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The Private Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Complete by Constant

Part 7 out of 15

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were magicians, a Swiss marriage, Tyrolian betrothals, etc. All the
costumes were wonderfully handsome and true to nature; and there had been
arranged in the apartments at the palace a supply of costumes which
enabled the dancers to change four or five times during the night, and
which had the effect of renewing the ball as many times.

As I was dressing the Emperor for this ball, he said to me, "Constant,
you must go with me in disguise. Take whatever costume you like,
disguise yourself so that you cannot possibly be recognized, and I will
give you instructions." I hastened to do as his Majesty ordered, donned a
Swiss costume which suited me very well, and thus equipped awaited his
Majesty's orders.

He had a plan for mystifying several great personages, and two or three
ladies whom the Emperor designated to me with such minute details that it
was impossible to mistake them, and told me some singular things in
regard to them, which were not generally known, and were well calculated
to embarrass them terribly. As I was starting, the Emperor called me
back, saying, "Above all, Constant, take care to make no mistake, and do
not confound Madame de M---- with her sister; they have almost exactly
the same costume, but Madame de M--- is larger than she, so take care."
On my arrival at the ball, I sought and easily found the persons whom his
Majesty had designated, and the replies which they made afforded him much
amusement when I narrated them as he was retiring.

There was at this time a third marriage at the court, that of the Prince
de Neuchatel and the Princess of Bavaria, which was celebrated in the
chapel of the Tuileries by Cardinal Fesch.

A traveler just returned from the Isle of France presented to the Empress
a female monkey of the orang-outang species; and her Majesty gave orders
that the animal should be placed in the menagerie at Malmaison. This
baboon was extremely gentle and docile, and its master had given it an
excellent education. It was wonderful to see her, when any one
approached the chair on which she was seated, take a decent position,
draw over her legs and thighs the fronts of a long redingote, and, when
she rose to make a bow, hold the redingote carefully in front of her,
acting, in fact, exactly as would a young girl who had been well reared.
She ate at the table with a knife and fork more properly than many
children who are thought to be carefully trained, and liked, while
eating, to cover her face with her napkin, and then uncover it with a cry
of joy. Turnips were her favorite food; and, when a lady of the palace
showed her one, she began to run, caper, and cut somersaults, forgetting
entirely the lessons of modesty and decency her professor had taught her.
The Empress was much amused at seeing the baboon lose her dignity so
completely under the influence of this lady.

This poor beast had inflammation of the stomach, and, according to the
directions of the traveler who brought her, was placed in bed and a
night-dress put on her. She took great care to keep the covering up to
her chin, though unwilling to have anything on her head; and held her
arms out of the bed, her hands hidden in the sleeves of the night-dress.
When any one whom she knew entered the room, she nodded to them and took
their hand, pressing it affectionately. She eagerly swallowed the
medicines prescribed, as they were sweet; and one day, while a draught of
manna was being prepared, which she thought too long delayed, she showed
every sign of impatience, and threw herself from side to side like a
fretful child; at last, throwing off the covering, she seized her
physician by the coat with so much obstinacy that he was compelled to
yield. The instant she obtained possession of the eagerly coveted cup
she manifested the greatest delight, and began to drink, taking little
sips, and smacking her lips with all the gratification of an epicure who
tastes a glass of wine which he thinks very old and very delicious. At
last the cup was emptied, she returned it, and lay down again. It is
impossible to give an idea of the gratitude this poor animal showed
whenever anything was done for her. The Empress was deeply attached to


After remaining about a week at the chateau of Saint-Cloud, his Majesty
set out, on the 2d of April, at 11 o'clock in the morning, to visit the
departments of the South; and as this journey was to begin at Bordeaux,
the Emperor requested the Empress to meet him there. This publicly
announced intention was simply a pretext, in order, to mislead the
curious, for we knew that we were going to the frontier of Spain.

The Emperor remained barely ten days there, and then left for Bayonne
alone, leaving the Empress at Bordeaux, and reaching Bayonne on the night
of the 14-15th of April, where her Majesty the Empress rejoined him two
or three days afterwards.

The Prince of Neuchatel and the grand marshal lodged at the chateau of
Marrac, the rest of their Majesties' suite lodged at Bayonne and its
suburbs, the guard camped in front of the chateau on a place called the
Parterre, and in three days all were comfortably located.

On the morning of the 15th of April, the Emperor had hardly recovered
from the fatigue of his journey, when he received the authorities of
Bayonne, who came to congratulate him, and questioned them, as was his
custom, most pointedly. His Majesty then set out to visit the fort and
fortifications, which occupied him till the evening, when he returned to
the Government palace, which he occupied temporarily while waiting till
the chateau of Marrac should be ready to receive him.

On his return to the palace the Emperor expected to find the Infant Don
Carlos, whom his brother Ferdinand, the Prince of the Asturias, had sent
to Bayonne to present his compliments to the Emperor; but he was informed
that the Infant was ill, and would not be able to come. The Emperor
immediately gave orders to send one of his physicians to attend upon him,
with a valet de chambre and several other persons; for the prince had
come to Bayonne without attendants, and incognito, attended only by a
military service composed of a few soldiers of the garrison. The Emperor
also ordered that this service should be replaced by one more suitable,
consisting of the Guard of Honor of Bayonne, and sent two or three times
each day to inquire the condition of the Infant, who it was freely
admitted in the palace was very ill.

On leaving the Government palace to take up his abode at Marrac, the
Emperor gave all necessary orders that it should be in readiness to
receive the King and Queen of Spain, who were expected at Bayonne the
last of the month; and expressly recommended that everything should be
done to render to the sovereigns of Spain all the honors due their
position. Just as the Emperor entered the chateau the sound of music was
heard, and the grand marshal entered to inform his Majesty that a large
company of the inhabitants in the costume of the country were assembled
before the gate of the chateau. The Emperor immediately went to the
window; and, at sight of him, seventeen persons (seven men and ten women)
began with inimitable grace a dance called 'la pamperruque', in which the
women kept time on tambourines, and the men with castanets, to an
orchestra composed of flutes and guitars. I went out of the castle to
view this scene more closely. The women wore short skirts of blue silk,
and pink stockings likewise embroidered in silver; their hair was tied
with ribbons, and they wore very broad black bracelets, that set off to
advantage the dazzling whiteness of their bare arms. The men wore
tight-fitting white breeches, with silk stockings and large epaulettes,
a loose vest of very fine woolen cloth ornamented with gold, and their
hair caught up in a net like the Spaniards.

His Majesty took great pleasure in witnessing this dance, which is
peculiar to the country and very ancient, which the custom of the country
has consecrated as a means of rendering homage to great personages. The
Emperor remained at the window until the 'pamperruque' was finished, and
then sent to compliment the dancers on their skill, and to express his
thanks to the inhabitants assembled in crowds at the gate.

His Majesty a few days afterward received from his Royal Highness, the
Prince of the Asturias, a letter, in which he announced that he intended
setting out from Irun, where he then was, at an early day, in order to
have the pleasure of making the acquaintance of his brother (it was thus
Prince Ferdinand called the Emperor); a pleasure which he had long
desired, and which he would at last enjoy if his good brother would allow
him. This letter was brought to the Emperor by one of the aides-de-camp
of the prince, who had accompanied him from Madrid, and preceded him to
Bayonne by only ten days. His Majesty could hardly believe what he read
and heard; and I, with several other persons, heard him exclaim, "What,
he is coming here? but you must be mistaken; he must be deceiving us;
that cannot be possible!" And I can certify that, in these words, the
Emperor manifested no pleasure at the announcement.

It was necessary, however, to make preparations to receive the prince,
since he was certainly coming; consequently the Prince of Neuchatel, the
Duke of Frioul, and a chamberlain of honor, were selected by his Majesty.
And the guard of honor received orders to accompany these gentlemen, and
meet the Prince of Spain just outside the town of Bayonne; the rank which
the Emperor recognized in Ferdinand not rendering it proper that the
escort should go as far as the frontier of the two empires. The Prince
made his entrance into Bayonne at noon, on the 20th of April. Lodgings
which would have been considered very inferior in Paris, but which were
elegant in Bayonne, had been prepared for him and his brother, the Infant
Don Carlos, who was already installed there. Prince Ferdinand made a
grimace on entering, but did not dare to complain aloud; and certainly it
would have been most improper for him to have done so, since it was not
the Emperor's fault that Bayonne possessed only one palace, which was at
this time reserved for the king, and, besides, this house, the handsomest
in the town, was large and perfectly new. Don Pedro de Cevallos, who
accompanied the prince, thought it horrible, and unfit for a royal
personage. It was the residence of the commissariat. An hour after
Ferdinand's arrival, the Emperor visited him. He was awaiting the
Emperor at the door, and held out his arms on his approach; they
embraced, and ascended to his apartments, where they remained about half
an hour, and when they separated the prince wore a somewhat anxious air.
His Majesty on his return charged the grand marshal to convey to the
prince and his brother, Don Carlos, the Duke of San-Carlos, the Duke of
Infantado, Don Pedro de Cevallos, and two or three other persons of the
suite, an invitation to dine with him; and the Emperor's carriages were
sent for these illustrious guests at the appointed hour, and they were
conveyed to the chateau. His Majesty descended to the foot of the
staircase to receive the prince; but this was the limit of his deference,
for not once during dinner did he give Prince Ferdinand, who was a king
at Madrid, the title of your majesty, nor even that of highness; nor did
he accompany him on his departure any farther than the first door of the
saloon; and he afterwards informed him, by a message, that he would have
no other rank than that of Prince of the Asturias until the arrival of
his father, King Charles. Orders were given at the same time to place on
duty at the house of the princes, the Bayonnaise guard of honor, with the
Imperial Guard in addition to a detachment of picked police.

On the 27th of April the Empress arrived from Bordeaux at seven o'clock
in the evening, having made no stay at Bayonne, where her arrival excited
little enthusiasm, as they were perhaps displeased that she did not stop
there. His Majesty received her with much tenderness, and showed much
solicitude as to the fatigue she must have experienced, since the roads
were so rough, and badly washed by the rains. In the evening the town
and chateau were illuminated.

Three days after, on the 30th, the King and Queen of Spain arrived at
Bayonne; and it is impossible to describe the homage which the Emperor
paid them. The Duke Charles de Plaisance went as far as Irun, and the
Prince de Neuchatel even to the banks of the Bidassoa, in order to pay
marked respect to their Catholic Majesties on the part of their powerful
friend; and the king and queen appeared to appreciate highly these marks
of consideration. A detachment of picked troops, superbly uniformed,
awaited them on the frontier, and served as their escort; the garrison of
Bayonne was put under arms, all the buildings of the port were decorated,
all the bells rang, and the batteries of both the citadel and the port
saluted with great salvos. The Prince of the Asturias and his brother,
hearing of the arrival of the king and queen, had left Bayonne in order
to meet their parents, when they encountered, a short distance from the
town, two or three grenadiers who had just left Vittoria, and related to
them the following occurrence:

When their Spanish Majesties entered Vittoria, they found that a
detachment of the Spanish body guards, who had accompanied the Prince of
the Asturias and were stationed in this town, had taken possession of the
palace which the king and queen were to occupy as they passed through,
and on the arrival of their Majesties had put themselves under arms. As
soon as the king perceived this, he said to them in a severe tone, "You
will understand why I ask you to quit my palace. You have failed in your
duty at Aranjuez. I have no need of your services, and I do not wish
them. Go!" These words, pronounced with an energy far from habitual to
Charles IV., met with no reply. The detachment of the guards retired;
and the king begged General Verdier to give him a French guard, much
grieved, he said, that he had not retained his brave riflemen, whose
colonel he still kept near him as captain of the guards.

This news could not give the Prince of the Asturias a high opinion of the
welcome his father had in store for him; and indeed he was very coolly
received, as I shall now relate.

The King and Queen of Spain, on alighting at the governmental palace,
found awaiting them the grand marshal, the Duke de Frioul, who escorted
them to their apartments, and presented to them General Count Reille, the
Emperor's aide-de-camp, performing the duties of governor of the palace;
M. d'Audenarde, equerry, with M. Dumanoir and M. de Baral, chamberlains
charged with the service of honor near their Majesties.

The grandees of Spain whom their Majesties found at Bayonne were the same
who had followed the Prince of the Asturias, and the sight of them, as
may well be imagined, was not pleasant to the king; and when the ceremony
of the kissing of the hand took place, every one perceived the painful
agitation of the unfortunate sovereigns. This ceremony, which consists
of falling on your knees and kissing the hand of the king and queen, was
performed in the deepest silence, as their Majesties spoke to no one but
the Count of Fuentes, who by chance was at Bayonne.

The king hurried over this ceremony, which fatigued him greatly, and
retired with the queen into his apartments, where the Prince of the
Asturias wished to follow them; but his father stopped him at the door,
and raising his arm as if to repulse him, said in a trembling tone,
"Prince, do you wish still to insult my gray hairs?" These words had,
it is said, the effect of a thunderbolt on the prince. He was overcome
by his feelings for a moment, and withdrew without uttering a word.

Very different was the reception their Majesties gave to the Prince de la

[Manuel Godoi, born at Badajos, 1767. A common soldier, he
became the queen's lover, and the virtual ruler of Spain; died in
Paris, 1851.]

when he joined them at Bayonne, and he might have been taken for the
nearest and dearest relative of their Majesties. All three wept freely
on meeting again; at least, this is what I was told by a person in the
service--the same, in fact, who gave me all the preceding details.

At five o'clock his Majesty the Emperor came to visit the King and Queen
of Spain; and during this interview, which was very long, the two
sovereigns informed his Majesty of the insults they had received, and the
dangers they had encountered during the past month. They complained
greatly of the ingratitude of so many men whom they had overwhelmed with
kindness, and above all of the guard which had so basely betrayed them.
"Your Majesty," said the king, "does not know what it is to be forced to
commiserate yourself on account of your son. May Heaven forbid that such
a misfortune should ever come to you! Mine is the cause of all that we
have suffered."

The Prince de la Paix had come to Bayonne accompanied by Colonel Martes,
aide-de-camp of Prince Murat, and a valet de chambre, the only servant
who had remained faithful to him. I had occasion to talk with this
devoted servant, who spoke very good French, having been reared near
Toulouse; and he told me that he had not succeeded in obtaining
permission to remain with his master during his captivity, and that this
unfortunate prince had suffered indescribable torments; that not a day
passed without some one entering his dungeon to tell him to prepare for
death, as he was to be executed that very evening or the next morning.
He also told me that the prisoners were left sometimes for thirty hours
without food; that he had only a bed of straw, no linen, no books, and no
communication with the outside world; and that when he came out of his
dungeon to be sent to Colonel Marts, he presented a horrible appearance,
with his long beard, and emaciated frame, the result of mental distress
and insufficient food. He had worn the same shirt for a month, as he had
never been able to prevail on his captors to give him others; and his
eyes had been so long unaccustomed to the light that he was obliged to
close them, and felt oppressed in the open air.

On the road from Bayonne, there was handed to the prince a letter from
the king and queen which was stained with tears. The prince said to his
valet de chambre after reading it, "These are the first consoling words I
have received in a month, for every one has abandoned me except my
excellent masters. The body guards, who have betrayed and sold their
king, will also betray and sell his son; and as for myself, I hope for
nothing, except to be permitted to find an asylum in France for my
children and myself." M. Marts having shown him newspapers in which it
was stated that the prince possessed a fortune of five hundred million,
he exclaimed vehemently that it was an atrocious calumny, and he defied
his most cruel enemies to prove that.

As we have seen, their Majesties had not a numerous suite; but they were,
notwithstanding, followed by baggage-wagons filled with furniture, goods,
and valuable articles, and though their carriages were old-fashioned,
they found them very comfortable--especially the king, who was much
embarrassed the day after his arrival at Bayonne, when, having been
invited to dine with the Emperor, it was necessary to enter a modern
carriage with two steps. He did not dare to put his foot on the frail
things, which he feared would break under his weight; and the oscillating
movement of the body of the carriage made him terribly afraid that it
would upset.

At the table I had an opportunity of observing at my leisure the king and
queen. The king was of medium height, and though not strictly handsome
had a pleasant face. His nose was very long, his voice high-pitched and
disagreeable; and he walked with a mincing air in which there was no
majesty, but this, however, I attributed to the gout. He ate heartily of
everything offered him, except vegetables, which he never ate, saying
that grass was good only for cattle; and drank only water, having it
served in two carafes, one containing ice, and poured from both at the
same time. The Emperor gave orders that special attention should be paid
to the dinner, knowing that the king was somewhat of an epicure. He
praised in high terms the French cooking, which he seemed to find much to
his taste; for as each dish was served him, he would say, "Louise, take
some of that, it is good;" which greatly amused the Emperor, whose
abstemiousness is well known.

The queen was fat and short, dressed very badly, and had no style or
grace; her complexion was very florid, and her expression harsh and
severe. She held her head high, spoke very loud, in tones still more
brusque and piercing than those of her husband; but it is generally
conceded that she had more character and better manners than he.

Before dinner that day there was some conversation on the subject of
dress; and the Empress offered the services of M. Duplan, her
hairdresser, in order to give her ladies some lessons in the French
toilet. Her proposition was accepted; and the queen came out soon after
from the hands of M. Duplan, better dressed, no doubt, and her hair
better arranged, but not beautified, however, for the talent of the
hairdresser could not go as far as that.

The Prince of the Asturias, now King Ferdinand VII., made an unpleasant
impression on all, with his heavy step and careworn air, and rarely ever

Their Spanish Majesties as before brought with them the Prince de la
Paix, who had not been invited by the Emperor, and whom for this reason
the usher on duty detained outside of the dining-hall. But as they were
about to be seated, the king perceived that the prince was absent. "And
Manuel," said he quickly to the Emperor, "and Manuel, Sire!" Whereupon
the Emperor, smiling, gave the signal, and Don Manuel Godoi was
introduced. I was told that he had been a very handsome man; but he
showed no signs of this, which was perhaps owing to the bad treatment he
had undergone.

After the abdication of the princes, the king and queen, the Queen of
Etruria, and the Infant Don Franciso, left Bayonne for Fontainebleau,
which place the Emperor had selected as their residence while waiting
until the chateau of Compiegne should be put in a condition to make them
comfortable. The Prince of the Asturias left the same day, with his
brother Don Carlos and his uncle Don Antonio, for the estates of Valencay
belonging to the Prince of Benevento. They published, while passing
through Bordeaux, a proclamation to the Spanish people, in which they
confirmed the transmission of all their rights to the Emperor Napoleon.

Thus King Charles, freed from a throne which he had always regarded as a
heavy burden, could hereafter give himself up unreservedly in retirement
to his favorite pursuits. In all the world he cared only for the Prince
de la Paix, confessors, watches, and music; and the throne was nothing to
him. After what had passed, the Prince de la Paix could not return to
Spain; and the king would never have consented to be separated from him,
even if the remembrance of the insults which he had personally received
had not been powerful enough to disgust him with his kingdom. He much
preferred the life of a private individual, and could not be happier than
when allowed without interruption to indulge his simple and tranquil
tastes. On his arrival at the chateau of Fontainebleau, he found there
M. Remusat, the first chamberlain; M. de Caqueray, officer of the hunt;
M. de Lugay, prefect of the palace; and a household already installed.
Mesdames de la Rochefoucault, Duchatel, and de Lugay had been selected by
the Emperor for the service of honor near the queen.

The King of Spain remained at Fontainebleau only until the chateau of
Compiegne could be repaired, and as he soon found the climate of this
part of France too cold for his health, went, at the end of a few months,
to Marseilles with the Queen of Etruria, the Infant Don Francisco, and
the Prince de la Paix. In 1811 he left France for Italy, finding his
health still bad at Marseilles, and chose Rome as his residence.

I spoke above of the fondness of the King of Spain for watches. I have
been told that while at Fontainebleau, he had half a dozen of his watches
worn by his valet de chambre, and wore as many himself, giving as a
reason that pocket watches lose time by not being carried. I have also
heard that he kept his confessor always near him, in the antechamber, or
in the room in front of that in which he worked, and that when he wished
to speak to him he whistled, exactly as one would whistle for a dog. The
confessor never failed to respond promptly to this royal call, and
followed his penitent into the embrasure of a window, in which improvised
confessional the king divulged what he had on his conscience, received
absolution, and sent back the priest until he felt himself obliged to
whistle for him again.

When the health of the king, enfeebled by age and gout, no longer allowed
him to devote himself to the pleasures of the chase, he began playing on
the violin more than ever before, in order, he said, to perfect himself
in it. This was beginning rather late. As is well known, he had for his
first violin teacher the celebrated Alexander Boucher, with whom he
greatly enjoyed playing; but he had a mania for beginning first without
paying any attention to the measure; and if M. Boucher made any
observation in regard to this, his Majesty would reply with the greatest
coolness, "Monsieur, it seems to me that it is not my place to wait for

Between the departure of the royal family and the arrival of Joseph, King
of Naples, the time was passed in reviews and military fetes, which the
Emperor frequently honored with his presence. The 7th of June, King
Joseph arrived at Bayonne, where it had been known long in advance that
his brother had summoned him to exchange his crown of Naples for that of

The evening of Joseph's arrival, the Emperor invited the members of the
Spanish Junta, who for fifteen days had been arriving at Bayonne from all
corners of the kingdom, to assemble at the chateau of Marrac, and
congratulate the new king. The deputies accepted this somewhat sudden
invitation without having time to concert together previously any course
of action; and on their arrival at Marrac, the Emperor presented to them
their sovereign, whom they acknowledged, with the exception of some
opposition on the part of the Duke of Infantado, in the name of the
grandees of Spain. The deputations from the Council of Castile, from the
Inquisition, and from the army, etc., submitted most readily. A few days
after, the king formed his ministry, in which all were astonished to find
M. de Cevallos, who had accompanied the Prince of the Asturias to
Bayonne, and had made such a parade of undying attachment to the person
of the one whom he called his unfortunate master; while the Duke of
Infantado, who had opposed to the utmost any recognition of the foreign
monarch, was appointed Captain of the Guard. The king then left for
Madrid, after appointing the Grand Duke of Berg lieutenant-general of the


At this time it was learned at Bayonne that M. de Belloy, Archbishop of
Paris, had just died of a cold, contracted at the age of more than
ninety-eight years. The day after this sad news arrived, the Emperor,
who was sincerely grieved, was dilating upon the great and good qualities
of this venerable prelate, and said that having one day thoughtlessly
remarked to M. de Belloy, then already more than ninety-six years old,
that he would live a century, the good old archbishop had exclaimed,
smiling, "Why, does your Majesty think that I have no more than four
years to live?"

I remember that one of the persons who was present at the Emperor's levee
related the following anecdote concerning M. de Belloy, which seemed to
excite the Emperor's respect and admiration.

The wife of the hangman of Genoa gave birth to a daughter, who could not
be baptized because no one would act as godfather. In vain the father
begged and entreated the few persons whom he knew, in vain he even
offered money; that was an impossibility. The poor child had
consequently remained unbaptized four or five months, though fortunately
her health gave no cause for uneasiness. At last some one mentioned this
singular condition of affairs to the archbishop, who listened to the
story with much interest, inquired why he had not been informed earlier,
and having given orders that the child should be instantly brought to
him, baptized her in his palace, and was himself her godfather.

At the beginning of July the Grand Duke of Berg returned from Spain,
fatigued, ill, and out of humor. He remained there only two or three
days, and held each day an interview with his Majesty, who seemed little
better satisfied with the grand duke than the grand duke was with him,
and left afterwards for the springs of Bareges.

Their Majesties, the Emperor and Empress, left the chateau of Marrac the
20th of July, at six o'clock in the evening. This journey of the Emperor
was one of those which cost the largest number of snuff-boxes set in
diamonds, for his Majesty was not economical with them.

Their Majesties arrived at Pau on the 22d, at ten o'clock in the morning,
and alighted at the chateau of Gelos, situated about a quarter of a
league from the birthplace of the good Henry IV., on the bank of the
river. The day was spent in receptions and horseback excursions, on one
of which the Emperor visited the chateau in which the first king of the
house of Bourbon was reared, and showed how much this visit interested
him, by prolonging it until the dinner-hour.

On the border of the department of the Hautes-Pyrenees, and exactly in
the most desolate and miserable part, was erected an arch of triumph,
which seemed a miracle fallen from heaven in the midst of those plains
uncultivated and burned up by the sun. A guard of honor awaited their
Majesties, ranged around this rural monument, at their head an old
marshal of the camp, M. de Noe, more than eighty years of age. This
worthy old soldier immediately took his place by the side of the
carriage, and as cavalry escort remained on horseback for a day and two
nights without showing the least fatigue.

As we continued our journey, we saw, on the plateau of a small mountain,
a stone pyramid forty or fifty feet high, its four sides covered with
inscriptions to the praise of their Majesties. About thirty children
dressed as mamelukes seemed to guard this monument, which recalled to the
Emperor glorious memories. The moment their Majesties appeared,
balladeers, or dancers, of the country emerged from a neighboring wood,
dressed in the most picturesque costumes, bearing banners of different
colors, and reproducing with remarkable agility and vigor the traditional
dance of the mountaineers of the south.

Near the town of Tarbes was a sham mountain planted with firs, which
opened to let the cortege pass through, surmounted by an imperial eagle
suspended in the air, and holding a banner on which was inscribed--
"He will open our Pyrenees."

On his arrival at Tarbes, the Emperor immediately mounted his horse to
pay a visit to the Grand Duke of Berg, who was ill in one of the suburbs.
We left next day without visiting Bareges and Bagneres, where the most
brilliant preparations had been made to receive their Majesties.

As the Emperor passed through Agen, there was presented to him a brave
fellow named Printemps, over a hundred years old, who had served under
Louis XIV., XV., and XVI., and who, although bending beneath the weight
of many years and burdens, finding himself in the presence of the
Emperor, gently pushed aside two of his grandsons by whom he had been
supported, and exclaimed almost angrily that he could go very well alone.
His Majesty, who was much touched, met him half-way, and most kindly bent
over the old centenarian, who on his knees, his white head uncovered, and
his eyes full of tears, said in trembling tones, "Ah, Sire, I was afraid
I should die without seeing you." The Emperor assisted him to rise, and
conducted him to a chair, in which he placed him with his own hands, and
seated himself beside him on another, which he made signs to hand him.
"I am glad to see you, my dear Printemps, very glad. You have heard from
me lately?" (His Majesty had given this brave man a pension, which his
wife was to inherit after his death.) Printemps put his hand on his
heart, "Yes, I have heard from you." The Emperor took pleasure in making
him speak of his campaigns, and bade him farewell after a long
conversation, handing him at the same time a gift of fifty napoleons.

There was also presented to his Majesty a soldier born at Agen, who had
lost his sight in consequence of the campaign in Egypt. The Emperor gave
him three hundred francs, and promised him a pension, which was
afterwards sent him.

The day after their arrival at Saint-Cloud, the Emperor and Empress went
to Paris in order to be present at the fetes of the 15th of August, which
it is useless to say were magnificent. As soon as he entered the
Tuileries, the Emperor hastened through the chateau to examine the
repairs and improvements which had been made during his absence, and, as
was his habit, criticised more than he praised all that he saw. Looking
out of the hall of the marshals, he demanded of M. de Fleurieu, governor
of the palace, why the top of the arch of triumph on the Carrousel was
covered with a cloth; and his Majesty was told that it was because all
the arrangements had not yet been made for placing his statue in the
chariot to which were attached the Corinthian horses, and also because
the two Victories who were to guide the four horses were not yet
completed. "What!" vehemently exclaimed the Emperor; "but I will not
allow that! I said nothing about it! I did not order it!" Then turning
to M. Fontaine, he continued, "Monsieur Fontaine, was my statue in the
design which was presented to you?"--"No, Sire, it was that of the god
Mars."--"Well, why have you put me in the place of the god of
war?"--"Sire, it was not I, but M. the director-general of the museum."

"The director-general was wrong," interrupted the Emperor impatiently.
"I wish this statue removed; do you hear, Monsieur Fontaine? I wish it
taken away; it is most unsuitable. What! shall I erect statues to
myself! Let the chariot and the Victories be finished; but let the
chariot let the chariot remain empty." The order was executed; and the
statue of the Emperor was taken down and placed in the orangery, and is
perhaps still there. It was made of gilded lead, was a fine piece of
work, and a most excellent likeness.

The Sunday following the Emperor's arrival, his Majesty received at the
Tuileries the Persian ambassador, Asker-Khan; M. Jaubert accompanied him,
and acted as interpreter. This savant, learned in Oriental matters, had
by the Emperor's orders received his excellency on the frontiers of
France, in company with M. Outrey, vice-consul of France at Bagdad.
Later his excellency had a second audience, which took place in state at
the palace of Saint-Cloud.

The ambassador was a very handsome man, tall, with regular features, and
a noble and attractive countenance; his manners were polished and
elegant, especially towards ladies, with even something of French
gallantry. His suite, composed of select personages all magnificently
dressed, comprised, on his departure from Erzeroum, more than three
hundred persons; but the innumerable difficulties encountered on the
journey compelled his excellency to dismiss a large part of his retinue,
and, though thus reduced, this suite was notwithstanding one of the most
numerous ever brought by an ambassador into France. The ambassador and
suite were lodged in the rue de Frejus, in the residence formerly
occupied by Mademoiselle de Conti.

The presents which he brought to the Emperor in the name of his sovereign
were of great value, comprising more than eighty cashmere shawls of all
kinds; a great quantity of fine pearls of various sizes, a few of them
very large; an Eastern bridle, the curb adorned with pearls, turquoise,
emeralds, etc.; and finally the sword of Tamerlane, and that of
Thamas-Kouli-Khan, the former covered with pearls and precious stones,
the second very simply mounted, both having Indian blades of fabulous
value with arabesques of embossed gold.

I took pleasure at the time in inquiring some particulars about this
ambassador. His character was very attractive; and he showed much
consideration and regard for every one who visited him, giving the ladies
attar of roses, the men tobacco, perfumes, and pipes. He took much
pleasure in comparing French jewels with those he had brought from his
own country, and even carried his gallantry so far as to propose to the
ladies certain exchanges, always greatly to their advantage; and a
refusal of these proposals wounded him deeply. When a pretty woman
entered his residence he smiled at first, and heard her speak in a kind
of silent ecstasy; he then devoted his attention to seating her, placed
under her feet cushions and carpets of cashmere (for he had only this
material about him). Even his clothing and bed-coverings were of an
exceedingly fine quality of cashmere. Asker-Khan did not scruple to wash
his face, his beard, and hands in the presence of everybody, seating
himself for this operation in front of a slave, who presented to him on
his knees a porcelain ewer.

The ambassador had a decided taste for the sciences and arts, and was
himself a very learned man. Messieurs Dubois and Loyseau conducted near
his residence an institution which he often visited, especially
preferring to be present at the classes in experimental physics; and the
questions which he propounded by means of his interpreter evinced on his
part a very extensive knowledge of the phenomena of electricity. Those
who traded in curiosities and objects of art liked him exceedingly, since
he bought their wares without much bargaining. However, on one occasion
he wished to purchase a telescope, and sent for a famous optician, who
seized the opportunity to charge him an enormous price. But Asker-Khan
having examined the instrument, with which he was much pleased, said to
the optician, "You have given me your long price, now give me your short

He admired above all the printed calicoes of the manufactures of Jouy,
the texture, designs, and colors of which he thought even superior to
cashmere; and bought several robes to send to Persia as models.

On the day of the Emperor's fete, his Excellency gave in the garden of
his residence an entertainment in the Eastern style, at which the Persian
musicians attached to the embassy executed warlike pieces, astonishing
both for vigor and originality. There were also artificial fireworks,
conspicuous among which were the arms of the Sufi, on which were
represented most ingeniously the cipher of Napoleon.

His Excellency visited the Imperial library, M. Jaubert serving as
interpreter; and the ambassador was overcome with admiration on seeing
the order in which this immense collection of books was kept. He
remained half an hour in the hall of the manuscripts, which he thought
very handsome, and recognized several as being copied by writers of much
renown in Persia. A copy of the Koran struck him most of all; and he
said, while admiring it, that there was not a man in Persia who would not
sell his children to acquire such a treasure.

On leaving, the library, Asker-Khan presented his compliments to the
librarians, and promised to enrich the collection by several precious
manuscripts which he had brought from his own country.

A few days after his presentation, the ambassador went to visit the
Museum, and was much impressed by a portrait of his master, the King of
Persia; and could not sufficiently express his joy and gratitude when
several copies of this picture were presented to him. The historical
pictures, especially the battle-scenes, then engrossed his attention
completely; and he remained at least a quarter of an hour in front of the
one representing the surrender of the city of Vienna.

Having arrived at the end of the gallery of Apollo, Asker-Khan seated
himself to rest, asked for a pipe, and indulged in a smoke; and when he
had finished, rose, and seeing around him many ladies whom curiosity had
attracted, paid them, through M. Jaubert, exceedingly flattering
compliments. Then leaving the Museum, his Excellency went to promenade
in the garden of the Tuileries, where he was soon followed by an immense
crowd. On that day his Excellency bestowed on Prince de Benevento, in
the name of his sovereign, the Grand Order of the Sun, a magnificent
decoration consisting of a diamond sun attached to a cordon of red cloth
covered with pearls.

Asker-Khan made a greater impression at Paris than the Turkish
ambassador. He was generous and more gallant, paid his court with more
address, and conformed more readily to French customs and manners. The
Turk was irascible, austere, and irritable, while the Persian was fond of
and well understood a joke. One day, however, he became red with anger,
and it must be admitted not without good reason.

At a concert given in the apartments of the Empress Josephine,
Asker-Khan, whom the music evidently did not entertain very highly, at
first applauded by ecstatic gestures and rolling his eyes in admiration,
until at last nature overcame politeness, and the ambassador fell sound
asleep. His Excellency's position was not the best for sleeping,
however, as he was standing with his back against the wall, with his
feet braced against a sofa on which a lady was seated. It occurred to
some of the officers of the palace that it would be a good joke to take
away suddenly this point of support, which they accomplished with all
ease by simply beginning a conversation with the lady on the sofa, who
rising suddenly, the seat slipped over the floor; his Excellency's feet
followed this movement, and the ambassador, suddenly deprived of the
weight which had balanced him, extended his length on the floor. On
this rude awakening, he tried to stop himself in his fall by clutching
at his neighbors, the furniture, and the curtains, uttering at the same
time frightful screams. The officers who had played this cruel joke upon
him begged him, with the most ridiculously serious air, to place himself
on a stationary chair in order to avoid the recurrence of such an
accident; while the lady who had been made the accomplice in this
practical joke, with much difficulty stifled her laughter, and his
Excellency was consumed with an anger which he could express only in
looks and gestures.

Another adventure of Asker-Khan's was long a subject of conversation, and
furnished much amusement. Having felt unwell for several days, he
thought that French medicine might cure him more quickly than Persian; so
he sent for M. Bourdois, a most skillful physician whose name he well
knew, having taken care to acquaint himself with all our celebrities of
every kind. The ambassador's orders were promptly executed; but by a
singular mistake it was not Dr. Bourdois who was requested to visit
Asker-Khan, but the president of the Court of Accounts, M. Marbois, who
was much astonished at the honor the Persian ambassador did him, not
being able to comprehend what connection there could be between them.
Nevertheless, he repaired promptly to Asker-Khan, who could scarcely
believe that the severe costume of the president of the Court of Accounts
was that of a physician. No sooner had M. Marbois entered than the
ambassador held out his hand and stuck out his tongue, regarding him very
attentively. M. Marbois was a little surprised at this welcome; but
thinking it was doubtless the Oriental manner of saluting magistrates, he
bowed profoundly, and timidly pressed the hand presented to him, and he
was in this respectful position when four of the servants of the
ambassador brought a vessel with unequivocal signs. M. Marbois
recognized the use of it with a surprise and indignation that could not
be expressed, and drew back angrily, inquiring what all this meant.
Hearing himself called doctor, "What!" cried he, "M. le Docteur!"--
"Why; yes; le Docteur Bourdois!" M. Marbois was enlightened. The
similarity between the sound of his name and that of the doctor had
exposed him to this disagreeable visit.


The day preceding the Emperor's fete, or the day following, the colossal
bronze statue which was to be placed on the monument in the Place Vendome
was removed from the studio of M. Launay. The brewers of the Faubourg
Saint-Antoine offered their handsomest horses to draw the chariot on
which the statue was carried, and twelve were selected, one from each
brewer; and as their masters requested the privilege of riding them,
nothing could be more singular than this cortege, which arrived on the
Place Vendome at five o'clock in the evening, followed by an immense
crowd, amid cries of "Vive l'Empereur." A few days before his Majesty's
departure for Erfurt, the Emperor with the Empress and their households
played prisoner's base for the last time. It was in the evening; and
footmen bore lighted torches, and followed the players when they went
beyond the reach of the light. The Emperor fell once while trying to
catch the Empress, and was taken prisoner; but he soon broke bounds and
began to run again, and when he was free, carried off Josephine in spite
of the protests of the players; and thus ended the last game of
prisoner's base that I ever saw the Emperor play.

It had been decided that the Emperor Alexander and the Emperor Napoleon
should meet at Erfurt on the 27th of September; and most of the
sovereigns forming the Confederation of the Rhine had been invited to be
present at this interview, which it was intended should be both
magnificent and imposing. Consequently the Duke of Frioul, grand marshal
of the palace, sent M. de Canouville, marshal of lodgings of the palace,
M. de Beausset, prefect of the palace, and two quartermasters to prepare
at Erfurt lodgings for all these illustrious visitors, and to organize
the grand marshal's service.

The government palace was chosen for the Emperor Napoleon's lodgings, as
on account of its size it perfectly suited the Emperor's intention of
holding his court there; for the Emperor Alexander, the residence of M.
Triebel was prepared, the handsomest in the town; and for S. A. L, the
Grand Duke Constantine, that of Senator Remann. Other residences were
reserved for the Princes of the Confederation and the persons of their
suite; and a detachment of all branches of the service of the Imperial
household was established in each of these different lodgings.

There had been sent from the storehouse of the crown a large quantity of
magnificent furniture, carpets and tapestry, both Gobelin and la
Savonnerie; bronzes, lusters, candelabras, girondoles, Sevres china; in
fine, everything which could contribute to the luxurious furnishing of
the two Imperial palaces, and those which were to be occupied by the
other sovereigns; and a crowd of workmen came from Paris. General
Oudinot was appointed Governor of Erfurt, and had under his orders the
First regiment of hussars, the Sixth of cuirassiers, and the Seventeenth
of light infantry, which the major-general had appointed to compose the
garrison. Twenty select police, with a battalion chosen from the finest
grenadiers of the guard, were put on duty at the Imperial palaces.

The Emperor, who sought by every means to render this interview at Erfurt
as agreeable as possible to the sovereigns for whom he had conceived an
affection at Tilsit, wished to have the masterpieces of the French stage
played in their honor. This was the amusement most worthy of them that
he could procure, so he gave orders that the theater should be
embellished and repaired. M. Dazincourt was appointed director of the
theater, and set out from Paris with Messieurs Talma, Lafon, Saint-Prix,
Damas, Despres, Varennes, Lacave; Mesdames Duchesnoir, Raucourt, Talma,
Bourgoin, Rose Dupuis, Grosand, and Patrat; and everything was in order
before the arrival of the sovereigns.

Napoleon disliked Madame Talma exceedingly, although she displayed most
remarkable talent, and this aversion was well known, although I could
never discover the cause; and no one was willing to be first to place her
name on the list of those selected to go to Erfurt, but M. Talma made so
many entreaties that at last consent was given. And then occurred what
everybody except M. Talma and his wife had foreseen, that the Emperor,
having seen her play once, was much provoked that she had been allowed to
come, and had her name struck from the list.

Mademoiselle Bourgoin, who was at that time young and extremely pretty,
had at first more success; but it was necessary, in order to accomplish
this, that she should conduct herself differently from Madame Talma. As
soon as she appeared at the theater of Erfurt she excited the admiration,
and became the object of the attentions, of all the illustrious
spectators; and this marked preference gave rise to jealousies, which
delighted her greatly, and which she increased to the utmost of her
ability by every means in her power. When she was not playing, she took
her seat in the theater magnificently dressed, whereupon all looks were
bent on her, and distracted from the stage, to the very great displeasure
of the actors, until the Emperor at last perceived these frequent
distractions, and put an end to them by forbidding Mademoiselle Bourgoin
to appear in the theater except on the stage.

This measure, which was very wisely taken by his Majesty, put him in the
bad graces of Mademoiselle Bourgoin; and another incident added still
more to the displeasure of the actress. The two sovereigns attended the
theater together almost every evening, and the Emperor Alexander thought
Mademoiselle Bourgoin charming. She was aware of this, and tried by
every means to increase the monarch's devotion. One day at last the
amorous Czar confided to the Emperor his feelings for Mademoiselle
Bourgoin. "I do not advise you to make any advances," said the Emperor
Napoleon. "You think that she would refuse me?"--"Oh, no; but to-morrow
is the day for the post, and in five days all Paris would know all about
your Majesty from head to foot." These words singularly cooled the ardor
of the autocrat, who thanked the Emperor for his advice, and said to him,
"But from the manner in which your Majesty speaks, I should be tempted to
believe that you bear this charming actress some ill-will."--"No, in
truth," replied the Emperor, "I do not know anything about her." This
conversation took place in his bedroom during the toilet. Alexander left
his Majesty perfectly convinced, and Mademoiselle Bourgoin ceased her
ogling and her assurance.

His Majesty made his entrance into Erfurt on the morning of the 27th of
September, 1808. The King of Saxony, who had arrived first, followed by
the Count de Marcolini, the Count de Haag, and the Count de Boze, awaited
the Emperor at the foot of the stairs in the governor's palace; after
them came the members of the Regency and the municipality of Erfurt, who
congratulated him in the usual form. After a short rest, the Emperor
mounted his horse, and left Erfurt by the gate of Weimar, making, in
passing, a visit to the King of Saxony, and found outside the city the
whole garrison arranged in line of battle,--the grenadiers of the guard
commanded by M. d'Arquies; the First regiment of hussars by M. de Juniac;
the Seventeenth infantry by M. de Cabannes-Puymisson; and the Sixth
cuirassiers, the finest body of men imaginable, by Colonel
d'Haugeranville. The Emperor reviewed these troops, ordered a change in
some dispositions, and then continued on his way to meet the Emperor

The latter had set out from Saint Petersburg on the 17th of September;
and the King and Queen of Prussia awaited him at Koenigsberg, where he
arrived on the 18th. The Duke of Montebello had the honor of receiving
him at Bromberg amid a salute of twenty-one cannon. Alighting from his
carriage, the Emperor Alexander mounted his horse, accompanied by the
Marshals of the Empire, Soult, Duke of Dalmatia, and Lannes, Duke of
Montebello, and set off at a gallop to meet the Nansouty division, which
awaited him arranged in line of battle. He was welcomed by a new salute,
and by oft repeated cries of "Long live the Emperor Alexander." The
monarch, while reviewing the different corps which formed this fine
division, said to the officers, "I think it a great honor, messieurs, to
be amongst such brave men and splendid soldiers."

By orders of Marshal Soult, who simply executed those given by Napoleon,
relays of the post had been arranged on all the roads which the Monarch
of the North would pass over, and they were forbidden to receive any
compensation. At each relay were escorts of dragoons or light cavalry,
who rendered military honors to the Czar as he passed.

After having dined with the generals of the Nansouty division, the
Emperor of Russia re-entered his carriage, a barouche with two seats, and
seated the Duke of Montebello beside him, who afterwards told me with how
many marks of esteem and kind feeling the Emperor overwhelmed him during
the journey, even arranging the marshal's cloak around his shoulders
while he was asleep.

His Imperial Russian Majesty arrived at Weimar the evening of the 26th,
and next day continued his journey to Erfurt, escorted by Marshal Soult,
his staff, and the superior officers of the Nansouty division, who had
not left him since he had started from Bromberg, and met Napoleon a
league and a half from Erfurt, to which place the latter had come on
horseback for this purpose.

The moment the Czar perceived the Emperor, he left his carriage, and
advanced towards his Majesty, who had also alighted from his horse. They
embraced each other with the affection of two college friends who meet
again after a long absence; then both mounted their horses, as did also
the Grand Duke Constantine, and passing at a gallop in front of the
regiments, all of which presented arms at their approach, entered the
town, while the troops, with an immense crowd collected from twenty
leagues around, made the air resound with their acclamations. The
Emperor of Russia wore on entering Erfurt the grand decoration of the
Legion of Honor, and the Emperor of the French that of Saint Andrew of
Russia; and the two sovereigns during their stay continued to show each
other these marks of mutual deference, and it was also remarked that in
his palace the Emperor always gave the right to Alexander. On the
evening of his arrival, by his Majesty's invitation, Alexander gave the
countersign to the grand marshal, and it was afterwards given alternately
by the two sovereigns.

They went first to the palace of Russia, where they remained an hour; and
later, when Alexander came to return the visit of the Emperor, he
received him at the foot of the staircase, and accompanied him when he
left as far as the entrance of the grand hall. At six o'clock the two
sovereigns dined at his Majesty's residence, and it was the same each
day. At nine o'clock the Emperor escorted the Emperor of Russia to his
palace; and they then held a private conversation, which continued more
than an hour, and in the evening the whole city was illuminated. The day
after his arrival the Emperor received at his levee the officers of the
Czar's household, and granted them the grand entry during the rest of
their Stay.

The two sovereigns gave to each other proofs of the most sincere
friendship and most confidential intimacy. The Emperor Alexander almost
every morning entered his Majesty's bedroom, and conversed freely with
him. One day he was examining the Emperor's dressing-case in silver
gilt, which cost six thousand francs, and was most conveniently arranged
and beautifully carved by the goldsmith Biennais, and admired it
exceedingly. As soon as he had gone, the Emperor ordered me to have a
dressing-case sent to the Czar's palace exactly similar to that which had
just been received from Paris.

Another time the Emperor Alexander remarked on the elegance and
durability of his Majesty's iron bedstead; and the very next day by his
Majesty's orders, conveyed by me, an exactly similar bed was set up in
the room of the Emperor of Russia, who was delighted with these polite
attentions, and two days after, as an evidence of his satisfaction,
ordered M. de Remusat to hand me two handsome diamond rings.

The Czar one day made his toilet in the Emperor's room, and I assisted.
I took from the Emperor's linen a white cravat and cambric handkerchief,
which I handed him, and for which he thanked me most graciously; he was
an exceedingly gentle, good, amiable prince, and extremely polite.

There was an exchange of presents between these illustrious sovereigns.
Alexander made the Emperor a present of three superb pelisses of
martin-sable, one of which the Emperor gave to his sister Pauline,
another to the Princess de Ponte-Corvo; and the third he had lined with
green velvet and ornamented with gold lace, and it was this cloak which
he constantly wore in Russia. The history of the one which I carried
from him to the Princess Pauline is singular enough to be related here,
although it may have been already told.

The Princess Pauline showed much pleasure in receiving the Emperor's
present, and enjoyed displaying her cloak for the admiration of the
household. One day, when she was in the midst of a circle of ladies, to
whom she was dilating on the quality and excellence of this fur, M. de
Canouville arrived, and the princess asked his opinion of the present she
had received from the Emperor. The handsome colonel not appearing as
much struck with admiration as she expected, she was somewhat piqued, and
exclaimed, "What, monsieur, you do not think it exquisite?"--
"No, madame."--"In order to punish you I wish you to keep this cloak; I
give it to you, and require you to wear it; I wish it, you understand."
It is probable that there had been some disagreement between her Imperial
highness and her protege, and the princess had seized the first means of
establishing peace; but however that may be, M. de Canouville needed
little entreaty, and the rich fur was carried to his house. A few days
after, while the Emperor was holding a review on the Place du Carrousel,
M, de Canouville appeared on an unruly horse, which he had great
difficulty in controlling. This caused some confusion, and attracted his
Majesty's attention, who, glancing at M. de Canouville, saw the cloak
which he had given his sister metamorphosed into a hussar's cape. The
Emperor had great difficulty in controlling his anger. "M. de
Canouville," he cried, in a voice of thunder, "your horse is young, and
his blood is too warm; you will go and cool it in Russia." Three days
after M. de Canouville had left Paris.


The Emperor Alexander never tired of showing his regard for actors by
presents and compliments; and as for actresses, I have told before how
far he would have gone with one of them if Napoleon had not deterred.
him. Each day the Grand Duke Constantine got up parties of pleasure with
Murat and other distinguished persons, at which no expense was spared,
and some of these ladies did the honors. And what furs and diamonds they
carried away from Erfurt! The two Emperors were not ignorant of all
this, and were much amused thereby; and it was the favorite subject of
conversation in the morning. Constantine had conceived an especial
affection for King Jerome; the king even carried his affection so far as
to 'tutoy' him, and wished him to do the same. "Is it because I am a
king," he said one day, "that you are afraid to say thou to me? Come,
now, is there any need of formality between friends?" They performed all
sorts of college pranks together, even running through the streets at
night, knocking and ringing at every door, much delighted when they had
waked up some honest bourgeois. As the Emperor was leaving, King Jerome
said to the grand duke: "Come, tell me what you wish me to send you from
Paris."--"Nothing whatever," replied the grand duke; "your brother has
presented me with a magnificent sword; I am satisfied, and desire nothing
more."--"But I wish to send you something, so tell me what would give you
pleasure."--"Well, send me six demoiselles from the Palais Royal."

The play at Erfurt usually began at seven o'clock; but the two Emperors,
who always came together, never arrived till half-past seven. At their
entrance, all the pit of kings rose to do them honor, and the first piece
immediately commenced.

At the representation of Cinna, the Emperor feared that the Czar, who was
placed by his side in a box facing the stage, and on the first tier,
might not hear very well, as he was somewhat deaf; and consequently gave
orders to M. de Remusat, first chamberlain, that a platform should be
raised on the floor of the orchestra, and armchairs placed there for
Alexander and himself; and on the right and left four handsomely
decorated chairs for the King of Saxony and the other sovereigns of the
Confederation, while the princes took possession of the box abandoned by
their Majesties. By this arrangement the two Emperors found themselves
in such a conspicuous position that it was impossible for them to make a
movement without being seen by every one. On the 3d of October AEdipus
was presented. "All the sovereigns," as the Emperor called them, were
present at this representation; and just as the actor pronounced these
words in the first scene:

"The friendship of a great man is a gift from the gods:"

the Czar arose, and held out his hand with much grace to the Emperor; and
immediately acclamations, which the presence of the sovereigns could not
restrain, burst forth from every part of the hall.

On the evening of this same day I prepared the Emperor for bed as usual.
All the doors which opened into his sleeping-room were carefully closed,
as well as the shutters and windows; and there was consequently no means
of entering his Majesty's room except through the chamber in which I
slept with Roustan, and a sentinel was also stationed at the foot of the
staircase. Every night I slept very calmly, knowing that it was
impossible any one could reach Napoleon without waking me; but that
night, about two o'clock, while I was sleeping soundly, a strange noise
woke me with a start. I rubbed my eyes, and listened with the greatest
attention, and, hearing nothing whatever, thought this noise the illusion
of a dream, and was just dropping to sleep again, when my ear was struck
by low, smothered screams, such as a man might utter who was being
strangled. I heard them repeated twice, and in an instant was sitting up
straight in bed, my hair on end, and my limbs covered with a cold sweat.
Suddenly it occurred to me that the Emperor was being assassinated, and
I sprang out of bed and woke Roustan; and as the cries now recommenced
with added intensity, I opened the door as cautiously as my agitation
allowed, and entered the sleeping-room, and with a hasty glance assured
myself that no one could have entered. On advancing towards the bed, I
perceived his Majesty extended across it, in a position denoting great
agony, the drapery and bed-covering thrown off, and his whole body in a
frightful condition of nervous contraction. From his open mouth escaped
inarticulate sounds, his breathing appeared greatly oppressed, and one of
his hands, tightly clinched, lay on the pit of his stomach. I was
terrified at the sight, and called him. He did not reply; again, once,
twice even, still no reply. At last I concluded to shake him gently; and
at this the Emperor awoke with a loud cry, saying, "What is it? What is
it?" then sat up and opened his eyes wide; upon which I told him that,
seeing him tormented with a horrible nightmare, I had taken the liberty
of waking him. "And you did well, my dear Constant," interrupted his
Majesty. "Ah, my friend, I have had a frightful dream; a bear was
tearing open my breast, and devouring my heart!" Thereupon the Emperor
rose, and, while I put his bed in order, walked about the room. He was
obliged to change his shirt, which was wet with perspiration, and at
length again retired.

The next day, when he woke, he told me that it was long before he could
fall to sleep again, so vivid and terrible was the impression made on
him. He long retained the memory of this dream, and often spoke of it,
each time trying to draw from it different conclusions, according to

As to myself, I avow I was struck with the coincidence of the compliment
of Alexander at the theater and this frightful nightmare, especially as
the Emperor was not subject to disturbances of this kind. I do not know
whether his Majesty related his dream to the Emperor of Russia.

On the 6th of October their Majesties attended a hunting-party which the
Grand Duke of Weimar prepared for them in the forest of Ettersbourg. The
Emperor set out from Erfurt at noon, with the Emperor of Russia in the
same coach. They arrived in the forest at one o'clock, and found
prepared for them a hunting-pavilion, which had been erected expressly
for this occasion, and was very handsomely decorated. This pavilion was
divided into three parts, separated by open columns; that in the middle,
raised higher than the others, formed a pretty room, arranged and
furnished for the two Emperors. Around the pavilion were placed numerous
orchestras, which played inspiriting airs, with which were mingled the
acclamations of an immense crowd, who had been attracted by a desire to
see the Emperor.

The two sovereigns were received on their descent from their carriage by
the Grand Duke of Weimar and his son, the hereditary prince, Charles
Frederic; while the King of Bavaria, King of Saxony, King of Wurtemberg,
Prince William of Prussia, the Princes of Mecklenburg, the Prince
Primate, and the Duke of Oldenburg awaited them at the entrance to the

The Emperor had in his suite the Prince of Neuchatel; the Prince of
Benevento; the grand marshal of the palace, Duke de Frioul; General
Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza; the Duke of Rovigo; General Lauriston, his
Majesty's aide-de-camp; General Nansouty, first equerry; the chamberlain,
Eugene de Montesquiou; the Count de Beausset, prefect of the palace; and
M. Cavaletti.

The Emperor of Russia was accompanied by the Grand Duke Constantine; the
Count Tolstoi, grand marshal; and Count Oggeroski, aide-de-camp to his

The hunt lasted nearly two hours, during which time about sixty stags and
roebucks were killed. The space in which these poor animals had to run
was inclosed by netting, in order that the monarchs might shoot them at
pleasure, without disturbing themselves while seated in the windows of
the pavilion. I have never seen anything more absurd than hunts of this
sort, which, nevertheless, give those who engage in them a reputation as
fine shots. What skill is there in killing an animal which the
gamekeepers, so to speak, take by the ears and place in front of your

The Emperor of Russia was near-sighted, and this infirmity had deterred
him from an amusement which he would have enjoyed very much; but that
day, however, he wished to make the attempt, and, having expressed this.
wish, the Duke of Montebello handed him a gun, and M. de Beauterne had
the honor of giving the Emperor his first lesson. A stag was driven so
as to pass within about eight steps of Alexander, who brought him down at
the first shot.

After the hunt their Majesties repaired to the palace of Weimar; and the
reigning duchess received them, as they alighted from their carriages,
accompanied by her whole court. The Emperor saluted the duchess
affectionately, remembering that he had seen her two years before under
very different circumstances, which I mentioned in its place.

The Duke of Weimar had requested from the grand marshal French cooks to
prepare the Emperor's dinner, but the Emperor preferred being served in
the German style.

Their Majesties invited to dine with them the Duke and Duchess of Weimar,
the Queen of Westphalia, the King of Wurtemberg, the King of Saxony, the
Grand Duke Constantine, Prince William of Prussia, the Prince Primate,
the Prince of Neuchatel, Prince Talleyrand, the Duke of Oldenburg, the
hereditary Prince of Weimar, and the Prince of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

After this dinner there was a play, followed by a ball, the play being at
the town theater, where the ordinary comedians of his Majesty presented
the death of Caesar; and the ball, at the ducal palace. The Emperor
Alexander opened the ball with the Queen of Westphalia, to the great
astonishment of every one; for it was well known that this monarch had
never danced since his accession to the throne, conduct which the older
men of the court thought very praiseworthy, holding the opinion that a
sovereign occupies too high a place to share in the tastes and take
pleasure in amusements common to the rest of mankind. Except this,
however, there was nothing in the ball of Weimar to scandalize them, as
they did not dance, but promenaded in couples, whilst the orchestra
played marches.

The morning of the next day their Majesties entered carriages to visit
Mount Napoleon, near Jena, where a splendid breakfast was prepared for
them under a tent which the Duke of Weimar had erected on the identical
spot where the Emperor's bivouac stood on the day of the battle of Jena.
After breakfast the two Emperors ascended a temporary pavilion which had
been erected on Mount Napoleon; this pavilion, which was very large, had
been decorated with plans of the battle. A deputation from the town and
university of Jena arrived, and were received by their Majesties; and the
Emperor inquired of the deputies the most minute particulars relating to
their town, its resources, and the manners and character of its
inhabitants; questioned them on the approximate damages which the
military hospital, which had been so long left with them, had caused the
inhabitants of Jena; inquired the names of those who had suffered most
from fire and war, and gave orders that a gratuity should be distributed
among them, and the small proprietors entirely indemnified. His Majesty
informed himself with much interest of the condition of the Catholic
worship, and promised to endow the vicarage in perpetuity, granting three
hundred thousand francs for immediate necessities, and promising to give
still more.

After having visited, on horseback, the positions which the two armies
had held the evening before, and on the day of, the battle of Jena, as
well as the plain of Aspolda, on which the duke had prepared a hunt with
guns, the two Emperors returned to Erfurt, which they reached at five
o'clock in the evening, almost at the very moment the grand hereditary
duke of Baden and the Princess Stephanie arrived.

During the entire visit of the sovereigns to the battlefield, the Emperor
most graciously made explanations to the young Czar, to which he listened
with the greatest interest. His Majesty seemed to take pleasure in
explaining at length, first, the plan which he had formed and carried out
at Jena, and afterwards the various plans of his other campaigns, the
maneuvers which he had executed, his usual tactics, and, in fine, his
whole ideas on the art of war. The Emperor thus, for several hours,
carried on the whole conversation alone; and his royal audience paid him
as much attention as scholars, eager to learn, pay to the instructions of
their teacher.

When his Majesty returned to his apartment, I heard Marshal Berthier say
to him, "Sire, are you not afraid that the sovereigns may some day use to
advantage against you all that you have just taught them? Your Majesty
just now seemed to forget what you formerly told us, that it is necessary
to act with our allies as if they were afterwards to be our enemies."--
"Berthier," replied the Emperor, smiling, "that is a good observation on
your part, and I thank you for it; I really believe I have made you think
I was an idiot. You think, then," continued his Majesty, pinching
sharply one of the Prince de Neuchatel's ears, "that I committed the
indiscretion of giving them whips with which to return and flog us? Calm
yourself, I did not tell them all."

The Emperor's table at Erfurt was in the form of a half-moon; and at the
upper end, and consequently at the rounded part, of this table their
Majesties were seated, and on the right and left the sovereigns of the
Confederation according to their rank. The side facing their Majesties
was always empty; and there stood M. de Beausset, the prefect of the
palace, who relates in his Memoirs that one day he overheard the
following conversation:

"On that day the subject of conversation was the Golden Bull, which,
until the establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine, had
served as a constitution, and had regulated the law for the election
of emperors, the number and rank of the electors, etc. The Prince
Primate entered into some details regarding this Golden Bull, which
he said was made in 1409; whereupon the Emperor Napoleon pointed out
to him that the date which was assigned to the Golden Bull was not
correct, and that it was proclaimed in 1336, during the reign of the
Emperor Charles IV. 'That is true, Sire,' replied the Prince
Primate I was mistaken; but how does it happen that your Majesty is
so well acquainted with these matters?'--'When I was a mere
sub-lieutenant in the artillery, said Napoleon,--at this beginning,
there was on the part of the guests a marked movement of interest,
and he continued, smiling,--when I had the honor to be simply
sub-lieutenant in the artillery I remained three years in the garrison
at Valence, and, as I cared little for society, led a very retired
life. By fortunate chance I had lodgings with a kind and
intelligent bookseller. I read and re-read his library during the
three years I remained in the garrison and have forgotten nothing,
even matters which have had no connection with my position. Nature,
besides, has given me a good memory for figures, and it often
happens with my ministers that I can give them details and the sum
total of accounts they presented long since.'"

A few days before his departure from Erfurt, the Emperor bestowed the
cross of the Legion of Honor on M. de Bigi, commandant of arms at this
place; M. Vegel, burgomaster of Jena; Messrs. Weiland and Goethe; M.
Starlk, senior physician at Jena. He gave to General Count Tolstoi,
ambassador from Russia, who had been recalled from this post by his
sovereign to take a command in the army, the grand decoration of the
Legion of Honor; to M. the dean Meimung, who had said mass twice at the
palace, a ring of brilliants, with the cipher N surmounted by a crown;
and a hundred napoleons to the two priests who had assisted him; finally,
to the grand marshal of the palace, Count Tolstoi, the beautiful Gobelin
tapestry, Savonnerie carpets, and Sevres porcelain, which had been
brought from Paris to furnish the palace of Erfurt. The minister's grand
officers, and officers of Alexander's suite, received from his Majesty
magnificent presents; and the Emperor Alexander did likewise in regard to
the persons attached to his Majesty. He gave the Duke of Vicenza the
grand cordon of Saint Andrew, and a badge of the same order set in
diamonds to the Princes of Benevento and Neuchatel.

Charmed by the talent of the French comedians, especially that of Talma,
the Emperor Alexander sent very handsome presents to her as well as all
her companions; he sent compliments to the actresses, and to the
director, M. Dazincourt, whom he did not forget in his distribution of

This interview at Erfurt, which was so brilliant with illuminations,
splendor, and luxury, ended on the 14th of October; and all the great
personages whom it had attracted left between the 8th and the 14th of

The day of his departure the Emperor gave an audience, after his toilet,
to Baron Vincent, envoy extraordinary of Austria, and sent by him a
letter to his sovereign. At eleven o'clock the Emperor of Russia came to
his Majesty, who received him, and reconducted him to his residence with
great ceremony; and soon after his Majesty repaired to the Russian
palace, followed by his whole suite. After mutual compliments they
entered the carriage together, and did not part till they reached the
spot on the road from Weimar where they had met on their arrival. There
they embraced each other affectionately and separated; and the 18th of
October, at half-past nine in the evening, the Emperor was at
Saint-Cloud, having made the whole trip incognito.


His Majesty remained only ten days at Saint-Cloud, passed two or three of
these in Paris at the opening of the session of the Corps Legislatif, and
at noon on the 29th set out a second time for Bayonne.

The Empress, who to her great chagrin could not accompany the Emperor,
sent for me on the morning of his departure, and renewed in most touching
accents the same recommendations which she made on all his journeys, for
the character of the Spaniards made her timid and fearful as to his

Their parting was sad and painful; for the Empress was exceedingly
anxious to accompany him, and the Emperor had the greatest difficulty in
satisfying her, and making her understand that this was impossible. Just
as he was setting out he returned to his dressing-room a moment, and told
me to unbutton his coat and vest; and I saw the Emperor pass around his
neck between his vest and shirt a black silk ribbon on which was hung a
kind of little bag about the size of a large hazel-nut, covered with
black silk. Though I did not then know what this bag contained, when he
returned to Paris he gave it to me to keep; and I found that this bag had
a pleasant feeling, as under the silk covering was another of skin. I
shall hereafter tell for what purpose the Emperor wore this bag.

I set out with a sad heart. The recommendations of her Majesty the
Empress, and fears which I could not throw off, added to the fatigue of
these repeated journeys, all conspired to produce feelings of intense
sadness, which was reflected on almost all the countenances of the
Imperial household; while the officers said among themselves that the
combats in the North were trifling compared with those which awaited us
in Spain.

We arrived on the 3d of November at the chateau of Marrac, and four days
after were at Vittoria in the midst of the French army, where the Emperor
found his brother and a few grandees of Spain who had not yet deserted
his cause.

The arrival of his Majesty electrified the troops; and a part of the
enthusiasm manifested, a very small part it is true, penetrated into the
heart of the king, and somewhat renewed his courage. They set out almost
immediately, in order to at once establish themselves temporarily at
Burgos, which had been seized by main force and pillaged in a few hours,
since the inhabitants had abandoned it, and left to the garrison the task
of stopping the French as long as possible.

The Emperor occupied the archiepiscopal palace, a magnificent building
situated in a large square on which the grenadiers of the Imperial Guard
bivouacked. This bivouac presented a singular scene. Immense kettles,
which had been found in the convents, hung, full of mutton, poultry,
rabbits, etc., above a fire which was replenished from time to time with
furniture, guitars, or mandolins, and around which grenadiers, with pipes
in their mouths, were gravely seated in gilded chairs covered with
crimson damask, while they intently watched the kettles as they simmered,
and communicated to each other their conjectures on the campaign which
had just opened.

The Emperor remained ten or twelve days at Burgos, and then gave orders
to march on Madrid, which place could have been reached by way of
Valladolid, and the road was indeed safer and better; but the Emperor
wished to seize the Pass of Somo-Sierra, an imposing position with
natural fortifications which had always been regarded as impregnable.
This pass, between two mountain peaks, defended the capital, and was
guarded by twelve thousand insurgents, and twelve pieces of cannon placed
so advantageously that they could do as much injury as thirty or forty
elsewhere, and were, in fact, a sufficient obstacle to delay even the
most formidable army; but who could then oppose any hindrance to the
march of the Emperor?

On the evening of the 29th of November we arrived within three leagues of
this formidable defile, at a village called Basaguillas; and though the
weather was very cold, the Emperor did not lie down, but passed the night
in his tent, writing, wrapped in the pelisse which the Emperor Alexander
had given him. About three o'clock in the morning he came to warm
himself by the bivouac fire where I had seated myself, as I could no
longer endure the cold and dampness of a cellar which had been assigned
as my lodging, and where my bed was only a few handfuls of straw, filled
with manure.

At eight o'clock in the morning the position was attacked and carried,
and the next day we arrived before Madrid.

The Emperor established his headquarters at the chateau of Champ-Martin,
a pleasure house situated a quarter of a league from the town, and
belonging to the mother of the Duke of Infantado; and the army camped
around this house. The day after our arrival, the owner came in tears to
entreat of his Majesty a revocation of the fatal decree which put her son
outside the protection of the law; the Emperor did all he could to
reassure her, but he could promise her nothing, as the order was general.

We had some trouble in capturing this town; in the first place, because
his Majesty recommended the greatest moderation in making the attack, not
wishing, as he said, to present to his brother a burned-up city; in the
second place, because the Grand Duke of Berg during his stay at Madrid
had fortified the palace of Retiro, and the Spanish insurgents had
intrenched themselves there, and defended it most courageously. The town
had no other defense, and was surrounded only by an old wall, almost
exactly similar to that of Paris, consequently at the end of three days
it was taken; but the Emperor preferred not to enter, and still resided
at Champ-Martin, with the exception of one day when he came incognito and
in disguise, to visit the queen's palace and the principal districts.

One striking peculiarity of the Spaniards is the respect they have always
shown for everything relating to royalty, whether they regard it as
legitimate or not. When King Joseph left Madrid the palace was closed,
and the government established itself in a passably good building which
had been used as the post-office. From this time no one entered the
palace except the servants, who had orders to clean it from time to time;
not a piece of furniture even, not a book, was moved. The portrait of
Napoleon on Mont St. Bernard, David's masterpiece, remained hanging in
the grand reception hall, and the queen's portrait opposite, exactly as
the king had placed them; and even the cellars were religiously
respected. The apartments of King Charles had also remained untouched,
and not one of the watches in his immense collection had been removed.

The act of clemency which his Majesty showed toward the Marquis of
Saint-Simon, a grandee of Spain, marked in an especial manner the
entrance of the French troops into Madrid. The Marquis of Saint-Simon,
a French emigrant, had been in the service of Spain since the
emigration, and had the command of a part of the capital. The post
which he defended was exactly in front of that which the Emperor
commanded at the gates of Madrid, and he had held out long after all the
other leaders had surrendered.

The Emperor, impatient at being so long withstood at this point, gave
orders to make a still more vigorous charge; and in this the marquis was
taken prisoner. In his extreme anger the Emperor sent him to be tried
before a military commission, who ordered him to be shot; and this order
was on the point of being executed, when Mademoiselle de Saint-Simon, a
charming young person, threw herself at his Majesty's feet, and her
father's pardon was quickly granted.

The king immediately re-entered his capital; and with him returned the
noble families of Madrid, who had withdrawn from the stirring scenes
enacted at the center of the insurrection; and soon balls, fetes,
festivities, and plays were resumed as of yore.

The Emperor left Champ-Martin on the 22d of December, and directed his
march towards Astorga, with the intention of meeting the English, who had
just landed at Corunna; but dispatches sent to Astorga by a courier from
Paris decided him to return to France, and he consequently gave orders to
set out for Valladolid.

We found the road from Benavente to Astorga covered with corpses, slain
horses, artillery carriages, and broken wagons, and at every step met
detachments of soldiers with torn clothing, without shoes, and, indeed,
in a most deplorable condition. These unfortunates were all fleeing
towards Astorga, which they regarded as a port of safety, but which soon
could not contain them all. It was terrible weather, the snow falling so
fast that it was almost blinding; and, added to this, I was ill, and
suffered greatly during this painful journey.

The Emperor while at Tordesillas had established his headquarters in the
buildings outside the convent of Saint-Claire, and the abbess of this
convent was presented to his Majesty. She was then more than sixty-five
years old, and from the age of ten years back never left this place. Her
intelligent and refined conversation made a most agreeable impression on
the Emperor, who inquired what were her wishes, and granted each one.

We arrived at Valladolid the 6th of January, 1809, and found it in a
state of great disorder. Two or three days after our arrival, a cavalry
officer was assassinated by Dominican monks; and as Hubert, one of our
comrades, was passing in the evening through a secluded street, three men
threw themselves on him and wounded him severely; and he would doubtless
have been killed if the grenadiers of the guard had not hastened to his
assistance, and delivered him from their hands. It was the monks again.
At length the Emperor, much incensed, gave orders that the convent of the
Dominicans should be searched; and in a well was found the corpse of the
aforesaid officer, in the midst of a considerable mass of bones, and the
convent was immediately suppressed by his Majesty's orders; he even
thought at one time of issuing the same rigorous orders against all the
convents of the city. He took time for reflection, however, and
contented himself by appointing an audience, at which all the monks of
Valladolid were to appear before him. On the appointed day they came;
not all, however, but deputations from each convent, who prostrated
themselves at the Emperor's feet, while he showered reproaches upon them,
called them assassins and brigands, and said they all deserved to be
hung. These poor men listened in silence and humility to the terrible
language of the irritated conqueror whom their patience alone could
appease; and finally, the Emperor's anger having exhausted itself, he
grew calmer, and at last, struck by the reflection that it was hardly
just to heap abuse on men thus prostrate on their knees and uttering not
a word in their own defense, he left the group of officers who surrounded
him, and advanced into the midst of the monks, making them a sign to rise
from their supplicating posture; and as these good men obeyed him, they
kissed the skirts of his coat, and pressed around him with an eagerness
most alarming to the persons of his Majesty's suite; for had there been
among these devotees any Dominican, nothing surely could have been easier
than an assassination.

During the Emperor's stay at Valladolid, I had with the grand marshal a
disagreement of which I retain most vivid recollections, as also of the
Emperor's intervention wherein he displayed both justice and good-will
towards me. These are the facts of the case: one morning the Duke de
Frioul, encountering me in his Majesty's apartments, inquired in a very
brusque tone (he was very much excited) if I had ordered the carriage to
be ready, to which I replied in a most respectful manner that they were
always ready. Three times the duke repeated the same question, raising
his voice still more each time; and three times I made him the same
reply, always in the same respectful manner. "Oh, you fool!" said he at
last, "you do not understand, then."--"That arises evidently,
Monseigneur, from your Excellency's imperfect explanations!" Upon which
he explained that he was speaking of a new carriage which had come from
Paris that very day, a fact of which I was entirely ignorant. I was on
the point of explaining this to his Excellency; but without deigning to
listen, the grand marshal rushed out of the room exclaiming, swearing,
and addressing me in terms to which I was totally unaccustomed. I
followed him as far as his own room in order to make an explanation; but
when he reached his door he entered, and slammed it in my face.

In spite of all this I entered a few moments later; but his Excellency
had forbidden his valet de chambre to introduce me, saying that he had
nothing to say to me, nor to hear from me, all of which was repeated to
me in a very harsh and contemptuous manner.

Little accustomed to such experiences, and entirely unnerved, I went to
the Emperor's room; and when his Majesty entered I was still so agitated
that my face was wet with tears. His Majesty wished to know what had
happened, and I related to him the attack which had just been made upon
me by the grand marshal. "You are very foolish to cry," said the
Emperor; "calm yourself, and say to the grand marshal that I wish to
speak to him."

His Excellency came at once in response to the Emperor's invitation, and
I announced him. "See," said he, pointing to me, "see into what a state
you have thrown this fellow! What has he done to be thus treated?" The
grand marshal bowed without replying, but with a very dissatisfied air;
and the Emperor went on to say that he should have given me his orders
more clearly, and that any one was excusable for not executing an order
not plainly given. Then turning toward me, his Majesty said, "Monsieur
Constant, you may be certain this will not occur again."

This simple affair furnishes a reply to many false accusations against
the Emperor. There was an immense distance between the grand marshal of
the palace and the simple valet de chambre of his Majesty, and yet the
marshal was reprimanded for a wrong done to the valet de chambre.

The Emperor showed the utmost impartiality in meting out justice in his
domestic affairs; and never was the interior of a palace better governed
than his, owing to the fact that in his household he alone was master.

The grand marshal felt unkindly toward me for sometime after; but, as I
have already said, he was an excellent man, his bad humor soon passed
away, and so completely, that on my return to Paris he requested me to
stand for him at the baptism of the child of my father-in-law, who had
begged him to be its godfather; the godmother was Josephine, who was kind
enough to choose my wife to represent her. M. le Duke de Frioul did
things with as much nobility and magnanimity as grace; and afterwards I
am glad to be able to state in justice to his memory, he eagerly seized
every occasion to be useful to me, and to make me forget the discomfort
his temporary excitement had caused me.

I fell ill at Valladolid with a violent fever a few days before his
Majesty's departure. On the day appointed for leaving, my illness was at
its height; aid as the Emperor feared that the journey might increase, or
at any rate prolong, my illness, he forbade my going, and set out without
me, recommending to the persons whom he left at Valladolid to take care
of my health. When I had gotten somewhat better I was told that his
Majesty had left, whereupon I could no longer be controlled, and against
my physician's orders, and in spite of my feebleness, in spite of
everything, in fact, had myself placed in a carriage and set out. This
was wise; for hardly had I put Valladolid two leagues behind me, than I
felt better, and the fever left me. I arrived at Paris five or six days
after the Emperor, just after his Majesty had appointed the Count
Montesquiou grand chamberlain in place of Prince Talleyrand, whom I met
that very day, and who seemed in no wise affected by this disgrace,
perhaps he was consoled by the dignity of vice-grand elector which was
bestowed on him in exchange.


The Emperor arrived at Paris on the 23d of January, and passed the
remainder of the winter there, with the exception of a few days spent at
Rambouillet and Saint-Cloud.

On the very day of his arrival in Paris, although he must have been much
fatigued by an almost uninterrupted ride from Valladolid, the Emperor
visited the buildings of the Louvre and the rue de Rivoli.

His mind was full of what he had seen at Madrid, and repeated suggestions
to M. Fontaine and the other architects showed plainly his desire to make
the Louvre the finest palace in the world. His Majesty then had a report
made him as to the chateau of Chambord, which he wished to present to the
Prince of Neuchatel. M. Fontaine found that repairs sufficient to make
this place a comfortable residence would amount to 1,700,000 francs, as
the buildings were in a state of decay, and it had hardly been touched
since the death of Marshal Sage.

His Majesty passed the two months and a half of his stay working in his
cabinet, which he rarely left, and always unwillingly; his amusements
being, as always, the theater and concerts. He loved music passionately,
especially Italian music, and like all great amateurs was hard to please.
He would have much liked to sing had he been able, but he had no voice,
though this did not prevent his humming now and then pieces which struck
his fancy; and as these little reminiscences usually recurred to him in
the mornings, he regaled me with them while he was being dressed. The
air that I have heard him thus mutilate most frequently was that of The
Marseillaise. The Emperor also whistled sometimes, but very rarely; and
the air, 'Malbrook s'en va-t-en guerre', whistled by his Majesty was an
unerring announcement to me of his approaching departure for the army.
I remember that he never whistled so much, and was never so gay, as just
before he set out for the Russian campaign.

His Majesty's, favorite singer were Crescentini and Madame Grassini.
I saw Crescentini's debut at Paris in the role of Romeo, in Romeo and
Juliet. He came preceded by a reputation as the first singer of Italy;
and this reputation was found to be well deserved, notwithstanding all
the prejudices he had to overcome, for I remember well the disparaging
statements made concerning him before his debut at the court theater.
According to these self-appointed connoisseurs, he was a bawler without
taste, without method, a maker of absurd trills, an unimpassioned actor
of little intelligence, and many other things besides. He knew, when he
appeared on the stage, how little disposed in his favor his audience
were, yet he showed not the slightest embarrassment; this, and his noble,
dignified mien, agreeably surprised those who expected from what they had
been told to behold an awkward man with an ungainly figure. A murmur of
approbation ran through the hall on his appearance; and electrified by
this welcome, he gained all hearts from the first act. His movements
were full of grace and dignity; he had a perfect knowledge of the scene,
modest gestures perfectly in harmony with the dialogue, and a countenance
on which all shades of passion were depicted with the most astonishing
accuracy; and all these rare and precious qualities combined to give to
the enchanting accents of this artist a charm of which it is impossible
to give an idea.

At each scene the interest he inspired became more marked, until in the
third act the emotion and delight of the spectator were carried almost to
frenzy. In this act, played almost solely by Crescentini, this admirable
singer communicated to the hearts of his audience all that is touching
and, pathetic in a love expressed by means of delicious melody, and by
all that grief and despair can find sublime in song.

The Emperor was enraptured, and sent Crescentini a considerable
compensation, accompanied by most flattering testimonials of the pleasure
he had felt in hearing him.

On this day, as always when they played together afterwards, Crescentini
was admirably supported by Madame Grassini, a woman of superior talent,
and who possessed the most astonishing voice ever heard in the theater.
She and Madame Barilli then divided the admiration of the public.

The very evening or the day after the debut of Crescentini, the French
stage suffered an irreparable loss in the death of Dazincourt, only sixty
years of age. The illness of which he died had begun on his return from
Erfurt, and was long and painful; and yet the public, to whom this great
comedian had so long given such pleasure, took no notice of him after it
was found his sickness was incurable and his death certain. Formerly
when a highly esteemed actor was kept from his place for some time by
illness (and who deserved more esteem than Dazincourt?), the pit was
accustomed to testify its regret by inquiring every day as to the
condition of the afflicted one, and at the end of each representation the
actor whose duty it was to announce the play for the next day gave the
audience news of his comrade. This was not done for Dazincourt, and the
pit thus showed ingratitude to him.

I liked and esteemed sincerely Dazincourt, whose acquaintance I had made
several years before his death; and few men better deserved or so well
knew how to gain esteem and affection. I will not speak of his genius,
which rendered him a worthy successor of Preville, whose pupil and
friend he was, for all his contemporaries remember Figaro as played by
Dazincourt; but I will speak of the nobility of his character, of his
generosity, and his well-tested honor. It would seem that his birth and
education should have kept him from the theater, where circumstances
alone placed him; but he was able to protect himself against the
seductions of his situation, and in the greenroom, and in the midst of
domestic intrigues, remained a man of good character and pure manners.
He was welcomed in the best society, where he soon became a favorite by
his piquant sallies, as much as by his good manners and urbanity, for he
amused without reminding that he was a comedian.

At the end of February his Majesty went to stay for some time at the
palace of the Elysee; and there I think was signed the marriage contract
of one of his best lieutenants, Marshal Augereau, recently made Duke of
Castiglione, with Mademoiselle Bourlon de Chavanges, the daughter of an
old superior officer; and there also was rendered the imperial decree
which gave to the Princess Eliza the grand duchy of Tuscany, with the
title of grand duchess.

About the middle of March, the Emperor passed several days at
Rambouillet; there were held some exciting hunts, in one of which his
Majesty himself brought to bay and killed a stag near the pool of
Saint-Hubert. There was also a ball and concert, in which appeared
Crescentini, Mesdames Grassini, Barelli, and several celebrated
virtuosos, and lastly Talma recited.

On the 13th of April, at four o'clock in the morning, the Emperor having
received news of another invasion of Bavaria by the Austrians, set out
for Strasburg with the Empress, whom he left in that city; and on the
15th, at eleven o'clock in the morning, he passed the Rhine at the head
of his army. The Empress did not long remain alone, as the Queen of
Holland and her sons, the Grand Duchess of Baden and her husband, soon
joined her.

The splendid campaign of 1809 at once began. It is known how glorious it
was, and that one of its least glorious victories was the capture of

At Ratisbon, on the 23d of April, the Emperor received in his right foot
a spent ball, which gave him quite a severe bruise. I was with the
service when several grenadiers hastened to tell me that his Majesty was
wounded, upon which I hastened to him, and arrived while M. Yvan was
dressing the contusion. The Emperor's boot was cut open, and laced up,
and he remounted his horse immediately; and, though several of the
generals insisted on his resting, he only replied: "My friends, do you
not know that it is necessary for me to see everything?" The enthusiasm
of the soldiers cannot be expressed when they learned that their chief
had been wounded, though his wound was not dangerous. "The Emperor is
exposed like us," they said; "he is not a coward, not he." The papers
did not mention this occurrence.

Before entering a battle, the Emperor always ordered that, in case he was
wounded, every possible measure should be taken to conceal it from his
troops. "Who knows," said he, "what terrible confusion might be produced
by such news? To my life is attached the destiny of a great Empire.
Remember this, gentlemen; and if I am wounded, let no one know it, if
possible. If I am slain, try to win the battle without me; there will be
time enough to tell it afterwards."

Two weeks after the capture of Ratisbon, I was in advance of his Majesty
on the road to Vienna, alone in a carriage with an officer of the
household, when we suddenly heard frightful screams in a house on the
edge of the road. I gave orders to stop at once, and we alighted; and,
on entering the house, found several soldiers, or rather stragglers, as
there are in all armies, who, paying no attention to the alliance between
France and Bavaria, were treating most cruelly a family which lived in
this house, and consisted of an old grandmother, a young man, three
children, and a young girl.

Our embroidered coats had a happy effect on these madmen, whom we
threatened with the Emperor's anger; and we succeeded in driving them out
of the house, and soon after took our departure, overwhelmed with thanks.
In the evening I spoke to the Emperor of what I had done; and he approved
highly, saying, "It cannot be helped. There are always some cowardly
fellows in the army; and they are the ones who do the mischief. A brave
and good soldier would blush to do such things!"

I had occasion, in the beginning of these Memoirs, to speak of the
steward, M. Pfister, one of his Majesty's most faithful servants, and
also one of those to whom his Majesty was most attached. M. Pfister had
followed him to Egypt, and had faced countless dangers in his service.
The day of the battle of Landshut, which either preceded or followed very
closely the taking of Ratisbon this poor man became insane, rushed out of
his tent, and concealed himself in a wood near the field of battle, after
taking off all his clothing. At the end of a few hours his Majesty asked
for M. Pfister. He was sought for, and every one was questioned; but no
one could tell what had become of him. The Emperor, fearing that he
might have been taken prisoner, sent an orderly officer to the Austrians
to recover his steward, and propose an exchange; but the officer
returned, saying that the Austrians had not seen M. Pfister. The
Emperor, much disquieted, ordered a search to be made in the
neighborhood; and by this means the poor fellow was discovered entirely
naked, as I have said, cowering behind a tree, in a frightful condition,
his body torn by thorns. He was brought back, and having become
perfectly quiet, was thought to be well, and resumed his duties; but a
short time after our return to Paris he had a new attack. The character
of his malady was exceedingly obscene; and he presented himself before
the Empress Josephine in such a state of disorder, and with such indecent
gestures, that it was necessary to take precautions in regard to him.
He was confided to the care of the wise Doctor Esquirol, who, in spite of
his great skill, could not effect a cure. I went to see him often. He
had no more violent attacks; but his brain was diseased, and though he
heard and understood perfectly, his replies were those of a real madman.
He never lost his devotion to the Emperor, spoke of him incessantly, and
imagined himself on duty near him. One day he told me with a most
mysterious air that he wished to confide to me a terrible secret, the
plot of a conspiracy against his Majesty's life, handing me at the same
time a note for his Majesty, with a package of about twenty scraps of
paper, which he had scribbled off himself, and thought were the details
of the plot. Another time he handed me, for the Emperor, a handful of
little stones, which he called diamonds of great value. "There is more
than a million in what I hand you," said he. The Emperor, whom I told of
my visits, was exceedingly touched by the continued monomania of this
poor unfortunate, whose every thought, every act, related to his old
master, and who died without regaining his reason.

On the 10th of May, at nine o'clock in the morning, the first line of
defense of the Austrian capital was attacked and taken by Marshal Oudinot
the faubourgs surrendering at discretion. The Duke of Montebello then
advanced on the esplanade at the head of his division; but the gates
having been closed, the garrison poured a frightful discharge from the
top of the ramparts, which fortunately however killed only a very small
number. The Duke of Montebello summoned the garrison to surrender the
town, but the response of the Archduke Maximilian was that he would
defend Vienna with his last breath; which reply was conveyed to the

After taking counsel with his generals, his Majesty charged Colonel
Lagrange to bear a new demand to the archduke; but the poor colonel had
hardly entered the town than he was attacked by the infuriated populace.
General O'Reilly saved his life by having him carried away by his
soldiers; but the Archduke Maximilian, in order to defy the Emperor still
further, paraded in triumph in the midst of the national guard the
individual who has struck the first blow at the bearer of the French
summons. This attempt, which had excited the indignation of many of the
Viennese themselves, did not change his Majesty's intentions, as he
wished to carry his moderation and kindness as far as possible; and he
wrote to the archduke by the Prince of Neuchatel the following letter, a
copy of which accidentally fell into my hands:

"The Prince de Neuchatel to his Highness the Archduke Maximilian,
commanding the town of Vienna,

"His Majesty the Emperor and King desires to spare this large and
worthy population the calamities with which it is threatened, and
charges me to represent to your Highness, that if he continues the
attempt to defend this place, it will cause the destruction of one
of the finest cities of Europe. In every country where he has waged
war, my sovereign has manifested his anxiety to avoid the disasters
which armies bring on the population. Your Highness must be
persuaded that his Majesty is much grieved to see this town, which
he has the glory of having already saved, on the point of being
destroyed. Nevertheless, contrary to the established usage of
fortresses, your Highness has fired your cannon from the city walls,
and these cannon may kill, not an enemy of your sovereign, but the
wives or children of his most devoted servants. If your Highness
prolongs the attempt to defend the place, his Majesty will be
compelled to begin his preparations for attack; and the ruin of this
immense capital will be consummated in thirty-six hours, by the
shells and bombs from our batteries, as the outskirts of the town
will be destroyed by the effect of yours. His Majesty does not
doubt that these considerations will influence your Highness to
renounce a determination which will only delay for a short while the
capture of the place. If, however, your Highness has decided not to
pursue a course which will save the town from destruction, its
population plunged by your fault into such terrible misfortunes will
become, instead of faithful subjects, the enemies of your house."

This letter did not deter the grand duke from persisting in his defense;
and this obstinacy exasperated the Emperor to such a degree that he at
last gave orders to place two batteries in position, and within an hour
cannonballs and shells rained upon the town. The inhabitants, with true
German indifference, assembled on the hillsides to watch the effect of
the fires of attack and defense, and appeared much interested in the
sight. A few cannonballs had already fallen in the court of the Imperial
palace when a flag of truce came out of the town to announce that the
Archduchess Marie Louise had been unable to accompany her father, and was
ill in the palace, and consequently exposed to danger from the artillery;
and the Emperor immediately gave orders to change the direction of the
firing so that the bombs and balls would pass over the palace. The
archduke did not long hold out against such a sharp and energetic attack,
but fled, abandoning Vienna to the conquerors.

On the 12th of May the Emperor made his entrance into Vienna, one month
after the occupation of Munich by the Austrians. This circumstance made
a deep impression, and did much to foster the superstitious ideas which
many of the troops held in regard to the person of their chief. "See,"
said one, "he needed only the time necessary for the journey. That man
must be a god."--"He is a devil rather," said the Austrians, whose
stupefaction was indescribable. They had reached a point when many
allowed the arms to be taken out of their hands without making the least
resistance, or without even attempting to fly, so deep was their
conviction that the Emperor and his guard were not men, and that sooner
or later they must fall into the power of these supernatural enemies.


The Emperor did not remain in Vienna, but established his headquarters at
the chateau of Schoenbrunn, an imperial residence situated about half a
league from the town; and the ground in front of the chateau was arranged
for the encampment of the guard. The chateau of Schoenbrunn, erected by
the Empress Maria Theresa in 1754, and situated in a commanding position,
is built in a very irregular, and defective, but at the same time
majestic, style of architecture. In order to reach it, there has been
thrown over the little river, la Vienne, a broad and well-constructed
bridge, ornamented with four stone sphinxes; and in front of the bridge
is a large iron gate, opening on an immense court, in which seven or
eight thousand men could be drilled. This court is square, surrounded by
covered galleries, and ornamented with two large basins with marble
statues; and on each side of the gateway are two large obelisks in
rose-colored stone, surmounted by eagles of gilded lead.

'Schoenbrunn', in German, signifies beautiful fountain; and this name
comes from a clear and limpid spring, which rises in a grove in the park,
on a slight elevation, around which has been built a little pavilion,
carved on the inside to imitate stalactites. In this pavilion lies a
sleeping Naiad, holding in her hand a shell, from which the water gushes
and falls into a marble basin. This is a delicious retreat in summer.

We can speak only in terms of admiration regarding the interior of the
palace, the furniture of which was handsome and of an original and
elegant style. The Emperor's sleeping-room, the only part of the
building in which there was a fireplace, was ornamented with wainscoting
in Chinese lacquer work, then very old, though the painting and gilding
were still fresh, and the cabinet was decorated like the bedroom; and all
the apartments, except this, were warmed in winter by immense stoves,
which greatly injured the effect of the interior architecture. Between
the study and the Emperor's room was a very curious machine, called the
flying chariot, a kind of mechanical contrivance, which had been made for
the Empress Maria Theresa, and was used in conveying her from one story
to the other, so that she might not be obliged to ascend and descend
staircases like the rest of the world. This machine was operated by
means of cords, pulleys, and weights, like those at the theater.

The beautiful grove which serves as park and garden to the palace of
Schoenbrunn is much too small to belong to an imperial residence; but,
on the other hand, it would be hard to find one more beautiful or better
arranged. The park of Versailles is grander and more imposing; but it
has not the picturesque irregularity, the fantastic and unexpected
beauties, of the park of Schoenbrunn, and more closely resembles the park
at Malmaison. In front of the interior facade of the palace was a
magnificent lawn, sloping down to a broad lake, decorated with a group of
statuary representing the triumph of Neptune. This group is very fine;
but French amateurs (every Frenchman, as you are aware, desires to be
considered a connoisseur) insisted that the women were more Austrian than
Grecian, and that they did not possess the slender grace belonging to
antique forms; and, for my part, I must confess that these statues did
not appear to me very remarkable.

At the end of the grand avenue, and bounding the horizon, rose a hill,
which overlooked the park, and was crowned by a handsome building, which
bore the name of la Gloriette. This building was a circular gallery,
inclosed with glass, supported by a charming colonnade, between the
arches of which hung various trophies. On entering the avenue from the
direction of Vienna, la Gloriette rose at the farther end, seeming almost
to form a part of the palace; and the effect was very fine.

What the Austrians especially admired in the palace of Schoenbrunn was a
grove, containing what they called the Ruins, and a lake with a fountain
springing from the midst, and several small cascades flowing from it; by
this lake were the ruins of an aqueduct and a temple, fallen vases,
tombs, broken bas-reliefs, statues without heads, arms, or limbs, while
limbs, arms, and heads lay thickly scattered around; columns mutilated
and half-buried, others standing and supporting the remains of pediments
and entablatures; all combining to form a scene of beautiful disorder,
and representing a genuine ancient ruin when viewed from a short
distance. Viewed more closely, it is quite another thing: the hand of
the modern sculptor is seen; it is evident that all these fragments are
made from the same kind of stone; and the weeds which grow in the hollows
of these columns appear what they really are, that is to say, made of
stone, and painted to imitate verdure.

But if the productions of art scattered through the park of Schoenbrunn
were not all irreproachable, those of nature fully made up the
deficiency. What magnificent trees! What thick hedges! What dense and
refreshing shade! The avenues were remarkably high and broad, and
bordered with trees, which formed a vault impenetrable to the sun, while
the eye lost itself in their many windings; from these other smaller
walks diverged, where fresh surprises were in store at every step. At
the end of the broadest of these was placed the menagerie, which was one
of the most extensive and varied in Europe, and its construction, which
was very ingenious, might well serve as a model; it was shaped like a
star, and in the round center of this star had been erected a small but
very elegant kiosk, placed there by the Empress Maria Theresa as a
resting-place for herself, and from which the whole menagerie could be
viewed at leisure.

Each point of this star formed a separate garden, where there could be
seen elephants, buffaloes, camels, dromedaries, stags, and kangaroos
grazing; handsome and substantial cages held tigers, bears, leopards,
lions, hyenas, etc; and swans and rare aquatic birds and amphibious
animals sported in basins surrounded by iron gratings. In this menagerie
I specially remarked a very extraordinary animal, which his Majesty had
ordered brought to France, but which had died the day before it was to
have started. This animal was from Poland, and was called a 'curus'; it
was a kind of ox, though much larger than an ordinary ox, with a mane
like a lion, horns rather short and somewhat curved, and enormously large
at the base.

Every morning, at six o'clock, the drums beat, and two or three hours
after the troops were ordered to parade in the court of honor; and at
precisely ten o'clock his Majesty descended, and put himself at the head
of his generals.

It is impossible to give an idea of these parades, which in no particular
resembled reviews in Paris. The Emperor, during these reviews,
investigated the smallest details, and examined the soldiers one by one,
so to speak, looked into the eyes of each to see whether there was
pleasure or work in his head, questioned the officers, sometimes also the
soldiers themselves; and it was usually on these occasions that the
Emperor made his promotions. During one of these reviews, if he asked a
colonel who was the bravest officer in his regiment, there was no
hesitation in his answer; and it was always prompt, for he knew that the
Emperor was already well informed on this point. After the colonel had
replied, he addressed himself to all the other officers, saying, "Who is
the bravest among you?"--"Sire, it is such an one;" and the two answers
were almost always the same. "Then," said the Emperor, "I make him a
baron; and I reward in him, not only his own personal bravery, but that
of the corps of which he forms a part. He does not owe this favor to me
alone, but also to the esteem of his comrades." It was the same case
with the soldiers; and those most distinguished for courage or good
conduct were promoted or received rewards, and sometimes pensions, the
Emperor giving one of twelve hundred francs to a soldier, who, on his
first campaign, had passed through the enemy's squadron, bearing on his
shoulders his wounded general, protecting him as he would his own father.

On these reviews the Emperor could be seen personally inspecting the
haversacks of the soldiers, examining their certificates, or taking a gun
from the shoulders of a young man who was weak, pale; and suffering, and
saying to him, in a sympathetic tone, "That is too heavy for you." He
often drilled them himself; and when he did not, the drilling was
directed by Generals Dorsenne, Curial, or Mouton. Sometimes he was
seized with a sudden whim; for example, one morning, after reviewing a
regiment of the Confederation, he turned to the ordnance officers, and
addressing Prince Salm, who was among them, remarked "M. de Salm, the
soldiers ought to get acquainted with you; approach, and order them to
make a charge in twelve movements." The young prince turned crimson,
without being disconcerted, however, bowed, and drawing his sword most
gracefully, executed the orders of the Emperor with an ease and precision
which charmed him.

Another day, as the engineer corps passed with about forty wagons, the
Emperor cried, "Halt!" and pointing out a wagon to General Bertrand,
ordered him to summon one of the officers. "What does that wagon
contain?"--"Sire, bolts, bags of nails, ropes, hatchets, and saws."--
"How much of each?" The officer gave the exact account. His Majesty, to
verify this report, had the wagon emptied, counted the pieces, and found
the number correct; and in order to assure himself that nothing was left
in the wagon, climbed up into it by means of the wheel, holding on to the
spokes. There was a murmur of approbation and cries of joy all along the
line. "Bravo!" they said; "well and good! that is the way to make sure
of not being deceived." All these things conspired to make the soldiers
adore the Emperor.

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