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The Scholemaster by Roger Ascham

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This etext was prepared by Judy Boss, Omaha, NE

Note: I have omitted signature designations, have
transcribed Greek characters but not italicized them,
and have expanded the usual Renaissance contractions
for "m" and "n" as well as the abbreviation for Latin
terminal "que"; marginalia are separated from textual
line by // and a curly bracket or vertical line vertically exending
over more than one line is represented by a curly bracket
on each successive line. I have also closed : and ? with
the word preceding.



Or plaine and perfite way of tea-
chyng children, to vnderstand, write, and
speake, the Latin tong, but specially purposed
for the priuate brynging vp of youth in Ientle-
men and Noble mens houses, and commodious
also for all such, as haue forgot the Latin
tonge, and would, by themselues, with-
out a Scholemaster, in short tyme,
and with small paines, recouer a
sufficient habilitie, to vnder-
stand, write, and
speake Latin.

By Roger Ascham.

An. 1570.


Printed by Iohn Daye, dwelling
ouer Aldersgate.

Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Regiæ Maiestatis,
per Decennium.

[page intentionally blank]

To the honorable Sir William

Cecill Knight, principall Secretarie to

the Quenes most excellent Maiestie.

SOndry and reasonable be the causes why learned men haue vsed
to offer and dedicate such workes as they put abrode, to some
such personage as they thinke fittest, either in respect of abilitie of
defense, or skill for iugement, or priuate regard of kindenesse and
dutie. Euery one of those considerations, Syr, moue me of right to
offer this my late husbands
M. Aschams worke vnto you. For
well remembryng how much all good learnyng oweth vnto you for
defense therof, as the Vniuersitie of Cambrige, of which my said
late husband was a member, haue in chosing you their worthy
Chaunceller acknowledged, and how happily you haue spent your
time in such studies & caried the vse therof to the right ende, to
the good seruice of the Quenes Maiestie and your contrey to all our
benefites, thyrdly how much my sayd husband was many wayes
bound vnto you, and how gladly and comfortably he vsed in hys lyfe
to recognise and report your goodnesse toward hym, leauyng with me
then hys poore widow and a great sort of orphanes a good comfort in
the hope of your good continuance, which I haue truly found to me
and myne, and therfore do duely and dayly pray for you and
yours: I could not finde any man for whose name this booke was
more agreable for hope [of] protection, more mete for submission to
iudgement, nor more due for respect of worthynesse of your part and
thankefulnesse of my husbandes and myne. Good I trust it shall do,
as I am put in great hope by many very well learned that can well
iudge therof. Mete therefore I compt it that such good as my
husband was able to doe and leaue to the common weale, it should

174 Preface.

be receiued vnder your name, and that the world should owe thanke
therof to you, to whom my husband the authour of it was for good
receyued of you, most dutiefully bounden. And so besechyng you, to
take on you the defense of this booke, to auaunce the good that may
come of it by your allowance and furtherance to publike vse and
benefite, and to accept the thankefull recognition of me and my poore
children, trustyng of the continuance of your good me-
morie of
M. Ascham and his, and dayly commen-
dyng the prosperous estate of you and yours to
God whom you serue and whoes you
are, I rest to trouble you.

Your humble Margaret

A Præface to the

WHen the great plage was at London, the yeare 1563.
the Quenes Maiestie Queene Elizabeth, lay at her
Castle of Windsore: Where, vpon the 10. day of December,
it fortuned, that in Sir William Cicells chamber, hir Highnesse
Principall Secretarie, there dined togither these personages,
M. Secretarie him selfe, Syr William Peter, Syr J. Mason,
D. Wotton, Syr Richard Sackuille Treasurer of the Exchecker,
Syr Walter Mildmaye Chauncellor of the Exchecker, M.
Haddon Master of Requestes, M. John Astely Master of the
Iewell house, M. Bernard Hampton, M. Nicasius, and J.
Of which number, the most part were of hir Maiesties most
honourable priuie Counsell, and the reast seruing hir in verie
good place. I was glad than, and do reioice yet to remember,
that my chance was so happie, to be there that day, in the
companie of so manie wise & good men togither, as hardly
than could haue beene piked out againe, out of all England
M. Secretarie hath this accustomed maner, though his head
be neuer so full of most weightie affaires of the Realme, yet, at
diner time he doth seeme to lay them alwaies aside: and findeth
euer fitte occasion to taulke pleasantlie of other matters,
but most gladlie of some matter of learning: wherein, he will
curteslie heare the minde of the meanest at his Table.
Not long after our sitting doune, I haue strange newes
brought me, sayth M. Secretarie, this morning, that diuerse
Scholers of Eaton, be runne awaie from the
Schole, for feare of beating. Whereupon, M. //M. Secreta-
Secretarie tooke occasion, to wishe, that some //rie.

176 A Præface to the Reader.

more discretion were in many Scholemasters, in vsing correction,
than commonlie there is. Who many times, punishe rather,
the weakenes of nature, than the fault of the Scholer. Whereby,
many Scholers, that might else proue well, be driuen to hate
learning, before they knowe, what learning meaneth: and so,
are made willing to forsake their booke, and be glad to be put
to any other kinde of liuing.
M. Peter, as one somewhat seuere of nature, said plainlie,
M. Peter. // that the Rodde onelie, was the sworde, that must
keepe, the Schole in obedience, and the Scholer
M. Wotton. // in good order. M. Wotton, á man milde of nature,
with soft voice, and fewe wordes, inclined to M. Secretaries
iudgement, and said, in mine opinion, the Schole-
Ludus li- // house should be in deede, as it is called by name,
terarum. // the house of playe and pleasure, and not of feare
Plato de // and bondage: and as I do remember, so saith
Rep. 7. // Socrates in one place of Plato. And therefore,
if a Rodde carie the feare of à Sworde, it is no maruell, if those
that be fearefull of nature, chose rather to forsake the Plaie,
than to stand alwaies within the feare of a Sworde in a fonde
mans handling. M. Mason, after his maner, was
M. Mason. // verie merie with both parties, pleasantlie playing,
both, with the shrewde touches of many courste boyes, and with
the small discretion of many leude Scholemasters. M. Haddon
was fullie of M. Peters opinion, and said, that
M. Haddon. // the best scholemaster of our time, was the
greatest beater, and named the Person. Though, quoth I, it
was his good fortune, to send from his Schole,
The Author of // vnto the Vniuersitie, one of the best Scholers in
this booke. // deede of all our time, yet wise men do thinke,
that that came so to passe, rather, by the great towardnes of the
Scholer, than by the great beating of the Master: and whether
this be true or no, you your selfe are best witnes. I said
somewhat farder in the matter, how, and whie, yong children,
were soner allured by loue, than driuen by beating, to atteyne
good learning: wherein I was the bolder to say my minde,
bicause M. Secretarie curteslie prouoked me thereunto: or else,
in such à companie, and namelie in his præsence, my wonte is,
to be more willing, to vse mine eares, than to occupie my

A Præface to the Reader. 177

Syr Walter Mildmaye, M. Astley, and the rest, said verie
litle: onelie Syr Rich. Sackuill, said nothing at all. After dinner
I went vp to read with the Queenes Maiestie. We red than
togither in the Greke tongue, as I well remember. // Demost.
that noble Oration of Demosthenes against Æschines, // peri pa-
for his false dealing in his Ambassage to king // rapresb.
Philip of Macedonie. Syr Rich. Sackuile came vp sone after: and
finding me in hir Maiesties priuie chamber, he // Syr R.
tooke me by the hand, & carying me to à // Sackuiles
windoe, said, M. Ascham, I would not for à good // communi-
deale of monie, haue bene, this daie, absent from // cation with
diner. Where, though I said nothing, yet I gaue // the Author
as good eare, and do consider as well the taulke, // of this
that passed, as any one did there. M. Secretarie said very // booke.
wisely, and most truely, that many yong wittes be driuen to
hate learninge, before they know what learninge is. I can be
good witnes to this my selfe: For à fond Scholemaster, before
I was fullie fourtene yeare olde, draue me so, with feare of
beating, from all loue of learninge, as nowe, when I know, what
difference it is, to haue learninge, and to haue litle, or none at
all, I feele it my greatest greife, and finde it my greatest hurte,
that euer came to me, that it was my so ill chance, to light
vpon so lewde à Scholemaster. But seing it is but in vain, to
lament thinges paste, and also wisdome to looke to thinges to
cum, surely, God willinge, if God lend me life, I will make
this my mishap, some occasion of good hap, to litle Robert
my sonnes sonne. For whose bringinge vp, I would
gladlie, if it so please you, vse speciallie your good aduice. I
heare saie, you haue à sonne, moch of his age: we wil deale thus
togither. Point you out à Scholemaster, who by your order,
shall teache my sonne and yours, and for all the rest, I will
prouide, yea though they three do cost me a couple of hundred
poundes by yeare: and beside, you shall finde me as fast à
Frend to you and yours, as perchance any you haue. Which
promise, the worthie Ientleman surelie kept with me, vntill his
dying daye.
We had than farther taulke togither, of bringing vp of
children: of the nature, of quicke, and hard wittes: // The cheife
of the right choice of à good witte: of Feare, and // pointes of
loue in teachinge children. We passed from // this booke.

178 A Præface to the Reader.

children and came to yonge men, namely, Ientlemen: we
taulked of their to moch libertie, to liue as they lust: of their
letting louse to sone, to ouer moch experience of ill, contrarie to
the good order of many good olde common welthes of the
Persians and Grekes: of witte gathered, and good fortune
gotten, by some, onely by experience, without learning. And
lastlie, he required of me verie earnestlie, to shewe, what I
thought of the common goinge of Englishe men into Italie.
But, sayth he, bicause this place, and this tyme, will not suffer
so long taulke, as these good matters require, therefore I pray
you, at my request, and at your leysure, put in some order of
writing, the cheife pointes of this our taulke, concerning the
right order of teachinge, and honestie of liuing, for the good
bringing vp of children & yong men. And surelie, beside
contentinge me, you shall both please and profit verie many
others. I made some excuse by lacke of habilitie, and weakenes
of bodie: well, sayth he, I am not now to learne, what you can
do. Our deare frende, good M. Goodricke, whose iudgement I
could well beleue, did once for all, satisfye me fullie therein.
Againe, I heard you say, not long agoe, that you may thanke
Syr John Cheke, for all the learninge you haue: And I know
verie well my selfe, that you did teach the Quene. And
therefore seing God did so blesse you, to make you the Scholer
of the best Master, and also the Scholemaster of the best
Scholer, that euer were in our tyme, surelie, you should please
God, benefite your countrie, & honest your owne name, if you
would take the paines, to impart to others, what you learned
of soch à Master, and how ye taught such à scholer. And, in
vttering the stuffe ye receiued of the one, in declaring the
order ye tooke with the other, ye shall neuer lacke, neither
matter, nor maner, what to write, nor how to write in this
kinde of Argument.
I beginning some farther excuse, sodeinlie was called to
cum to the Queene. The night following, I slept litle, my
head was so full of this our former taulke, and I so mindefull,
somewhat to satisfie the honest request of so deare à frend,
I thought to præpare some litle treatise for a New yeares gift
that Christmas. But, as it chanceth to busie builders, so, in
building thys my poore Scholehouse (the rather bicause the forme
of it is somewhat new, and differing from others) the worke

A Præf ace to the Reader. 179

rose dailie higher and wider, than I thought it would at the
And though it appeare now, and be in verie deede, but a
small cotage, poore for the stuffe, and rude for the workemanship,
yet in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was lothe to
giue it ouer, but the making so costlie, outreaching my habilitie,
as many tymes I wished, that some one of those three, my deare
frendes, with full pursses, Syr Tho. Smithe, M. // {Smith.
Haddon, or M. Watson, had had the doing of it. // M. {Haddon.
Yet, neuerthelesse, I my selfe, spending gladlie // {Watson.
that litle, that I gatte at home by good Syr Iohn // Syr I.
Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my // Cheke.
frend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me // I. Sturmius.
in Reuersion by my olde Masters, Plato, Aristotle, // Plato.
and Cicero, I haue at last patched it vp, as I could, // Aristotle.
and as you see. If the matter be meane, and meanly handled, // Cicero.
I pray you beare, both with me, and it: for neuer worke went
vp in worse wether, with mo lettes and stoppes, than this poore
Scholehouse of mine. Westminster Hall can beare some
witnesse, beside moch weakenes of bodie, but more trouble of
minde, by some such sores, as greue me to toche them my
selfe, and therefore I purpose not to open them to others.
And, in middes of outward iniuries, and inward cares, to
encrease them withall, good Syr Rich. Sackuile
dieth, that worthie Ientleman: That earnest // Syr R.
fauorer and furtherer of Gods true Religion: // Sackuill.
That faithfull Seruitor to his Prince and Countrie: A louer of
learning, & all learned men: Wise in all doinges: Curtesse to
all persons: shewing spite to none: doing good to many: and as
I well found, to me so fast à frend, as I neuer lost the like
before. Whan he was gone, my hart was dead. There was
not one, that woare à blacke gowne for him, who caried à
heuier hart for him, than I. Whan he was gone, I cast this
booke àwaie: I could not looke vpon it, but with weping eyes,
in remembring him, who was the onelie setter on, to do it, and
would haue bene, not onelie à glad commender of it, but also
à sure and certaine comfort, to me and mine, for it. Almost
two yeares togither, this booke lay scattered, and neglected,
and had bene quite giuen ouer of me, if the goodnesse of one
had not giuen me some life and spirite againe. God, the

180 A Præface to the Reader.

mouer of goodnesse, prosper alwaies him & his, as he hath
many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall
comfort more and more. Of whom, most iustlie I may saie,
and verie oft, and alwaies gladlie, I am wont to say, that
sweete verse of Sophocles, spoken by Oedipus to worthie Theseus.

Soph. in // echo [gar] acho dia se, kouk allon broton.
Oed. Col. //

Thys hope hath helped me to end this booke: which, if he
allowe, I shall thinke my labours well imployed, and shall not
moch æsteme the misliking of any others. And I trust, he
shall thinke the better of it, bicause he shall finde the best part
thereof, to cum out of his Schole, whom he, of all men loued
and liked best.
Yet some men, frendly enough of nature, but of small
iudgement in learninge, do thinke, I take to moch paines, and
Plato in // spend to moch time, in settinge forth these
initio // childrens affaires. But those good men were
Theagis. // neuer brought vp in Socrates Schole, who saith
ou gar esti // plainlie, that no man goeth àbout à more godlie
peri otou // purpose, than he that is mindfull of the good
theioterou // bringing vp, both of hys owne, and other mens
anthropos // children.
an bouleu- //
saito, e // Therfore, I trust, good and wise men, will
peri pai- // thinke well of this my doing. And of other, that
deias, kai // thinke otherwise, I will thinke my selfe, they are
ton auton, // but men, to be pardoned for their follie, and
kai ton // pitied for their ignoraunce.
oikeion. //
In writing this booke, I haue had earnest respecte to three
speciall pointes, trothe of Religion, honestie in liuing, right order
in learning. In which three waies, I praie God, my poore
children may diligently waulke: for whose sake, as nature
moued, and reason required, and necessitie also somewhat
compelled, I was the willinger to take these paines.
For, seing at my death, I am not like to leaue them any
great store of liuing, therefore in my life time, I thought good
to bequeath vnto them, in this litle booke, as in my Will and
Testament, the right waie to good learning: which if they
followe, with the feare of God, they shall verie well cum to
sufficiencie of liuinge.
I wishe also, with all my hart, that yong M. Rob. Sackuille,

A Præface to the Reader. 181

may take that fructe of this labor, that his worthie Grauntfather
purposed he should haue done: And if any other do take, either
proffet, or pleasure hereby, they haue cause to thanke M.
Robert Sackuille, for whom speciallie this my Scholemaster was
And one thing I would haue the Reader consider in
readinge this booke, that bicause, no Scholemaster hath charge
of any childe, before he enter into hys Schole, therefore I
leauing all former care, of their good bringing vp, to wise and
good Parentes, as à matter not belonging to the Scholemaster,
I do appoynt thys my Scholemaster, than, and there to begin,
where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth
not long, but vntill the Scholer be made hable to go to the
Vniuersitie, to procede in Logike, Rhetoricke, and other kindes
of learning.
Yet if my Scholemaster, for loue he beareth to hys
Scholer, shall teach hym somewhat for hys furtherance,
and better iudgement in learning, that may serue
him seuen yeare after in the Vniuersitie, he
doth hys Scholer no more wrong, nor de-
serueth no worse name therby, than he
doth in London, who sellinge silke
or cloth vnto his frend, doth
giue hym better measure,
than either hys pro-
mise or bargaine

Farewell in Christ.

The first booke for the youth.

AFter the childe hath learned perfitlie the eight partes of
speach, let him then learne the right ioyning togither of
substantiues with adiectiues, the nowne with the verbe, the
relatiue with the antecedent. And in learninge farther hys
Syntaxis, by mine aduice, he shall not vse the common order
in common scholes, for making of latines: wherby, the childe
Cic. de // commonlie learneth, first, an euill choice of wordes,
Cla. or. // (and right choice of wordes, saith Cæsar, is the
foundation of eloquence) than, a wrong placing
of wordes: and lastlie, an ill framing of the sentence, with
a peruerse iudgement, both of wordes and sentences. These
Making of // faultes, taking once roote in yougthe, be neuer, or
Lattines // hardlie, pluckt away in age. Moreouer, there is
marreth // no one thing, that hath more, either dulled the
Children. // wittes, or taken awaye the will of children from
learning, then the care they haue, to satisfie their masters, in
making of latines.
For, the scholer, is commonlie beat for the making, when
the master were more worthie to be beat for the mending, or
rather, marring of the same: The master many times, being
as ignorant as the childe, what to saie properlie and fitlie to the
Two scholemasters haue set forth in print, either of them
Horman. // a booke, of soch kinde of latines, Horman and
Whitting- // Whittington.
ton. //
A childe shall learne of the better of them,
that, which an other daie, if he be wise, and cum to iudgement,
he must be faine to vnlearne againe.

The first booke for the youth. 183

There is a waie, touched in the first booke of Cicero
De Oratore
, which, wiselie brought into scholes, // 1. De Or.
truely taught, and constantly vsed, would not
onely take wholly away this butcherlie feare in making of
latines, but would also, with ease and pleasure, and in short
time, as I know by good experience, worke a true choice and
placing of wordes, a right ordering of sentences, an easie
vnderstandyng of the tonge, a readines to speake, a facultie to
write, a true iudgement, both of his owne, and other mens
doinges, what tonge so euer he doth vse.
The waie is this. After the three Concordances learned,
as I touched before, let the master read vnto hym the Epistles
of Cicero, gathered togither and chosen out by Sturmius, for
the capacitie of children.
First, let him teach the childe, cherefullie and plainlie, the
cause, and matter of the letter: then, let him
construe it into Englishe, so oft, as the childe may // The order
easilie carie awaie the vnderstanding of it: // of teaching.
Lastlie, parse it ouer perfitlie. This done thus, let the childe,
by and by, both construe and parse it ouer againe: so, that it
may appeare, that the childe douteth in nothing, that his
master taught him before. After this, the childe must take
a paper booke, and sitting in some place, where no man shall
prompe him, by him self, let him translate into Englishe his
former lesson. Then shewing it to his master,
let the master take from him his latin booke, and // Two pa-
pausing an houre, at the least, than let the childe // per bokes.
translate his owne Englishe into latin againe, in an other paper
booke. When the childe bringeth it, turned into latin, the
master must compare it with Tullies booke, and laie them both
togither: and where the childe doth well, either in chosing, or
true placing of Tullies wordes, let the master // Children
praise him, and saie here ye do well. For I // learne by
assure you, there is no such whetstone, to // prayse.
sharpen a good witte and encourage a will to learninge, as is
But if the childe misse, either in forgetting a worde, or in
chaunging a good with a worse, or misordering the sentence,
I would not haue the master, either froune, or chide with him,
if the childe haue done his diligence, and vsed no trewandship

184 The first booke teachyng

therein. For I know by good experience, that a childe shall
Ientlenes // take more profit of two fautes, ientlie warned of,
in teaching. // then of foure thinges, rightly hitt. For than, the
master shall haue good occasion to saie vnto him.
N. Tullie would haue vsed such a worde, not this: Tullie
would haue placed this word here, not there: would haue vsed
this case, this number, this person, this degree, this gender: he
would haue vsed this moode, this tens, this simple, rather than
this compound: this aduerbe here, not there: he would haue
ended the sentence with this verbe, not with that nowne or
participle, etc.
In these fewe lines, I haue wrapped vp, the most tedious
part of Grammer: and also the ground of almost all the Rewles,
that are so busilie taught by the Master, and so hardlie learned
by the Scholer, in all common Scholes: which after this sort,
the master shall teach without all error, and the scholer shall
learne without great paine: the master being led by so sure
a guide, and the scholer being brought into so plaine and easie
a waie. And therefore, we do not contemne Rewles, but we
gladlie teach Rewles: and teach them, more plainlie, sensiblie,
and orderlie, than they be commonlie taught in common
Scholes. For whan the Master shall compare Tullies booke
with his Scholers translation, let the Master, at the first,
lead and teach his Scholer, to ioyne the Rewles of his Grammer
booke, with the examples of his present lesson, vntill the
Scholer, by him selfe, be hable to fetch out of his Grammer,
euerie Rewle, for euerie Example: So, as the Grammer booke
be euer in the Scholers hand, and also vsed of him, as a
Dictionarie, for euerie present vse. This is a liuely and perfite
waie of teaching of Rewles: where the common waie, vsed in
common Scholes, to read the Grammer alone by it selfe, is
tedious for the Master, hard for the Scholer, colde and vn-
cumfortable for them bothe.
Let your Scholer be neuer afraide, to aske you any dout,
but vse discretlie the best allurements ye can, to encorage him
to the same: lest, his ouermoch fearinge of you, driue him
to seeke some misorderlie shifte: as, to seeke to be helped
by some other booke, or to be prompted by some other
Scholer, and so goe aboute to begile you moch, and him selfe

the brynging vp of youth. 185

With this waie, of good vnderstanding the mater, plaine
construinge, diligent parsinge, dailie translatinge, cherefull
admonishinge, and heedefull amendinge of faultes: neuer
leauinge behinde iuste praise for well doinge, I would haue the
Scholer brought vp withall, till he had red, & translated ouer ye
first booke of Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, with a good
peece of a Comedie of Terence also.
All this while, by mine aduise, the childe shall vse to speake
no latine: For, as Cicero saith in like mater, with like wordes,
loquendo, male loqui discunt. And, that excellent // Latin
learned man, G. Budæus, in his Greeke Com- // speakyng.
mentaries, sore complaineth, that whan he began // G. Budæus.
to learne the latin tonge, vse of speaking latin at the table, and
elsewhere, vnaduisedlie, did bring him to soch an euill choice of
wordes, to soch a crooked framing of sentences, that no one
thing did hurt or hinder him more, all the daies of his life
afterward, both for redinesse in speaking, and also good iudge-
ment in writinge.
In very deede, if children were brought vp, in soch a house,
or soch a Schole, where the latin tonge were properlie and
perfitlie spoken, as Tib. and Ca. Gracci were brought vp, in
their mother Cornelias house, surelie, than the dailie vse of
speaking, were the best and readiest waie, to learne the latin
tong. But, now, commonlie, in the best Scholes in England,
for wordes, right choice is smallie regarded, true proprietie
whollie neglected, confusion is brought in, barbariousnesse is
bred vp so in yong wittes, as afterward they be, not onelie
marde for speaking, but also corrupted in iudgement: as with
moch adoe, or neuer at all, they be brought to right frame
Yet all men couet to haue their children speake latin: and
so do I verie earnestlie too. We bothe, haue one purpose: we
agree in desire, we wish one end: but we differ somewhat in
order and waie, that leadeth rightlie to that end. Other would
haue them speake at all aduentures: and, so they be speakinge,
to speake, the Master careth not, the Scholer knoweth not,
what. This is, to seeme, and not to bee: except it be, to be
bolde without shame, rashe without skill, full of words without
witte. I wish to haue them speake so, as it may well appeare,
that the braine doth gouerne the tonge, and that reason leadeth

186 The first booke teachyng

forth the taulke. Socrates doctrine is true in Plato, and well
Plato. // marked, and truely vttered by Horace in Arte
Horat. // Poetica, that, where so euer knowledge doth accom-
panie the witte, there best vtterance doth alwaies
awaite vpon the tonge: For, good vnderstanding must first be bred
Much wri- // in the childe, which, being nurished with skill, and
tyng bree- // vse of writing (as I will teach more largelie
deth ready // hereafter) is the onelie waie to bring him to
speakyng. // iudgement and readinesse in speakinge: and that
in farre shorter time (if he followe constantlie the trade of this
litle lesson) than he shall do, by common teachinge of the
common scholes in England.
But, to go forward, as you perceiue, your scholer to goe
better and better on awaie, first, with vnderstanding his lesson
more quicklie, with parsing more readelie, with translating
more spedelie and perfitlie then he was wonte, after, giue him
longer lessons to translate: and withall, begin to teach him,
The second // both in nownes, & verbes, what is Proprium, and
degree and // what is Translatum, what Synonymum, what
order in // Diuersum, which be Contraria, and which be
teachyng. // most notable Phrases in all his lecture.
{Rex Sepultus est
Proprium. {magnificè.

{Cum illo principe,
Translatum. {Sepulta est & gloria
{et Salus Reipublicæ.

Synonyma. {Ensis, Gladius.
{Laudare, prædicare.

{Diligere, Amare.
Diuersa. {Calere, Exardescere.
{Inimicus, Hostis.

{Acerbum & luctuosum
{ bellum.
Contraria. {Dulcis & lœta
{ Pax.

{Dare verba.
Phrases. {abjicere obedientiam.

the brynging vp of youth. 187

Your scholer then, must haue the third paper booke: in
the which, after he hath done his double transla- // The thyrd
tion, let him write, after this sort foure of these // paper boke.
forenamed sixe, diligentlie marked out of eurie

Quatuor. {Diuersa.

Or else, three, or two, if there be no moe: and if there be
none of these at all in some lecture, yet not omitte the order,
but write these.

{Diuersa nulla.
{Contraria nulla. etc.

This diligent translating, ioyned with this heedefull
marking, in the foresaid Epistles, and afterwarde in some
plaine Oration of Tullie, as, pro lege Manil: pro Archia Poeta,
or in those three ad C. Cæs: shall worke soch a right choise of
wordes, so streight a framing of sentences, soch a true iudge-
ment, both to write skilfullie, and speake wittlelie, as wise men
shall both praise, and maruell at.
If your scholer do misse sometimes, in marking rightlie
these foresaid sixe thinges, chide not hastelie: for that shall,
both dull his witte, and discorage his diligence: // Ientleness
but monish him gentelie: which shall make // in teaching.
him, both willing to amende, and glad to go
forward in loue and hope of learning.
I haue now wished, twise or thrise, this gentle nature,
to be in a Scholemaster: And, that I haue done so, neither by
chance, nor without some reason, I will now // Loue.
declare at large, why, in mine opinion, loue is // Feare.
fitter than feare, ientlenes better than beating, to
bring vp a childe rightlie in learninge.
With the common vse of teaching and beating in common
scholes of England, I will not greatlie contend: // Common
which if I did, it were but a small grammaticall // Scholes.
controuersie, neither belonging to heresie nor

188 The first booke teachyng

treason, nor greatly touching God nor the Prince: although in
very deede, in the end, the good or ill bringing vp of children,
doth as much serue to the good or ill seruice, of God, our
Prince, and our whole countrie, as any one thing doth beside.
I do gladlie agree with all good Scholemasters in these
pointes: to haue children brought to good perfitnes in learning:
to all honestie in maners: to haue all fautes rightlie amended:
to haue euerie vice seuerelie corrected: but for the order and
waie that leadeth rightlie to these pointes, we somewhat differ.
Sharpe // For commonlie, many scholemasters, some, as
Schole- // I haue seen, moe, as I haue heard tell, be of so
masters. // crooked a nature, as, when they meete with a
hard witted scholer, they rather breake him, than bowe him,
rather marre him, then mend him. For whan the scholemaster
is angrie with some other matter, then will he sonest faul to
beate his scholer: and though he him selfe should be punished
for his folie, yet must he beate some scholer for his pleasure:
though there be no cause for him to do so, nor yet fault in the
scholer to deserue so. These ye will say, be fond scholemasters,
and fewe they be, that be found to be soch. They be fond in
deede, but surelie ouermany soch be found euerie where. But
Nature // this I will say, that euen the wisest of your great
punished. // beaters, do as oft punishe nature, as they do
correcte faultes. Yea, many times, the better
nature, is sorer punished: For, if one, by quicknes of witte,
take his lesson readelie, an other, by hardnes of witte, taketh it
not so speedelie: the first is alwaies commended, the other is
commonlie punished: whan a wise scholemaster, should rather
discretelie consider the right disposition of both their natures,
and not so moch wey what either of them is able to do now,
Quicke // as what either of them is likelie to do hereafter.
wittes for // For this I know, not onelie by reading of bookes
learnyng. // in my studie, but also by experience of life,
abrode in the world, that those, which be commonlie the
wisest, the best learned, and best men also, when they be olde,
were neuer commonlie the quickest of witte, when they were
yonge. The causes why, amongst other, which be many, that
moue me thus to thinke, be these fewe, which I will recken.
Quicke wittes commonlie, be apte to take, vnapte to keepe:
soone hote and desirous of this and that: as colde and sone

the brynging vp of youth. 189

wery of the same againe: more quicke to enter spedelie, than
hable to pearse farre: euen like ouer sharpe tooles, whose edges
be verie soone turned. Soch wittes delite them selues in easie
and pleasant studies, and neuer passe farre forward in hie and
hard sciences. And therefore the quickest wittes commonlie
may proue the best Poetes, but not the wisest Orators: readie
of tonge to speake boldlie, not deepe of iudgement, // Quicke
either for good counsell or wise writing. Also, // wittes, for
for maners and life, quicke wittes commonlie, be, // maners &
in desire, newfangle, in purpose, vnconstant, light // lyfe.
to promise any thing, readie to forget euery thing: both benefite
and inurie: and therby neither fast to frend, nor fearefull to foe:
inquisitiue of euery trifle, not secret in greatest affaires: bolde,
with any person: busie, in euery matter: sothing, soch as be
present: nipping any that is absent: of nature also, alwaies,
flattering their betters, enuying their equals, despising their
inferiors: and, by quicknes of witte, verie quicke and readie, to
like none so well as them selues.
Moreouer commonlie, men, very quicke of witte, be also,
verie light of conditions: and thereby, very readie of disposition,
to be caried ouer quicklie, by any light cumpanie, to any riot
and vnthriftines when they be yonge: and therfore seldome,
either honest of life, or riche in liuing, when they be olde.
For, quicke in witte, and light in maners, be either seldome
troubled, or verie sone wery, in carying a verie heuie purse.
Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, ouer-
quicke, hastie, rashe, headie, and brainsicke. These two last
wordes, Headie, and Brainsicke, be fitte and proper wordes,
rising naturallie of the matter, and tearmed aptlie by the
condition of ouer moch quickenes of witte. In yougthe also
they be, readie scoffers, priuie mockers, and euer ouer light and
mery. In aige, sone testie, very waspishe, and alwaies ouer
miserable: and yet fewe of them cum to any great aige, by
reason of their misordered life when they were yong: but
a great deale fewer of them cum to shewe any great counten-
ance, or beare any great authoritie abrode in the world, but
either liue obscurelie, men know not how, or dye obscurelie,
men marke not whan. They be like trees, that shewe forth,
faire blossoms & broad leaues in spring time, but bring out
small and not long lasting fruite in haruest time: and that

190 The first booke teachyng

onelie soch, as fall, and rotte, before they be ripe, and so, neuer,
or seldome, cum to any good at all. For this ye shall finde
most true by experience, that amongest a number of quicke
wittes in youthe, fewe be found, in the end, either verie
fortunate for them selues, or verie profitable to serue the common
wealth, but decay and vanish, men know not which way:
except a very fewe, to whom peraduenture blood and happie
parentage, may perchance purchace a long standing vpon the
stage. The which felicitie, because it commeth by others
procuring, not by their owne deseruinge, and stand by other
mens feete, and not by their own, what owtward brag so euer
is borne by them, is in deed, of it selfe, and in wise mens eyes,
of no great estimation.
Some wittes, moderate enough by nature, be many tymes
Som sci- // marde by ouer moch studie and vse of some
ences hurt // sciences, namelie, Musicke, Arithmetick, and
mens wits, // Geometrie. Thies sciences, as they sharpen mens
and mar // wittes ouer moch, so they change mens maners
mens ma- // ouer sore, if they be not moderatlie mingled, &
ners. //
wiselie applied to som good vse of life. Marke all Mathe-
Mathe- // maticall heades, which be onely and wholy bent
maticall // to those sciences, how solitarie they be themselues,
heades. // how vnfit to liue with others, & how vnapte to
serue in the world. This is not onelie knowen now by common
experience, but vttered long before by wise mens Iudgement
Galen. // and sentence. Galene saith, moch Musick marreth
Plato. // mens maners: and Plato hath a notable place of
the same thing in his bookes de Rep. well marked
also, and excellentlie translated by Tullie himself. Of this
matter, I wrote once more at large, XX. yeare a go, in my booke
of shoting: now I thought but to touch it, to proue, that ouer
moch quicknes of witte, either giuen by nature, or sharpened by
studie, doth not commonlie bring forth, eyther greatest learning,
best maners, or happiest life in the end.
Contrariewise, a witte in youth, that is not ouer dulle,
Hard wits // heauie, knottie and lumpishe, but hard, rough, and
in learning. // though somwhat staffishe, as Tullie wisheth otium,
quietum, non languidum
: and negotium cum labore,
non cum periculo
, such a witte I say, if it be, at the first well
handled by the mother, and rightlie smothed and wrought as it

the brynging vp of youth. 191

should, not ouerwhartlie, and against the wood, by the schole-
master, both for learning, and hole course of liuing, proueth
alwaies the best. In woode and stone, not the softest, but
hardest, be alwaies aptest, for portrature, both fairest for pleasure,
and most durable for proffit. Hard wittes be hard to receiue,
but sure to keepe: painefull without werinesse, hedefull without
wauering, constant without newfanglenes: bearing heauie
thinges, thoughe not lightlie, yet willinglie: entring hard
thinges, though not easelie, yet depelie, and so cum to that
perfitnes of learning in the ende, that quicke wittes, seeme in
hope, but do not in deede, or else verie seldome, // Hard wits
euer attaine vnto. Also, for maners and life, hard // in maners
wittes commonlie, ar hardlie caried, either to // and lyfe.
desire euerie new thing, or else to meruell at euery strange
thinge: and therfore they be carefull and diligent in their own
matters, not curious and busey in other mens affaires: and so,
they becum wise them selues, and also ar counted honest by
others. They be graue, stedfast, silent of tong, secret of hart.
Not hastie in making, but constant in keping any promise.
Not rashe in vttering, but ware in considering euery matter:
and therby, not quicke in speaking, but deepe of iudgement,
whether they write, or giue counsell in all waightie affaires.
And theis be the men, that becum in the end, both most happie
for themselues, and alwaise best estemed abrode in the world.
I haue bene longer in describing, the nature, the good or ill
successe, of the quicke and hard witte, than perchance som will
thinke, this place and matter doth require. But // The best
my purpose was hereby, plainlie to vtter, what // wittes dri-
iniurie is offered to all learninge, & to the common // uen from
welthe also, first, by the fond father in chosing, // learnyng,
but chieflie by the lewd scholemaster in beating // to other li-
and driuing away the best natures from learning. A childe // uyng.
that is still, silent, constant, and somewhat hard of witte, is
either neuer chosen by the father to be made a scholer, or else,
when he commeth to the schole, he is smally regarded, little
looked vnto, he lacketh teaching, he lacketh coraging, he lacketh
all thinges, onelie he neuer lacketh beating, nor any word, that
may moue him to hate learninge, nor any deed that may driue
him from learning, to any other kinde of liuing.
And when this sadde natured, and hard witted child, is bette

192 The first booke teachyng

from his booke, and becummeth after eyther student of
Hard wits // the common lawe, or page in the Court, or
proue best // seruingman, or bound prentice to a merchant,
in euery // or to som handiecrafte, he proueth in the ende,
kynde of // wiser, happier and many tymes honester too, than
life. // many of theis quick wittes do, by their learninge.
Learning is, both hindred and iniured to, by the ill choice
of them, that send yong scholers to the vniuersities. Of whom
must nedes cum all our Diuines, Lawyers, and Physicions.
Thies yong scholers be chosen commonlie, as yong apples be
The ill // chosen by children, in a faire garden about S.
choice of // Iames tyde: a childe will chose a sweeting, because it
wittes for // is presentlie faire and pleasant, and refuse a Runnet,
learnyng. // because it is than grene, hard, and sowre, whan the
one, if it be eaten, doth breed, both wormes and ill humors:
the other if it stand his tyme, be ordered and kepte as it should, is
holsom of it self, and helpeth to the good digestion of other meates:
Sweetinges, will receyue wormes, rotte, and dye on the tree, and
neuer or seldom cum to the gathering for good and lasting store.
For verie greafe of harte I will not applie the similitude:
but hereby, is plainlie seen, how learning is robbed of hir best
wittes, first by the great beating, and after by the ill chosing
of scholers, to go to the vniuersities. Whereof cummeth
partelie, that lewde and spitefull prouerbe, sounding to the
greate hurte of learning, and shame of learned men, that, the
greatest Clerkes be not the wisest men.
And though I, in all this discourse, seem plainlie to prefer,
hard and roughe wittes, before quicke and light wittes, both for
learnyng and maners, yet am I not ignorant that som quicknes
of witte, is a singuler gifte of God, and so most rare emonges
men, and namelie such a witte, as is quicke without lightnes,
sharpe without brittlenes, desirous of good thinges without
newfanglenes, diligent in painfull thinges without werisomnes,
and constant in good will to do all thinges well, as I know was
in Syr Iohn Cheke, and is in som, that yet liue, in whome all
theis faire qualities of witte ar fullie mette togither.
But it is notable and trewe, that Socrates saith in Plato to
Plato in // his frende Crito. That, that number of men is
Critone. // fewest, which far excede, either in good or ill, in
wisdom of folie, but the meane betwixt both, be

the brynging vp of youth. 193

the greatest number: which he proueth trewe in diuerse other
thinges: as in greyhoundes, emonges which fewe // Verie
are found, exceding greate, or exceding litle, // good, or
exceding swift, or exceding slowe: And therfore/ verie ill
I speaking of quick and hard wittes, I ment, the // men, be
common number of quicke and hard wittes, // fewest in
emonges the which, for the most parte, the hard // number.
witte, proueth manie times, the better learned, wiser and
honester man: and therfore, do I the more lament, that soch
wittes commonlie be either kepte from learning, by fond fathers,
or bet from learning by lewde scholemasters.
And speaking thus moche of the wittes of children for
learning, the opportunitie of the place, and good- // Horsemen
nes of the matter might require to haue here // be wiser in
declared the most speciall notes of a good witte for // knowledge
learning in a childe, after the maner and custume // of a good
of a good horsman, who is skilfull, to know, and // Colte, than
hable to tell others, how by certein sure signes, a // scholema-
man may choise a colte, that is like to proue an // sters be, in
other day, excellent for the saddle. And it is // knowledge
pitie, that commonlie, more care is had, yea and // of a good
that emonges verie wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge // witte.
man for their horse, than a cunnyng man for their // A good Ri-
children. They say nay in worde, but they do so // der better
in deede. For, to the one, they will gladlie giue // rewarded
a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and loth // than a good
to offer to the other, 200. shillinges. God, that // Schole-
sitteth in heauen laugheth their choice to skorne, // master.
and rewardeth their liberalitie as it should: for he suffereth
them, to haue, tame, and well ordered horse, but // Horse well
wilde and vnfortunate Children: and therfore in // broken,
the ende they finde more pleasure in their horse, // children ill
than comforte in their children. // taught.
But concerning the trewe notes of the best wittes for
learning in a childe, I will reporte, not myne own opinion, but
the very iudgement of him, that was counted the best teacher
and wisest man that learning maketh mention of, // Plato in 7.
and that is Socrates in Plato, who expresseth // de Rep.
orderlie thies seuen plaine notes to choise a good
witte in a child for learninge.

194 The first booke teachyng

{1 Euphues.
{2 Mnemon.
Trewe {3 Philomathes.
notes of a {4 Philoponos.
good witte. {5 Philekoos.
{6 Zetetikos.
{7 Philepainos.

And bicause I write English, and to Englishemen, I will
plainlie declare in Englishe both, what thies wordes of Plato
meane, and how aptlie they be linked, and how orderlie they
folow one an other.

1. Euphues.

Is he, that is apte by goodnes of witte, and appliable by
Witte. // readines of will, to learning, hauing all other
Will. // qualities of the minde and partes of the bodie,
that must an other day serue learning, not trobled,
mangled, and halfed, but sounde, whole, full, & hable to do their
The tong. // office: as, a tong, not stamering, or ouer hardlie
drawing forth wordes, but plaine, and redie to
The voice. // deliuer the meaning of the minde: a voice, not
softe, weake, piping, wommanishe, but audible,
Face. // stronge, and manlike: a countenance, not werishe
Stature. // and crabbed, but faire and cumlie: a personage,
not wretched and deformed, but taule and goodlie
Learnyng // for surelie, a cumlie countenance, with a goodlie
ioyned // stature, geueth credit to learning, and authoritie
with a cum- // to the person: otherwise commonlie, either, open
lie perso- // contempte, or priuie disfauour doth hurte, or
nage. // hinder, both person and learning. And, euen as
a faire stone requireth to be sette in the finest gold, with the
best workmanshyp, or else it leseth moch of the Grace and
price, euen so, excellencye in learning, and namely Diuinitie,
ioyned with a cumlie personage, is a meruelous Iewell in the
world. And how can a cumlie bodie be better employed,
than to serue the fairest exercise of Goddes greatest gifte,
and that is learning. But commonlie, the fairest bodies,
ar bestowed on the foulest purposes. I would it were not so:
and with examples herein I will not medle: yet I wishe, that

the brynging vp of youth. 195

those shold, both mynde it, & medle with it, which haue most
occasion to looke to it, as good and wise fathers shold do, and
greatest authoritie to amend it, as good & wise magistrates
ought to do: And yet I will not let, openlie to lament the
vnfortunate case of learning herein.
For, if a father haue foure sonnes, three faire and well
formed both mynde and bodie, the fourth, // Deformed
wretched, lame, and deformed, his choice shalbe, // creatures
to put the worst to learning, as one good enoughe // commonlie
to becum a scholer. I haue spent the most parte // set to lear-
of my life in the Vniuersitie, and therfore I can // nyng.
beare good witnes that many fathers commonlie do thus: wherof,
I haue hard many wise, learned, and as good men as euer I knew,
make great, and oft complainte: a good horseman will choise
no soch colte, neither for his own, nor yet for his masters sadle.
And thus moch of the first note.

2 Mnemon.

Good of memorie, a speciall parte of the first note euphues,
and a mere benefite of nature: yet it is so // Memorie.
necessarie for learning, as Plato maketh it a
separate and perfite note of it selfe, and that so principall a note,
as without it, all other giftes of nature do small seruice to
learning. Afranius, that olde Latine Poete maketh // Aul. Gel.
Memorie the mother of learning and wisedome,
saying thus.
Vsus me genuit, Mater peperit memoria, and though it be the
mere gifte of nature, yet is memorie well preserued by vse, and
moch encreased by order, as our scholer must // Three sure
learne an other day in the Vniuersitie: but in // signs of a
a childe, a good memorie is well known, by three // good me-
properties: that is, if it be, quicke in receyuing, // morie.
sure in keping, and redie in deliuering forthe againe.

3 Philomathes.

Giuen to loue learning: for though a child haue all the
giftes of nature at wishe, and perfection of memorie at wil, yet
if he haue not a speciall loue to learning, he shall neuer attaine
to moch learning. And therfore Isocrates, one of the noblest

196 The first booke teachyng

scholemasters, that is in memorie of learning, who taught
Kinges and Princes, as Halicarnassæus writeth, and out of
whose schole, as Tullie saith, came forth, mo noble Capitanes,
mo wise Councelors, than did out of Epeius horse at Troie.
This Isocrates, I say, did cause to be written, at the entrie of his
schole, in golden letters, this golden sentence, ean es philomathes,
ese polymathes which excellentlie said in Greeke, is thus rudelie
in Englishe, if thou louest learning, thou shalt attayne to moch

4. Philoponos.

Is he, that hath a lust to labor, and a will to take paines.
For, if a childe haue all the benefites of nature, with perfection
of memorie, loue, like, & praise learning neuer so moch, yet
if he be not of him selfe painfull, he shall neuer attayne vnto it.
And yet where loue is present, labor is seldom absent, and
namelie in studie of learning, and matters of the mynde: and
therfore did Isocrates rightlie iudge, that if his scholer were
philomathes he cared for no more. Aristotle, variing from
Isocrates in priuate affaires of life, but agreing with Isocrates in
common iudgement of learning, for loue and labor in learning,
is of the same opinion, vttered in these wordes, in his Rhetorike
2 Rhet. ad // ad Theodecten. Libertie kindleth loue: Loue
Theod. // refuseth no labor: and labor obteyneth what so
euer it seeketh. And yet neuerthelesse, Goodnes
of nature may do little good: Perfection of memorie, may
serue to small vse: All loue may be employed in vayne: Any
labor may be sone graualed, if a man trust alwaies to his own
singuler witte, and will not be glad somtyme to heare, take
aduise, and learne of an other: And therfore doth Socrates
very notablie adde the fifte note.

5. Philekoos.

He, that is glad to heare and learne of an other. For
otherwise, he shall sticke with great troble, where he might
go easelie forwarde: and also catche hardlie a verie litle by his
owne toyle, whan he might gather quicklie a good deale, by an
nothers mans teaching. But now there be some, that haue
great loue to learning, good lust to labor, be willing to learne of
others, yet, either of a fonde shamefastnes, or else of a proud

the brynging vp of youth. 197

folie, they dare not, or will not, go to learne of an nother: And
therfore doth Socrates wiselie adde the sixte note of a good witte
in a childe for learning, and that is.

6. Zetetikos.

He, that is naturallie bold to aske any question, desirous to
searche out any doute, not ashamed to learne of the meanest,
not affraide to go to the greatest, vntill he be perfitelie taught,
and fullie satisfiede. The seuenth and last poynte is.

7. Philepainos.

He, that loueth to be praised for well doing, at his father,
or masters hand. A childe of this nature, will earnestlie loue
learnyng, gladlie labor for learning, willinglie learne of other,
boldlie aske any doute. And thus, by Socrates iudgement, a
good father, and a wise scholemaster, shold chose a childe to
make a scholer of, that hath by nature, the foresayd perfite
qualities, and cumlie furniture, both of mynde and bodie: hath
memorie, quicke to receyue, sure to keape, and readie to deliuer:
hath loue to learning: hath lust to labor: hath desire to learne
of others: hath boldnes to aske any question: hath mynde holie
bent, to wynne praise by well doing.
The two firste poyntes be speciall benefites of nature:
which neuerthelesse, be well preserued, and moch encreased by
good order. But as for the fiue laste, loue, labor, gladnes to
learne of others, boldnes to aske doutes, and will to wynne
praise, be wonne and maintened by the onelie wisedome and
discretion of the scholemaster. Which fiue poyntes, whether a
scholemaster shall worke soner in a childe, by fearefull beating,
or curtese handling, you that be wise, iudge.
Yet some men, wise in deede, but in this matter, more by
seueritie of nature, than any wisdome at all, do laugh at vs, when
we thus wishe and reason, that yong children should rather be
allured to learning by ientilnes and loue, than compelled to
learning, by beating and feare: They say, our reasons serue
onelie to breede forth talke, and passe a waie tyme, but we
neuer saw good scholemaster do so, nor neuer red of wise man
that thought so.
Yes forsothe: as wise as they be, either in other mens
opinion, or in their owne conceite, I will bring the contrarie

198 The first booke teachyng

iudgement of him, who, they them selues shall confesse, was as
wise as they are, or else they may be iustlie thought to haue
small witte at all: and that is Socrates, whose iudgement in
Plato in 7. // Plato is plainlie this in these wordes: which,
de Rep. // bicause they be verie notable, I will recite them
in his owne tong, ouden mathema meta douleias
chre manthanein: oi men gar tou somatos ponoi bia ponoumenoi
cheiron ouden to soma apergazontai; psyche de, biaion ouden
emmonon mathema: in Englishe thus, No learning ought to be
learned with bondage: For bodelie labors, wrought by compul-
sion, hurt not the bodie: but any learning learned by compulsion,
tarieth not long in the mynde: And why? For what soeuer the
mynde doth learne vnwillinglie with feare, the same it doth
quicklie forget without care. And lest proude wittes, that loue
not to be contraryed, but haue lust to wrangle or trifle away
troth, will say, that Socrates meaneth not this of childrens
teaching, but of som other higher learnyng, heare, what
Socrates in the same place doth more plainlie say: me toinyn
bia, o ariste, tous paidas en tois mathemasin, alla
paizontas trephe, that is to say, and therfore, my deare frend,
bring not vp your children in learning by compulsion and feare,
but by playing and pleasure. And you, that do read Plato, as
The right // ye shold, do well perceiue, that these be no
readyng of // Questions asked by Socrates, as doutes, but they
Plato. // be Sentences, first affirmed by Socrates, as mere
trothes, and after, giuen forth by Socrates, as right Rules, most
necessarie to be marked, and fitte to be folowed of all them,
that would haue children taughte, as they should. And in this
counsell, iudgement, and authoritie of Socrates I will repose
my selfe, vntill I meete with a man of the contrarie mynde,
whom I may iustlie take to be wiser, than I thinke Socrates
Yong Ien- // was. Fonde scholemasters, neither can vnder-
tlemen, be // stand, nor will folow this good counsell of Socrates,
wiselier // but wise ryders, in their office, can and will do
taught to // both: which is the onelie cause, that commonly,
ryde, by com- // the yong ientlemen of England, go so vnwillinglie
mon ry- // to schole, and run so fast to the stable: For in
ders, than // verie deede fond scholemasters, by feare, do
to learne, // beate into them, the hatred of learning, and wise
by common // riders, by ientle allurements, do breed vp in
Schole- //
masters. //

the brynging vp of youth. 199

them, the loue of riding. They finde feare, & bondage in
scholes, They feele libertie and freedome in stables: which
causeth them, vtterlie to abhore the one, and most gladlie to
haunt the other. And I do not write this, that in exhorting to
the one, I would dissuade yong ientlemen from the other: yea
I am sorie, with all my harte, that they be giuen no more to
riding, then they be: For, of all outward qualities, // Ryding.
to ride faire, is most cumelie for him selfe, most
necessarie for his contrey, and the greater he is in blood, the
greater is his praise, the more he doth excede all other therein.
It was one of the three excellent praises, amongest the noble
ientlemen the old Percians, Alwaise to say troth, to ride faire,
and shote well: and so it was engrauen vpon Darius tumbe, as
Strabo beareth witnesse. // Strabo. 15.

Darius the king, lieth buried here,
Who in riding and shoting had neuer peare.

But, to our purpose, yong men, by any meanes, leesing the
loue of learning, whan by tyme they cum to their owne rule,
they carie commonlie, from the schole with them, a perpetuall
hatred of their master, and a continuall contempt of learning.
If ten Ientlemen be asked, why they forget so sone in Court,
that which they were learning so long in schole, eight of them,
or let me be blamed, will laie the fault on their ill handling, by
their scholemasters.
Cuspinian doth report, that, that noble Emperor Maxi-
, would lament verie oft, his misfortune herein.
Yet, some will say, that children of nature, loue pastime,
and mislike learning: bicause, in their kinde, the // Pastime.
one is easie and pleasant, the other hard and
werisom: which is an opinion not so trewe, as // Learnyng.
some men weene: For, the matter lieth not so much in the
disposition of them that be yong, as in the order & maner of
bringing vp, by them that be old, nor yet in the difference of
learnyng and pastime. For, beate a child, if he daunce not well,
& cherish him, though he learne not well, ye shall haue him,
vnwilling to go to daunce, & glad to go to his booke. Knocke
him alwaies, when he draweth his shaft ill, and fauor him
againe, though he faut at his booke, ye shall haue hym verie
loth to be in the field, and verie willing to be in the schole.

200 The first booke teachyng

Yea, I saie more, and not of my selfe, but by the iudgement of
those, from whom few wisemen will gladlie dissent, that if euer
the nature of man be giuen at any tyme, more than other, to
receiue goodnes, it is in innocencie of yong yeares, before, that
experience of euill, haue taken roote in hym. For, the pure
cleane witte of a sweete yong babe, is like the newest wax,
most hable to receiue the best and fayrest printing: and like a
new bright siluer dishe neuer occupied, to receiue and kepe
cleane, anie good thyng that is put into it.
And thus, will in children, wiselie wrought withall, maie
Will. } | // easelie be won to be verie well willing to
}in Children.| // learne. And witte in children, by nature,
Witte.} | // namelie memorie, the onelie keie and keper of
all learning, is readiest to receiue, and surest to kepe anie maner
of thing, that is learned in yougth: This, lewde and learned, by
common experience, know to be most trewe. For we remember
nothyng so well when we be olde, as those things which we
learned when we were yong: And this is not straunge, but
Yong yeares // common in all natures workes. Euery man sees,
aptest for // (as I sayd before) new wax is best for printyng:
learnyng. // new claie, fittest for working: new shorne woll,
aptest for sone and surest dying: new fresh flesh, for good and
durable salting. And this similitude is not rude, nor borowed
of the larder house, but out of his scholehouse, of whom, the
wisest of England, neede not be ashamed to learne. Yong
Graftes grow not onelie sonest, but also fairest, and bring alwayes
forth the best and sweetest frute: yong whelpes learne easelie
to carie: yong Popingeis learne quicklie to speake: And so, to
be short, if in all other thinges, though they lacke reason, sens,
and life, the similitude of youth is fittest to all goodnesse,
surelie nature, in mankinde, is most beneficiall and effectuall in
this behalfe.
Therfore, if to the goodnes of nature, be ioyned the
wisedome of the teacher, in leading yong wittes into a right and
plaine waie of learnyng, surelie, children, kept vp in Gods feare,
and gouerned by his grace, maie most easelie be brought well to
serue God and contrey both by vertue and wisedome.
But if will, and witte, by farder age, be once allured from
innocencie, delited in vaine sightes, filed with foull taulke,
crooked with wilfulnesse, hardned with stubburnesse, and let

the brynging vp of youth. 201

louse to disobedience, surelie it is hard with ientlenesse, but
vnpossible with seuere crueltie, to call them backe to good
frame againe. For, where the one, perchance maie bend it,
the other shall surelie breake it: and so in stead of some hope,
leaue an assured desperation, and shamelesse con- // Xen. 1. Cy-
tempt of all goodnesse, the fardest pointe in all // ri Pæd.
mischief, as Xenophon doth most trewlie and most
wittelie marke.
Therfore, to loue or to hate, to like or contemne, to plie
this waie or that waie to good or to bad, ye shall haue as ye vse
a child in his youth.
And one example, whether loue or feare doth worke more
in a child, for vertue and learning, I will gladlie report: which
maie be hard with some pleasure, and folowed with more profit.
Before I went into Germanie, I came to Brodegate in Leceter-
shire, to take my leaue of that noble Ladie Iane
, to whom I was exceding moch beholdinge. // Lady Iane
Hir parentes, the Duke and Duches, with all the // Grey.
houshould, Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the
Parke: I founde her, in her Chamber, readinge Phædon Platonis
in Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som ientleman wold
read a merie tale in Bocase. After salutation, and dewtie done,
with som other taulke, I asked hir, whie she wold leese soch
pastime in the Parke? smiling she answered me: I wisse, all
their sporte in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, that I
find in Plato: Alas good folke, they neuer felt, what trewe
pleasure ment. And howe came you Madame, quoth I, to this
deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie allure you
vnto it: seinge, not many women, but verie fewe men haue
atteined thereunto. I will tell you, quoth she, and tell you
a troth, which perchance ye will meruell at. One of the
greatest benefites, that euer God gaue me, is, that he sent me
so sharpe and seuere Parentes, and so ientle a scholemaster.
For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether
I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie,
or sad, be sowyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els,
I must do it, as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number,
euen so perfitelie, as God made the world, or else I am so
sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened, yea presentlie some
tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, and other waies, which

202 The first booke teachyng

I will not name, for the honor I beare them, so without
measure misordered, that I thinke my selfe in hell, till tyme
cum, that I must go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so ientlie,
so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that I
thinke all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with him. And
when I am called from him, I fall on weeping, because, what
soeuer I do els, but learning, is ful of grief, trouble, feare, and
whole misliking vnto me: And thus my booke, hath bene so
moch my pleasure, & bringeth dayly to me more pleasure &
more, that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deede, be
but trifles and troubles vnto me. I remember this talke gladly,
both bicause it is so worthy of memorie, & bicause also, it was
the last talke that euer I had, and the last tyme, that euer I
saw that noble and worthie Ladie.
I could be ouer long, both in shewinge iust causes, and in
recitinge trewe examples, why learning shold be taught, rather
by loue than feare. He that wold see a perfite discourse of it,
Sturmius // let him read that learned treatese, which my frende
de Inst. // Ioan. Sturmius wrote de institutione Principis, to
Princ. // the Duke of Cleues.
The godlie counsels of Salomon and Iesus the sonne of
Qui par- // Sirach, for sharpe kepinge in, and bridleinge of
cit virgæ, // youth, are ment rather, for fatherlie correction,
odit filium. // then masterlie beating, rather for maners, than for
learninge: for other places, than for scholes. For God forbid,
but all euill touches, wantonnes, lyinge, pickinge, slouthe, will,
stubburnnesse, and disobedience, shold be with sharpe chastise-
ment, daily cut away.
This discipline was well knowen, and diligentlie vsed,
among the Græcians, and old Romanes, as doth appeare in
Aristophanes, Isocrates, and Plato, and also in the Comedies of
Plautus: where we see that children were vnder the rule of
three persones: Præceptore, Pædagogo, Parente: the scholemaster
1. Schole- // taught him learnyng with all ientlenes: the
master. // Gouernour corrected his maners, with moch
2. Gouer- // sharpenesse: The father, held the sterne of his
nour. // whole obedience: And so, he that vsed to teache,
3. Father. // did not commonlie vse to beate, but remitted that
ouer to an other mans charge. But what shall we saie, whan
now in our dayes, the scholemaster is vsed, both for Præceptor

the brynging vp of youth. 203

in learnyng, and Pædagogus in maners. Surelie, I wold he
shold not confound their offices, but discretelie vse the dewtie
of both so, that neither ill touches shold be left vnpunished, nor
ientlesse in teaching anie wise omitted. And he shall well do
both, if wiselie he do appointe diuersitie of tyme, & separate
place, for either purpose: vsing alwaise soch discrete modera-
tion as the scholehouse should be counted a
sanctuarie against feare: and verie well learning, a // The schole
common perdon for ill doing, if the fault, of it // house.
selfe be not ouer heinous.
And thus the children, kept vp in Gods feare, and preserued
by his grace, finding paine in ill doing, and pleasure in well
studiyng, shold easelie be brought to honestie of life, and
perfitenes of learning, the onelie marke, that good and wise
fathers do wishe and labour, that their children, shold most
buselie, and carefullie shot at.
There is an other discommoditie, besides crueltie in schole-
masters in beating away the loue of learning from // Youth of
children, which hindreth learning and vertue, and // England
good bringing vp of youth, and namelie yong // brought vp
ientlemen, verie moch in England. This fault // with to
is cleane contrary to the first. I wished before, // much li-
to haue loue of learning bred vp in children: // bertie.
I wishe as moch now, to haue yong men brought vp in good
order of liuing, and in some more seuere discipline, then
commonlie they be. We haue lacke in England of soch good
order, as the old noble Persians so carefullie vsed: // Xen. 7.
whose children, to the age of xxi. yeare, were // Cyri Ped.
brought vp in learnyng, and exercises of labor,
and that in soch place, where they should, neither see that was
vncumlie, nor heare that was vnhonest. Yea, a yong ientleman
was neuer free, to go where he would, and do what he liste him
self, but vnder the kepe, and by the counsell, of some graue
gouernour, vntill he was, either maryed, or cald to beare some
office in the common wealth.
And see the great obedience, that was vsed in old tyme to
fathers and gouernours. No sonne, were he neuer so old of
yeares, neuer so great of birth, though he were a kynges sonne,
might not mary, but by his father and mothers also consent.
Cyrus the great, after he had conquered Babylon, and subdewed

204 The first booke teachyng

Riche king Crœsus with whole Asia minor, cummyng tryumph-
antlie home, his vncle Cyaxeris offered him his daughter to
wife. Cyrus thanked his vncle, and praised the maide, but for
mariage he answered him with thies wise and sweete wordes, as
Xen. 8. Cy- // they be vttered by Xenophon, o kuazare, to
ri. Pæd. // te genos epaino, kai ten paida, kai dora
boulomai de, ephe, syn te tou patros gnome
kai [te] tes metros tauta soi synainesai, &c., that is to say:
Vncle Cyaxeris, I commend the stocke, I like the maide, and
I allow well the dowrie, but (sayth he) by the counsell and
consent of my father and mother, I will determine farther of
thies matters.
Strong Samson also in Scripture saw a maide that liked him,
but he spake not to hir, but went home to his father, and his
mother, and desired both father and mother to make the
mariage for him. Doth this modestie, doth this obedience,
that was in great kyng Cyrus, and stoute Samson, remaine in
our yongmen at this daie? no surelie: For we liue not
longer after them by tyme, than we liue farre different from
them by good order. Our tyme is so farre from that old
discipline and obedience, as now, not onelie yong ientlemen, but
euen verie girles dare without all feare, though not without
open shame, where they list, and how they list, marie them
selues in spite of father, mother, God, good order, and all.
The cause of this euill is, that youth is least looked vnto, when
they stand [in] most neede of good kepe and regard. It auail-
eth not, to see them well taught in yong yeares, and after whan
they cum to lust and youthfull dayes, to giue them licence to
liue as they lust them selues. For, if ye suffer the eye of a
yong Ientleman, once to be entangled with vaine sightes, and
the eare to be corrupted with fond or filthie taulke, the mynde
shall quicklie fall seick, and sone vomet and cast vp, all the
holesome doctrine, that he receiued in childhoode, though he
were neuer so well brought vp before. And being ons inglutted
with vanitie, he will streight way loth all learning, and all good
counsell to the same. And the parents for all their great cost
Great mens // and charge, reape onelie in the end, the frute
sonnes // of grief and care.
worst // This euill, is not common to poore men, as God
brought // will haue it, but proper to riche and great mens
vp. //

the brynging vp of youth. 205

children, as they deserue it. In deede from seuen, to seuentene,
yong ientlemen commonlie be carefullie enough brought vp: But
from seuentene to seuen and twentie (the most dangerous tyme of
all a mans life, and most slipperie to stay well in) they haue
commonlie the reigne of all licens in their owne // Wise men
hand, and speciallie soch as do liue in the Court. // fond fa-
And that which is most to be merueled at, // thers.
commonlie, the wisest and also best men, be found the fondest
fathers in this behalfe. And if som good father would seick
some remedie herein, yet the mother (if the house hold of our
Lady) had rather, yea, & will to, haue her sonne cunnyng &
bold, in making him to lyue trimlie when he is yong, than by
learning and trauell, to be able to serue his Prince and his
contrie, both wiselie in peace, and stoutelie in warre, whan he
is old.
The fault is in your selues, ye noble mens sonnes, and
therefore ye deserue the greater blame, that // Meane
commonlie, the meaner mens children, cum to // mens sonnes
be, the wisest councellours, and greatest doers, // come to
in the weightie affaires of this Realme. And // great au-
why? for God will haue it so, of his prouidence: // thoritie.
bicause ye will haue it no otherwise, by your negligence.
And God is a good God, & wisest in all his doinges, that
will place vertue, & displace vice, in those // Nobilitie
kingdomes, where he doth gouerne. For he // without
knoweth, that Nobilitie, without vertue and // wisedome.
wisedome, is bloud in deede, but bloud trewelie, without bones
& sinewes: & so of it selfe, without the other, verie weeke to
beare the burden of weightie affaires.
The greatest shippe in deede commonlie carieth the greatest
burden, but yet alwayes with the greatest ieoperdie, not onelie
for the persons and goodes committed vnto it, // Nobilitie
but euen for the shyppe it selfe, except it be // with wise-
gouerned, with the greater wisdome. // dome.
But Nobilitie, gouerned by learning and wisedome, is
in deede, most like a faire shippe, // | { Wisedom.
hauyng tide and winde at will, vnder // | {
the reule of a skilfull master: whan // | Nobilite with-{
contrarie wise, a shippe, caried, yea // | { Out wise-
with the hiest tide & greatest winde, // | { dome.

206 The first booke teachyng

lacking a skilfull master, most commonlie, doth either, sinck it
selfe vpon sandes, or breake it selfe vpon rockes. And euen so,
Vaine plea- // how manie haue bene, either drowned in vaine
sure, and // pleasure, or ouerwhelmed by stout wilfulnesse,
stoute wil- // the histories of England be able to affourde ouer
fulnes, two // many examples vnto vs. Therfore, ye great and
greatest // noble mens children, if ye will haue rightfullie
enemies to // that praise, and enioie surelie that place, which
Nobilitie. // your fathers haue, and elders had, and left vnto
you, ye must kepe it, as they gat it, and that is, by the onelie
waie, of vertue, wisedome, and worthinesse.
For wisedom, and vertue, there be manie faire examples in
this Court, for yong Ientlemen to folow. But they be, like
faire markes in the feild, out of a mans reach, to far of, to shote
at well. The best and worthiest men, in deede, be somtimes
seen, but seldom taulked withall: A yong Ientleman, may
somtime knele to their person, smallie vse their companie, for
their better instruction.
But yong Ientlemen ar faïne commonlie to do in the Court,
as yong Archers do in the feild: that is take soch markes, as be
Ill compa- // nie them, although they be neuer so foule to
nie marreth // shote at. I meene, they be driuen to kepe
youth. // companie with the worste: and what force ill
companie hath, to corrupt good wittes, the wisest men know
And not ill companie onelie, but the ill opinion also of the
The Court // most part, doth moch harme, and namelie of
iudgeth // those, which shold be wise in the trewe de-
worst of the // cyphring, of the good disposition of nature, of
best natures // cumlinesse in Courtlie maners, and all right
in youth. // doinges of men.
But error and phantasie, do commonlie occupie, the place
of troth and iudgement. For, if a yong ientleman, be demeure
and still of nature, they say, he is simple and lacketh witte: if
he be bashefull, and will soone blushe, they call him a babishe
Xen. in 1. // and ill brought vp thyng, when Xenophon doth
Cyr. Pæd. // preciselie note in Cyrus, that his bashfulnes in
youth, was ye verie trewe signe of his vertue &
The Grace // stoutnes after: If he be innocent and ignorant of
in Courte. // ill, they say, he is rude, and hath no grace, so

the brynging vp of youth. 207

vngraciouslie do som gracelesse men, misuse the faire and
godlie word GRACE.
But if ye would know, what grace they meene, go, and
looke, and learn emonges them, and ye shall see that it is:
First, to blush at nothing. And blushyng in youth, sayth
Aristotle is nothyng els, but feare to do ill: which feare beyng
once lustely fraid away from youth, then foloweth, // Grace of
to dare do any mischief, to contemne stoutly any // Courte.
goodnesse, to be busie in euery matter, to be
skilfull in euery thyng, to acknowledge no ignorance at all.
To do thus in Court, is counted of some, the chief and greatest
grace of all: and termed by the name of a // Cic. 3. de
vertue, called Corage & boldnesse, whan Crassus // Or.
in Cicero teacheth the cleane contrarie, and that
most wittelie, saying thus: Audere, cum bonis // Boldnes
etiam rebus coniunctum, per seipsum est magnopere // yea in a
fugiendum. Which is to say, to be bold, yea // good mat-
in a good matter, is for it self, greatlie to be // ter, not to
exchewed. // be praised.
Moreouer, where the swing goeth, there to follow, fawne,
flatter, laugh and lie lustelie at other mens liking. // More
To face, stand formest, shoue backe: and to the // Grace of
meaner man, or vnknowne in the Court, to // Courte.
seeme somwhat solume, coye, big, and dangerous of looke,
taulk, and answere: To thinke well of him selfe, to be lustie
in contemning of others, to haue some trim grace in a priuie
mock. And in greater presens, to beare a braue looke: to be
warlike, though he neuer looked enimie in the face in warre:
yet som warlike signe must be vsed, either a slouinglie busking,
or an ouerstaring frounced hed, as though out of euerie heeres
toppe, should suddenlie start out a good big othe, when nede
requireth, yet praised be God, England hath at // Men of
this time, manie worthie Capitaines and good // warre, best
souldiours, which be in deede, so honest of // of conditi-
behauiour, so cumlie of conditions, so milde of // ons.
maners, as they may be examples of good order, to a good sort
of others, which neuer came in warre. But to retorne, where
I left: In place also, to be able to raise taulke, and make
discourse of euerie rishe: to haue a verie good // Palmistrie.
will, to heare him selfe speake: To be seene

208 The first booke teachyng

in Palmestrie, wherby to conueie to chast eares, som fond or
filthie taulke:
And if som Smithfeild Ruffian take vp, som strange
going: som new mowing with the mouth: som wrinchyng
with the shoulder, som braue prouerbe: som fresh new othe,
that is not stale, but will rin round in the mouth: som new
disguised garment, or desperate hat, fond in facion, or gaurish
in colour, what soeuer it cost, how small soeuer his liuing be,
by what shift soeuer it be gotten, gotten must it be, and vsed
with the first, or els the grace of it, is stale and gone: som
part of this gracelesse grace, was discribed by me, in a little
rude verse long ago.

{To laughe, to lie, to flatter, to face:
{Foure waies in Court to win men grace.
{If thou be thrall to none of thiese,
{Away good Peek goos, hens Iohn Cheese:
{Marke well my word, and marke their dede,
{And thinke this verse part of thy Crede.

Would to God, this taulke were not trewe, and that som
mens doinges were not thus: I write not to hurte any, but to
{Councell. | // proffit som: to accuse none, but to monish
Ill{ | // soch, who, allured by ill counsell, and folowing
{ | // ill example, contrarie to their good bringyng vp,
{Company. | // and against their owne good nature, yeld ouer-
moch to thies folies and faultes: I know many seruing men,
Seruinge // of good order, and well staide: And againe, I
men. // heare saie, there be som seruing men do but ill
Terentius. // seruice to their yong masters. Yea, rede Terence
Plautus. // and Plaut. aduisedlie ouer, and ye shall finde in
those two wise writers, almost in euery commedie, no vn-
Serui cor- // thriftie yong man, that is not brought there vnto,
ruptelæ // by the sotle inticement of som lewd seruant.
iuuenum. // And euen now in our dayes Getæ and Daui,
Gnatos and manie bold bawdie Phormios to, be preasing in,
Multi Ge- // to pratle on euerie stage, to medle in euerie
tæ pauci // matter, whan honest Parmenos shall not be hard,
Parmeno- // but beare small swing with their masters. Their
nes. // companie, their taulke, their ouer great experience

the brynging vp of youth. 209

in mischief, doth easelie corrupt the best natures, and best
brought vp wittes.
But I meruell the lesse, that thies misorders be emonges
som in the Court, for commonlie in the contrie // Misorders
also euerie where, innocencie is gone: Bashful- // in the coun-
nesse is banished: moch presumption in yougthe: // trey.
small authoritie in aige: Reuerence is neglected: dewties be
confounded: and to be shorte, disobedience doth ouerflowe the
bankes of good order, almoste in euerie place, almoste in euerie
degree of man.
Meane men haue eies to see, and cause to lament, and
occasion to complaine of thies miseries: but other haue
authoritie to remedie them, and will do so to, whan God shall
think time fitte. For, all thies misorders, be Goddes iuste
plages, by his sufferance, brought iustelie vpon vs, for our
sinnes, which be infinite in nomber, and horrible in deede, but
namelie, for the greate abhominable sin of vn- // Contempt
kindnesse: but what vnkindnesse? euen such // of Gods
vnkindnesse as was in the Iewes, in contemninge // trewe Re-
Goddes voice, in shrinking from his woorde, in // ligion.
wishing backe againe for Ægypt, in committing aduoultrie and
hordom, not with the women, but with the doctrine of Babylon,
did bring all the plages, destructions, and Captiuities, that fell
so ofte and horriblie, vpon Israell.
We haue cause also in England to beware of vnkindnesse,
who haue had, in so fewe yeares, the Candel of Goddes
worde, so oft lightned, so oft put out, and yet // Doctrina
will venture by our vnthankfulnesse in doctrine // Mores.
and sinfull life, to leese againe, lighte, Candle,
Candlesticke and all.
God kepe vs in his feare, God grafte in vs the trewe
knowledge of his woorde, with a forward will to folowe it, and
so to bring forth the sweete fruites of it, & then shall he
preserue vs by his Grace, from all maner of terrible dayes.
The remedie of this, doth not stand onelie, // Publicæ
in making good common lawes for the hole // Leges.
Realme, but also, (and perchance cheiflie) // Domestica
in obseruing priuate discipline euerie man care- // disciplina.
fullie in his own house: and namelie, if speciall // Cognitio
regard be had to yougth: and that, not so moch, // boni.

210 The first booke teachyng

in teaching them what is good, as in keping them from that,
that is ill.
Therefore, if wise fathers, be not as well waare in weeding
Ignoratio // from their Children ill thinges, and ill companie,
mali. // as they were before, in graftinge in them
learninge, and prouiding for them good schole-
masters, what frute, they shall reape of all their coste & care,
common experience doth tell.
Here is the place, in yougthe is the time whan som
Some // ignorance is as necessarie, as moch knowledge,
ignorance, // and not in matters of our dewtie towardes God,
as good as // as som wilful wittes willinglie against their owne
knowledge. // knowledge, perniciouslie againste their owne
conscience, haue of late openlie taught. In deede S. Chryso-
Chrisost. de // stome, that noble and eloquent Doctor, in a
Fato. // sermon contra fatum, and the curious serchinge of
natiuities, doth wiselie saie, that ignorance therein,
is better than knowledge: But to wring this sentence, to
wreste thereby out of mens handes, the knowledge of Goddes
doctrine, is without all reason, against common sence, contrarie
to the iudgement also of them, which be the discretest men, and
Iulia. Apo- // best learned, on their own side. I know, Iulianus
stat. // Apostata did so, but I neuer hard or red, that any
auncyent father of the primitiue chirch, either
thought or wrote so.
But this ignorance in yougthe, which I spake on, or rather
Innocency // this simplicitie, or most trewlie, this innocencie,
in youth. // is that, which the noble Persians, as wise Xenophon
doth testifie, were so carefull, to breede vp their
yougth in. But Christian fathers commonlie do not so. And
I will tell you a tale, as moch to be misliked, as the Persians
example is to be folowed.
This last somer, I was in a Ientlemans house: where
A childe ill // a yong childe, somewhat past fower yeare olde,
brought // cold in no wise frame his tongue, to saie, a litle
vp. // shorte grace: and yet he could roundlie rap out,
so manie vgle othes, and those of the newest facion, as som
good man of fourescore yeare olde hath neuer hard named
Ill Pa- // before: and that which was most detestable of
rentes. // all, his father and mother wold laughe at it. I

the brynging vp of youth. 211

moche doubte, what comforte, an other daie, this childe shall
bring vnto them. This Childe vsing moche the companie of
seruinge men, and geuing good eare to their taulke, did easelie
learne, which he shall hardlie forget, all daies of his life here-
after: So likewise, in the Courte, if a yong Ientleman will
ventur him self into the companie of Ruffians, it is ouer greate
a ieopardie, lest, their facions, maners, thoughtes, taulke, and
deedes, will verie sone, be euer like. The confounding of
companies, breedeth confusion of good maners // Ill compa-
both in the Courte, and euerie where else. // nie.
And it maie be a great wonder, but a greater shame, to vs
Christian men, to vnderstand, what a heithen writer, Isocrates,
doth leaue in memorie of writing, concerning the // Isocrates.
care, that the noble Citie of Athens had, to bring
vp their yougthe, in honest companie, and vertuous discipline,
whose taulke in Greke, is, to this effect, in Englishe.
"The Citie, was not more carefull, to see their Children
"well taughte, than to see their yong men well // In Orat.
"gouerned: which they brought to passe, not so // Ariopag.
"much by common lawe, as by priuate discipline.
"For, they had more regard, that their yougthe, by good order
"shold not offend, than how, by lawe, they might be punished:
"And if offense were committed, there was, neither waie to
"hide it, neither hope of pardon for it. Good natures, were
"not so moche openlie praised as they were secretlie marked,
"and watchfullie regarded, lest they should lease the goodnes
"they had. Therefore in scholes of singing and dauncing, and
"other honest exercises, gouernours were appointed, more
"diligent to ouersee their good maners, than their masters were,
"to teach them anie learning. It was som shame to a yong
"man, to be seene in the open market: and if for businesse, he
"passed throughe it, he did it, with a meruelous modestie, and
"bashefull facion. To eate, or drinke in a Tauerne, was not
"onelie a shame, but also punishable, in a yong man. To
"contrarie, or to stand in termes with an old man, was more
"heinous, than in som place, to rebuke and scolde with his
"owne father: with manie other mo good orders, and faire
disciplines, which I referre to their reading, that haue lust
to looke vpon the description of such a worthie common

212 The first booke teachyng

And to know, what worthie frute, did spring of soch
Good sede, // worthie seade, I will tell yow the most meruell
worthie // of all, and yet soch a trothe, as no man shall
frute. // denie it, except such as be ignorant in knowledge
of the best stories.
Athens, by this discipline and good ordering of yougthe, did
Athenes. // breede vp, within the circute of that one Citie,
within the compas of one hondred yeare, within
the memorie of one mans life, so manie notable Capitaines in
warre, for worthinesse, wisdome and learning, as be scarse
Roma. // matchable no not in the state of Rome, in the
compas of those seauen hondred yeares, whan it
florished moste.
And bicause, I will not onelie saie it, but also proue it, the
The noble // names of them be these. Miltiades, Themistocles,
Capitaines // Xantippus, Pericles, Cymon, Alcybiades, Thrasybulus,
of Athens. // Conon, Iphicrates, Xenophon, Timotheus, Theopompus,
Demetrius, and diuers other mo: of which euerie one, maie
iustelie be spoken that worthie praise, which was geuen to
Scipio Africanus, who, Cicero douteth, whether he were, more
noble Capitaine in warre, or more eloquent and wise councelor
Æmil. // in peace. And if ye beleue not me, read dili-
Probus. // gentlie, Æmilius Probus in Latin, and Plutarche
Plutarchus. // in Greke, which two, had no cause either to
flatter or lie vpon anie of those which I haue
And beside nobilitie in warre, for excellent and matchles
The lear- // masters in all maner of learninge, in that one
ned of A- // Citie, in memorie of one aige, were mo learned
thenes. // men, and that in a maner altogether, than all
tyme doth remember, than all place doth affourde, than all other
tonges do conteine. And I do not meene of those Authors,
which, by iniurie of tyme, by negligence of men, by crueltie of
fier and sworde, be lost, but euen of those, which by Goddes
grace, are left yet vnto us: of which I thank God, euen my
poore studie lacketh not one. As, in Philosophie, Plato, Aris-
totle, Xenophon, Euclide
and Theophrast: In eloquens and Ciuill
lawe, Demosthenes, Æschines, Lycurgus, Dinarchus, Demades,
Isocrates, Isæus, Lysias, Antisthenes, Andocides
: In histories, He-
rodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon
: and which we lacke, to our

the brynging vp of youth. 213

great losse, Theopompus and Eph[orus]: In Poetrie Æschylus,
Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes
, and somwhat of Menander,
sister sonne.
Now, let Italian, and Latin it self, Spanishe, French,
Douch, and Englishe bring forth their lerning, // Learnyng,
and recite their Authors, Cicero onelie excepted, // chiefly con-
and one or two moe in Latin, they be all patched // teined in
cloutes and ragges, in comparison of faire wouen // the Greke,
broade clothes. And trewelie, if there be any // and in no o-
good in them, it is either lerned, borowed, or // ther tong.
stolne, from some one of those worthie wittes of Athens.
The remembrance of soch a common welthe, vsing soch
discipline and order for yougthe, and thereby bringing forth to
their praise, and leauing to vs for our example, such Capitaines
for warre, soch Councelors for peace, and matcheles masters,
for all kinde of learninge, is pleasant for me to recite, and not
irksum, I trust, for other to heare, except it be soch, as make
neither counte of vertue nor learninge.
And whether, there be anie soch or no, I can not well tell:
yet I hear saie, some yong Ientlemen of oures, // Contem-
count it their shame to be counted learned: and // ners of
perchance, they count it their shame, to be // learnyng.
counted honest also, for I heare saie, they medle as litle with the
one, as with the other. A meruelous case, that Ientlemen
shold so be ashamed of good learning, and neuer a whit ashamed
of ill maners: soch do saie for them, that the
Ientlemen of France do so: which is a lie, as // Ientlemen
God will haue it. Langæus, and Bellæus that be // of France.
dead, & the noble Vidam of Chartres, that is aliue, and infinite
mo in France, which I heare tell of, proue this to be most false.
And though som, in France, which will nedes be Ientlemen,
whether men will or no, and haue more ientleshipe in their hat,
than in their hed, be at deedlie feude, with both learning and
honestie, yet I beleue, if that noble Prince, king Francis the
first were aliue, they shold haue, neither place in // Franciscus
his Courte, nor pension in his warres, if he had // I. Nobilis.
knowledge of them. This opinion is not French, // Francorum
but plaine Turckishe: from whens, some Frenche // Rex.
fetche moe faultes, than this: which, I praie God, kepe out of

214 The first booke teachyng

England, and send also those of oures better mindes, which
bend them selues againste vertue and learninge, to the con-
tempte of God, dishonor of their contrie to the hurt of manie
others, and at length, to the greatest harme, and vtter destruction
of themselues.
Som other, hauing better nature, but lesse witte, (for ill
commonlie, haue ouer moch witte) do not vtterlie dispraise
Experience // learning, but they saie, that without learning,
without // common experience, knowledge of all facions, and
learnyng. // haunting all companies, shall worke in yougthe,
both wisdome, and habilitie, to execute anie weightie affaire.
Surelie long experience doth proffet moch, but moste, and
almost onelie to him (if we meene honest affaires) that is dili-
gentlie before instructed with preceptes of well doinge. For
good precepts of learning, be the eyes of the minde, to looke
wiselie before a man, which waie to go right, and which not.
Learning teacheth more in one yeare than experience in
Learnyng. // twentie: And learning teacheth safelie. when
experience maketh mo miserable then wise. He
Experience. // hasardeth sore, that waxeth wise by experience.
An vnhappie Master he is, that is made cunning by manie
shippewrakes: A miserable merchant, that is neither riche or
wise, but after som bankroutes. It is costlie wisdom, that is
bought by experience. We know by experience it selfe, that it
is a meruelous paine, to finde oute but a short waie, by long
wandering. And surelie, he that wold proue wise by
experience, he maie be wittie in deede, but euen like a swift
runner, that runneth fast out of his waie, and vpon the night,
he knoweth not whither. And verilie they be fewest of
number, that be happie or wise by vnlearned experience. And
looke well vpon the former life of those fewe, whether your
example be old or yonge, who without learning haue gathered,
by long experience, a litle wisdom, and som happines: and
whan you do consider, what mischiefe they haue committed,
what dangers they haue escaped (and yet xx. for one, do
perishe in the aduenture) than thinke well with your selfe,
whether ye wold, that your owne son, should cum to wisdom
and happines, by the waie of soch experience or no.
It is a notable tale, that old Syr Roger Chamloe, somtime

the brynging vp of youth. 215

cheife Iustice, wold tell of him selfe. When he was Auncient
in Inne of Courte, Certaine yong Ientlemen // Syr Roger
were brought before him, to be corrected for Chamloe.
certaine misorders: And one of the lustiest saide:
Syr, we be yong ientlemen, and wisemen before vs, haue
proued all facions, and yet those haue done full well: this they
said, because it was well knowen, that Syr Roger had bene a
good feloe in his yougth. But he aunswered them verie wiselie.
In deede saith he, in yougthe, I was, as you ar now: and I
had twelue feloes like vnto my self, but not one of them came
to a good ende. And therfore, folow not my example in yougth,
but folow my councell in aige, if euer ye thinke to cum to this
place, or to thies yeares, that I am cum vnto, lesse ye meete
either with pouertie or Tiburn in the way.
Thus, experience of all facions in yougthe, beinge, in profe,
alwaise daungerous, in isshue, seldom lucklie, is // Experience.
a waie, in deede, to ouermoch knowledge, yet
vsed commonlie of soch men, which be either caried by som
curious affection of mynde, or driuen by som hard necessitie of
life, to hasard the triall of ouer manie perilous aduentures.
Erasmus the honor of learning of all oure time, saide
wiselie that experience is the common schole- // Erasmus.
house of foles, and ill men: Men, of witte and // Experience,
honestie, be otherwise instructed. For there be, // the schole-
that kepe them out of fier, and yet was neuer // house of
burned: That beware of water, and yet was neuer // Foles, and
nie drowninge: That hate harlottes, and was // ill men.
neuer at the stewes: That abhorre falshode, and neuer brake
promis themselues.
But will ye see, a fit Similitude of this aduentured experience.
A Father, that doth let louse his son, to all experiences, is most
like a fond Hunter, that letteth slippe a whelpe to the hole
herde. Twentie to one, he shall fall vpon a rascall, and let
go the faire game. Men that hunt so, be either ignorant
persones, preuie stealers, or night walkers.
Learning therefore, ye wise fathers, and good bringing vp,
and not blinde & dangerous experience, is the next and readiest
waie, that must leede your Children, first, to wisdom, and than
to worthinesse, if euer ye purpose they shall cum there.
And to saie all in shorte, though I lacke Authoritie to giue

216 The first booke teachyng

counsell, yet I lacke not good will to wisshe, that the yougthe
How expe- // in England, speciallie Ientlemen, and namelie no-
rience may // bilitie, shold be by good bringing vp, so grounded
proffet. // in iudgement of learninge, so founded in loue of
honestie, as, whan they shold be called forthe to the execution
of great affaires, in seruice of their Prince and contrie, they
might be hable, to vse and to order, all experiences, were they
good were they bad, and that, according to the square, rule, and
line, of wisdom learning and vertue.
And, I do not meene, by all this my taulke, that yong
Diligent // Ientlemen, should alwaies be poring on a booke,
learninge // and by vsing good studies, shold lease honest
ought to be // pleasure, and haunt no good pastime, I meene
ioyned with // nothing lesse: For it is well knowne, that I both
pleasant // like and loue, and haue alwaies, and do yet still
pastimes, // vse, all exercises and pastimes, that be fitte for my
namelie in a // nature and habilitie. And beside naturall dispo-
ientleman. // sition, in iudgement also, I was neuer, either Stoick in doctrine,
or Anabaptist in Religion, to mislike a merie, pleasant, and
plaifull nature, if no outrage be committed, against lawe,
mesure, and good order.
Therefore, I wold wishe, that, beside some good time, fitlie
appointed, and constantlie kepte, to encrease by readinge, the
knowledge of the tonges and learning, yong ientlemen shold
Learnyng // vse, and delite in all Courtelie exercises, and
ioyned with // Ientlemanlike pastimes. And good cause whie:
pastimes. // For the self same noble Citie of Athenes, iustlie
commended of me before, did wiselie and vpon great considera-
tion, appoint, the Muses, Apollo, and Pallas, to be patrones of
Musæ. // learninge to their yougthe. For the Muses,
besides learning, were also Ladies of dauncinge,
Apollo. // mirthe and ministrelsie: Apollo, was god of shooting,
and Author of cunning playing vpon Instrumentes:
Pallas. // Pallas also was Laidie mistres in warres. Wher-
bie was nothing else ment, but that learninge shold be alwaise
mingled, with honest mirthe, and cumlie exercises: and that
warre also shold be gouerned by learning, and moderated by
wisdom, as did well appeare in those Capitaines of Athenes
named by me before, and also in Scipio & Cæsar, the two
Diamondes of Rome.

the brynging vp of youth. 217

And Pallas, was no more feared, in weering Ægida, than she
was praised, for chosing Oliva: whereby shineth // Learning
the glory of learning, which thus, was Gouernour // rewleth
& Mistres, in the noble Citie of Athenes, both of // both warre
warre and peace. // and peace.
Therefore, to ride cumlie: to run faire at the tilte or ring:
to plaie at all weapones: to shote faire in bow, or surelie in gon:
to vaut lustely: to runne: to leape: to wrestle: // The pas-
to swimme: To daunce cumlie: to sing, and playe // times that
of instrumentes cunnyngly: to Hawke: to hunte: // be fitte for
to playe at tennes, & all pastimes generally, which // Courtlie
be ioyned with labor, vsed in open place, and on // Ientlemen.
the day light, conteining either some fitte exercise for warre, or
some pleasant pastime for peace, be not onelie cumlie and decent,
but also verie necessarie, for a Courtlie Ientleman to vse.
But, of all kinde of pastimes, fitte for a Ientleman, I will,
godwilling, in fitter place, more at large, declare fullie, in my
booke of the Cockpitte: which I do write, to // The Cok-
satisfie som, I trust, with som reason, that be // pitte.
more curious, in marking other mens doinges, than
carefull in mendying their owne faultes. And som also will
nedes busie them selues in merueling, and adding thereunto
vnfrendlie taulke, why I, a man of good yeares, and of no ill
place, I thanke God and my Prince, do make choise to spend
soch tyme in writyng of trifles, as the schole of shoting, the
Cockpitte, and this booke of the first Principles of Grammer,
rather, than to take some weightie matter in hand, either of
Religion, or Ciuill discipline.
Wise men I know, will well allow of my choise herein: and
as for such, who haue not witte of them selues, but must learne
of others, to iudge right of mens doynges, let them // A booke of
read that wise Poet Horace in his Arte Poetica, // a lofty title,
who willeth wisemen to beware, of hie and loftie // beareth the
Titles. For, great shippes, require costlie tack- // brag of o-
ling, and also afterward dangerous gouernment: // uergreat a
Small boates, be neither verie chargeable in // promise.
makyng, nor verie oft in great ieoperdie: and yet they cary
many tymes, as good and costlie ware, as greater vessels do.
A meane Argument, may easelie beare, the light burden of
a small faute, and haue alwaise at hand, a ready excuse for

218 The first booke teachyng

ill handling: And, some praise it is, if it so chaunce, to be
The right // better in deede, than a man dare venture to
choise, to // seeme. A hye title, doth charge a man, with
chose a fitte // the heauie burden, of to great a promise: and
Argument // therefore sayth Horace verie wittelie, that, that
to write // Poete was a verie foole, that began hys booke,
vpon. // with a goodlie verse in deede, but ouer proude
Hor. in // a promise.
Arte Poet. //

Fortunam Priami cantabo & nobile bellum,

And after, as wiselie.

Quantò rectiùs hic, qui nil molitur ineptè. etc.

Meening Homer, who, within the compasse of a smal
Homers // Argument, of one harlot, and of one good wife,
wisdom in // did vtter so moch learning in all kinde of sciences,

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