Part 3 out of 4
became a synonym for idle declamation.
Sec. 14. _a bold speech_: i.e. a demand for instant war, helped out by
rhetorical praises of the men of old.
Sec. 16. _unmarried heiresses and orphans_. These would be incapable of
discharging the duties of the trierarchy, though their estates were liable
for the war-tax. Partners were probably exempted, when none of them
possessed so large a share in the common property as would render him
liable for trierarchy.
_property outside Attica_. According to the terms made by Athens with her
allies when the 'Second Delian League' was formed in 378, Athens undertook
that no Athenian should hold property in an allied State. But this
condition had been broken, and the multiplication of Athenian estates
[Greek: _kl_erhouchiai_] in allied territories had been one of the causes
of the war with the allies.
_unable to contribute_: e. g. owing to no longer possessing the estate
which he had when the assessment was made.
Sec. 17. _to associate, &c_. The sections which contained a very rich man
were to have poor men included in it, so that the total wealth of every
section might be the same, and the distribution of the burden between the
Sec. 18. _the first hundred, &c_. Demosthenes thinks of the fleet as
composed, according to need, of 100, 200, or 300 vessels, and treats each
hundred as a separate squadron, to be separately divided among the Boards.
_by lot_. In this and other clauses of his proposal, Demosthenes
stipulates for the use of the lot ([Greek: _sunkl_er_osai_], [Greek:
epikl_erosai]) to avoid all unfair selection. It is only in the
distribution of duties among the smaller sections within each Board that
assignment by arrangement ([Greek: _apodounai_], a word suggesting
distribution according to fitness or convenience) is to be allowed.
Sec. 19. _taxable capital_ ([Greek: _tim_ema_]). The war-tax and the
trierarchic burdens were assessed on a valuation of the contributor's
property. Upon this valuation of his taxable capital he paid the
percentage required. (The old view that he was taxed not upon his capital,
as valued, but upon a fraction of it varying with his wealth, rests upon
an interpretation of passages in the Speeches against Aphobus, which is
open to grave question.) The total amount of the single valuations was the
'estimated taxable capital of the country' ([Greek: _tim_ema t_es
ch_oras_]). This, in the case of the trierarchy, would be the aggregate
amount of the valuations of the 1,200 wealthiest men, viz. 6,000 talents.
(Of course the capital taxable for the war-tax would be considerably
larger. Even at a time when the prosperity of Attica was much lower, in
378-377 B.C., it was nearly 6,000 talents, according to Polybius, ii. 62.
Sec. 20. A tabular statement will make this plain:--
_Persons _Total capital taxable
_Ships_. responsible_. for each ship_.
100 12 60 tal.
200 6 30 "
300 4 20 "
The percentage payable on the taxable capital was of course higher, the
larger the number of ships required. Each ship appears to have cost on the
average a talent to equip. The percentages in the three cases contained in
the table would therefore be 1-2/3, 3-1/3, and 5, respectively. (Compare Sec.
Sec. 21. _fittings ... in arrear_. Apparently former trierarchs had not
always given back the fittings of their vessels, which had either been
provided at the expense of the State, or lent to the trierarchs by the
Sec. 23. _wards_ ([Greek: _trittyes_]). The trittys or ward was one-third of
Sec. 25. _you see ... city_. The Assembly met on the Pnyx, whence there was a
view of the Acropolis and of the greater part of the ancient city.
_prophets_. The Athenian populace seems always to have been liable to the
influence of soothsayers, who professed to utter oracles from the gods,
particularly when war was threatening. This was so (e. g.) at the time of
the Peloponnesian War (Thucyd. ii. 8, v. 26), and the soothsayer is
delightfully caricatured by Aristophanes in the _Birds_ and elsewhere.
Sec. 29. _two hundred ships ... one hundred were Athenian_. In the Speech on
the Crown, Sec. 238, Demosthenes gives the numbers as 300 and 200. Perhaps a
transcriber at an early stage in the history of the text accidentally
wrote HH (the symbol for 200) instead of HHH, in the case of the first
number, and a later scribe then 'corrected' the second number into H
instead of HH. The numbers given by Herodotus are 378 and 180, and, for
the Persian ships, 1,207.
Sec. 31. _against Egypt_, which was now in rebellion against Artaxerxes.
Orontas, Satrap of Mysia, was more or less constantly in revolt during
Sec. 32. _even more certainly_ [Greek: _palai_]: lit. 'long ago'. The
transition from temporal to logical priority is paralleled in certain uses
of other temporal adverbs, e.g. [Greek: _euthys_] (Aristotle, _Poet_. v),
and [Greek: _schol_e_] (of which, as Weil notes, [Greek: _palai_] is the
Sec. 34. _sins against Hellas_. This refers to the support given to the
Persian invaders by Thebes in the Persian Wars (Herod. viii. 34).
FOR THE MEGALOPOLITANS
Sec. 4. _Plataeae_ (which had been overthrown by the enemies of Athens in the
course of the Peloponnesian War, but rebuilt, with the aid of Sparta, in
378) was destroyed by Thebes in 373-372. About the same time Thebes
destroyed Thespiae, which, like Plataeae, was well-disposed towards
Athens; and in 370 the Thebans massacred the male population of
Orchomenus, and sold the women and children into slavery.
Sec. 11. _Oropus_ had sometimes belonged to Thebes and sometimes to Athens.
In 366 it was taken from Athens by Themison, tyrant of Eretria (exactly
opposite Oropus, on the coast of Euboea), and placed in the hands of
Thebes until the ownership should be decided. Thebes retained it until it
was restored to Athens by Philip in 338.
Sec. 12. _when all the Peloponnesians, &c_. The reference seems to be to the
year 370, shortly after the battle of Leuctra, when the Peloponnesian
States sought the protection of Athens against Sparta, and, being refused,
became allies of Thebes (Diodorus xv. 62). In 369 Athens made an alliance
Sec. 14. _saved the Spartans_. See last note. Athens also assisted the
Spartans at Mantineia in 362.
_the Thebans_. In 378 and the following years Athens assisted Thebes
against the Spartans under Agesilaus and Cleombrotus.
_the Euboeans_. In 358 or 357 Euboea succeeded in obtaining freedom from
the domination of Thebes by the aid of Athenian troops under Timotheus.
Sec. 16. _Triphylia_, a district between Elis and Messenia, was the subject
of a long-standing dispute between the Eleans and the Arcadians, and seems
to have been in the hands of the latter since (about) 368.
_Tricaranum_, a fortress in the territory of Phlius, had been seized by
the Argives in 369, and used as a centre from which incursions were made
into Phliasian territory.
Sec. 20. _allies of Thebes_: in order to preserve the balance of power
between Thebes and Sparta.
Sec. 21. _the Theban confederacy_. The reference is particularly to the
Arcadian allies of Thebes, but the wider expression perhaps suggests a
general policy of a more ambitious kind.
Sec. 22. _you, I think, know_. He refers to the older members of the
Assembly, who would remember the tyrannical conduct of Sparta during the
period of her supremacy (the first quarter of the fourth century B.C.).
Sec. 27. _pillars_. The terms of an alliance were usually recorded upon
pillars erected by each State on some site fixed by agreement or custom.
Sec. 28. _in the war_: i.e. the 'Sacred War', against the Phocians.
FOR THE FREEDOM OF THE RHODIANS
Sec. 3. _now it will be seen_: i.e. if you come to a right decision, and help
Sec. 5. _the Egyptians_. See Speech on Naval Boards, Sec. 31 n.
Sec. 6. _to advise you_: i.e. in the Speech on the Naval Boards (see
especially Sec.Sec. 10, 11 of that Speech).
Sec. 9. _Ariobarzanes_, Satrap of the Hellespont, joined in the general
revolt of the princes of Asia Minor against Persia in 362, at first
secretly (as though making war against other satraps) but afterwards
openly. Timotheus was sent to help him, on the understanding that he must
not break the Peace of Antalcidas (378 B.C.), according to which the Greek
cities in Asia were to belong to the king, but the rest were to be
independent (except that Athens was to retain Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros).
When Ariobarzanes broke out in open revolt, Timotheus could not help him
without breaking the first provision; but the Persian occupation tion of
Samos was itself a violation of the second, and he was therefore justified
in relieving the town.
Sec. 11. _while he is in her neighbourhood_. Artaxerxes almost certainly went
in person to Egypt about this time. (That he went before 346 is proved by
Isocrates, _Philippus_, Sec. 101; and he was no doubt expected to go, even
before he went.) The alternative rendering, 'since he is still to be a
neighbouring power to herself,' is less good, since he would be this,
whether he conquered Egypt or not.
Sec. 14. _Rhodians who are now in possession_: i.e. the oligarchs, who held
the town with the help of Caria.
_some of their fellow-citizens_: i.e. some of the democratic party.
Sec. 15. _official patron_ ([Greek: _proxenos_]). The 'official patron' of
another State in Athens was necessarily an Athenian, and so differed from
the modern consul, whom he otherwise resembled in many ways (cf.
Phillipson, _International Law and Custom of Ancient Greece and Rome_,
vol. i, pp. 147-56).
Sec. 17. _publicly provided_: i.e. in treaties between the States.
Sec. 22. _when our democracy_, &c.: i.e. in 404, when, at the conclusion of
the Peloponnesian War, the tyranny of the Thirty was established, and a
very large number of democratic citizens were driven into exile. The
Argives refused the Spartan demand for the surrender of some of these to
the Thirty (Diodorus xiv. 6).
Sec. 23. _one who is a barbarian-aye, and a woman_ ([Greek: _barbaron
anthr_opon kai tauta gynaika_]). This has been taken to refer (1) to
Artaxerxes and Artemisia. But [Greek: _kai tauta_] cannot be simply
[Greek: _pros tont_o_], and [Greek: _kai tauta gynaika_] must refer to the
same person as [Greek: _barbaron anthr_opon_]; (2) to Artaxerxes alone,
the words [Greek: _kai tauta gynaika_] being a gratuitous insult such as
it was customary for Athenians to level at any Persian; (3) to Artemisia
alone, [Greek: anthr_opos] being feminine here as often. It is not
possible to decide certainly between (2) and (3). Artemisia is more
prominent in the speech than the king, but it is the king who is referred
to in the next sentence.
Sec. 24. _rendered Athens weak_. The success of Sparta in the Peloponnesian
War was rendered possible, to a great extent, by the supply of funds from
Persia. In 401 Cyrus made his famous expedition against Artaxerxes II, and
Clearchus (with other generals) commanded the Greek troops which assisted
him. The death of Cyrus in the battle of Cunaxa in 401 put an end to his
Sec. 25. _rights of the rest of the world_. Weil suggests that it may have
been argued that to intervene in Rhodian affairs would be to break the
treaty made with the allies in 355 (about), at the end of the Social War,
whereby their independence was guaranteed.
Sec. 26. _Chalcedon_ was on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus, and therefore
by the Peace of Antalcidas belonged to the king (see n. on Sec. 9). By the
same treaty, Selymbria, on the north coast of the Propontis, ought to have
been independent. The Byzantines, who had obtained their independence of
Athens in the Social War, were extending their influence greatly at this
Sec. 27. _the treaty_: again the Peace of Antalcidas.
_even if there actually are such advisers_: or, 'even if any one actually
asserts the existence of such persons.'
Sec. 29. _two treaties_. The first must be the Peace of Callias (444 B.C.),
the terms of which are given in the Speech on the Embassy, Sec. 273. The
second was the Peace of Antalcidas.
Sec. 30. _the knowledge of what is right_. The parallel passage in Sec. 1 seems
to confirm this rendering, rather than the alternative, 'the intention to
do what is right.'
Sec. 33. _oligarchical_. This expression is partly directed at those who, in
opposing the exiled democrats, supported the oligarchs of Rhodes; and it
may be partly explained by the fact that the policy of Eubulus, who wished
to avoid all interferences which might lead to war, was particularly
satisfactory to the wealthier classes in Athens. But it was a common
practice to accuse an opponent of anti-democratic sentiments, and of
trying to get the better of the people by illegitimate means (cf. Speech
on Embassy, Sec. 314, &c.).
Sec. 35. Cf. Speech on Naval Boards, Sec. 41.
THE FIRST PHILIPPIC
Sec. 3. _the war with Sparta_. Probably the Boeotian War (378-371 B.C.), when
Athens supported Thebes against Sparta.
_in defence of the right_. The attempt of the Spartans to conquer Boeotia
was a violation of the Peace of Antalcidas (see n. on Speech for Rhodians,
Sec. 6). But Demosthenes' expression may be quite general in its meaning.
Sec. 4. _tribes_. Probably refers especially to the Thracians (see Introd. to
the Speech). The Paeonian and Illyrian chieftains also made alliance with
Athens in 356.
Sec. 17. _to Euboea_. See Speech for Megalopolitans, Sec. 14 n.
_to Haliartus_: in 395, when Athens sent a force to aid the Thebans
against the Spartans under Lysander. (For other allusions see Introd. to
Sec. 19. _paper-armies_ ([Greek: epistolimaious ... dynameis]): lit. 'armies
existing in dispatches.'
Sec. 24. _Athens once maintained_, &c. The reference is to the Corinthian war
of 394-387 B.C. The Athenian general Iphicrates organized a mercenary
force of peltasts in support of Corinth, and did great damage to Sparta;
he was succeeded in the command by Chabrias. Nothing more is certainly
known of Polystratus than is told us here, though he may be referred to in
the Speech against Leptines, Sec. 84, as receiving honours from Athens.
_to Artabazus_. In 356 Chares was sent to oppose the revolted allies of
Athens, but being short of funds, assisted Artabazus in his rebellion
against Persia, and was richly rewarded. (See Introd. to Speech on Naval
Sec. 25. _spectators of these mysteries of generalship_ ([Greek: epoptai t_on
] [Greek: *_strat_egoumen_on_]). The word [Greek: _epopt_es_] is chiefly
used of spectators of the mysteries, and is here applied sarcastically to
the citizens whom Demosthenes desires to see what has hitherto been a
hidden thing from them--the conduct of their generals.
Sec. 26. _ten captains and generals, &c_. There was one general ([Greek:
_strat_egos_]) and one captain ([Greek: _taxiarchos_]) of infantry, and
one general of cavalry ([Greek: _phylarchos_]), for each of the ten
tribes. There were two regular masters of the horse ([Greek:
_hipparchoi_]), and a third appointed for the special command of the
Athenian troops in Lemnos. The generals ([Greek: _strat_egoi_]) had
various civil duties, among them the organization of the military
processions at the Panathenaea and other great festivals.
Sec. 27. _Menelaus_. Either a Macedonian chieftain, who had assisted the
Athenian commander Timotheus against Poteidaea in 364, and probably
received Athenian citizenship; or else Philip's half-brother Menelaus. But
there is no evidence that the latter ever served in the Athenian forces,
and probably the former is meant.
Sec. 31. _Etesian winds_. These blow strongly from the north over the Aegean
from July to September.
Sec. 33. _the whole force in its entirety_. So with Butcher's punctuation.
But it is perhaps better to place a comma after [Greek: _dynamin_], and
translate, 'after making ready ... soldiers, ships, cavalry--the entire
force complete--you bind them,' &c.
Sec. 34. See Introd. to the Speech. Geraestus was the southernmost most point
of Euboea. The 'sacred trireme', the Paralus, when conveying the Athenian
deputation to the Festival of Delos, put in on its way at Marathon, where
there was an altar of the Delian Apollo, to offer sacrifice.
Sec. 35. The festival of the Panathenaea was managed by the Athlothetae, who
were appointed by lot, and consequently could not be specially qualified;
whereas the stewards ([Greek: _epimel_etai_]) who assisted the Archon in
the management of the Dionysia, were at this time elected, presumably on
the ground of their fitness.
_an amount of trouble_ ([Greek: _ochlon_]). Possibly 'a larger crowd'. But
there is no point in mentioning the crowd; the point lies in the pains
taken; and Thucyd. vi. 24 ([Greek: _upo tou ochl_odous t_es
parhaskeu_es_]) confirms the rendering given.
Sec. 36. The choregus paid the expenses of a chorus at the Dionysiac (and
certain other) festivals. The gymnasiarchs, or stewards of the games,
managed the games and torch-races which formed part of the Panathenaea and
many other festivals. The offices were imposed by law upon men who
possessed a certain estate, but any one who felt that another could bear
the burden better might challenge him either to perform the duty or to
exchange property with him. (See Appendix to Goodwin's edition of
Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias.)
_independent freedmen_: lit. 'dwellers apart,' i.e. freedmen who no longer
lived with the master whose slaves they had been.
Sec. 43. _empty ships_. If these are the ships referred to in Olynth. III,
Section 4, the date of the First Philippic must be later than October 351
Sec. 46. _promises_. The 'promises of Chares' became almost proverbial.
Sec. 47. _examination_, or 'audit'. A general, like every other responsible
official, had to report his proceedings, at the end of his term of office,
to a Board of Auditors, and might be prosecuted before a jury by any one
who was dissatisfied with his report.
Sec. 48. _negotiating with Sparta, &c_. As a matter of fact, Philip had
evidently come to an understanding with Thebes by this time; but he may
have caused some such rumours to be spread, in order to get rid of any
possible opposition from Sparta. The 'breaking-up of the free states'
probably refers to the desire of Sparta to destroy Megalopolis, which was
in alliance with Thebes.
_sent ambassadors to the king_. Arrian, ii. 14, mentions a letter of
Darius to Alexander, recalling how Philip had been in friendship and
alliance with Artaxerxes Ochus. It is possible, therefore, that the rumour
to which Demosthenes alludes had some foundation.
THE FIRST OLYNTHIAC
(_Note_.--Most of the allusions in the Olynthiacs are explained by the
Introduction to the First Philippic.)
Sec. 4. _power over everything, open or secret_. The translation generally
approved, 'power to publish or conceal his designs,' is hardly possible.
The [Greek: kai] in the phrase [Greek: rh_eta kai aporr_eta] (or [Greek:
arr_eta]) cannot be taken disjunctively here, when it is always
conjunctive in this phrase elsewhere, the whole phrase being virtually
equivalent to 'everything whatever'.
Sec. 5. _how he treated_, &c. The scholiast says that Philip killed the
traitors at Amphipolis first, saying that if they had not been faithful to
their own countrymen, they were not likely to be faithful to himself; and
that the traitors at Pydna, finding that they were not likely to be
spared, took sanctuary, and having been persuaded to surrender themselves
on promise of their lives, were executed nevertheless. Neither story is
confirmed by other evidence.
Sec. 8. _in aid of the Euboeans_: in 358 or 357. See Speech for
Megalopolitans, Sec. 14 n.
Sec. 13. _Magnesia_. There seems to have been a town of the same name as the
_attacked the Olynthians_. This refers to the short invasion of 351 (see
vol. i, p. 70), not to that which is the subject of the Olynthiacs.
_Arybbas_ was King of the Molossi, and uncle of Philip's wife, Olympias.
Nothing is known of this expedition against him. He was deposed by Philip
in 343. (See vol. ii, p. 3.)
Sec. 17. _these towns_: the towns of the Chalcidic peninsula, over which
Olynthus had acquired influence. This sentence shows that Olynthus itself
had not yet been attacked.
Sec. 26. _But, my good Sir_, &c. This must be the objection of an imaginary
opponent. It can hardly be taken (as seems to be intended by Butcher) as
Demosthenes' reply to the question, 'Or some other power?' ('But, my good
Sir, the other power will not want to help him.') There is, however, much
to be said for Sandys's punctuation, [Greek: _ean m_e bo_eth_es_eth umeis
_e allos tis_], 'unless you or some other power go to their aid.' After
the death of Onomarchus in 352, the Phocians were incapable of
withstanding invasion without help.
THE SECOND OLYNTHIAC
Sec. 14. _Timotheus, &c_. In 364 an Athenian force under Timotheus invaded
the territory of the Olynthian League, and took Torone, Poteidaea, and
other towns, with the help of Perdiccas, King of Macedonia.
_ruling dynasty_: i.e. the dynasty of Lycophron and Peitholaus at Pherae.
(See Introd. to First Philippic.)
Sec. 28. _this war_: i.e. the war with Philip generally. The reference is
supposed to be to the conduct of Chares in 356 (cf. Phil. I, Section 24
ii.), though in fact it was against the revolted allies, not against
Philip, that he had been sent. Sigeum was a favourite resort of Chares,
and it is conjectured that he may have obtained possession of Lampsacus
and Sigeum (both on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont) in 356. The
explanation of the conduct of the generals is to be found in the fact that
in Asia Minor they could freely appropriate prizes of war and plunder,
since under the terms of the Peace of Antalcidas, Athens could claim
nothing in Asia for her own.
Sec. 29. _taxes by Boards_. Each of the Boards constituted in 378-377 for the
collection of the war-tax (see vol. i, p. 31) had a leader or chairman
([Greek: __hegem_on_]), one of the 300 richest men in Athens, whose duty it
was to advance the sums required by the State, recovering them afterwards
from the other members of the Boards. Probably the Three Hundred were
divided equally among the 100 Boards, a leader, a 'second', and a 'third'
(Speech on Crown, Sec. 103) being assigned to each. The 'general' here
perhaps corresponds to the 'second'.
THE THIRD OLYNTHIAC
Sec. 4. _two or three years ago_ (lit. 'this is the third or fourth year
since). It was in November 352 B.C. If the present Speech was delivered
before November 349, not quite three years would have elapsed. (The Greek
words, [Greek: triton _he tetarton etos touti], must, on the analogy of
the Speech against Meidias, Sec. 13, against Stephanus, II. Sec. 13, and against
Aphobus, I. Sec. 24, &c., mean 'two or three', not 'three or four years
ago'). The vagueness of the expression is more likely to be due to the
date of the Third Olynthiac being not far short of three years from that
of the siege of Heraeon Teichos, than to the double-dating (on the one
hand by actual lapse of time, and on the other by archon-years--from July
to July--or by military campaigning seasons) which most commentators
assume to be intended here, but which seems to me over-subtle and unlike
_that year_: i.e. the archonship of Aristodemus, which ran from July 352
B.C. to July 351.
Sec. 5. _the mysteries_. These were celebrated from the 14th to the 27th of
Boedromion (late in September).
_Charidemus_, of Oreus in Euboea, was a mercenary leader who had served
many masters at different times--Athens, Olynthus, Cotys, and
Cersobleptes--and had played most of them false at some time or other. But
he was given the citizenship in 357 for the part which he had taken in
effecting the cession of the Chersonese to Athens, and was a favourite
with the people. He was sent on the occasion here referred to with ten
ships, for which he was to find mercenary soldiers.
Sec. 6. _with might ... power_. A quotation, probably from the text of the
treaty of alliance between Athens and Olynthus.
Sec. 8. _funds of the Phocians are exhausted_. The Phocian leader Phalaecus
had been using the temple-treasures of Delphi, but they were now
Sec. 10. _a Legislative Commission_: i.e. a Special Commission on the model
of the regular Commission which was appointed annually from the jurors for
the year (if the Assembly so decreed), and before which those who wished
to make or to oppose changes in the laws appeared, the proceedings taking
the form of a prosecution and defence of the laws in question. The
Assembly itself did not legislate, though it passed decrees, which had to
be consistent with the existing laws. As regards legislation, it merely
decided whether in any given year alterations in the laws should or should
not be allowed.
Sec. 11. _malingerers_. The scholiast says that the choregi were persuaded to
choose persons as members of their choruses, in order to enable them to
escape military service, choreutae being legally exempted. Other
exemptions also existed.
Sec. 12. _persons who proposed them_. This can only refer to Eubulus and his
Sec. 20. _Corinthians and Megareans_. From the pseudo-Demosthenic Speech on
the Constitution ([Greek: _pe_ri suntaxe_os_]) and from Philochorus
(quoted in the Scholia of Didymus upon that Speech) it appears that the
Athenians had in 350 invaded Megara, under the general Ephialtes, and
forced the Megareans to agree to a delimitation of certain land sacred to
the two goddesses of Eleusis, which the Megareans had violated, perhaps
for some years past (see Speech against Aristocrates, Sec. 212). A scholiast
also refers to the omission by Corinth to invite the Athenians to the
Isthmian games, in consequence of which the Athenians sent an armed force
to attend the games. Probably this was also a recent occurrence, and due
to an understanding between Corinth and Megara.
Sec. 21. _my own namesake_: i.e. Demosthenes, who was a distinguished general
during the Peloponnesian War, and perished in the Sicilian expedition.
Sec. 24. _for forty-five years_: i.e. between the Persian and Peloponnesian
Wars, 476-431 B.C.
_the king_: i.e. Perdiccas II, who, however, took the side of Sparta
shortly after the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. He died in 413. (The
date of the beginning of his reign is unknown, but he did not become sole
king of the whole of Macedonia until 436.)
Sec. 27. _Spartans had been ruined_: sc. by the battles of Leuctra (in 371)
and Mantineia (in 362).
_Thebans had their hands full_, owing to the war with the Phocians, from
Sec. 28. _in the war_, when Athens joined Thebes against Sparta (in 378).
'The allies' are those members of the Second Delian League (formed in 378)
who had been lost in the Social War which ended in or about 355, when
Athens was at peace with Thebes and Sparta. (See Introduction, vol. i, p.
Sec. 31. _procession at the Boedromia_. The Boedromia was a festival held in
September in honour of Apollo and Artemis Agrotera, Probably a procession
was not a regular part of the festival at this time. The importance which
the populace attached to such processions is illustrated by the Speech
against Timocrates, Sec. 161.
Sec. 34. _is it then paid service, &c_.: almost, 'do you then suggest that we
should _earn_ our money?'
Sec. 35. _adding or subtracting_: sc. from the sums dispensed by the State to
_somebody's mercenaries_. The reference is probably to the successes of
Charidemus when first sent (see Introd. to Olynthiacs).
ON THE PEACE
Sec. 5. _disturbances in Euboea_. Plutarchus of Eretria applied for Athenian
aid against Callias of Chalcis, who was attacking him with the aid of
Macedonian troops. Demosthenes was strongly opposed to granting the
request, but it was supported by Eubulus and Meidias, and a force was sent
under Phocion, probably early in 348 (though the chronology has been much
debated, and some place the expedition in 350 or 349). Owing to the
premature action or the treachery of Plutarchus at Tamynae (where the
Athenian army was attacked), Phocion had some difficulty in winning a
victory. Plutarchus afterwards seized a number of Athenian soldiers, and
Athens had actually to ransom them. Phocion's successor, Molossus, was
unsuccessful. When peace was made in the summer of 348, the Euboeans
became for the most part independent of Athens, and were regarded with
ill-feeling by Athens for some years. There is no proof that the proposers
of the expedition were bribed, as Demosthenes alleges.
Sec. 6. _Neoptolemus_. See Speech on Embassy, Sec.Sec. 12, 315.
Sec. 8. _public service_: i.e. as trierarch or choregus or gymnasiarch, &c.
See n. on Phil. I. Sec. 36.
Sec. 10. _there were some_ : i.e. Aeschines and his colleagues. (See Introd.)
_Thespiae and Plataeae_. See Speech for Megalopolitans, Section 4 n.
Sec. 14. _self-styled Amphictyons_. The Amphictyonic Council represented the
ancient Amphictyonic League of Hellenic tribes (now differing widely in
importance, but equally represented on the Council), and was supreme in
all matters affecting the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. (See n. on Speech on
Crown, Sec. 148.) The Council summoned by Philip was open to criticism (1)
because only certain members of it were present, of whom the Thebans and
Thessalians were the chief, (2) because Philip had been given the vote of
the dispossessed Phocians.
Sec. 15. _however stupid, &c_. It had been conventional for over a century to
apply this adjective to the Boeotians, and therefore to the Thebans. For a
more favourable view, see W. Rhys Roberts, _Ancient Boeotians_, chap. i.
Sec. 16. _Oropus_. See Speech for Megalopolitans, Sec. ii n.
Sec. 18. _Argives, &c_. See Speech for Megalopolitans throughout (with
_those whom they have exiled_: especially the refugees from Orchomenus and
Coroneia. See vol. i, p. 124.
_Phocian fugitives_. The Amphictyonic Council had recently declared that
these had been guilty of sacrilege, and might be seized wherever they
Sec. 20. _all that they themselves had toiled for_: i.e. the conquest of the
Phocians in the Sacred War.
Sec. 22. _some persons_: i.e. Aeschines and others who tried to excuse
Philip's treatment of the Phocians to the Athenian people.
Sec. 23. _admission ... Delphi_. The Phocians had formerly contrived their
exclusion from the Amphictyonic meeting and from the temple and oracle of
Delphi. The Council now restored them, and excluded the Phocians.
Sec. 24. _refuse to submit_: reading [Greek: (_oud) otioun upomeinai_.] The
insertion of [Greek: _oude_] (after Cobet) seems necessary, [Greek:
_otioun upomeinai_] alone would mean 'face any risk', but this would be
contradicted by the next clause. To translate, 'who think that we should
face any risk, but do not see that the risk would be one of war,' is to
narrow the meaning of [Greek: _otioun_] unduly.
Sec. 25. _Treaty of Peace_: i.e. the Peace of Philocrates.
_Cardians_. The Athenians claimed Cardia (the key of the Chersonese on the
Thracian side) as an ally, though in fact it was expressly excluded from
the towns ceded to Athens by Cersobleptes in 357, and had made alliance
with Philip in 352.
_prince of Caria_. See Speech for Rhodians (with Introd.).
_drive our vessels to shore_: a regular form of ancient piracy (see Speech
on Chersonese, Sec. 28). The Byzantines drove the Athenian corn-ships into
their own harbour. The victims were relieved of their money or their corn.
_shadow at Delphi_: i.e. the empty privilege (as Demosthenes here chooses
to represent it) of membership of the Amphictyonic League and Council, now
claimed by Philip.
THE SECOND PHILIPPIC
Sec. 1. _sympathetic_: i.e. towards other Greek states, desirous of securing
Sec. 2. _Alexander_, &c. Alexander of Macedon was sent by Mardonius, the
Persian commander, to offer Athens alliance with Persia on favourable
terms. Demosthenes has confused the order of events, and speaks as if this
message was brought before the battle of Salamis. The Athenians left the
city twice, before the battle of Salamis and before that of Plataeae; it
was after Salamis that Alexander was sent (Herod. viii. 140, &c.).
Sec. 14. _fortify Elateia_. This would be a menace to Thebes (cf. Speech on
the Crown, Sec.Sec. 174, 175). Elateia commands the road from Thermopylae to
Sec. 19. _well-balanced_ ([Greek: _s_ophronousi_]), or 'free from passion',
i.e. not liable to be carried away by ambition or cupidity as the Thebans
were. This is different from mere 'good sense' ([Greek: _syphronein, noun
echea_]). For Theban 'stupidity', see Speech on Peace, Sec. 15 (and n.).
Sec. 22. _Council of Ten_ ([Greek: _dekadarchian_]). It is clear that some
sort of oligarchical government, nominated by Philip, is referred to; but
the relation of this to the tetrarchies mentioned in the Speech on the
Chersonese, Sec. 26, as established by Philip, is uncertain. These
corresponded to the four tribes or divisions of Thessaly (Thessaliotis,
Phthiotis, Pelasgiotis, Histiaeotis); and this is confirmed by a statement
in Theopompus' forty-fourth book, to which Harpocration (s.v. [Greek:
_dekadarchia_]) refers. Harpocration states that Philip did not establish
a decadarchy in Thessaly; and if he is right, then either (a) Demosthenes
purposely used an inaccurate word, in order to suggest to the Messenians
the idea of a government like that of the Councils of Ten established some
sixty years before by Sparta in the towns subject to her; or (b) the text
is wrong, and [Greek: _dekadarchian_] is a misreading of [Greek:
DARCHIAN], in which [Greek: D] was the numeral (= 4), and the whole stood
for [Greek: _tetrarchian_]. As to (a), it is difficult to suppose that the
Messenians would not know what had happened in Thessaly so well that the
innuendo would fall flat. There is no evidence that 'decadarchy' could be
used simply as a synonym for 'oligarchy'. As to (b), the supposed
corruption is possible; but then we are left with [Greek: _tetrarchian_]
where we should expect [Greek: _tetrarchias_]: for there is no parallel to
[Greek: _tetrarchia_] (sing.) in the sense of 'a system of tetrarchies'.
It is, however, quite possible that Demosthenes was thinking especially of
the Thessalians of Pherae, and of the particular tetrarchy established
over them: and this seems on the whole the best solution. If, on the other
hand, Harpocration is wrong, the reference here may be to a Council of
Ten, either established previously to the tetrarchies, and superseded by
them, or else coexistent with and superior to them; in either case, since
the singular is used, this decadarchy must have been a single government
over the whole of Thessaly (or perhaps of the district about Pherae only),
not a number of Councils, one in each city or division of Thessaly.
(Theopompus' forty-fourth book probably dealt with 342 B.C., two years
after the present speech, though before the Speech on the Chersonese; but
we are not told that he assigned the establishment of the tetrarchies to
Sec. 25. _find yourselves slaves_: lit. 'find your master.'
Sec. 28. _by yourselves_: i.e. in the absence of the ambassadors from Philip
and other States.
_who conveyed the promises_: i.e. Ctesiphon, Aristodemus, and Neoptolemus
(see Speech on Embassy, Sec.Sec. 12, 94, 315, &c.): but Demosthenes has probably
Aeschines also in view.
Sec. 30. _water-drinker_. See Speech on Embassy, Sec. 46.
Sec. 32. _secure myself as good a hearing_. Most editions accept this
rendering of [Greek: _emaut_o logon poi_es-o_]. But though [Greek: _logon
didonai_] = 'grant a hearing,' and [Greek: _logon tychein_] = 'get a
hearing,' [Greek: _logon eaut_o poiein_] is strange for 'secure oneself a
hearing', and the passage regularly quoted from the Speech against
Aristocrates, Sec. 81, is not parallel, since [Greek: _tout_o_] in that
passage is not a reflexive pronoun, and [Greek: _logon pepoi_eke_] almost
= [Greek: _logon ded_oki_]. Possibly the text is corrupt, and we should
either read [Greek: _psogon_] (with H. Richards) or [Greek: _emautou_]
('make you take as much account of me as of my opponents').
_further claim_: since an attack on the part of Demosthenes would incite
them to make out a plausible case for Philip once more, and so earn his
ON THE EMBASSY
[The literal translation of the title is 'On the misconduct as
Sec. 1. _drawing your lots_. The jurors who were to serve in each trial were
selected by lot out of the total number of jurors for the year.
Sec. 2. _one of those_: i.e. Timarchus (see Introd.).
_supremacy_. The sovereignty of the people was exercised to a great extent
through the law-courts, the jury being always large enough to be fairly
representative of popular opinion, though probably there was generally a
rather disproportionate preponderance of poorer men among the jurors, the
payment being insufficient to attract others. (See Introduction, vol. i,
pp. 18, 19, 23.)
Sec. 11. _the Ten Thousand_: the General Assembly of the Arcadians at
Sec. 13. _he came to me_, &c. Aeschines denies this, saying that it would
have been absurd, when he knew that Demosthenes and Philocrates had acted
together throughout (see Introd.).
Sec. 16. _in the very presence_, &c.: contrast Speech on the Crown,
Sec. 23 (and see n. there). Aeschines states that he was in fact replying to
inflammatory speeches made by orators who pointed to the Propylaea, and
appealed to the memory of ancestral exploits; and that he simply urged
that it was possible for the Athenians to copy the wisdom of their
forefathers without giving way to an unseasonable passion for strife.
Sec. 17. _had again acted_: i.e. as on the First Embassy, if the reading is
correct (or perhaps, 'had committed a fresh series of wrongful acts'). But
possibly [Greek: _peprhakot_on_] is right, 'had sold fresh concessions' to
Sec. 20. Aeschines replies that every one expected Philip to turn against
Thebes; and that for the rest, he was only reporting the gossip of the
Macedonian camp, where the representatives of many states were gathered
together, and not making promises at all. It is noteworthy, however, that
in the Speech on the Peace, Sec. 10, shortly after the events in question,
when the speeches made would be fresh in every one's memory, Demosthenes
gives the same account of his opponent's assertions; and Aeschines
probably said something very like what is attributed to him.
Sec. 21. _debt due to the god_: i.e. the value of the Temple-treasure of
Delphi, which the Phocians had plundered.
Sec. 30. _for however contemptible_, &c. The argument seems to be this. 'You
must not say that a man like Aeschines could not have brought about such
vast results. Athens may employ inferior men, but any one who represents
Athens has to deal with great affairs, and so his acts may have great
consequences. And again, although it may have been Philip who actually
ruined the Phocians, and although Aeschines could never have done it
alone, still he did his best to help.'
Sec. 31. _the Town Hall_, or Prytaneum, where the Prytanes (the acting
Committee of the Council) met, and other magistrates had their offices.
_Timagoras_ was accused (according to Xenophon) by his colleague Leon of
having conspired with Pelopidas of Thebes against the interests of Athens,
when on a mission to the court of Artaxerxes in 357. In Sec. 137 Demosthenes
also states that he received large sums of money from Artaxerxes.
Sec. 36. Aeschines denies that he wrote the letter for Philip, and his denial
is fairly convincing.
Sec. 40. _a talent_. According to Aristotle (_Eth. Nic_. v. 7) the
conventional amount payable as ransom was one mina per head. But from Sec.
169 it appears that the Macedonians sometimes asked for more than this.
_laudable ambition_: i.e. to get credit for having thought of the ransom
of the prisoners.
Sec. 47. _handed in_: either to the Clerk or to the Proedroi (the committee
of Chairmen of the Assembly).
Sec. 51. Aeschines states that Philip's invitation was declined because it
was suggested that Philip would keep the soldiers sent as hostages.
Sec. 65. _on our way to Delphi_. Demosthenes had been one of the Athenian
representatives at the meeting of the Amphictyonic Council at Delphi this
_gave its vote_, &c. After the battle of Aegospotami at the end of the
Peloponnesian War, the representative of Thebes proposed to the Spartans
and their allies that Athens should be destroyed and its inhabitants sold
Sec. 70. _read this law over_: i.e. that the herald might proclaim it after
Sec. 72. For the Spartans see Sec. 76. The Phocians had treated the Athenians
badly when Proxenus was sent to Thermopylae (see Introd. to Speech on
Peace). Hegesippus may have opposed the acceptance of Philip's invitation
to the Athenians to join him. Aeschines (on the Embassy, Sec.Sec. 137, 138)
mentions no names in connexion with the refusal, but represents it as the
sacrifice of a unique opportunity of saving the Phocians (cf. Sec. 51 n.).
Sec. 76. _deceit and cunning, and of nothing else_ ([Greek: _pasa apat_e_]).
The argument is, 'Aeschines will try to allege wrongful acts on the part
of the Phocians; but there was no time for such acts in the five days; and
this proves that there were no such acts to justify their ruin, and that
their overthrow was due to nothing but trickery.' This is better than to
translate '_every kind of_ deceit and trickery was concocted for the ruin
of the Phocians'; for this is not the point, nor is it what would be
inferred from the fact that there was only a five-days' interval between
the speech of Aeschines and the capitulation of the Phocians. There is no
need to emend to [Greek: _h_e pasa apat_e_].
_on account of the Peace_: i.e. of the negotiations for the Peace, before
it was finally arranged.
_all that they wished_: viz. the restoration of the Temple of Delphi to
their kinsmen, the Dorians of Mount Parnassus.
Sec. 78. _four whole months_: in reality, three months and a few days.
Sec. 81. _Phocian people_: i.e. those who were left in Phocis, as distinct
from the exiles just referred to.
Sec. 86. _of Diophantus_. In 352, when Philip had been repulsed by
Onomarchus, Diophantus proposed that public thanksgivings should be held
(see Introd. to First Philippic).
_of Callisthenes_: in 346, after the Phocians had surrendered to Philip.
_the sacrifice to Heracles_: perhaps one of the two festivals which were
respectively held at Marathon and at Cynosarges.
Sec. 99. _constitutional_: lit. 'an excuse for a citizen,' under a
constitution by which no one was compelled to enter public life, and any
one who did so without the requisite capacity had to take the
responsibility for his errors.
Sec. 103. _impeached_. An impeachment was brought before the Council (or,
more rarely, the Assembly). The procedure was only applied to cases of
extraordinary gravity, and particularly to what would now be called cases
Sec. 114. _by torture_. The evidence of slaves might be given under torture,
in response to a challenge from one or other of the parties to a suit. The
most diverse opinions as to the value of such evidence are expressed by
the orators, according to the requirements of their case. The consent of
both sides was necessary; and in a very large number of cases, one side or
the other appears to have refused to allow evidence to be taken in this
_was going_: i.e. to Philip.
Sec. 118. _accept his discharge_. There seems to be a play on two senses of
the verb [Greek: aphienai], viz. 'to discharge from the obligations of a
contract', and 'to acquit'.
Sec. 120. _Why, this is the finest_, &c. The expression ([Greek: touto gar
esti to lamprhon]) recurs in Sec. 279, a closely parallel passage, and need
not be regarded as an interpolation in either case. The interpretation
given seems slightly preferable, and is approved by Weil. It is almost
equally possible to translate the Greek by 'such is the brilliant defence
which he offers'; but perhaps this does not suit Sec. 279 so well.
_stand up_. Apparently Aeschines declined the invitation, which was quite
within the custom of the Athenian courts. Either of the principal parties
could ask the other questions, and have the answers taken down as
_cases that have all_, &c. The reference is to the prosecution of
Timarchus, when advanced in age, for offences committed in early youth.
There may also be an allusion to Aeschines' early career as an actor.
Sec. 122. _declined on oath_. An elected official could refuse to serve, if
he took an oath that there was some good reason (such as illness) for
Sec. 126. _though not elected_. Aeschines (on the Embassy, Sec. 94) replies that
in fact the commission was renewed at a second meeting of the Assembly,
and that he was then well enough to go and was elected. (That there was a
second election of ambassadors is confirmed by Demosthenes' own statement
in Sec. 172 of the present speech, that he himself was twice elected and
twice refused to serve.)
Sec. 128. _Thesmothetae_: the six archons who did not hold the special
offices of archon eponymus, polemarch, or king archon.
_Aeschines went_, &c. To have refused to be present would really have been
to make a political demonstration against Thebes, which would have had
perilous results. Aeschines defends himself on the ground that in his view
the Peace was no disadvantage to Athens, so that he might well join in the
honours paid to the Gods.
Sec. 129. _Metroon_. The temple of the Great Mother (Cybele), which was the
_the name of Aeschines_: i.e. its removal from the list of ambassadors.
Sec. 131. _in their interest_. If the words are not corrupt, the meaning is
probably 'in the interest of Philip and the Thebans'; or possibly, 'in
reference to these matters.'
Sec. 136. _as his informant_. The text is possibly corrupt, though as it
stands it might perhaps bear the meaning given, if [Greek: hyparchei] were
understood with [Greek: autos]. Others (with or without emendation) take
the sense to be 'to manage his business ... just as he would manage it in
Sec. 137. For Timagoras see Sec. 31 n.
Sec. 144. _summon Philip's envoys_: i.e. in order to report the decision of
the Assembly, and so close the matter.
Sec. 147. _ask him whether_, &c. The argument seems to be this 'if Aeschines
was the ambassador of a city which had been victorious against Philip, the
latter would naturally wish to buy easy terms of peace; and Aeschines
might undertake to procure such terms, without committing a particularly
heinous offence, since he would only be getting some advantage for himself
out of the general good fortune of his country. But to secure advantages
for himself at his country's expense, when his country was already
suffering disaster, would be far worse. And as Aeschines complains that
the generals had incurred disaster, he convicts himself of the worse
Sec. 148. The _Tilphossaeum_ was apparently a mountain near Lake Copais in
Boeotia. The town which Strabo calls Tilphusium may have been on the
mountain. Neones, or Neon, was a Phocian village; Hedyleion, a mountain in
Sec. 149. _Ah! he will say_, &c. Either the words are interpolated, or there
is a lacuna. The objection is nowhere refuted.
Sec. 156. Doriscus, &c. The places mentioned did not really belong to Athens,
but to Cersobleptes, who was being assisted by Athenian troops, so that,
strictly speaking, Philip was within his rights; and in fact (according to
Aeschines), Cersobleptes and the Sacred Mountain were taken by Philip the
day before the Athenians and their allies swore to the Peace at Athens.
Sec. 162. _Eucleides_ had been sent to protest against Philip's attack upon
Cersobleptes in 346 (see vol. i, p. 122). Philip replied that he had not
yet been officially informed by the Athenian ambassadors of the conclusion
of the Peace, and was therefore not yet bound by it.
Sec. 166. _procure their ransom_: i.e. from the various Macedonians who had
captured them, or to whom they had been given or sold.
Sec. 176. _committed to writing_, &c. Formal evidence (as distinct from the
mere assertions of a speaker) was written down, and the witness was asked
to swear to it. A witness who was called upon might swear that he had no
knowledge of the matter in question ([Greek: _exomnysthai_]). By writing
down his evidence and swearing to it, Demosthenes took the risk of
prosecution for perjury.
Sec. 180. _might be proved in countless ways_: or 'would need a speech of
infinite length '. But as [Greek: _kai_] and not [Greek: _de_] follows, I
slightly prefer the former rendering. (The latter is supported by the
Third Philippic, Sec. 60, but there the next clause is connected by [Greek:
_Ergophilus_ was heavily fined in 362 (see Speech against Aristocrates, Sec.
104); Cephisodotus in 358 (ibid. Sec. 167, and Aeschines against Ctesiphon, Sec.
52); Timomachus went into exile in 360 to escape condemnation (against
Aristocrates, Sec. 115, &c.). Ergocles was perhaps the friend of Thrasybulas
(see Lysias, Orations xxviii, xxix), and may have been condemned for his
conduct in Thrace, as well as for malversation at Halicarnassus. Dionysius
Sec. 187. _has got beyond_, &c.: an ironical way of saying that he has so
much overdone his application to himself of the title of (prospective)
'benefactor' of Athens, that another word (e.g. 'deceiver') would be more
appropriate. The word [Greek: _psychrhon_] is (at least by Greek literary
critics) applied to strong expressions out of place, and here also,
probably, of an exaggerated phrase which falls flat. This is perhaps the
best interpretation of a very difficult passage.
Sec. 191. For Timagoras, see Sec. 31 n. Tharrex and Smicythus are unknown.
Adeimantus was one of the generals at Aegospotami, the only Athenian
prisoner spared by Lysander, and on that account suspected of treason by
the Athenians, and prosecuted by Conon (called 'the elder', to distinguish
him from his grandson, who was a contemporary of Demosthenes).
Sec. 194. guest-friend. The term ([Greek: xenos]) was applied to the
relationship (more formal than that of simple friendship) between citizens
of different states, who were bound together by ties of hospitality and
Sec. 196. _the Thirty_: i.e. the 'Thirty Tyrants' who ruled Athens (with the
support of Sparta) for a few months in 403. See n. on Sec. 277.
Sec. 198. Aeschines warmly denies this story. He says that Demosthenes tried
to bribe Aristophanes of Olynthus to swear that it was true, and that the
woman was his own wife. He adds that the jury, on an appeal from Eubulus,
refused to let Demosthenes complete the story.
Sec. 199. _initiations_: see Speech on Crown, Sec.Sec. 259 ff., with notes.
Sec. 200. _played the rogue_. The scholiast says that clerks were sometimes
bribed to alter the laws and decrees which they read to the Court; and a
magistrates' clerk had doubtless plenty of opportunities for conniving at
Sec. 204. _should not have been sworn to_. This is out of chronological order
as it stands, and emendations have been proposed, but unnecessarily.
Sec. 209. _would not have him for your representative_: in the question about
Athenian rights at Delos. See Introduction to the Speech.
Sec. 213. _I have no further time, &c_.: lit. 'no one will pour water for me'
into the water-clock, by which all trials were regulated.
Sec. 221. _consider_, &c. There is an anacoluthon in the Greek, which may be
literally translated, 'Consider, if, where I who am absolutely guiltless
was afraid of being ruined by them--what ought these men themselves, the
actual criminals, to suffer?'
Sec. 222. _get money out of you_: i.e. to be bought off.
Sec. 230. _choregus and trierarch_: see Introd. to Speech on Naval Boards,
and n. on Philippic I. Sec. 36.
Sec. 231. _all was well_ ([Greek: eupenespai]). The reading is almost
certainly wrong. Weil rightly demands some word contrasting with [Greek:
agnoein] ('did not understand his country') in the corresponding clause.
Sec. 237. _vase-cases_: i.e. boxes to contain bottles of oil or perfume for
Sec. 245. _the cock-pit_. That this is the meaning seems to be proved by the
words of Aeschines (against Timarchus, Sec. 53); otherwise the natural
translation would be 'to the bird-market'. Cocks were no doubt sold in the
bird-market; but Aeschines refers directly to cock-fighting, not to the
purchase of the birds.
Sec. 246. _hack-writers_: lit. 'speech-writers,' who composed speeches for
litigants, and no doubt padded them out with quotations from poets, as
well as with rhetorical commonplaces. Demosthenes taunts Aeschines
particularly with ransacking unfamiliar plays, instead of those he knew
Sec. 249. _reared up... greatness_: or possibly, 'reared up all these sons of
_Hero-Physician_. See Speech on the Crown, Sec. 129 n.
_Round Chamber_, in the Prytaneum or Town Hall (see Sec. 31 n.).
Sec. 252. _at the risk of his own life_. He tried to avoid the risk by
feigning madness. Salamis was in the hands of the Megareans, and the
Athenians had become so weary of their unsuccessful attempts to recover
it, that they decreed the penalty of death upon any one who proposed to
make a fresh attempt. The verses, however, which are quoted in the text,
are probably derived not from the poem which Solon composed for this
purpose, but from another of his political poems.
Sec. 255. _with a cap on your head_. Plutarch (Solon 82 c) says that 'Solon
burst into the market-place suddenly, with a cap on his head'. The cap was
intended to suggest that he had just returned from Salamis, since it was
the custom to wear a cap only when on a journey, or in case of illness
(of. Plato, _Republic_, iii. 406_d_). There may possibly be an allusion
also to Aeschines' own alleged sickness (Sec. 136 above), but this is very
doubtful. The words more probably mean, 'however closely you copy Solon'
(as you copied his attitude in speaking), 'when you run about declaiming
Sec. 257. _accepted the challenge_. At the examination before the Board of
Auditors (Logistae) the question was almost certainly put, whether any one
present wished to challenge the report of the ambassador under
Sec. 259. _claim_ ([Greek: axioumenoi]): or, 'are thought worthy'; but the
first sense is much better in the parallel passage in Sec. 295, and this
'middle' use seems to be sufficiently attested, though the active voice is
used in the same sense in Sec. 338.
Sec. 260. _paramount position_: i.e. among the tribes of North Greece
(Magnetes, Perrhaebi, &c.).
Sec. 264. _concluded the war, &c_. In 383 B.C. In fact, however, they only
obtained peace by joining the Spartan alliance.
Sec. 271. _Arthmius_: see Philippic III. Sec. 42 (and note).
Sec. 273. _Callias_, in 444 B.C. Cf. Speech for the Rhodians, Sec. 29. The
Chelidonian Islands lay off the south coast of Lycia, the Cyanean rocks at
the northern mouth of the Bosporus.
Sec. 277. _Epicrates_ was sent as ambassador to Persia early in the fourth
century, and received large presents. According to Plutarch he escaped
condemnation; but he may have been tried more than once. The comic poets
make fun of his long beard.
_who brought the people back from the Peiraeus_. Thrasybulus occupied the
Peiraeus in 403, secured the expulsion of the Thirty Tyrants from Athens,
and restored the democracy.
Sec. 278. _the decree_: i.e. the decree by which Epicrates and his colleagues
Sec. 279. _for this is the splendid thing_: cf. Sec. 120 n.
Sec. 280. _exiled_ and _punished_. We should perhaps (with Weil) read [Greek:
_e] ('or') for [Greek: kai] ('and').
_descendant of Harmodius_: i.e. Proxenus, who had been only recently
condemned, and is therefore not named.
Sec. 281. _another priestess_. According to the scholiast, the reference is
to Ninus, a priestess of Sabazios, who was prosecuted by Menecles for
making love-potions for young men. The connexion of this offence with the
meetings of the initiated is left to be understood.
Sec. 282. _the burden undertaken_. Such burdens as the duties of choregus,
trierarch, &c., might be voluntarily undertaken, as they were by
Demosthenes (see n. on Philippic I. Sec. 36).
Sec. 287. _Cyrebion_, or 'Light-as-Chaff', was the nickname of Epicrates,
Aeschines' brother-in-law (not the Epicrates of Sec. 277). _as a reveller_,
no doubt in some Dionysiac revel, in which it was not considered decent to
take part without a mask. (The original purpose of masks, however, was not
to conceal one's identity from motives of shame, though Demosthenes
suggests it as a motive here.)
_were water flowing upstream_. A half-proverbial expression implying that
the world was being turned upside-down, when such a person could prosecute
for such offences.
Sec. 290. _Hegesilaus_ was one of the generals sent to Euboea to help
Plutarchus; cf. Speech on the Peace, Sec. 5 n. He was accused of abetting
Plutarchus in the deception which he practised upon Athens. For
Thrasybulus, cf. Sec. 277.
_the primary question_: i.e. of the guilt or innocence of the defendant.
If he was pronounced guilty, the question of sentence (or damages) had to
be argued and decided separately.
Sec. 295. _claim to be_: cf. n. on Sec. 259.
_churning the butter_ ([Greek: etyrheue]): i.e. concocting the plot. (For
the metaphor cf. Aristophanes, _Knights_ 479.)
Sec. 299. _Zeus and Dione_. These names show that the oracles referred to
were probably given at Dodona.
Sec. 303. _oath of the young soldiers_. When the young Athenian came of age,
he received a shield and spear in the temple of Aglaurus, and swore to
defend his country and to uphold its constitution (cf. Lycurgus, _Against
Leocrates_, Sec. 76).
Sec. 314. _keeping step with Pythocles_, who was a tall man, while Aeschines
Sec. 326. _Drymus and Panactum_ were on the border between Boeotia and
Attica. Nothing else is known of the expedition.
Sec. 332. _Chares_. See nn. on Philippic I. Sec.Sec. 24, 46; Olynthiac II. Sec. 28,
Sec. 333. _of one of whom_, &c.: i.e. of Philip (see Sec. 111 ff., and Introd.
to Speech on the Peace).
Sec. 342. _Euthycrates_. See Introd. to Olynthiacs.
ON THE CHERSONESE
Sec. 9. The argument is, 'if Philip is not committing hostilities so long as
he keeps away from Attica, Diopeithes is not doing so, so long as he keeps
away from Macedonia, and only operates in Thrace.'
_drive the vessels_, &c. See Speech on the Peace, Sec. 25 n.
Sec. 14. _passing the time_: i.e. until a convenient season for an attack
_those who are on the spot_: i.e. in Thrace, and who had doubtless sent
messages to Athens. Others think that the words mean 'those who are here
_Etesian winds_. See First Philippic, Sec. 31 n.
_infatuation_: i.e. hostility to Athens.
Sec. 16. _punish the settlers_: i.e. those who were sent with Diopeithes and
demanded admission to Cardia.
Sec. 18. _Chalcis_, in Euboea (see Introd.).
Sec. 21. _keep our hands ... revenues_: a reference to the distributions of
Festival-Money (see Third Olynthiac, with Introduction and notes).
_contributions of the allies_. This interpretation seems on the whole
better warranted than 'contributions promised to Diopeithes'.
Sec. 24. _I consent to any penalty_: lit. *'I assess my own penalty at
anything'--a metaphor from the practice of the law-courts, which allowed a
convicted prisoner to propose an alternative penalty to that suggested by
_Erythraeans_: Erythrae was on the coast of Asia Minor, opposite Chios.
Sec. 25. _benevolences_: the same word as was used of the forced
contributions levied by English kings.
Sec. 27. _surrendering_: i.e. to his soldiers, to be plundered (if the phrase
is meant to convey anything but a vague accusation).
Sec. 28. _wax-tablet_: i.e. a summons.
_so many ships_. The critics of Diopeithes must have proposed the sending
of a definite force to control him.
Sec. 29. _a dispatch-boat_: lit. 'the _Paralus_'. This ship, and the
_Salaminia_, were the two vessels regularly employed on public errands.
_spitefulness_: i.e. towards Diopeithes.
Sec. 30. _Chares_: see references in n. on Speech on Embassy, Sec. 332.
_Aristophon_. The reference may be to his conduct as general in the early
days of the war with Philip about Amphipolis. His activity as a statesman
began as far back as 403, and he was one of the most influential
politicians in Athens from about 361 to 354.
Sec. 31. _losing something_: _sc_. a scapegoat whom you could punish.
Sec. 40. _Euthycrates_, &c. See Introd. to Olynthiacs.
Sec. 44. _wretched hamlets_ ([Greek: kak_on]): lit. 'evils' or 'miseries';
but the word is possibly corrupt. (The original reading may possibly have
been [Greek: kalyb_on].) According to the scholiast, Drongilum and Cabyle
are near Amphipolis and the Strymon; but others assign different
localities to them. Masteira is quite unknown.
Sec. 45. _pit of destruction_ ([Greek: barhathrh_o]). This was literally the
pit into which the bodies of condemned criminals were thrown at Athens.
_silos_: underground store-houses for grain, such as were found in Ceos
not many years ago, and may still be in use.
Sec. 46. _irremediable_ ([Greek: an_ekeston]). The reading of two good
manuscripts [Greek: aneikaston] (otherwise only known as a late Greek
word) may be correct. If so, it may mean 'unparalleled', or
Sec. 57. The meaning is, that by denouncing those who propose active measures
now, they are preparing the way in order to prosecute them so soon as you
find the war burdensome; whereas they should themselves be prosecuted for
letting things go as far as they have gone.
Sec. 59. _Oreus_. See Introd.
_Pheraeans_, in 344. See Introd. to Second Philippic; and cf. Third
Philippic, Sec. 12.
_compromise_. Slavery seems to be ironically regarded as a compromise
between activity and quiescence.
Sec. 63. _robbed of at an earlier period_. The sense must either be this, or
else 'all that you have lost in open war '. In either case emendation is
Sec. 70. _trierarch and choregus_. Demosthenes was choregus in 348, and
trierarch in 363, 359, and 357.
Sec. 74. _Timotheus_: in 358, when Athens liberated Euboea from the Thebans.
Cf. First Philippic, Sec. 17, First Olynthiac, Sec. 8. The effect of Timotheus'
speech was such that the expedition started within three days. (Speech
against Androtion, Sec. 14.)
Sec. 75. _best counsel that he can_. The text is probably corrupt; but this
was probably the sense of the original.
THE THIRD PHILIPPIC
Sec. 2. _actively at work_: the reference is to Diopeithes (see Speech on
Chersonese, Sec. 57).
Sec.Sec. 4, 5. Passages are repeated from the Speech on the Chersonese, Sec. 4, and
First Philippic, Sec. 2.
Sec. 8. _not to defraud us_: i.e. by making statements which he is not
prepared to act upon.
Sec. 11. _as though visiting his allies_. This is not true, though envoys
from the Phocians, as from most other Greek states of importance, were in
Philip's camp. With the whole passage, cf. Speech on Embassy, Sec.Sec. 20 ff.
Sec. 12. _Pherae_. See Speech on Chersonese, Sec. 59 n. For Oreus see Introd. to
Speech on Chersonese, and Sec. 33 and 59 ff. of this Speech.
Sec. 15. _Serrhium, &c_. See Introd. to Speech on Peace.
_he had sworn to a Peace_. This is untrue; see Speech on Embassy, Sec. 156,
where it is part of the charge against Aeschines' party, that they had
enabled Philip to take these places _before_ he had sworn to the Peace.
Sec.16. _religion_: with special reference here to the sanctity of the oath.
_into the Chersonese_: i.e. to help Cardia. The claim of Athens to Cardia
was not good, and it appears from the Speech of Hegesippus against
Halonnesus, Sec. 2, that the Athenians had recognized the independence of the
Sec. 18. _if anything should happen_: e.g. the outbreak of open war, or (more
probably) a defeat.
Sec. 23. _seventy-three years_: i.e. 476-404 B. c.
_thirty years save one_: i.e. 404-376 B.C. (in the latter year Chabrias
defeated the Spartans off Naxos).
_battle of Leucira_: in 371 B.C.
Sec. 24. _disturb the established order_: i.e. by establishing oligarchical
governments in place of democracy.
Sec. 26. _in the Thracian region_: strictly, in Chalcidice and the
neighbourhood. See Introd. to Olynthiacs.
_robbed their very cities of their governments_. This is preferable to the
(grammatically) equally possible rendering, 'robbed them of their
constitutions and their cities,' as it suits the facts better. Philip
seems to have substituted tetrarchies for separate city-states. (See
Speech on Chersonese, Sec.26, and Second Philippic, Sec. 22 n.)
Sec. 27. _Ambracia_. See Introd. to Speech on Chersonese. _Elis_: Introd. to
Speech on Embassy. _Megara_: Speech on Embassy, Sec.Sec. 294, 295.
Sec. 32. _Pythian games_. See Introd. to Speech on Peace. In 342 Philip sent
a deputy to preside in his name.
Sec.Sec. 33, 34. See Introd. to Speech on Chersonese. Echinus was a Theban
colony in Thessaly, on the north coast of the Malian Gulf.
Sec. 42. _Arthmius_, &c. (cf. Speech on Embassy, Sec.271). Zeleia was in the
Troad, near Cyzicus. Arthmius was apparently proxenus of Athens at Zeleia,
and as such had probably certain rights at Athens, of which the decree
deprived him; so that Demosthenes' remarks at the beginning of Sec.44 are
Sec. 46. At the end of this section two versions are imperfectly blended, and
it does not appear what were the contents of the document. Some suppose
that the insertion 'He reads from the document' is an early conjectural
Sec. 49. _because be leads_, &c. Philip did, in fact, bring the Macedonian
heavy infantry to great perfection for the purposes of a pitched battle,
though the decisive action was generally that of the cavalry. But the
other troops which Demosthenes names would enable him to execute rapid
movements with success. The use of light-armed troops had already been
developed by the Athenian general, Iphicrates.
Sec. 50. _with such advantages_: lit. 'under these conditions' (_not_ 'to
crown all', nor 'at the head of these troops').
Sec. 52. Contrast Speech on Naval Boards, Section 9.
Sec.Sec. 57 ff. See Introd. to Speech on Embassy.
Sec. 59. Euphraeus had been a disciple of Plato, and an adviser of Perdiccas,
Philip's elder brother. It was he who recommended Perdiccas to entrust the
government of part of Macedonia to Philip, whom he afterwards so strongly
Sec. 72. _embassies_. See Introd. to Speech on Chersonese.
ON THE CROWN
Sec. 1. _to take counsel_, &c. Aeschines had asked the jury to refuse
Demosthenes a hearing, or at least to require him to follow the same order
of treatment as himself.
Sec. 3. _unpleasant_. Many render [Greek: duocheres] 'inauspicious', 'ill-
omened'; but as we do not know exactly what was in Demosthenes' mind, it
is better not to give the word a meaning which it does not bear elsewhere.
It may, however, mean 'vexatious'.
Sec. 11. _knave as you are_, &c. The assonance of the original might perhaps
be partly reproduced by rendering 'evil-minded as you are, it was yet a
very simple-minded idea that your mind conceived', &c.
Sec. 12. _it does not enable the State_: lit. 'it is not possible for the
State.' The point is that the prosecution of Ctesiphon, while expressing
the malice of Aeschines towards Demosthenes, does not enable the State to
punish Demosthenes himself for his alleged offences, since any penalty
inflicted would fall on Ctesiphon.
Sec. 13. _to debar another_, &c. This probably refers to the attempt to
deprive Demosthenes of a hearing, not (as some have thought) to the
attempt to get so heavy a fine inflicted upon Ctesiphon that he would be
unable to pay it, and would therefore lose his rights as a citizen.
Sec. 17. _ascribed to me_, &c. Aeschines was anxious, in view of the existing
state of feeling at Athens, to disown his part in connexion with the Peace
of Philocrates; while Demosthenes undoubtedly assisted Philocrates in the
earlier of the negotiations and discussions which led to the Peace.
_appropriate_. 'The recapitulation of the history is not a mere
argumentative necessity, but has a moral fitness also; in fact, the whole
defence of Demosthenes resolves itself into a proof that he only acted in
the spirit of Athenian history' (Simcox).
Sec. 18. _When the Phocian war bad broken out_: i.e. in 356-5. Demosthenes
made his first speech in the Assembly in 354.
_those who detested the Spartans_: i.e. the Messenians and Arcadians.
_those who had previously governed_, &c.: e.g. the oligarchies which had
governed with the help of Sparta in Phlius and Mantinea, and were
overthrown after the battle of Leuctra.
Sec. 19. _would be forced_, &c. This is a misrepresentation, since Philip and
the Thebans had been in alliance for some time, and Thebes had no such
grounds for apprehending evil from Philip, as would make her apply to
Sec. 21. _Aristodemus_, &c. See Introd. to Speech on the Peace. As a matter
of fact, Demosthenes acted with Philocrates at least down to the return of
the First Embassy, and himself proposed to crown Aristodemus for his
services (Aeschines, On the Embassy, Sec.Sec. 15-17).
Sec. 23. _the Hellenes bad all_, &c. It is not easy to reconcile this passage
with Sec. 16 of the Speech on the Embassy, from which it appears that
representatives of other states were present in Athens; but these so-
called envoys may have been private visitors, and in any case there was no
real hope of uniting Greece against Philip.
Sec. 24. _Eurybatus_ is said to have been sent as an envoy by Croesus to
Cyrus, and to have turned traitor. The name came to be proverbial.
Sec. 27. _those strongholds_. See Introd. to Speech on the Peace.
Sec. 28. _But they would have watched_, &c. The passage has been taken in
several ways: (1) 'They would have had to watch,' &c., and this would have
been discreditable to Athens; (2) 'They would have watched,' &c., i.e.
they would not have been excluded, as you desired, in any case; (3) 'But,
you say, they would have paid two obols apiece,' and the city would have
gained this. The sentence which follows favours (3), but perhaps (2) is
best. The petty interests of the city would include (from the point of
view assumed by Aeschines) the abstention from showing civility to the
enemy's envoys. The two-obol (threepenny) seats were the cheapest.
Sec. 30. _three whole months_. In fact the ambassadors were only absent from
Athens about ten weeks altogether.
_equally well_. The reading ([Greek: homoios]) is probably wrong; but if
it is right, this must be the meaning.
Sec. 32. _as you did before_, in 352. See Introd. to First Philippic.
Sec. 36. _decree of Callisthenes_. This ordered the bringing in of effects
from the country. See Speech on Embassy, Sec.Sec. 86, 125.
Sec. 41. _property in Boeotia_. See Speech on Embassy, Sec. 145.
Sec. 43. _their hopes_: sc. of the humiliation of Thebes.
_and gladly_: i.e. they were glad to be free from a danger which (though
remotely) threatened themselves, as the next sentence explains. I can see
no good reason for taking the participle [Greek: polemoumenoi] as
concessive ('_although_ they also,' &c.).
Sec. 48. For Lasthenes see Introd. to Olynthiacs. Timolaus probably contrived
the surrender of Thebes after the battle of Chaeroneia. Eudicus is
unknown. Simus invoked Philip's aid against the tyrants at Pherae in 352
(see Introd, to First Philippic). Aristratus was tyrant of Sicyon, and
made alliance with Philip in 338. For Perillus, see Speech on Embassy,
Sec. 50. _stale dregs_: strictly the remains, and especially the wine left in
the cups, from the previous night's feast; here the long-admitted
responsibility of Aeschines for the Peace of 346.
Sec. 63. _Dolopes_: a small tribe living to the south-west of Thessaly.
Sec. 65. _free constitutions_. This refers especially to the Thessalians, who
had been placed under tetrarchies (see Philippic III. Sec. 26).
Sec. 70. _Aristophon_. See Speech on Chersonese, Sec. 30 n. Diopeithes is
perhaps Diopeithes of Sphettus (mentioned by Hypereides, Speech against
Euxenippus, Sec. 39), not the general sent by Athens to the Chersonese.
Sec. 71. For the events mentioned in this section, see Introd. to Speech on
Sec. 72. _Mysian booty_. A proverbial expression derived from the helpless
condition of Mysia (according to legend) in the absence of its king,
Sec. 79. _to the Peloponnese_, in 344 (see Introd. to Second Philippic): _to
Euboea_ in 343-2 (see Introd. to Speech on Embassy); _to Oreus_, &c., in
341 (see Introd. to this Speech).
Sec. 82. _as their patron_, i.e. as consul (or official patron) of Oreus in
Athens. See n. on Speech for Rhodians, Sec. 15. civil rights. See vol. i, p.
Sec. 83. _this was already the second proclamation_: i.e. the proclamation in
accordance with the decree of Aristonicus. It is indeed just possible that
the reference is to the proposal of Ctesiphon, 'for this is now the second
proclamation,' &c. If so, we should have to assume that the proclamation
under the decree of Demomeles in 338 was prevented by the disaster of
Chaeroneia. But the first sentence of Sec. 120 is against this (see Goodwin's
edition _ad loc_.).
Sec. 94. _inconsiderate conduct_: i.e. in joining the revolt of the Athenian
allies in 356.
Sec. 96. _when the Spartans_, &c. The section refers to the events of 395.
_Deceleian War_: i.e. the last part of the Peloponnesian War (413-404
B.C.), when Deceleia (in Attica) was occupied by the Spartans.
Sec. 99. _Thebans... Euboea_: in 358 or 357. See Speech for Megalopolitans, Sec.
Sec. 100. _Oropus_. See Speech for Megalopolitans, Section 11 n.
_I was one_. Demosthenes was, in fact, co-trierarch with Philinus (Speech
against Meidias, Sec. 161).
Sec. 102. See Speech on Naval Boards (with Introd. and notes), and n. on
Olynthiac II, Sec. 29.
_obtaining exemption_. The undertaking of the trierarchy conferred
exemption from other burdens for the year, and (conversely) no one
responsible for another public burden need be trierarch. The leaders of
the Taxation Boards referred to in Sec. 103 are probably not (as generally
supposed) the richest men in the _Naval_ Boards [Footnote: They may indeed
have been so, but it was in virtue of their function as leading members of
the Hundred Boards (for collecting the war tax) that they were grouped
together as the Three Hundred.] (responsible for trierarchy), but those in
the Hundred Boards responsible for the war tax. In each of these Boards
there was a leader, a 'second', and a 'third', and these, all together,
are almost certainly identical with the 'Three Hundred' responsible for
advancing the sum due. When these were already advancing the war tax, they
became exempt from trierarchy, and their poorer colleagues in the Naval
Boards (to which of course they also belonged) had to bear the burden
without them. But under Demosthenes' law the trierarchic payment was
required from all alike, in strict proportion to their valuation as
entered for the purposes of the war tax; and the Three Hundred (the
leaders, seconds, and thirds) were no longer exempted. (This explains
their anxiety to get the law shelved.) Even in years when they were not
exempt, before Demosthenes' law was passed, they only paid a very small
share in proportion to their wealth, since all the members of each Naval
Board paid the same sum. It appears, however, that (though the Three
Hundred as such cannot be shown to have had any office in connexion with
the trierarchy) the richer men in the Naval Boards arranged the contracts
for the work of equipment, and that when they had contracted that the work
should be done (e.g.) for a talent, they sometimes recovered the whole
talent from their poorer colleagues. (Speech against Meidias, Sec. 155.)
Sec. 103. _lie under sworn notice_, &c. ([Greek: en hupomosia]). One who
intended to indict the proposer of a law for illegality had probably to
give sworn notice of his intention, and the suggestion made to Demosthenes
was that when such notice had been given, he should let the law drop.
Sec. 105. _the decree_, &c.: i.e. either a decree suspending the law until
the indictment should be heard, or one ordering the trial on the
indictment to be held.
Sec. 107. _no trierarch_, &c. A trierarch who thought the burden too heavy
for him could appeal against it by laying a branch on the altar in the
Pnyx, or by taking sanctuary in the Temple of Artemis at Munychia. A
dilatory or recalcitrant trierarch could be arrested by order of the ten
commissioners ([Greek: apostuleis]) who constituted a sort of Admiralty
Sec. 111. _the laws_, &c. The laws alleged to have been violated were copied
out, and accompanied the indictment. With regard to the laws in the
present case, see Goodwin's edition, pp. 313-6.
Sec. 114. _Nausides_ was sent to oppose Philip at Thermopylae in 352 (see
Introd. to First Philippic). Diotimus had a command at sea in 338, and his
surrender was demanded by Alexander in 335, as was also that of
Charidernus (see n. on Olynthiac III, Sec. 5), who had now been a regular
Athenian general for many years, and had been sent to assist Byzantium in
340 (see Speech against Aristocrates, _passim_).
Sec. 121. _hellebore_: supposed in antiquity to cure madness.
Sec. 122. _reveller on a cart_, e.g. on the second day of the Anthesteria,
when masked revellers rode in wagons and assailed the bystanders with
abusive language. Such ceremonial abuse was perhaps originally supposed to
have power to avert evil, and occurs in primitive ritual all over the
Sec. 125. _the statutable limit_. There was a limit of time (differing
according to the alleged offence) after which no action could be brought.
Demosthenes could not now be prosecuted for any of the offences with which
Aeschines charged him.
Sec. 127. _Aeacus_, &c.: the judges of the dead in Hades, according to
_scandal-monger_. The Greek word ([Greek: spermologos]) is used primarily
of a small bird that pecks up seeds, and hence of a person who picks up
petty gossip. (In Acts xvii. 18 it is the word which is applied to St.
Paul, and translated 'this babbler'.)
_an old band in the market-place_: i.e. a rogue. A clerk would perhaps
often be found in the offices about the market-place; or the reference may
be to the market-place as a centre of gossip.
_O Earth_, &c. Demosthenes quotes from the peroration of Aeschines'
Sec. 129. The stories which Demosthenes retails in these sections deal with a
time which must have been forty or fifty years before the date of this
speech, and probably contain little truth, beyond the facts that
Aeschines' father was a schoolmaster (not a slave), and was assisted by
Aeschines himself; and that his mother was priestess of a 'thiasos' or
voluntary association of worshippers of Dionysus-Sabazios, among whose
ceremonies was doubtless one symbolizing a marriage or mystical union
between the god and his worshippers. (Whether the form of 'sacred
marriage' which was originally intended to promote the fertility of the
ground by 'sympathetic magic' entered into the ritual of Sabazios is
doubtful.) Such a rite, though probably in fact quite innocent, gave rise
to suspicions, of which Demosthenes takes full advantage; and the fact
that well-known courtesans (such as Phryne and perhaps Ninus) sometimes
organized such 'mysteries' would lend colour to the suspicions.
_Hero of the Lancet_ ([Greek: to kalamit_e aer_oi]). The interpretation is
very uncertain (see Goodwin, pp. 339 ff.); and, according as [Greek:
kalamos] is taken in the sense of 'lancet', 'splints', or 'bow', editors
render the phrase 'hero of the lancet', 'hero of the splints', 'archer-
hero' (identified by some with Toxaris, the Scythian physician, whose
arrival in Athens in Solon's time is described in Lucian's [Greek:
Skuth_es ae Proxenos]). That the Hero was a physician is shown by the
Speech on the Embassy, Sec. 249.
Sec. 130. _for they were not like_, &c. ([Greek: ouge gar h_onetuchen _en,
all ois hu daemos kataratai]). The meaning is quite uncertain. The most
likely interpretations are: (1) that given in the text, [Greek: a
bebioken] being understood as the subject of [Greek: _en], and [Greek: _on
etuchen] as = [Greek: tout_on a etuchen], i.e. 'not belonging to the class
of acts which were such as chance made them,' but acts of a quite definite
kind, viz. the kind which the People curses (through the mouth of the
herald at each meeting of the Assembly); (2) 'for he was not of ordinary
parents, but of such as the People curses'; the subject of [Greek: _en]
being Aeschines. But there is the difficulty that, with this subject for
[Greek: _en, _on etuchen] can only represent [Greek: tout_on _on etuchen
_on], whereas the sense required is [Greek: tout_on oi etuchon], or (the
regular idiom) [Greek: t_on tuchunt_on]; and the sense is not so good, for
the context [Greek: opse gar]) shows that the clause ought to refer to the
_acts_ of Aeschines about which he is going to speak, not to his
parentage, which the orator has done with.
_Glaucothea_. Her real name is said to have been Glaucis. Glaucothea was
the name of a sea-nymph. The change of the father's name Tromes
('Trembler') to Atrometus ('Dauntless') would also betoken a rise in the
_Empusa_, or 'The Foul Phantom': a female demon capable of assuming any
shape. Obscene ideas were sometimes associated with her.
Sec. 132. For Antiphon, see Introd. to Speech on the Embassy.
_struck off the list_: at the revision of the lists in 346. (Each deme
revised the list of its own members, subject to an appeal to the courts.)
_without a decree_: i.e. a decree authorizing a domiciliary visit.
Sec. 134. _when ... you elected him_. See Introd. to Speech on the Embassy.
_from the altar_: a peculiarly solemn form of voting; it is mentioned in
the Speech against Macartatus, Sec. 14.
Sec. 136. _when Philip sent_, &c. See Introd. to Speech on the Embassy.
Sec. 137. The ostensible purpose of Anaxinus' visit was to make purchases for
Olympias, Philip's wife. Aeschines states that Anaxinus had once been
Demosthenes' own host at Oreus.
Sec. 141. _paternal deity_: as father of Ion, the legendary ancestor of the
Ionians, and so of the Athenians.
Sec. 143. _and of one_, &c. I have followed the general consensus of recent
editors; but I do not feel at all sure that the antecedent of [Greek: us]
is not [Greek: polemos]. In that case we should translate, 'which led to
Philip's coming to Elateia and being chosen commander of the Amphictyons,
and which overthrew,' &c.
Sec. 146. _nature of the resources_, &c.: i.e. especially the possession by
Athens of a strong fleet.
Sec. 148. _representatives on the Council_. The Amphictyonic Council was
composed of two representatives (Hieromnemones) from each of twelve
primitive tribes, of which the Thessalians, the Boeotians, the Ionians
(one of whose members was appointed by Athens), and the Dorians (one
member appointed by Sparta) were the chief, while some of the tribes were
now very obscure. There were also present delegates (Pylagori) from
various towns. These were not members of the Council, and had no vote, but
might speak. Athens sent three such delegates to each meeting. (See
Goodwin, pp. 338, 339.)
Sec. 150. _make the circuit_, or 'beat the bounds'. The actual proceedings
(according to Aeschines' account, summarized in the Introd. to this
Speech) were much more violent.
_It was clearly impossible_, &c. The argument is unconvincing. Aeschines
may have known of the intention of the Locrians without their having
served a formal summons.
Sec. 158. _one man_: i.e. Philip.
Sec. 169. _the Prytanes_: the acting Committee of the Council.
_set fire to the wicker-work_: i.e. probably the hurdles, &c., of which
the booths were partly composed. Probably a bonfire was a well-understood
form of summons to an Assembly called in an emergency.
_the draft-resolution_. See Introd., vol. i, p. 18.
_on the hill-side_: i.e. on the Pnyx, the meeting-place of the Assembly.
Sec. 171. _the Three Hundred_. See n. on Sec. 102.
Sec. 176. _philippize_. The word was coined during the wars with Philip, on
the analogy of 'medize'--the term used of the action of the traitors who
supported the invading Persians (Medes) early in the fifth century.
Sec. 177. _to Eleusis_, which was on the most convenient (though not the
shortest) route for an army marching to Thebes.
Sec. 180. _Battalus_: a nickname given to Demosthenes by his nurse on account
of the impediment in his speech from which he suffered in early days, or
of his general delicacy. Aeschines had tried to fix an obscene
interpretation upon it.
_Creon_. See Speech on the Embassy, Sec. 247.
_at Collytus_: i.e. at the Rural Dionysia held in that deme.
Sec. 189. _any one_: lit. 'any one who chooses,' i.e. to call him to account.
The expression ([Greek: ho boulomenos]) is apparently half technical, as
applied to a self-appointed prosecutor. (Cf. Aristophanes, _Plutus_ 908
Sec. 194. _the general_: i.e. at Chaeroneia.
Sec. 195. _Philip employed_. Most editors say '_Aeschines_ employed'. But
this would require [Greek: outos] not [Greek: ekeinos], and Sec. 218 also
supports the interpretation here given.
Sec. 198. _treasured up_, &c. The suggestion seems to be that Aeschines
foresaw the disasters, but concealed his knowledge, 'storing them up' in
order to make a reputation out of them later.
Sec. 204. _to leave their land_, &c.: i.e. at the time of Xerxes' invasion in
480, when the Athenians abandoned the city and trusted to the 'wooden
walls' of their ships.
Sec. 208. On this magnificent passage, see the treatise _On the Sublime_,
chaps, xvi, xvii.
Sec. 209. _poring pedant_: lit. 'one who stoops over writings'. Here used
perhaps with reference to Aeschines' having 'worked up' allusions to the
past for the purpose of his Speech, while he remained blind to the great
issues of the present. Many editors think that the reference is to his
earlier occupation as a schoolmaster or a clerk; but this is perhaps less
suitable to the context.
Sec. 210. _staff...ticket_. The colour of the staff indicated the court in
which the juror was to sit; the ticket was exchanged for his pay at the
end of the day.
Sec. 214. _a very deluge_. He is thinking, no doubt, of the disaster at
Chaeroneia and the destruction of Thebes.
Sec. 215. _while their infantry_, &c. The Theban forces when prepared for
action would naturally camp outside the walls (see Olynth. I, Sec. 27, where
Demosthenes similarly thinks of the Athenian army encamping outside
Athens). But although they were thus encamped outside, and had left their
wives and children unguarded within, they allowed the Athenian soldiers to
enter the city freely.
Sec. 216. _the river_: probably the Cephisus. Both battles are otherwise
unknown. If one of them was in winter, it must have taken place not long
after the capture of Elateia, and several months before the battle of
Sec. 219. _somewhere to lay the blame_: or possibly, 'some opportunity of
recovering himself,' or 'some place of retreat'. But the interpretation
given (which is that of Harpocration) is supported by the use of [Greek:
anenenkein] in Sec. 224.
Sec. 227. _counters all disappear_. The calculation was made by taking away,
for each item of debt or expenditure, so many counters from the total
representing the sum originally possessed. When the frame (or _abacus_)
containing the counters was left clear, it meant that there was no
surplus. (The right reading, however, may be [Greek: an kathair_osin], 'if
the counters are decisive,' or [Greek: han kathair_osin], 'whatever the
counters prove, you concede.')
Sec. 231. _cancel them out_ ([Greek: antanelein]): strictly, to strike each
out of the account in view of something on the opposite side (i.e. in view
of the alternative which you would have proposed).
Sec. 234. _collected in advance_: i.e. Athens had been anticipating her
Sec. 238. _if you refer_, &c. Aeschines had accused Demosthenes of saddling
Athens with two-thirds of the expense of the war, and Thebes with only
_three hundred_, &c. See Speech on Naval Boards, Sec. 29 n.
Sec. 243. _customary offerings_, made at the tomb on the third and ninth days
after the death.
Sec. 249. _Philocrates_: not Philocrates of Hagnus, the proposer of the Peace
of 346, but an Eleusinian. For Diondas, see Sec. 222. The others are unknown.
Sec. 251. _Cephalus_. Cf. Sec. 219. He was an orator and statesman of the early
part of the fourth century. (The best account of him is in Beloch,
_Attische Politik_, p. 117.)
Sec. 258. _the attendants' room_. The 'attendants' are those who escorted the
boys to and from school--generally slaves.
Sec. 259. _the books_, &c. Cf. Sec. 129 and notes. The books probably contained
the formulae of initiation, or the hymns which were chanted by some
Dionysiac societies. The service described here is probably that of the
combined worship of Dionysus-Sabazios and the Great Mother (Cybele).
_dressing_, &c. The candidate for initiation was clothed in a fawn-skin,
and was 'purified' by being smeared with clay (while sitting down, with
head covered) and rubbed clean with bran, and after the initiation was
supposed to enter upon a new and higher life. It is possible that the
veiling and disguising with clay originally signified a death to the old
life, such as is the ruling idea in many initiations of a primitive type.
(Cf. Aristophanes, travesty of an initiation-ceremony in the _Clouds_
Sec. 260. _fennel and white poplar_. These were credited with magical and
_Euoe, Saboe_: the cry to Sabazios. One is tempted to render it by 'Glory!
Hallelujah!' In fact, the Dionysiac 'thiasoi', or some of them, had many
features, good as well as bad, in common with the Salvation Army. The cry
'Euoe, Saboe' is of Thracian origin; 'Hyes Attes' is Phrygian. The
serpents, the ivy, and the winnowing-fan figured in more than one variety
of Dionysiac service. It is not certain that for 'ivy-bearer' ([Greek:
kittophorhos]) we should not read 'chest-bearer' ([Greek: kistophoros])
used with reference to the receptacle containing sacred objects, of which
we hear elsewhere in connexion with similar rites.
Sec. 261. _fellow-parishioners_; lit. 'members of your deme'. Each deme kept
the register of citizens belonging to it. Enrolment was possible at the
age of 18 years, and had to be confirmed by the Council. (See Aristotle,
_Constitution of Athens_, chap. xiii.)
Sec. 262. _collecting figs_, &c. Two interpretations are possible: (1) that
the spectators in derision threw fruit--probably not of the best--at
Aeschines on the stage, and he gathered it up, as a fruiterer collects
fruit from various growers, and lived on it; or (2) that while he was a
strolling player, Aeschines used to rob orchards. Of these (1) seems by
far the better in the context.
Sec. 267. _I leave the abysm_, &c. The opening of Euripides' _Hecuba_. The
line next quoted is unknown. 'Evil in evil wise' ([Greek: kakon kak_os])
is found in a line of Lynceus, a fourth-century tragedian.
Sec. 282. _denied this intimacy with him_: or possibly (with the scholiast),
'declined this office.'
Sec. 284. _the tambourine-player_. Such instruments were used in orgiastic
Sec. 285. Hegemon and Pythocles were members of the Macedonian party, who
were put to death in 317 by order of the Assembly. (See Speech on Embassy,
Sec.Sec. 215, 314.)
Sec. 287. _same libation_: i.e. the same banquet. The libation preceded the
drinking. To 'go beneath the same roof' with a polluted person was
supposed to involve contamination.
_in the revel_. Cf. Speech on the Embassy, Sec. 128. The reference, however,
is here more particularly to Philip's revels after the battle of
Chaeroneia, in which, Demosthenes suggests, the Athenian envoys took part.
Sec. 289. The genuineness of the epitaph is doubtful. Line 2 is singularly
untrue. The text is almost certainly corrupt in places (e.g. ll. 3 and
_their lives_, &c. As the text stands, [Greek: aret_es] and [Greek:
deimatos] must be governed by [Greek: brab_e,], 'made Hades the judge of
their valour or their cowardice.' But this leaves [Greek: ouk esa_osan
psuchas] as a quasiparenthesis, very difficult to accept in so simple and
at the same time so finished a form of composition as the epigram. There
are many emendations.
_'Tis God's_, &c. The line, [Greek: m_eden hamartein esti the_on kai panta
katorhthoun], is taken from Simonides' epitaph on the heroes of Marathon.
The sense of the couplet is plain from Sec. 290; but [Greek: en biot_e] in l.
10 is possibly corrupt.
Sec. 300. _the confederacy_, i.e. Athens, Thebes, and their allies at
Sec. 301. _our neighbours_, especially Megara and Corinth.
Sec. 308. _the inactivity which you_, &c.: i.e. abstention from taking a
prominent part in public life.
Sec. 309. _opening of ports_: i.e. to Athenian commerce.
Sec. 311. _What pecuniary assistance_, &c. Demosthenes is thinking of his own
services in ransoming prisoners, &c. Some editors translate, 'What public
financial aid have you ever given to rich or poor?' i.e. 'When have you
ever dispensed State funds in such a way as to benefit any one?' It is
impossible to decide with certainty between the two alternatives; but the
meanings of [Greek: politik_e] ('citizen-like', 'such as one would expect
from a good fellow-citizen') and [Greek: koin_e], which I assume, seem to
be supported by Sec.Sec. 13 and 268 respectively.
Sec. 312. _leaders of the Naval Boards_. See Introd. to Speech on Naval
_damaging attack_, &c. This probably refers to modifications introduced on
Aeschines' proposal into Demosthenes' Trierarchic Law of 340, not at the
time of its enactment, but after some experience of its working. (See
Aeschines, 'Against Ctesiphon,' Sec. 222.)
Sec. 313. Theocrines was a tragic actor, who was attacked in the pseudo-
Demosthenic Speech 'Against Theocrines'. Harpocration's description of him
as a 'sycophant', or dishonest informer, may be merely an inference from
Sec. 318. _your brother_. See Speech on the Embassy, Sec.Sec. 237, 249. It is not
known which brother is here referred to.
Sec. 319. Philammon was a recent Olympic victor in the boxing match; Glaucus,
a celebrated boxer early in the fifth century.
Sec. 320. _owner of a stud_. To keep horses was a sign of great wealth in
Acarnania, Acarnanians, ii.
Acropolis, i.; ii.
Admiralty Board ([Greek: apostoleis]), ii.
Aeschines, i.; ii.
Aetolia, Aetolians, ii.
Aglaurus, temple of, i.; ii.
Alexander (480 B.C.), i.; ii.
Alexander the Great, ii.
Ambassadors, duties of, i.
its constitution and functions, i.; ii.
from 346-343 B.C., i.; ii.