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The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War by Victor LeFebure

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to chemical warfare. They issued a special edict against its use.
This alone should have guided those responsible for the execution of
the Disarmament Clauses of the Treaty, measures of general application
to the means of production of the different types of weapon.
Have the special plants erected for poison gas received drastic
action under the Treaty? It is to be feared that they and other war
chemical plants of the I.G. have received undeserved immunity.

Where lies our help apart from the Treaty? World peace
depends upon disarmament. True peace must come from a
radical change in the outlook and sentiment of individuals.
The forces working through these channels are the real peacemakers.
But a League of Nations can forward the cause by wise measures
of disarmament, and this implies limiting war producing capacity.
The weak point in such a scheme is the organic chemical industry.
There must be a redistribution of capacity, for while Germany retains
a vast world monopoly of potential organic chemical munitions,
which fed the armaments of the past with explosives and poison gas,
and to which the weapons of the future are looking for inspiration
and sustenance, disarmament will be a hollow farce.

The League of Nations may succeed in rooting out the means of production
of certain munitions. But organic chemical factories must survive
for the sake of their material contribution to the welfare of humanity.
They cannot be inspected and controlled, as we have shown,
and there is only one sound solution. The obstacle to peace must
be removed by decentralising the organic chemical factories.
We cannot leave this monopoly in the hands of any country.
It now lies a weapon ready to the hands of those who created
and wielded it with such success. Redistributed, this dangerous
productive grouping will create a source of stability and strength
to a League of Nations, and will invite a national sense of security,
so essential to peace and disarmament under the present regime.
This has only one meaning, the establishment of dye industries
in Allied countries. This may clash with certain political schools
of thought developed before the war without a due realisation of
the organic way in which production links up with national defence.
But let there be no misunderstanding. The refusal to support this
critical industry is a definite sacrifice of vital national issues.
Political principles responsible for such opposition no longer
merit the name; they have become a fetish.

Our armies repelled the German chemical attack.
They stood and fell unprotected before the early German clouds
and unprotected again before the vile contact of mustard gas.
The awful price they paid for our safety demands that we do more
than rest contented with the sacrifice. It is an imperative
and patriotic duty to the fallen, to the future of the race,
and to the Empire, that, faced once again with modern war,
we should be able to say, "every possible precaution was taken."
But the chief precaution will have been neglected unless organic
chemical industries are fostered on Imperial soil.

But what of chemical warfare itself? It is a growth,
malignant or otherwise, according to our creeds, which will continue
until very definite steps be taken to suppress it, with all war.
Therefore, urgent guarantees for national safety are absolutely
essential until the web of peace is strongly organised, which cannot
be until the immediate menace of the monopoly in production is removed.
But even then, until the general peace is fairly implanted,
we must be ready for any surprise from an unscrupulous enemy.
Research and training in chemical protection must be continued, and this
can only be ensured by keeping abreast with offensive chemical warfare.
"The Struggle for the Initiative" has at least established this.

Each nation and any League of Nations must seriously face the question of
the establishment of elaborate and complex chemical warfare organisations.
It seems to me that the logical course of thought and action is as follows.
If guarantees are forthcoming, internationally, removing this grave German
chemical warfare threat through her manufacturing monopoly, then the need for
a definite chemical striking force and organisation will be greatly reduced.
National safety is itself a corollary of world disarmament.
But if satisfactory guarantees were forthcoming it would be consistent
with national safety to limit the chemical warfare equipment of each
nation to what would actually represent a scientific military brain.
So long as national ministries for war or defence exist, they must possess
even under the most stringent disarmament conditions, fully accredited
within their regular staffs, an individual or individuals with scientific
and military training, who represent knowledge, vision, and the power
to expand in chemical warfare. What would be said of a great nation
not equipped to think for the future on naval or artillery questions?
Technical naval and military minds have evolved for these purposes.
We are not slow to judge and act on the value of a new ship, tank,
or machine-gun. The chemical arm is even more specialised and demands
the same combination of scientific and military thinking and training.
Whatever international disarmament decisions may be forthcoming,
unless they seriously dismember the Defence Ministries, we should ensure
that the pre-war position is corrected and that our staff conception
and organisation covers the chemical weapon.

One alone of the Allied and Associated Powers was able to see
the chemical menace with clear and unprejudiced vision.
This was America, for she not only entered the war less hampered
by traditions than the rest, but at a period when the chemical
war was in full blast. More than a quarter of all her casualties
were due to "gas," and no other arm produced as many in her ranks.
As a result, we see America establishing an independent peace
Chemical Warfare Service, as sister service to the Infantry
and Artillery. This can only be interpreted as a frank realisation
of the place of chemical warfare and of the need for serious
international guarantees in the present situation.

Let us take a balanced view of the facts, realise the unique significance
of chemical warfare and chemical industry, for war and disarmament,
and act accordingly.

INDEX {Raw OCR, needs fixed or stripped out...}

A. charcoal, 129. Aircraft, gas and, 181, 185, 229, 230, 231.
Aisne, German attacks on, 77, 141. Aktien Gesellschaft
fur Anilin Fabrikation, 151. Alert Gas Zone, 229.
Alien Property Custodian, report of, Y9, 152, 187, 189) 190, 191,
194~ 262. Allied Gas Statistics, 82. -Missions, 86,
87-Reaction, 48. American activities, 64, 1731 174.
-chemical warfare development, 105, 173P 174, 178, 273f 274.
chemical warfare service, 49, 178P 3179) 274. Amidol, 203.
Ammonia, synthetic, see Nitrogen Fixation. Anaesthetics, 201, 220.
-local, 199, 202, 220. Anti-Gas Committee, British, 95.
-Department, British, 98, 127. Armendires, bombardment of, 77.
Arras, Battle of, 63-, British 1917 offensive, 61.
Arsenic Compounds, 26, 28, 69, 136, 137) 139, x6o, x63- See also
Blue Cross. Artillery Gas experts, 91. Asphyxiating Compounds, 25.
Aspirin, 199, 208.

Austria-Hungary, gas battalion of, 47. Azo Dyes, 16o.

Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik, 88, 1151P 207P 212.
Bleaching Powder, x6g, 221, 222. Blue Cross, 29, 69, 74-771 89,
126, 131P 132, 136p 137, z6o, 229, 253, 258. Bn. Stuff, 42.
Box Respirator, British, 69, 99,

1101P 125, x26t 176. Bribery and Corruption, x9o.
British Association, General Hartley's report, 64, 123, 240.--
Central Laboratory, 93,1115. -Dyes Limited, 116g, x6g. Brominated m
ethyl -ethylketone, 42. Bromine, American Industry, 157) 190, 191.
-French, 1157, 171P z96. -Monopoly, German, 157. Bromoacetone, 26, 41.
B. Stuff, 4r. Buntkreuz, ii3q.

Cacodyl oxide, 35. Cambrai sector, attack Or', 70, 79.
Camouflage chemicals, 141, 217, 218. Canadians, gas attack on, 19.
Captured Documents, 52, 53t 74, 82, 128, 133, 221, 222, 229.
Carnoy, attack at, 61. 27S Index

Cartridge Mask, German, 124, 3128. Castner Kellner, 169.
Casualties, gas, 56, 93, X74, 182, 237-241, 274. Chaulny, 209.
Chemical Advisory Committee, 96. -Exchange Association,
x94, z96. -Initiative, see Initiative, struggle for.
-Policy, German, z86-i8S, 200, 205. -Warfare Department, British,
96-98.--Designs Committee, 99.--Medical Committee, 97.
-Organisations, 85, 215, 217, 228, 239, 264. ngliSh, 92, 9'~,--' E

103~ 105, 165.--, French, 94, 99, 100, 105.--, German,
85, 89, 102, 103, 149. Italian, iox. Policy, 88, 249p 250.
Production, see Production. Research, see Research.--Service, American,
see American Chemical Warfare Service. Chemische Fabrik
Griesheim Elektron, iSi, 152.--Fabriken Yorm. Weilerter-Meer, x5x.
Chloral Hydrate, 196, 202. Chlorine, 23, Z5, 35, 36, x55, 156, 169,
171p 217. 276

ChlormethylchIoroform ate, 64,6 9. Chloroform, z20. Chlorpicrin, 25, 158,
169. Cloud Gas attacks, 23, 46~ Szy 56, 57, 65, 215. Coloured Cross, x39.
Colour Users Association, Y69. Commercial Advisory Committee, British, 96.
Critical Industries, 261-z63, 272. -Range, 226, 229.

Defence, national, see Dye Industry and National Defence.
Dianisidine, double salts Of, 41. Dichlor-diethyl-sulphide, see
Mustard Gas. Dichlor-methylether, x63. Diethfiamine, 201.
Diphenylchlorarsine, see Arsenic compounds. Diphenylcyanarsine, see
Arsenic compounds. Diphosgene, 25, 29, 157, 163. Directeur du
Mat6riel Chimique de Guerre, ioo. Director of Gas Services,
94, 98. Disarmament, 20, 2,~, 142, 145, 150, 172t 177,
242, 245, 246, 252, 254-262, 267, 271-274. See also Limitation
of Armaments. Drugs, igg-2or. Dumps, enemy, 79# 141.
Dye Agency, German information system, r92, x93, 1957 197.
-Industry and National Defence, 163, 171t 172t 198, 203, 204, 272.
-Industry, British, 146, 168, 203~ 204-

Index

Dye Industry, German, 146, 147, 153$ x86, 242, 25 -Monopoly, German, see
Monopoly, German Dye. supplies to America, 197. Dyes, use in Gas Shell, 72.
Edgewood Arsenal, xo5, xo6, 175-178Entressin experimental grounds,

110. Espionage, 192, 193Ether, 220. Fthyldichlorarsine, x63.
Ethylenemonochlorhydrin, x64, 202. P-Eucaine, 202.
Exhaustion of Stocks, forced, go. Explosives, English Production, x6g.
German Production, i4q, 1150) 1151. Farben fabriken vorm. Fr. Bayer

and CO., 90, 15T, 194, 208. Farbwerke vorm. Meister Lucius and Briining,
87, 151Field Organisation, British, go.--German, go. -Tests, 86, xio.
Flame Projector, see Flammenwerfer. Flammenwerfer, 43, 631, 72)
73Flexibility of Supply, German, 65, 138. French College of Warfare, 185.
Full Line Forcing, x9o. Future of Chemical Warfare, 14-4, 183.

Gas and Aircraft, see Aircraft. -Casualties, see Casualties, gas.
-Discipline, 62, 81-82, 132P 133, 140-

Gas Experts on Artillery staffs, see Artillery Gas Experts. -Mask, see
Mask, gas, and Helmet, gas.--Personnel, 89.--Regiment~ go,
gi.--School, German, 86, go, gi. -Shell, see Shell, gas.
-Specific uses Of, 39Gaswerfer, 1918, 71Gelbolin, 221.
German Dye Industry, see Dye Industry, German. Patent Policy,
see Patent Policy, German. Press, 33, 54. -Production, see
Production, German. Givenchy, attack near, 51, 70Green Cross,
29, 69P 77, 135, ,36, i5g.

Haber Process, see Nitrogen. Fixation. Hague Convention, 32, 33,
240Hanlon Field, experimental sta tion, 175, 2318Hartley Mission,
87, 14 149,

172, 207, 245. Heeres-Gasschule, see Gas

School, German. Helmet, Gas, X21, 122, 124- See also Mask. Hexamine, x22.
Hill 6o, attack on, 40. Hindenburg Programme, 66, 89, 149.
116chst, Y7, 151, 152, 156, 157, 158, x6x. Hohenzollern Redoubt,
storming Of, 51. Hooge, attack on 2nd Army, 44. 277 I ndex

Hydrocyanic acid, see Prussic acid,

I.G., see Interessen Gemeinschaft. Immune Functions, 217, 2x8, 232.
Imperial College of Science, 97Indigo, 28, 155t 158,
159, 165, x68, 202, 255. Initiative, Struggle for, 111, 121,
1347 273Interessen Gemeinschaft, 18, 32, 86, 89, 109P 148,
149-151, z54, 163, x86, 187, 192, 198, 200, 202, 205, 214, 258-26o,
264-267, 27P. Inter-Allied Chemical Supply Committee, 107-Commission
of Control, $5, 264.--Liaison, xo6.--Munitions Council, 107.
Intensive Chemical Warfare, 66. International Police Force, 256.

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, 35, 85, $9. Kalle and Co., 151, Kernmel, attack on,
77, 224, 229. K. Stuff, 41KornmandeurderGastruppen,gi, Krupp's Works, 206.

La Bassie Canal, 76. LachrymatorS, 26, 42, x18, 124, 156, 170,
2171 218. League of Nations, 2r, 127, 259, 246, 247, 255,
256, 258, 26o, 261, 262, 2631 271-273Lens, attack at, 77, 76.
Le Rutoire Farm, 43, Leopold Cassella, G.m.b.H., 3151.
Leverkusen, 86, go, z4g, r5lt 156-158, L59, z61, 208, 250.
Levinstein Limited, x68, 16q. 278

Lewis Gun, 252. Limitation of Armament, 114, 244-248, 254,
264, 265, 267See also Disarmament. Livens Projector,
29, 6o, 41, 65, 90) IOT, 133, 175, 2x6, 227) 228, 245, 252.
Longworth Bill, 178. Loos, Battle Of, 43, 50, ix8f 170Ludwigshafen,
88, 151, i56p 159# r6o, x61.

M2, French Mask, 135. March, 19x8, German Offensive,
17, 69, 76, 219, 224Marne, Battle of, 94, 143, 205Mask, first
improvised gas, 121. See also Helmet, gas.--German cartridge,
see Cartridge Mask, German.--M2 French, see M2, French Mask.
resistance of, to breathing, 130, 1311 140MetOl, 203. Minist6re de
I'Artillerie et des Munitions, 200. Monchy, attack at, 55.
Monopoly, Germany Dye, z8, 38, 148, i8g, 198, 214, 266.
Montauban attack, 55. Munitions Inventions Department, 97.
Mustard Gas, 27-29, 28, 67, 68, 74, 75, 77, 78, 8r, 89, xig,
136t 1137, 141, 158, 170, 216, 217, 221, 224, 230, 236, 240,
2491 255, 258, 272.--Allied Production, 8o, 81, zo,4, 164Y 165,
x68, 171-casualties, 69', 224#

Index

Mustard Gas, defensive use of, 229.--- first use of, 66~ 67, 215.
German production, 158, 202. protection a g a i n I t, 137, 221, 222.
Surprise, 66, 67, 69.

National Health Insurance Commission, 164, 201. Neglect of Chemical Industry,

171, 187New War Chemicals, see War Chemicals. Nieuport, 66, 67,
217Nitric Acid, 171. Nitrogen Fixation, 88, 171s z86, 205, 208,
211-213, 244, 26o, 265, 2671 268, 269. No-Man's-Land, fvture,
227, 229Non-persistent substances, 28, 29. Novocain, 201.

Obstacle, new type Of, 223, 229. Organic Chemical Industry, 145,

235, 2S6, 250, 251, 271Oxalic Acid, igo.

Particulate Clouds, 140, 232. Patent Policy, German, x91. Penetrants, 29.
Persistent lethal substance, 225227, 229, 231. -substances, 29, 29.
Phenol, German cornering of, 194. Phenylca rbyl amine chloride, 158.
Phosgene, 25, 29, 64, 69, 124,141, 156, z67, 217, 230, 249.
4,delayed action," 45, 53French development of, T 70 German cloud,
44-46. Phosphorus, r75, 181-

Photographic chemicals, 189, 203. Physiological classification, 25.
Poison gas, 25, 1507 151. Porton, experimental station, 97,

110`. Portuguese front, attack on, 77. Potassium permanganate, 126, 2M Price
cutting policy, German, 189, 213. Production, 83, 149, 162, 163, 249, 250.
critical importance of, 143Y 144, 171, 26o. statistics, 82, 83, 88.
Projector, German development Of, 70) 711. -Livens, see Livens Projector.
-short range, 182. Propaganda by German dye agents, igr.
-,German use of, 113. Protection, 38, 90, 92, 95, 99, loop 109, 113p 114)
121, 124~ 125, 127~ 128, 176, 216, 217, 220, 221. -collective, 231, 233.
-future deinclopmentS, 231. -Individual, 231, 232. -of animals, 92.
Prussic acid, 26, ixS. Puteaux, American laboratory, 175, 21S.

Rechicourt, attack on French, 7(RedCross appeal toendwar, i ig.
Research, 35,85, 108Y176,184,249. Respirator, Box, see Box Respirator.
-drurns, 97.--XTXY 13 5. Rhincland occupation, Allied, 206. 279 Index

Royal Society, 50, 94-97. Rubber, German shortage of, x32.
Russia, gas attacks against, 47, 123p 124.

St. Mihiel Battle, z82. Salicylic acid, igg, x94, igg.
Salvarsan, igg. Scientific Advisory Committee, 499 95, 96.
Serni-Circular Canals, 2x5. Sensitisers, photographic, 203.
Service Chemique de Guerre, ioS. Shell, Gas, 30, 40, 41, 64., 136,

A3, 216.

-Falkenhayn's orders,+3.--percentage Of, 77, 79, 80, 141, 245.
Smoke, future importance of, ISO, 181, 2A. -use with lethal gases,
i40, 180. Somme offensive, 52,55, 6r, 64,143. Speculative element,
2115, 220. Special Brigade R.E., 52, x74. -Companies, 50, 93.
Sternutatory compounds, a6, 28, 41. Stokes Mortar,
29, 52, 175. Stovaine, 220. Strategy, chemical, see Tactics
and Strategy. Sulphur Black, 155. Sulphuric acid, 171, 253.
Supply Department, British, iox, 105. -Organisations, ioz.
Surprise, critical factor of, 31, 32, 53, 111. 113, 114, 144.

Tactics and Strategy, 215, 216, 225. Tactical classification, 25, 28. 280

Tanks, 143, 217, 227) 253P 254, 247, 248. Technik im Weltkriege, Die,
36 371 40) 417 47, 51, 57, 69, 74: 80,125,128,129,135, 136,141.
Thermite shell, 175. Thiodiglycol, 159. Toxic compounds, 26.
Treaty Stocks, 150. Trench Warfare Department, British, 95, 96.
Re~earch Department, 96. Supply Department, 96, io5,
170Tri-chlor-methyl-chloro-formate, 64, 157. T. Stuffy 41.
Verdun, gas attack at, 69. Versailles, TreatY'Of, 34,150,210,
242-244, 264-267, 270, 271. Vesicant Compounds, 27, 137)
217, 239Vested Interests, 258, 259. Vincennite, zi8.
War chemicals, new, 217, 225.--Physiological classification,
see Physiological classification.--Tactical classification,
see Tactical Classification. Warsaw, cloud attacks, 123. White Cross
shell, 225. Xylyl bromide, 41, 156. Xylylene dibromide, 41.
Yellow Cross, see Mustard Gas. Yperite, 8o, z66. Ypres, first
German gas attack, 23~ 31, 32, 38-first Mustard gas, 66, 217.
Yser, raid by Germans, 117.

NAME INDEX

Albert, Dr., x94-x96, 197t 198-

Bacon, Colonel R. F., 218. Baeyer, Professor, 27Baker, Professor H. B.,
95Barley, Major, D.S.O., 46. Beilby, Sir George, 96. Bernstorff, von, 194.
Bethmann-Hollweg, Dr. von, 111, 197. Boy-Ed, Captain, 197. Bueb, Dr., 212.

Cadman, Sir John, 96. Chevalier, Medecin aide-major,

27Crossley, Professor A. W., 95,

97Curmer, General, 99.

Davies, Major David, M.P., 1172, 255, 257, 258. Davy, J., 249.
Dawson, Sergeant-Major, 5z. Debeney, General, 185. Duisberg, Herr, 1+7, 208-

Ehrlich, Dr. Paul, x9g.

Falkenhayn, General, 94, 147) 148. Foch, Marshal, 175.
Foulkes, Brig.--General C. H., 92.

French, Field-Marshal Sir 31t 43, 48Fries, Brig.--General A. A., 114,
17S9 177t 1791 1809 183Fuller, Colonel J. F. C., 227, 233-

Garvan, Francis P., i8q, 195, 197, 199Geyer, Captain, 136-140.
Green, Prof. A. G., 168. Grey, Viscount, 256, 257. Guthrie, 249.

Haber, Professor, 35, 49, 85, 90Haig, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas, 54.
Haldane, Dr., 121. Harrison, Lieut.--Colonel E. F., 98, x26.
Hartley, Brig.--General H., 63, 76, 98, 123, 240.
Horrocks, Sir William, 95Hossenf elder, Consul-General,

197-

Jackson, Colonel L., 942 95Joyce, Colonel, 212.

Kirschbaum, Prof. F. P., 1135. Kitchener, Lord, 33, 94~ 95)
121) 237. Kling, M., i0o. Krupp, von Bohlen, Herr, 147,

259 281 Name Index

Lambert, Major, 126. Lebeau, Professor P., iot. Levinstein, Dr. H., 168.
Livens, Major, 6o. Lodge, Sir Oliver, 94, Ludendorff, General, 70,
82P 90, 91) 114) 147, 149, 259.

Meyer, Victor, 27 Macpherson, Captain, z2i. McConnel, Lieut., 208.
Moulton of Bank, Rt. Hon.

Lord, 5, 16q, 242) 243, 270. Moureu, M. Charles, 200.

Norris, Colonel, 206, 208, 209.

Ozil, General, 200, 105.

Palmer, Mitchell, ig, z8g. Paterno, Senator, zoi. Penna, Colonel, zoi.
Pick, Dr. H., iz5, i2q, 130, 131. Pollard, Professor A. F., zz2.
Pope, Sir William, z65, 191, 202.

Ramsay, Sir William, 9+. Rayleigh, Lord, 94. Runciman, W., 146-

Sachur, Professor, 35. Schmaus, Lieut. Dr., 75, Schwarte, see Technik
im Weltkriege (Subject Index). Schweitzer, Dr. Hugo, 194, 195,

211. Sering, Dr. Max, zii. Stieglitz, Professor Julius, x9r,

198, 200.

Thomasl Albert, 200. Thorpe, Prof. J. F., 96, 99.
Thuillier, Major-General H. F.,

94, 98P 105-

Villavecehia, Prof. zot. Vincent, Monsieur, 200.

Watson, Colonel, 95. Weiss, M., 200. Wells, H. G., izz.
Wing, Major-General, 43.

282

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