Secundum eum, qui bene monenti
3. Qui, nec ipse consulere, nec alteri parere scit, eum
extremi esse ingenij.

Now, which of all these foure, Sophocles, S. Basil, Cicero, or
Liuie, hath expressed Hesiodus best, the iudgement is as hard, as
the workemanship of euerie one is most excellent in deede. An
other example out of the Latin tong also I will recite, for the
worthines of the workeman therof, and that is Horace, who hath

258 The second book teachyng

so turned the begynning of Terence Eunuchus, as doth worke in
me, a pleasant admiration, as oft so euer, as I compare those
two places togither. And though euerie Master, and euerie
good Scholer to, do know the places, both in Terence and
Horace, yet I will set them heare, in one place togither, that
with more pleasure, they may be compared together.

¶ Terentius in Eunucho.

Quid igitur faciam? non eam? ne nunc quidem cum accersor
ultrò? an potius ita me comparem, non perpeti meretricum con-
tumelias? exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non, si me obsecret.
MENO a little after. Here, quæ res in se neque consilium neque modum
habet vllum, eam consilio regere non potes. In Amore hæc omnia
insunt vitia, iniuriæ, suspiciones, inimicitiæ, induciæ, bellum, pax
rursum. Incerta hæc si tu postules ratione certa facere, nihilo plus
agas, quem si des operam, vt cum ratione insanias.

¶ Horatius, lib. Ser. 2. Saty. 3.

Nec nunc cum me vocet vltro,
Accedam? an potius mediter finire dolores?
Exclusit: reuocat, redeam? non si obsecret. Ecce
Seruus non Paulo sapientior: ô Here, quæ res
Nec modum habet, neque consilium, ratione modóque
Tractari non vult. In amore, hæc sunt mala, bellum,
Pax rursum: hæc si quis tempestatis propè ritu
Mobilia, et cæca fluitantia sorte, laboret
Reddere certa, sibi nihilò plus explicet, ac si
Insanire paret certa ratione, modòque.

This exercise may bring moch profite to ripe heads, and
stayd iudgementes: bicause, in traueling in it, the mynde must
nedes be verie attentiue, and busilie occupide, in turning and
tossing it selfe many wayes: and conferryng with great pleasure,
the varietie of worthie wittes and iudgementes togither: But
this harme may sone cum therby, and namelie to yong Scholers,
lesse, in seeking other wordes, and new forme of sentences, they
chance vpon the worse: for the which onelie cause, Cicero
thinketh this exercise not to be fit for yong men.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 259


This is a way of studie, belonging, rather to matter, than to
wordes: to memorie, than to vtterance: to those that be
learned alreadie, and hath small place at all amonges yong
scholers in Grammer scholes. It may proffet priuately some
learned men, but it hath hurt generallie learning it selfe, very
moch. For by it haue we lost whole Trogus, the best part of
T. Liuius, the goodlie Dictionarie of Pompeius festus, a great
deale of the Ciuill lawe, and other many notable bookes, for the
which cause, I do the more mislike this exercise, both in old
and yong.
Epitome, is good priuatelie for himselfe that doth worke it,
but ill commonlie for all other that vse other mens labor therein:
a silie poore kinde of studie, not vnlike to the doing of those
poore folke, which neyther till, nor sowe, nor reape themselues,
but gleane by stelth, vpon other mens growndes. Soch, haue
emptie barnes, for deare yeares.
Grammer scholes haue fewe Epitomes to hurt them, except
Epitheta Textoris, and such beggarlie gatheringes, as Horman,
, and other like vulgares for making of latines: yea
I do wishe, that all rules for yong scholers, were shorter than
they be. For without doute, Grammatica it selfe, is sooner and
surer learned by examples of good authors, than by the naked
rewles of Grammarians. Epitome hurteth more, in the vni-
uersities and studie of Philosophie: but most of all, in diuinitie
it selfe.
In deede bookes of common places be verie necessarie, to
induce a man, into an orderlie generall knowledge, how to
referre orderlie all that he readeth, ad certa rerum Capita, and
not wander in studie. And to that end did P. Lombardus the
master of sentences and Ph. Melancthon in our daies, write two
notable bookes of common places.
But to dwell in Epitomes and bookes of common places, and
not to binde himselfe dailie by orderlie studie, to reade with all
diligence, principallie the holyest scripture and withall, the best
Doctors, and so to learne to make trewe difference betwixt, the
authoritie of the one, and the Counsell of the other, maketh so
many seeming, and sonburnt ministers as we haue, whose

260 The second booke teachyng

learning is gotten in a sommer heat, and washed away, with
a Christmas snow againe: who neuerthelesse, are lesse to be
blamed, than those blind bussardes, who in late yeares, of
wilfull maliciousnes, would neyther learne themselues, nor
could teach others, any thing at all.
Paraphrasis hath done lesse hurt to learning, than Epitome:
for no Paraphrasis, though there be many, shall neuer take
away Dauids Psalter. Erasmus Paraphrasis being neuer so
good, shall neuer banishe the new Testament. And in an
other schole, the Paraphrasis of Brocardus, or Sambucus, shal
neuer take Aristotles Rhetoricke, nor Horace de Arte Poetica, out
of learned mens handes.
But, as concerning a schole Epitome, he that wold haue an
example of it, let him read Lucian peri kallous which is the
verie Epitome of Isocrates oration de laudibus Helenæ,
he may learne, at the least, this wise lesson, that a man ought
to beware, to be ouer bold, in altering an excellent mans
Neuertheles, some kinde of Epitome may be vsed, by men
of skilful iudgement, to the great proffet also of others. As if
a wise man would take Halles Cronicle, where moch good
matter is quite marde with Indenture Englishe, and first change,
strange and inkhorne tearmes into proper, and commonlie vsed
wordes: next, specially to wede out that, that is superfluous
and idle, not onelie where wordes be vainlie heaped one vpon
an other, but also where many sentences, of one meaning, be
clowted vp together as though M. Hall had bene, not writing
the storie of England, but varying a sentence in Hitching
schole: surelie a wise learned man, by this way of Epitome, in
cutting away wordes and sentences, and diminishing nothing at
all of the matter, shold leaue to mens vse, a storie, halfe as
moch as it was in quantitie, but twise as good as it was, both
for pleasure and also commoditie.
An other kinde of Epitome may be vsed likewise very well,
to moch proffet. Som man either by lustines of nature, or
brought by ill teaching, to a wrong iudgement, is ouer full of
words, sentences, & matter, & yet all his words be proper, apt
& well chosen: all his sentences be rownd and trimlie framed:
his whole matter grownded vpon good reason, & stuffed with
full arguments, for his intent & purpose. Yet when his talke

the ready way to the Latin tong. 261

shalbe heard, or his writing be red, of soch one, as is, either of
my two dearest frendes, M. Haddon at home, or Iohn Sturmius
in Germanie, that Nimium in him, which fooles and vnlearned
will most commend, shall eyther of thies two, bite his lippe, or
shake his heade at it.
This fulnes as it is not to be misliked in a yong man, so in
farder aige, in greater skill, and weightier affaires, it is to be
temperated, or else discretion and iudgement shall seeme to be
wanting in him. But if his stile be still ouer rancke and lustie,
as some men being neuer so old and spent by yeares, will still
be full of youthfull conditions as was Syr F. Bryan, and euer-
more wold haue bene: soch a rancke and full writer, must vse,
if he will do wiselie the exercise of a verie good kinde of
Epitome, and do, as certaine wise men do, that be ouer fat and
fleshie: who leauing their owne full and plentifull table, go to
soiorne abrode from home for a while, at the temperate diet of
some sober man: and so by litle and litle, cut away the
grosnesse that is in them. As for an example: If Osorius
would leaue of his lustines in striuing against S. Austen, and his
ouer rancke rayling against poore Luther, and the troth of Gods
doctrine, and giue his whole studie, not to write any thing of
his owne for a while, but to translate Demosthenes, with so straite,
fast, & temperate a style in latine, as he is in Greeke, he would
becume so perfit & pure a writer, I beleue, as hath bene fewe
or none sence Ciceroes dayes: And so, by doing himself and all
learned moch good, do others lesse harme, & Christes doctrine
lesse iniury, than he doth: & with all, wyn vnto himselfe many
worthy frends, who agreing with him gladly, in ye loue &
liking of excellent learning, are sorie to see so worthie a witte,
so rare eloquence, wholie spent and consumed, in striuing with
God and good men.
Emonges the rest, no man doth lament him more than
I, not onelie for the excellent learning that I see in him, but
also bicause there hath passed priuatelie betwixt him and me,
sure tokens of moch good will, and frendlie opinion, the one
toward the other. And surelie the distance betwixt London and
Lysbon, should not stoppe, any kinde of frendlie dewtie, that I
could, eyther shew to him, or do to his, if the greatest matter
of all did not in certeyne pointes, separate our myndes.
And yet for my parte, both toward him, and diuerse others

262 The second booke teachyng

here at home, for like cause of excellent learning, great wisdome,
and gentle humanitie, which I haue seene in them, and felt at
their handes my selfe, where the matter of indifference is mere
conscience in a quiet minde inwardlie, and not contentious
malice with spitefull rayling openlie, I can be content to followe
this rewle, in misliking some one thing, not to hate for anie
thing els.
But as for all the bloodie beastes, as that fat Boore of the
Psal. 80. // wood: or those brauling Bulles of Basan: or any
lurking Dormus, blinde, not by nature, but by
malice, & as may be gathered of their owne testimonie, giuen
ouer to blindnes, for giuing ouer God & his word; or soch as
be so lustie runnegates, as first, runne from God & his trew
doctrine, than, from their Lordes, Masters, & all dewtie, next,
from them selues & out of their wittes, lastly from their Prince,
contrey, & all dew allegeance, whether they ought rather to be
pitied of good men, for their miserie, or contemned of wise
men, for their malicious folie, let good and wise men deter-
And to returne to Epitome agayne, some will iudge moch
boldnes in me, thus to iudge of Osorius style: but wise men do
know, that meane lookers on, may trewelie say, for a well made
Picture: This face had bene more cumlie, if that hie redde in
the cheeke, were somwhat more pure sanguin than it is: and
yet the stander by, can not amend it himselfe by any way.
And this is not written to the dispraise but to the great
commendation of Osorius, because Tullie himselfe had the same
fulnes in him: and therefore went to Rodes to cut it away: and
saith himselfe, recepi me domum prope mutatus, nam quasi referuerat
iam oratio
. Which was brought to passe I beleue, not onelie by
the teaching of Molo Appollonius but also by a good way of
Epitome, in binding him selfe to translate meros Atticos Oratores,
and so to bring his style, from all lowse grosnesse, to soch firme
fastnes in latin, as is in Demosthenes in Greeke. And this to be
most trew, may easelie be gathered, not onelie of L. Crassus
talke in 1. de Or. but speciallie of Ciceroes owne deede in
translating Demosthenes and Æschines orations peri steph. to that
verie ende and purpose.
And although a man growndlie learned all readie, may take
moch proffet him selfe in vsing, by Epitome, to draw other mens

the ready way to the Latin tong. 263

workes for his owne memorie sake, into shorter rowme, as
Conterus hath done verie well the whole Metamorphosis of Ouid,
& Dauid Cythræus a great deale better, the ix. Muses of Hero-
, and Melanchthon in myne opinion, far best of all, the whole
storie of Time, not onelie to his own vse, but to other mens
proffet and hys great prayse, yet, Epitome is most necessarie of
all in a mans owne writing, as we learne of that noble Poet
Virgill, who, if Donatus say trewe, in writing that perfite worke
of the Georgickes, vsed dailie, when he had written 40. or 50.
verses, not to cease cutting, paring, and pollishing of them, till
he had brought them to the nomber of x. or xij.
And this exercise, is not more nedefullie done in a great
worke, than wiselie done, in your common dailie writing, either
of letter, or other thing else, that is to say, to peruse diligentlie,
and see and spie wiselie, what is alwaies more than nedeth:
For, twenty to one, offend more, in writing to moch, than to
litle: euen as twentie to one, fall into sicknesse, rather by ouer
moch fulnes, than by anie lacke or emptinesse. And therefore
is he alwaies the best English Physition, that best can geue
a purgation, that is, by way of Epitome, to cut all ouer much
away. And surelie mens bodies, be not more full of ill humors,
than commonlie mens myndes (if they be yong, lustie, proude,
like and loue them selues well, as most men do) be full of fansies,
opinions, errors, and faultes, not onelie in inward inuention, but
also in all their vtterance, either by pen or taulke.
And of all other men, euen those that haue ye inuentiuest
heades, for all purposes, and roundest tonges in all matters and
places (except they learne and vse this good lesson of Epitome)
commit commonlie greater faultes, than dull, staying silent men
do. For, quicke inuentors, and faire readie speakers, being
boldned with their present habilitie to say more, and perchance
better to, at the soden for that present, than any other can do,
vse lesse helpe of diligence and studie than they ought to do:
and so haue in them commonlie, lesse learning, and weaker
iudgement, for all deepe considerations, than some duller heades,
and slower tonges haue.
And therefore, readie speakers, generallie be not the best,
playnest, and wisest writers, nor yet the deepest iudgers in
weightie affaires, bicause they do not tarry to weye and iudge
all thinges, as they should: but hauing their heades ouer full of

264 The second booke teachyng

matter, be like pennes ouer full of incke, which will soner
blotte, than make any faire letter at all. Tyme was, whan

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