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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries by Richard Hakluyt

Part 2 out of 6

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among your selues? what see you in me, can I not be healed? tell me the
trueth, be ye not afrayd. Whereupon one sayd vnto him, and it like your
Grace you may be healed, we mistrust not, but yet it will be very painfull
for you to suffer. May suffering (sayd he againe) restore health? yea sayth
the other, on paine of losing my head. Then sayd the prince, I commit my
selfe vnto you, doe with me what you thinke good.

Then sayd one of the Physicians, is there any of your Nobles in whom your
Grace reposeth special trust? to whom the prince answered Yea, naming
certeine of the Noble men that stood about him. Then sayd the Physician to
the two, whom the prince first named, the Lord Edmund, [Marginal note: The
lord Edmond was the prince his brother.] and the lord Iohn Voisie, And doe
you also faithfully loue your Lord and prince? Who answered both, Yea
vndoubtedly. Then sayth he, take you away this gentlewoman and lady
(meaning his wife) and let her not see her lord and husband, till such time
as I will you thereunto. Whereupon they tooke her from the princes
presence, crying out, and wringing her hands. Then sayd they vnto her, Be
you contented good Lady and Madame, it is better that one woman should
weepe a little while, then that all the realme of England should weepe a
great season.

Then on the morrow they cut out all the dead and inuenimed flesh out of the
princes arme, and threw it from them, and sayd vnto him: how cheereth your
Grace, we promise you within these fifteene dayes you shall shew your selfe
abroad (if God permit) vpon your horsebacke, whole and well as euer you
were. And according to the promise he made the prince, it came to passe, to
the no little comfort and admiration of all his subiects.

When the great Souldan heard hereof, and that the prince was yet aliue, he
could scarsely beleeue the same, and sending vnto him three of his Nobles
and Princes, excused himselfe by them, calling his God to witnesse that the
same was done neither by him nor his consent. Which princes and messengers
standing aloofe off from the kings sonne, worshipping him, fell flat vpon
the ground: you (sayd the prince) do reuerence me, but yet you loue me not.
But they vnderstood him not, because he spake in English vnto them,
speaking by an Interpreter: neuerthelesse he honourably entertained them,
and sent them away in peace.

Thus when prince Edward had beene eighteene moneths in Acra, he tooke
shipping about the Assumption of our Lady, as we call it, returning
homeward, and after seuen weekes he arriued in Sicilia at Trapes, and from
thence trauailed thorow the middes of Apulia, till he came to Rome, where
he was of the Pope honorably entertained.

From thence he came into France, whose fame and noble prowesse was there
much bruted among the common people, and enuied of the Nobility, especially
of the Earle of Chalons, who thought to haue intrapped him and his company,
as may appeare in the story: but Prince Edward continued foorth his iourney
to Paris, and was there of the French king honourably entertained: and
after certaine dayes he went thence into Gascoine, where he taried till
that he heard of the death of the king his father, at which time he came
home, and was crowned king of England, in the yere of our Lord 1274.

* * * * *

The trauaile of Robert Turneham.

Robertus Turneham Franciscanus, Theologi professor insignis, Lynn celebri
Irenorum ad ripas Isidis emporio, collegio suorum fratrum magnific
prfuit. Edwardus Princeps, cognomento Longus, Henrici tertij filius,
bellicam expeditionem contra Saracenos Assyriam incolentes, anno Dom. 1268.
parabat. Ad quam profectionem qusitus quoque Orator vehemens, qui plebis
in causa religionis animos excitaret, Turnehamus principi visus vel
dignissimus est, qui munus hoc obiret. Sic tanquam signifer constitutus
Assyrios vna cum Anglico exercitu petijt, ac suum non sine laude prstitit
officiuin. Claruit anno salutiferi partus, 1280. varia componens, sub eodem
Edwardo eius nominis primo post Conquestum.

The same in English.

Robert Turneham Franciscan, a notable professor of Diuinitie, was with
great dignitie Prior of the Colledge of his Order in the famous Mart Towne
of Lynne, situate vpon the riuer of Isis in Norfolke. Prince Edward
surnamed the Long, the sonne of Henrie the third, prepared his warlike
voyage against the Saracens dwelling in Syria, in the yeere of our Lord,
1268. For the which expedition some earnest preacher was sought to stirre
vp the peoples minds in the cause of religion. And this Turneham seemed to
the Prince most worthy to performe that office: so that he being appointed
as it were a standard bearer, went into Syria with the English army, and
performed his duety with good commendation. He flourished in the yeere of
Christ 1280, setting forth diuers workes vnder the same King Edward the
first of that name after the Conquest.

* * * * *

The life of Syr Iohn Mandeuill Knight, written by Master Bale.

Ioannes Mandeuil, vir equestris ordinis, ex fano Albini oriundus, ita
teneris vt aiunt, vnguiculis literarum studijs assueuerat, vt in illis
bonam foelicitatis su partem poneret. Nam generis sui stemmata illustria,
nulli vsui futura ducebat, nisi illa clariora doctis artibus redderet.
Quare cum animum Euangelica lectione rit instituisset, transtulit sua
studia ad rem Medicam, artem imprimis liberali ingenio dignam. Sed inter
alia, ingens qudam cupido videndi Africam, et Asiam, vastioris orbis
partes, eius animum inuaserat. Comparato igitur amplo viatico, peregr
profectus est, anno Christo nato, 1332. et domum tanquam alter Vlysses,
post 34. annos rediens, paucissimis quidem cognitus fuit. Interim
Scythiam, Armeniam, Maiorem et Minorem, Aegyptum, vtramque Lybiam, Arabiam,
Syriam, Mediam, Mesopotamiam, Persiam, Chaldam, Grciam, Illyrium,
Tartariam, et alia spaciosi orbis regna, laborioso itinere visitauit.
Denique linguarum cognitione prditus, ne tot ac tantarum rerum varietates,
et miracula qu oculatus testis viderat, memorique mandauerat, obliuione
premerentur, in tribus linguis, Anglica, Gallica, et Latina, graphic
scripsit Itinerarium 33. annorum. Reuersus in Angliam, ac visis sui seculi
malis, vir pius dicebat, nostris temporibus iam verius qum olim dici
potest, virtus cessat, Ecclesia calcatur, Clerus errat, dmon regnat,
simonia dominatur, etc. Leodij tandem obijt, anno Domini 1372. die 17.
Nouembris, apud Guilielmitas sepultus.

The same in English.

Iohn Mandeuil Knight, borne in the towne of S. Albons, was so well giuen to
the studie of learning from his childhood, that he seemed to plant a good
part of his felicitie in the same: for he supposed that the honour of his
birth would nothing auaile him, except he could render the same more
honourable by his knowledge in good letters. Hauing therefore well grounded
himselfe in religion by reading the Scriptures, he applied his studies to
the arte of Physicke, a profession worthy a noble wit: but amongst other
things, he was rauished with a mightie desire to see the greater partes of
the world, as Asia, and Africa. Hauing therefore prouided all things
necessarie for his iourney he departed from his countrey in the yeere of
Christ, 1332, and as another Vlysses returned home, after the space of 34.
yeeres, and was then knowen to a very fewe. In the time of his trauaile he
was in Scythia, the greater and lesse Armenia, Egypt, both Lybias, Arabia,
Syria, Media, Mesopotamia, Persia, Chalda, Greece, Illyrium, Tartarie, and
diuers other kingdomes of the world: and hauing gotten by this meanes the
knowledge of the languages, least so many and great varieties, and things
miraculous, whereof himselfe had bene an eie witnes, should perish in
obliuion, he committed his whole trauell of 33. yeeres to writing in three
diuers tongues, English, French and Latine. Being arriued againe in
England, and hauing seene the wickednes of that age, he gaue out this
speach. In our time (sayd he) it may be spoken more truely then of olde,
that vertue is gone, the Church is vnder foote, the Clergie is in errour,
the deuill raigneth, and Simonie beareth the sway, &c.

He died at Leege, in the yeere 1311. the 17. day of Nouember, being there
buried in the Abbie of the Order of the Guilielmites.

* * * * *

The Tombe and Epitaph of Sir Iohn Mandeuil, in the citie of Leege, spoken
of by Ortelius, in his booke called Itinerarium Belgi, in this sort.

[Sidenote: Fol. 15, 16.] Magna et populosa Leodij suburbia, ad collium
radices, in quorum iugis multa sunt, et pulcherrima monasteria, inter qu
magnificum illud, ac nobile D. Laurentio dicatum, ab Raginardo Episcopo.
Est in hac quoque regione, vel suburbijs Leodij, Guilielmitarum Coenobium,
in quo Epitaphium hoc Ioannis Mandeuille, excepimus.

[Sidenote: Epitaphum.] Hic iacet vir nobilis, D. Ioannes de Mandeuille,
aliter dictus ad Barbam, Miles, Dominus de Campdi, natus de Anglia,
Medicin professor, deuotissimus, orator, et bonorum largissimus pauperibus
erogator, qui toto quasi orbe lustrato, Leodij diem vit su clausit
extremum. Anno Dom. 1371. Mensis Nouembris, Die 17.

Hc in lapide: in quo clata viri armati imago, Leonem calcantis, barba
bifurcata, ad caput manus benedicens, et vernacula hc verba: Vos qui
paseis sor mi, pour l'amour deix proes por mi. Clipeus erat vacuus, in quo
olim fuisse dicebant laminam ream, et eius in ea itidem clata insignia,
Leonem videlicet argenteum, cui ad pectus lunula rubea in campo cruleo,
quem Limbus ambiret denticulatus ex auro. Eius nobis ostendebant, et
cultros, ephipique, et calcaria quibus vsum fuisse asserebant, in
peragrando toto fer terrarum orbe, vt claris testatur eius Itinerarium,
quod typis etiam excusum passim habetur.

* * * * *

Tabvla Prsentis Libri Ioannes Mandevil, singvla per ordinem capitula, et
in eorum quolibet quid agitur, notificat euidenter.

Capvt. 1 Commendatio breuis terr Hierosolymltan.

2 Iter ab Anglia tam per terras qum per aquas, vsque in Constantinopolim.

3 De vrbe Constantinopoli, et reliquijs ibidem contentis.

4 Via tam per terras qum per aquas, Constantinopoli vsque Acharon, vel

5 Via Francia et Flandria, per solas terras vsque in Hierusalem.

6 Via de Cypro vel de Hierusalem, vsque in Babyloniam Egypti.

7 De Pallatio Soldani, et nominibus prteritorum Soldanorum.

8 De Campo Balsami in Egypto.

9 De Nilo fluuio, et Egypti territorio.

10 De conductu Soldani.

11 De Monasterio Sinay.

12 Iter per desertum Sinay, vsque in Iudeam.

13 De ciuitate Bethleem, et semita, vsque in Ierusalem.

14 De Ecclesia gloriosi sepulchri Domini in vrbe Ierusalem.

15 De tribus alijs Ecclesiis, et specialiter de Templo Domini.

16 De pluribus locis sacris extra vrbem.

17 De sacris locis extra muros ciuitatis.

18 De alijs locis notabilibus.

19 De Nazareth et Samaria.

20 De Territorio Galile et Samari.

21 De secta detestabili Sarracenorum.

22 De vita Mahometi.

23 De colloquio Authoris cum Soldano.

24 Persuasio ad non credentes terrarum diuersitates per orbem terr.

25 De Armenia, et Persia.

26 De Ethiopia et diamantibus, ac de infima et media India.

27 De foresto piperis.

28 De Ecclesia beati Thom Apostoli.

29 De quibusdam meridionalibus insulis, et farina et melle.

30 De Regno Cynocephalorum, et alijs Insulis.

31 De multis alijs insulis Meridionalibus.

32 De bona regione Mangi.

33 De Pygmeis, et itinere vsque prouinciam Cathay.

34 De pallacio Imperatoris magni Chan.

35 De quatuor solemnitatibus, quas magnus Chan celebrat in Anno.

36 De prstigijs in festo, et de comitatu Imperatoris.

37 Qua de causa dicitur magnus Chan.

38 De territorio Cathay, et moribus Tartarorum.

39 De sepultura Imperatoris magni Chan, et de creatione successoris.

40 De multis regionibus Imperio Tartari subiectis.

41 De magnificentia Imperatoris Indi.

42 De frequentia Palatij, et comitatu Imperatoris prsbiteri Ioannis.

43 De quisbusdam miris per Regiones Imperij Indi.

44 De loco et dispositione Vallis infaust.

45 De quibusdam alijs admirandis, per Indorum insulas.

46 De periculis et tormentis in valle infausta.

47 De Bragmannorum insulis, et aliorum.

48 Aliqud de loco Paradisi terrestris per auditum.

49 In reuertendo de Regnis Cassam, et Riboth, de Diuite Epulone, vel

50 De compositione huius tractatus in Ciuitate Leodiensi.

Liber Prsens, Cvivs Avthor est Ioannes Mandevil militaris ordinis, agit de
diuersis patrijs, Regionibus, Prouincijs, et insulis, Turcia, Armenia
maiore et minore, gypto, Lybia bassa et alta, Syria, Arabia, Persia,
Chalda, Tartaria, India, et de infinitis insulis, Ciuitatibus, villis,
castris, et locis, qu gentes, legum, morum, ac rituum inhabitant


Principi excellentissimo, pr cunctis mortalibus prcipu venerando, Domino
Edwardo eius nominis tertio, diuina prouidentia Francorum et Anglorum Regi
Serenissimo, Hiberni Domino, Aquitaini Duci, mari ac eius insulis
occidentalibus dominanti, Christianorum encomio et ornatui, vniuersorumque
arma gerentium Tutori, ac Probitatis et strenuitatis exemplo, principi
quoque inuicto, mirabilis Alexandri Sequaci, ac vniuerso orbi tremendo, cum
reuerentia non qua decet, cum ad talem, et tantam reuerentiam mins
sufficientes extiterint, sed qua paruitas, et possibilitas mittentis ac
offerentis se extendunt, contenta tradantur.

Pars prima, continens Capita 23.


Commendatio breuis terr Hierosolimitan.

Cum terra Hierosolimitana, terra promissionis filiorum Dei, dignior cunctis
mundi terris sit habenda multis ex causis, et prcipu ill, quod Deus
conditor coeli et mundi, ipsam tanti dignatus fuit stimare, vt in eo
proprinm filium saluatorem mundi, Christum exhibuerit generi humano per
incarnationem ex intemerata Virgine, et per eius conuersationem humillimam
in eadem, ac per dolorosam mortis su consummationem ibidem, tque ind per
eius admirandam resurrectionem, ac ascensionem in coelum, et postrem quia
creditur illic in fine seculi reuersurus, et omnia iudicaturus: certum est,
qud ab omnibus qui Christiano nomine Christo dicuntur, sit tanquam
suis proprijs hredibus diligenda, et pro cuisque potestate ac modulo
honoranda. [Sidenote: Loquitur secundum tempora in quibus vixit.] A
principibus quidem, et potentibus vt ipsam conentur de infidelium manibus
recuperare, qui eam iam pridem nobis, nostris exigentibus meritis,
abstulerunt, et per annos heu plurimos possederunt: a mediocribus antem et
valentibus, vt per peregrinationem deuotam loca tam pia, et vestigia
Christi ac discipolorum tam Sancta, principaliter in remissionem visitent
delictorum. Ab impotentibus ver, et impeditis, quatenus supradictos vel
hortentur, vel in aliquo modo iuuent, seu cert fideles fondant orationes.
Verum quia iam nostris temporibus verius qum olim dici potest,

Virtus, Ecclesia, Clerus, dmon, symonia,
Cessat, calcatur, errat, regnat, dominatur,

ecce iusto Dei iudicio, credita est terra tam inclyta, et sacrosancta
impiorum manibus Saracenorum, quod non est absque dolore pijs mentibus
audiendum, et recolendum. EGO Ioannes Mandeuill militaris ordinis saltem
gerens nomen, natus et educatus in terra Angli, in villa sancti Albani,
ducebar in Adolescentia mea tali inspiratione, vt quamuis non per
potentiam, nec per vires proprias possem prfatam terram suis hredibus
recuperare, irem tamen per aliquod temporis spacium peregrinari ibidem, et
salutarem aliquantulum de propinquo. [Sidenote: Ioannis Mandiuilli
peregrinatio, per tres et triginta annos continuata.] Vnde in anno ab
Incarnatione Domini 1322. imposui me nauigationi Marsiliensis maris et
vsque in hoc temporis, Anni 1355. scilicet, per 33. annos in transmarinis
partibus mansi, peregrinatus sum, ambulaui, et circuiui multas, ac diuersas
patrias, regiones, prouincias, et insulas, Turciam, Armeniam maiorem, et
minorem, gyptum, Lybiam bassam et altam, Syriam, Arabiam, Persiam,
Chaldeam, thiopi partem magnam, Tartariam, Amazoniam, Indiam minorem, et
mediam, ac partem magnam de maiori, et in istis, et circum istas regiones,
multas insulas, Ciuitates, vrbes, castra, villas, et loca, vbi habitant
vari gentes, aspectuum, morum, legum, ac rituum, diuersorum: Attamen quia
summo desiderio in terra promissionis eram, ipsam diligentius per loca
vestigiorum filij Dei perlustrare curaui, et diutius in illa steti.
Quapropter et in hac prima parte huius operis iter tam peregrinandi, quam
nauigandi, partibus Angli ad ipsam describo, et loca notabiliter sancta,
qu intra eandem sunt breuiter commemoro et diligenter, quatenus peregrinis
tam in itinere quam in prouentione valeat hc descriptio in aliquo

The English Version. [Footnote: This English version (for the variations
from the Latin are so great that it cannot be called a _translation_) was
published in 1725 from a MS. of the end of the 14th or beginning of the
15th century, in the Cottonian Library, marked Titus. C. xvi.

Instead of being divided into 50 chapters like the Latin, it contains only
33, but I have thought it best to make it correspond as nearly with the
Latin as possible, merely indicating where the various chapters begin in
the English version. From the last paragraph of the introductory chapter,
it would seem that the English version was written by Mandeville
himself.--E. G.]

[Sidenote: The Prologue] For als moche as the Lond bezonde the See, that is
to seye, the Holy Lond, that men callen the Lond of Promyssioun, or of
Beheste, passynge alle othere Londes, is the most worthi Lond, most
excellent, and Lady and Sovereyn of alle othere Londes, and is blessed and
halewed of the precyous Body and Blood of oure Lord Jesu Crist; in the
whiche Lond it lykede him to take Flesche and Blood of the Virgyne Marie,
to envyrone that holy Lond with his blessede Feet; and there he wolde of
his blessednesse enoumbre him in the seyd blessed and gloriouse Virgine
Marie, and become Man, and worche many Myracles, and preche and teche the
Feythe and the Lawe of Cristene Men unto his Children; and there it lykede
him to suffre many Reprevinges and Scornes for us; and he that was Kyng of
Hevene, of Eyr, of Erthe, of See and of alle thinges that ben conteyned in
hem, wolde alle only ben cleped Kyng of that Lond, whan he seyde, "_Rex sum
Judeorum_," that is to seyne, "I am Kyng of Jewes;" and that Lond he chees
before alle other. Londes, as the beste and most worthi Lond, and the most
vertouse lond of alle the world: For it is the herte and the myddes of all
the world; wytnessynge the philosophere, that seythe thus; "_Vertus rerum
in medio consistit:_" That is to seye, "The vertue of thinges is in the
myddes;" and in that Lond he wolde lede his lyf, and suffre passioun and
dethe of Jewes, for us; for to bye and to delyvere us from peynes of helle,
and from dethe withouten ende; the whiche was ordeyned for us, for the
synne of oure formere fader Adam, and for oure owne synnes also: for as for
himself, he hadde non evylle deserved: For he thoughte nevere evylle ne dyd
evylle: And he that was kyng of glorie and of joye myghten best in that
place suffre dethe; because he ches in that lond, rathere than in ony
othere, there to suffre his passioun and his dethe: For he that wil
pupplische ony thing to make it openly knowen, he wil make it to ben cryed
and pronounced, in the myddel place of a town; so that the thing that is
proclamed and pronounced, may evenly strecche to alle parties: Righte so,
he that was formyour of alle the world, wolde suffre for us at Jerusalem;
that is the myddes of the world; to that ende and entent, that his passioun
and his dethe, that was pupplischt there, myghte ben knowen evenly to alle
the parties of the world. See now how dere he boughte man, that he made
after his owne ymage, and how dere he azen boghte us, for the grete love
that he hadde to us; and we nevere deserved it to him. For more precyous
catelle ne gretter ransoum, ne myghte he put for us, than his blessede
body, his precyous blood, and his holy lyf, that he thralled for us; and
alle he offred for us, that nevere did synne. A dere God, what love hadde
he to his subjettes, whan he that nevere trespaced, wolde for trespassours
suffre dethe! Righte wel oughte us for to love and worschipe, to drede and
serven suche a Lord; and to worschipe and preyse suche an holy lond, that
broughte forthe suche fruyt, thorghe the whiche every man is saved, but it
be his owne defaute. Wel may that lond be called delytable and a fructuous
lond, that was bebledd [Footnote: Coloured with blood] and moysted with the
precyouse blode of oure Lord Jesu Crist; the whiche is the same lond, that
oure lord behighten us in heritage. And in that lond he wolde dye, as
seised, for to leve it to us his children. Wherfore every gode Cristene
man, that is of powere, and hathe whereof, scholde peynen him with all his
strengthe for to conquere oure righte heritage, and chacen out alle the
mysbeleevynge men. For wee ben clept cristene men, aftre Crist our Fadre.
And zif wee ben righte children of Crist, we oughte for to chalenge the
heritage, that oure Fadre lafte us, and do it out of hethene mennes hondes.
But nowe pryde, covetyse and envye han so enflawmed the hertes of lordes of
the world, that thei are more besy for to disherite here neyghbores, more
than for to chalenge or to conquere here righte heritage before seyd. And
the comoun peple, that wolde putte here bodyes and here catelle, for to
conquere oure heritage, thei may not don it withouten the lordes. For a
semblee of peple withouten a cheventeyn, [Footnote: Chieftain.] or a chief
lord, is as a flock of scheep withouten a schepperde; the whiche departeth
and desparpleth, [Footnote: Disperseth.] and wyten never whidre to go. But
wolde God, that the temporel lordes and all worldly lordes weren at gode
accord, and with the comen peple woulden taken this holy viage over the
see. Thanne I trowe wel, that within a lytyl tyme, our righte heritage
before seyd scholde be reconsyled and put in the hondes of the right heires
of Jesu Crist.

And for als moche as it is longe tyme passed, that there was no generalle
passage ne vyage over the see; and many men desiren for to here speke of
the holy lond, and han thereof great solace and comfort; I John
Maundevylle, Knyght, alle be it I be not worthi, that was born in Englond,
in the town of Scynt Albones, passed the see in the zeer of our Lord Jesu
Crist MCCCXXII, in the day of Seynt Michelle; and hidre [Footnote: There.]
to have ben longe tyme over the see, and have seyn and gon thorghe manye
dyverse londes, and many provynces and Kingdomes and iles, and have passed
thorghe Tartarye, Percye, Ermonye [Footnote: Armenia.] the litylle and the
grete; thorghe Lybye, Caldee, and a gret partie of Ethiope; thorghe
Amazoyne, Inde the lasse and the more, a gret partie; and thorghe out many
othere iles, that ben abouten Inde; where dwellen many dyverse folkes, and
of dyverse manneres and lawes, and of dyverse schappes of men. Of which
londes and iles, I schall speake more pleynly hereaftre. And I schall
devise zou sum partie of thinges that there ben, whan time schalle ben,
aftre it may best come to my mynde; and specially for hem, that wylle and
are in purpos for to visite the holy citee of Jerusalem, and the holy
places that are thereaboute. And I schalle telle the weye, that thei
schulle holden thidre. For I have often tymes passed and ryden the way,
with gode companye of many lordes: God be thonked.

And zee schulle undirstonde, that I have put this boke out of Latyn into
Frensche, and translated it azen out of Frensche into Englyssche, that
every man of my nacioun may undirstonde it. But lordes and knyghtes and
othere noble and worthi men, that conne Latyn but litylle, and han ben
bezonde the see, knowen and undirstonden, zif I erre in devisynge, for
forzetynge, [Footnote: Forgetting.] or elles; that thei mowe redresse it
and amende it. For thinges passed out of longe tyme from a mannes mynde or
from his syght, turnen sone into forzetynge: Because that mynde of man ne
may not ben comprehended ne witheholden, for the freeltee of mankynde.

To teche zou the Weye out of Englond to Constantinoble.

[Sidenote: Cap I.] In the name of God Glorious and Allemyghty. He that wil
passe over the see, to go to the city of Jerusalem, he may go by many
wayes, bothe on see and londe, aftre the contree that hee cometh fro; manye
of hem comen to on ende. But troweth not that I wil telle zou alle the
townes and cytees and castelles, that men schulle go by; for than scholde I
make to longe a tale; but alle only summe contrees and most princypalle
stedes, that men schulle gone thorgh, to gon the righte way.


Iter ab Anglia tam per terras quam per aquas vsque in Constantinopolim.

Qui de Hybernia, Anglia, Scotia, Noruegia, aut Gallia, iter arripit ad
partes Hierosolymitanas potest saltem vsque ad Imperialem Greci Ciuitatem
Constantinopolim eligere sibi modum proficiscendi, siue per terras, siue
per aquas. Et si peregrinando eligit transigere viam, tendat per Coloniam
Agrippinam, et sic per Almaniam in Hungariam ad Montlusant Ciuitatem, sedem
Regni Hungari. [Sidenote: Regis Hungari olim potentia.] Et est Rex
Hungari multum potens istis temporibus. Nam tenet et Sclauoniam, et magnam
partem Regni Comannorum, et Hungariam, et partem Regni Russi. Oportet vt
peregrinus in finibus Hungari transeat magnum Danubij flumen, et vadat in
Belgradum; Hoc flumen oritur inter Montana Almani, et currens versus
Orientem, recipit in se 40. flumina antequam finiatur in mare. De Belgrade
intratur terra Bulgari, et transitur per Pontem petrinum fluuij Marroy, et
per terram Pyncenars, et tunc intratur Grcia, in Ciuitates, Sternes,
Asmopape, et Andrinopolis, et sic in Constantinopolim, vbi communiter est
sedes Imperatoris Greci. Qui autem viam eligit per aquas versus
Constantinopolim nauigare, accipiat sibi portum, prout voluerit, propinquum
siue remotum, Marsili, Pisi, Ianu, Venetijs, Rom, Neapoli, vel alibi:
sicque transeat Tusciam, Campaniam, Italiam, Corsicam, Sardiniam, vsque in
Siciliam, qu diuiditur ab Italia per brachiam maris non magnum. [Sidenote:
Mons tna.] In Sicilia est mons tna iugiter ardens, qui ibidem apellatur
Mons Gibelle, et prter illum habentur ibi loca Golthan vbi sunt septem
leuc quasi semper ignem spirantes: secundum diuersitatem colorum harum
flammarum estimant. [Sidenote: Aeolides insul.] Incol annum fertilem
fore, vel sterilem, siccum vel humidum, calidum, vel frigidum: hc loca
vocant caminos Infernales, et finibus Itali vsque ad ista loca sunt 25.
miliaria. [Sidenote: Temperes Sicili Insul.] Sunt autem in Sicilia aliqua
Pomeria in quibus inueniuntur frondes, flores, et fructus per totum annum,
etiam, in profunda hyeme. Regnum Sicili est bona, et grandis insula habens
in circuitu fer leucas 300. [Sidenote: Leuca Lombardica. Quid sit dieta.]
Et ne quis eret, vel de facili reprehendat quoties scribo leucam,
intelligendum est de leuca Lombardica, qu aliquant maior est Geometrica;
et quoties pono numerum, sub intelligatur fere, vel circiter, siue citra,
et dietam intendo ponere, de 10. Lombardicis leucis: Geometrica autem leuca
describitur, vt notum est, per hos versus.

Quinque pedes passum faciunt, passus quoque centum
Viginti qunque stadium, si millia des que
Octo facis stadia, duplicatum dat tibi leuca.

[Sidenote: Portus Greci.] Postquam itque peregrinus se credidit Deo et
mari, si prospera sibi fuerit nauigatio, non ascendet in terram, donec
intret aliquem portum Greci, scilicet, Myrroyt, Valon, Durase, siue alium
prout Diuin placuerit uoluntati, et exhinc ibit Constantinopolim
pradictam, qua olim Bysantium, vel Vesaton dicebatur. Hic autem notandum
est, qud a portu Venetie, vsque ad Constantinopolim direct per mare
octingent leuc et 80. communiter computantur ibi content.

The English Version.

First, zif a man come from the west syde of the world, as Engelond,
Irelond, Wales, Skotlond or Norwaye; he may, zif that he wole, go thorge
Almayne, and thorge the kyngdom of Hungarye, that marchethe to the lond of
Polayne, and to the lond of Pannonye, and so to Slesie. And the Kyng of
Hungarye is a gret lord and a myghty, and holdeth grete lordschippes and
meche lond in his hond. For he holdeth the kyngdom of Hungarie, Solavonye
and of Comanye a gret part, and of Bulgarie, that men clepen the lond of
Bougiers, and of the Reme of Roussye a gret partie, whereof he hathe made a
Duchee, that lasteth unto the lond of Nyflan, and marchethe to Pruysse. And
men gon thorghe the lond of this lord, thorghe a cytee that is clept
Cypron, and by the castelle of Neaseburghe, and be the evylle town, that
sytt toward the ende of Hungarye. And there passe men the ryvere of
Danubee. This ryvere of Danubee is a fulle gret ryvere; and it gothe into
Almayne, undre the hilles of Lombardye: and it receiveth into him 40 othere
ryveres; and it rennethe thorghe Hungarie and thorghe Greece and thorghe
Traachie, and it entreth into the see, toward the est, so rudely and so
scharply, that the watre of the see is fressche and holdethe his swetnesse
20 myle within the see.

And aftre gon men to Belgrave, and entren into the lond of Bourgres;
[Footnote: Bulgaria.] and there passe men a brigge of ston, that is upon
the ryver of Marrok. [Footnote: The river Maros.] And men passen thorghe
the lond of Pyncemartz, and comen to Greece to the cytee of Nye, and to the
cytee of Fynepape, and aftre to the cytee of Dandrenoble, [Footnote:
Adrianople.] and aftre to Constantynoble, that was wont to be clept


De vrbe Constantinopoli, et reltquijs ibidem contentis.

Constantinopolis pulchra est Ciuitas, et nobilis, triangularis in forma,
firmitrque murata, cuius du partes includuntur mari Hellesponto, qud
plurimi mod appellant brachium sanct Georgij, et aliqui Buke, Troia
vetus. Versus locum vbi hoc brachium exit de mari est late terr planities,
in qu antiquitus stetit Troia Ciuitas de qua apud Poetas mira leguntur sed
nunc vald modica apparent vestigia Ciuitatis. In Constantinopoli habentur
multa mirabilia, ac insuper mult sanctorum venerand relliqui, ac super
omnia, preciosissimi Crux Christi, seu maior pars illius, et tunica
inconsutilis, cum spongia et arandine, et vno clauorum, et dimidia parte
coron spine, cuius altera medietas seruatur in Capetla Regis Franci,
Parisijs. Nam et ego indignus ditigenter pluribus vicibus respexi partem
vtrmque: dabatur quque mihi de illa Parisijs vnica spina, quam vsque nunc
preciose conseruo, et est ipsa spina non lignea sed uelut de iuncis marinis
rigda, et pungitiua. [Sidenote: Eclesia sanct Sophi] Ecclesia
Constantinopolitana in honorem sanct Sophi, id est, ineffabilis Dei
sapienti dedicato dicitur, et nobilissima vniuersarum mundi Ecclesiarum,
tam in schemate artificiosi operis, qum in seruatis ibi sacrosanctis
Relliquijs: [Sidenote: Regina Helena Britanna] nam et continet corpus
sancte Ann matris nostr Domin translatum illuc per Reginam Helenam ab
Hierosolymis: et corpus S. Luc Euangelist translatum de Bethania Iude;
Et Corpus beati Ioannis Chrysostomi ipsius Ciuitatis Episcopi, cum multis
atlijs reliquijs preciosis; quoniam est ibi vas grande cum huiusmodi
reliquijs velut marmoreum de Petra Enhydros; quod iugiter de seipso
desudans aquam semel, in anno inuenitur suo sudore repletum. [Sidenote:
Imago Iustiniani.] Ante hanc Ecclesiam, super columnam marmoream habetur de
re aurato opere fuscrio, magna imago Iustiniani quondam Imperatoris super
equum sedentis, fuit autem primitus in manu imaginis fabricata sphra
rotunda, qu iam diu manu sua sibi cecidit, in signum qud Imperator
muliarum terraram dominium perdidit. Nmque solebat esse Dominus, Romanorum
Grcorum, Asi, Syri, Iude, gypti, Arabi, et Persi, at nunc solum
retinet Greciam, cum aliquibus terris Greci adiacentibus, sicut Calistrum,
Cholchos, Ortigo, Tylbriam, Minos, Flexon, Melos, Carpates, Lemnon,
Thraciam, et Macedoniam totam: Sntque sub eo Caypoplij, et alti
Pyntenardi, ac maxima pars Commannorum. Porr imago tenet manum eleuatam et
extentam in orientem, velut in signum cominationis ad Orientales infideles.
De prdicta terra Thraci fuit Philosophus Aristoteles oriundus in Ciuitate
Stageres, et est ibi in loco tumba eius velut altare, vbi et singulis annis
certo die celebratur populo festum illius, ac si fuisset sanctus.
Temporibus erg magnorum consiliorum conueniunt illuc sapientes terr,
reputantes sibi per inspirationem immitti consilium optimum de agendis.
Item ad diuisionem Thraci et Macedoni sunt duo mirabiliter alti montes,
vnus Olympus, alter Athos, cuius vltimi vmbra orente sole apparet ad 76.
miliaria, vsque in insulam Lemnon. In horum cacumine montium ventus non
currit, nec aer mouetur, quod frequentr probatum est per ingenium
Astronomorum, qui quandque ascendentes scripserunt, literas in puluere,
quas sequenti anno inuenerunt quasi recentr scriptas, et quia est ibi
purus aer sine mixtione elementi aqu necesse est vt ascendentes habeant
secum spongias aqu plenas pro adhelitus respiratione: In prdicta autem
sanct sophi Ecclesia, (sicut ibidem dicitur,) voluit olim quidam
Imperator corpus cuiusdam sui defuncti sepelire cognati: cuius cum
foderetur sepulchrum, ventum est ad mausoleum antiquum in quo super
incineratum corpus iacebat discus auri puri, et erat sculptum in eo literis
Grcis, Hebraicis, et Latinis sic. Iesus Christus nascetur de Virgine, et
ego credo in eum. Et erat simul inscripta data defuncti secundum modum
illius temporis qu continebat duo millia annorum ante incarnationem ipsius
Christi de Maria Virgine. Seruatur quque hodierno tempore eadem patina in
Thesaurario eiusdem Ecclesi, et dicitur illud corpus fuisse Hermetis
sapientis. Omnes quidem, terrarum, regionum et insularum homines, qui isti
Greco obediunt Imperatori sunt Christiani, et baptizati, tamen variant
singuli in aliquo articulo fidem suam a nostra vera fide Catholica, et
diuersificant in multis suos ritus ritibus Roman Ecclesi, quia iamdiu
omiserunt obedire Pontifici Romano, dicentes, quoniam beatus Petrus
Apostolus habuit sedem in Antiochia, quamuis passus fuit in Roma:
[Sidenote: Patriarch Antiocheni authoritas.] Idcirco patriarcha
Antiochenus habet in illis Orientalibus partibus similem potestatem, qum
Pontifex Romanus in istis Occidentalibus. Imperator etiam
Constantinopolitanus creat eorum patriarcham, et instituit pro sua
voluntate Archiepiscopos, et Episcopos, et confert dignitates, et
beneficia, similiter inuenta occasione destituit, deponit, et priuat.

The English Version.

And there dwellethe comounly the Emperour of Greece. And there is the most
fayr chirche and the most noble of alle the world: and it is of Seynt
Sophie. And before that chirche is the ymage of Justynyan the Emperour,
covered with gold, and he sytt upon an hors y crowned. And he was wont to
holden a round appelle of gold in his hond: but it is fallen out thereof.
And men seyn there, that it is a tokene, that the Emperour hathe y lost a
gret partie of his londes, and of his lordschipes: for he was wont to be
Emperour of Romayne and of Grece, of alle Asye the lesse, and of the lond
of Surrye, of the lond of Judee, in the whiche is Jerusalem, and of the
lond of Egypt, of Percye, of Arabye. But he hathe lost alle, but Grece; and
that lond he holt alle only. And men wolden many tymes put the appulle into
the ymages hond azen, but it wil not holde it. This appulle betokenethe the
lordschipe, that he hadde over alle the worlde, that is round. And the
tother hond he lifteth up azenst the est, in tokene to manace the
mysdoeres. This ymage stont upon a pylere of marble at Constantynoble.

Of the Crosse and the Croune of oure Lord Jesu Crist.

[Sidenote: Cap. II.] At Costantynoble is the cros of our Lord Jesu Crist,
and his cote withouten semes, that is clept _tunica inconsutilis_, and the
spounge, and the reed, of the whiche the Jewes zaven oure Lord eyselle
[Footnote: Vinegar] and galle, in the cros. And there is on of the nayles,
that Crist was naylled with on the cros. And some men trowen, that half the
cros, that Crist was don on, be in Cipres, in an abbey of monkes, that men
callen the Hille of the Holy Cros; but it is not so: for that cros, that is
in Cypre, is the cros, in the whiche Dysmas the gode theef was honged onne.
But alle men knowen not that; and that is evylle y don. For profyte of the
offrynge, thei seye, that it is the cros of oure Lord Jesu Crist. And zee
schulle undrestonde, that the cros of oure Lord was made of 4 manere of
trees, as it is conteyned in this vers,

In cruce fit palma, cedrus, cypressus, oliva.

For that pece, that went upright fro the erthe to the heved, [Footnote:
Head.] was of cypresse; and the pece, that wente overthwart, to the whiche
his honds wern nayled, was of palme; and the stock, that stode within the
erthe, in the whiche was made the morteys, was of cedre; and the table
aboven his heved, that was a fote and an half long, on the whiche the title
was writen, in Ebreu, Grece and Latyn, that was of olyve. And the Jewes
maden the cros of theise 4 manere of trees: for thei trowed that oure Lord
Jesu Crist scholde han honged on the cros, als longe as the cros myghten
laste. And therfore made thei the foot of the cros of cedre. For cedre may
not, in erthe ne in watre, rote. And therfore thei wolde, that it scholde
have lasted longe. For thei trowed, that the body of Crist scholde have
stonken; therfore thei made that pece, that went from the erthe upward, of
cypres: for it is welle smellynge; so that the smelle of his body scholde
not greve men, that wenten forby. And the overhwart pece was of palme: for
in the Olde Testament, it was ordyned, that whan on overcomen, he scholde
be crowned with palme: and for thei trowed, that thei hadden the victorye
of Crist Jesus, therfore made thei the overthwart pece of palme. [Footnote:
The reference is to the Olympic Games.] And the table of the tytle, thei
maden of olyve; for olyve betokenethe pes. And the storye of Noe
wytnessethe, whan that the culver [Footnote: Dove. Anglo-Saxon, _Cuifra_.]
broughte the braunche of olyve, that betokened pes made betwene God and
man. And so trowed the Jewes for to have pes, when Crist was ded: for thei
seyd, that he made discord and strif amonges hem. And zee schulle
undirstonde, that oure Lord was y naylled on the cros lyggynge; and
therfore he suffred the more peyne. And the Cristene men, that dwellen
bezond the see, in Grece, seyn that the tree of the cros, that we callen
cypresse, was of that tree, that Adam ete the appulle of: and that fynde
thei writen. And thei seyn also, that here Scripture seythe, that Adam was
seek, [Footnote: Sick] and seyed to his sone Sethe, that he scholde go to
the Aungelle, that kepte paradys, that he wolde senden hym oyle of mercy,
for to anoynte with his membres, that be myghte have hele. And Sethe wente.
But the aungelle wolde not late him come in; but seyd to him, that he
myghte not have of the oyle of mercy. But he toke him three greynes of the
same tree, that his fadre eet the appelle offe; and bad him, als sone as
his fadre was ded, that he scholde putte theise three greynes undre his
tonge, and grave him so: and he dide. And of theise three greynes sprang a
tree, as the aungelle seyde, that it scholde, and bere a fruyt, thorghe the
whiche fruyt Adam scholde be saved. And whan Sethe cam azen, he fonde his
fadre nere ded. And whan he was ded he did with the greynes, as the
aungelle bad him; of the whiche sprongen three trees, of the whiche the
cros was made, that bare gode froyt and blessed, oure Lord Jesu Crist;
thorghe whom, Adam and alle that comen of him, scholde be saved and
delyvered from drede of dethe withouten ende, but it be here own defaute.
This holy cros had the Jewes hydde in the erthe, undre a roche of the Mownt
of Calvarie; and it lay there 200 zeer and more, into the tyme that Seynt
Elyne, that was modre to Constantyn the Emperour of Rome. And sche was
doughtre of Kyng Cool born in Colchestre, that was Kyng of Engelond, that
was clept thanne, Brytayne the more; the whiche the Emperour Constance
wedded to his wyf, for here bewtee, and gat upon hire Constantyn, that was
aftre Emperour of Rome.

And zee schulle undirstonde, that the cros of oure Lord was eyght cubytes
long, and the overthwart piece was of lengthe thre cubytes and an half. And
a partie of the crowne of oure Lord, wherwith he was crowned, and on of the
nayles, and the spere heed, and many other relikes ben in France, in the
kinges chapelle. And the crowne lythe in a vesselle of cristalle richely
dyghte. For a kyng of Fraunce boughte theise relikes somtyme of the Jewes;
to whom the Emperour had leyde hem to wedde, for a gret summe of sylvre.
And zif alle it be so, that men seyn, that this croune is of thornes, zee
schulle undirstonde, that it was of jonkes of the see, that is to sey,
rushes of the see, that prykken als scharpely as thornes. For I have seen
and beholden many tymes that of Parys and that of Costantynoble: for thei
were bothe on, made of russches of the see. But men han departed hem in two
parties: of the whiche, o part is at Parys, and the other part is at
Costantynoble. And I have on of tho precyouse thornes, that semethe licke a
white thorn; and that was zoven to me for gret specyaltee. For there are
many of hem broken and fallen into the vesselle, that the croune lythe in:
for thei breken for dryenesse, whan men meven hem, to schewen hem to grete
lords, that comen thidre.

And zee schalle undirstonde, that oure Lord Jesu, in that nyghte that he
was taken, he was y lad in to a gardyn; and there he was first examyned
righte scharply; and there the Jewes scorned him, and maden him a crowne of
the braunches of albespyne, that is white thorn, that grew in that same
gardyn, and setten it on his heved, so faste and so sore, that the blood
ran down be many places of his visage, and of his necke, and of his
schuldres. And therfore hathe white thorn many vertues: for he that berethe
a braunche on him thereoffe, no thondre ne no maner of tempest may dere
him; ne in the hows, that it is inne, may non evylle gost entre ne come
unto the place that it is inne. And in that same gardyn, Seynt Petre denyed
our Lord thryes. Aftreward was oure Lord lad forthe before the bisschoppes
and the maystres of the lawe, in to another gardyn of Anne; and there also
he was examyned, repreved, and scorned, and crouned eft with a whyte thorn,
that men clepethe barbarynes, that grew in that gardyn, and that hathe also
manye vertues. And aftreward he was lad in to a gardyn of Cayphas, and
there he was crouned with eglentier. And aftre he was lad in to the chambre
of Pylate, and there he was examynd and crouned. And the Jewes setten him
in a chayere and cladde him in a mantelle; and there made thei the croune
of jonkes of the see; and there thei kneled to him, and skornede him,
seyenge, _Ave, Rex Judeorum_, that is to seye, _Heyl, Kyng of Jewes_. And
of this croune, half is at Parys, and the other half at Costantynoble. And
this croune had Crist on his heved, whan he was don upon the cros: and
therfore oughte men to worschipe it and holde it more worthi than ony of
the othere.

And the spere schaft hathe the Emperour of Almayne: but the heved is at
Parys. And natheles the Emperour of Costantynoble seythe that he hathe the
spere heed: and I have often tyme seen it; but it is grettere than that at

Of the Cytee of Costantynoble, and of the Feithe of Grekis.

[Sidenote: Cap. III.] At Costantynoble lyethe Seynte Anne oure Ladyes
modre, whom Seynte Elyne dede brynge fro Jerusalem. And there lyethe also
the body of Iohn Crisostome, that was Erchebisschopp of Costantynoble. And
there lythe also Seynt Luke the Evaungelist: for his bones werein broughte
from Bethanye, where he was beryed. And many other relikes ben there. And
there is the vesselle of ston, as it were of marbelle, that men clepen
enydros, that evermore droppeth watre, and fillethe himself everiche zeer,
til that it go over above, withouten that that men take fro withinne.

Costantynoble is a fulle fayr cytee, and a gode and a wel walled, and it is
three cornered. And there is an arm of the see Hellespont: and sum men
callen it the mouthe of Costantynoble; and sum men callen it the brace of
Seynt George: and that arm closethe the two partes of the cytee. And upward
to the see, upon the watre, was wont to be the grete cytee of Troye, in a
fulle fayr playn: but that cytee was destroyed by hem of Grece, and lytylle
apperethe there of, be cause it so longe sithe it was destroyed.

Abouten Grece there ben many iles, as Calistre,[Footnote: Calliste, one of
the Cyclades.] Calcas, [Footnote: Colchos.] Critige, [Footnote: Cerigo.]
Tesbria, [Footnote: Resorio.] Mynea, [Footnote: Mynia is a town in the
Island of Amorgos.] Flaxon, [Footnote: Flexos.] Melo, [Footnote: Milo.]
Carpate, [Footnote: Carpathos, probably.] and Lempne. [Footnote: Lemnos.]
And in this ile is the Mount Athos, [Footnote: Athos is on the main land,
on a promontory S.E. of Solonica.] that passeth the cloudes. And there ben
many dyvers langages and many contreys, that ben obedyent to the Emperour;
that is to seyn Turcople, Pyneynard, Cornange, and manye othere, at
Trachye, [Footnote: Thrace.] and Macedoigne, of the whiche Alisandre was
kyng. In this contree was Aristotle born, in a cytee that men clepen
Stragera, a lytil fro the cytee of Trachaye. And at Stragera lythe
Aristotle; and there is an awtier upon his toumbe: and there maken men
grete festes of hym every zeer, as thoughe he were a seynt. And at his
awtier, thei holden here grete conseilles and here assembleez: and thei
hopen, that thorghe inspiracioun of God and of him, thei schulle have the
better conseille. In this contree ben righte hyghe hilles, toward the ende
of Macedonye. And there is a gret hille, that men clepen Olympus,
[Footnote: The altitude is 9753 feet.] that departeth Macedonye and
Trachye: and it is so highe, that it passeth the cloudes. And there is
another hille, that is clept Athos, [Footnote: It is only 6678 feet. This
is the old Greek verse: [Greek: Athoos kaluptei pleura lemnias boos.]] that
is so highe, that the schadewe of hym rechethe to Lempne, that is an ile;
and it is 76 myle betwene. And aboven at the cop of the hille is the eir so
cleer, that men may fynde no wynd there. And therefore may no best lyve
there; and so is the eyr drye. And men seye in theise contrees, that
philosophres som tyme wenten upon theise hilles, and helden to here nose a
spounge moysted with watre, for to have eyr; for the eyr above was so drye.
And aboven, in the dust and in the powder of the hilles, thei wroot lettres
and figures with hire fingres: and at the zeres end thei comen azen, and
founden the same lettres and figures, the whiche thei hadde writen the zeer
before, withouten ony defaute. And therfore it semethe wel, that theise
hilles passen the clowdes and joynen to the pure eyr.

At Constantynoble is the palays of the Emperour, righte fair and wel
dyghte: and therein is a fair place for justynges, or for other pleyes and
desportes. And it is made with stages and hath degrees aboute, that every
man may wel se, and non greve other. And undre theise stages ben stables
wel y vowted [Footnote: Vaulted.] for the Emperours hors; and alle the
pileres ben of Marbelle. And with in the chirche of Seynt Sophie, an
emperour somtyme wolde have biryed the body of his fadre, whan he was ded;
and as thei maden the grave, thei founden a body in the erthe, and upon the
body lay a fyn plate of gold; and there on was writen, in Ebreu, Grece and
Latyn, lettres that seyden thus, _Jesu Cristus nascetur de Virgine Maria,
et ego credo in eum_: That is to seyne, _Jesu Crist schalle be born of the
Virgyne Marie, and I trowe in hym_. And the date whan it was leyd in the
erthe, was 2000 zeer before oure Lord was born. And zet is the plate of
gold in the thresorye of the chirche. And men seyn, that it was Hermogene
the wise man.

And zif alle it so be, that men of Grece ben Cristene, zit they varien from
our feithe. For thei seyn, that the Holy Gost may not come of the Sone; but
alle only of the Fadir. And thei are not obedyent to the Chirche of Rome,
ne to the Pope. And thei seyn, that here patriark hathe as meche power over
the see as the Pope hathe on this syde the see. And therefore Pope Johne
the 22'd sende letters to hem, how Christene feithe scholde ben alle on;
and that thei scholde ben obedyent to the Pope, that is Goddis vacrie
[Footnote: Vicar.] on erthe; to whom God zaf his pleyn power, for to bynde
and to assoille: and therfore thei scholde ben obedyent to him. And thei
senten azen dyverse answeres; and amonges other, thei seyden thus:
_Potentiam tuam summam, circa tuos subjectos firmiter credimus. Superbiam
tuam summam tolerare non possumus. Avaritiam tuam summam satiare non
intendimus. Dominus tecum: quia Dominus nobiscum est_. That is to seye: _We
trowe wel, that thi power is gret upon thi subgettes. We mai not suffre thi
high pryde. We ben not in purpos to fulfille thi gret covetyse. Lord be
with thi: for oure Lord is with us. Fare welle_. And other answere myghte
he not have of hem. And also thei make here sacrement of the awteer of
therf [Footnote: Unleavened. _Anglo-Saxon_, eorf ('peorf' in source
text--KTH)] bred: for oure Lord made it of suche bred, whan he made his
mawndee. [Footnote: Last Supper.] And on the Scherethors [Footnote: Shrove
Thursday.] day make thei here therf bred, in tokene of the mawndee, and
dryen it at the sonne, and kepen it alle the zeer, and zeven it to seke
men, in stede of Goddis body. And thei make but on unxioun, whan thei
christene children. And thei annoynte not the seke men. And thei saye, that
there nys no purgatorie, and the soules schulle not have nouther joye ne
peyne, tille the day of doom. And thei seye, that fornicatioun is no synne
dedly, but a thing that is kyndely: and the men and women scholde not wedde
but ones; and whoso weddethe oftere than ones, here children ben bastardis
and geten in synne. And here prestis also ben wedded. And thei saye also,
that usure is no dedly synne. And they sellen benefices of Holy Chirche:
and so don men in others places: God amende it, whan his wille is. And that
is gret sclaundre. [Footnote: Scandal.] For now is symonye kyng crouned in
Holy Chirche: God amende it for his mercy. And thei seyn, that in Lentone,
men schulle nor faste, ne synge masse; but on the Satreday and on the
Sonday. And thei faste not on the Satreday, no tyme of the zeer, but it be
Cristemasse even on Estre even. And thei suffre not the Latines to syngen
at here awteres: and zif thei done, be ony aventure, anon thei wasschen the
awteer with holy watre. And thei seyn, that there scholde be but o masse
seyd at on awtier, upon o day. And thei seye also, that oure Lord ne eet
nevere mete: but he made tokene etyng. And also thei seye, that wee synne
dedly, in schavynge oure berdes. For the berd is tokene of a man, and zifte
of oure Lord. And thei seye, that wee synne dedly, in etynge of bestes,
that weren forboden in the Old Testament, and of the olde lawe; as swyn,
hares, and othere bestes, that chewen not here code. And thei seyn, that
wee synnen, when wee eten flessche on the dayes before Assche Wednesday,
and of that wee eten flessche the Wednesday, and egges and chese upon the
Frydayes. And thei accursen alle tho, that absteynen hem to eten flessche
the Satreday. Also the Emperour of Costantynoble makethe the patriarke, the
erchebysschoppes and bisschoppes; and zevethe dygnytees and the benefices
of chirches, and deprivethe hem that ben worthy, whan he fyndethe ony
cause. And so is the lord bothe temperelle and spirituelle, in his contree,
And zif zee wil wite [Footnote: Know.] of here A, B, C, what lettres thei
ben, here zee may seen hem, with the names, that thei clepen hem there
amonges them.

Alpha, Betha, Gamma, Deltha, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, Theta, Iota, Kappa,
Lambda, My,Ny, Xi, Omicron, Pi, Rho, Sigma, Tau, Upsilon, Phi, Chi, Psi,
Omega. [Greek letters removed for pain-text edition--KTH]

And alle be it that theise thinges touchen not to o way, nevertheles thei
touchen to that, that I have hight zou, to schewe zou a partie of custumes
and maneres, and dyversitees of contrees. And for this is the first contree
that is discordant in feythe and in beleeve, and variethe from our feythe,
on this half the see, therefore I have sett it here, that zee may knowe the
dyversitee that is betwene our feythe and theires. For many men han gret
lykynge to here speke of straunge thinges of dyverse contreyes.


Via tam per terras quam per aquas Constantinopoli vsque Acharon.
[Marginal note: Vel Achon.]

A Constantinopoli qui voluerit ire pedes, transibit statim nauigio Brachium
Sancti Georgij quod satis est strictum, ibque ad Ruphinal quod est forte
castrum, inde ad Puluereal, et hinc ad castrum Synopulum. Ex tunc intrat
Cappadociam, terram latam sed plenam altis montibus, deinde Turciam ad
portum Theueron, et ad Ciuitatem ita dictam, nunc munitam firmis turribus,
ac muris, per quam transit fluuius Reglay. Postea transitur sub Alpibus
Noyremont, et per valles de Mallenbrinis in districto Rupium, ac per villam
Doronarum, et alias villas adiacentes fluuijs Reglay, et Granconi, scque
peruenitur ad Antiochiam minorem super Reglay, qu vocatur nobilior Ciuitas
Syri: Notandum autem qud Regnum olim dictum Syria, mod communiter
vocatur Suria. [Sidenote: Antiochia.] Ista ver Antiochia, est magna,
pulchra, ac firma, licet quandque maior, pulchrior, ac firmior fuerit.
Tunc autem transitur per Ciuitates Laonsam, Gibellam, Tortusiam, Toruplam,
et Berythum super mare vbi sanctus Georgius fertur occidisse Draconem. Hinc
pergitur in Ciuitatem nunc dictam Acon, quondam Ptolomaidem, antiquits
Acharon, qu tempore quo eam vltim Christiani tenebant circa annum
incarntionis Domini 1280. erat Ciuitas vald fortis, sed mod apparent eius
magn ruin. Porr a Constantinopoli poterit peregrinus facilis versus
Hierosolymorum partes per mare nauigare quam per terras peregrinare
prdictas, si deus illi propitius fuerit, et mare fidem conseruauerit.
[Sidenote: Sio.] Qui erg a Constantinopoli iter transire nauigando
disponit, tendat ad Ciuitatem [Marginal Note: Vel Smyrnam.] Myrnam vbi nunc
ossa Sancti Nicholai venerantur, et sic procedendo per multa maritima loca
veniet ad Insulam Sio vbi crescit gummi mastix lucidum: Inde ad Insulam
Pathmos Sancti Ioannis Euangelist, et ad Ephesum vbi idem noscitur
sepultus: hanc totam minorem Asiam tenent nunc pessimi Turci, et eam
appellant minorem Turciam. Post Ephesum nauigatur per plures Insulas vsque
Pataram Ciuitatem, vnd oriundus fuit beatus Nicholaus, ac per Myrrheam vbi
stetit Ephesus, vbi nascuntur fortia vina vald, deinde ad Insulam Cret,
hinc Coos postea Lango, vnd Hypocrates Medicus dicitur natus: [Sidenote:
Rhodus Insula.] tuncque ad grandem Insulam Rhodum; et sciendum quod a
Constantinopoli vsque Rhodum, per mare dicuntur ducent octuaginta leuc.
Hanc insulam totam tenent, et gubernant Christiani Hospitalarij nunc
temporis, qu quondam Colosse dicebatur: nam et multi Saracenorum adhuc eam
sic appellant, vnde et Epistola, quam beatus Paulus ad habitatores huius
Insul scripsit, intitulabatur ad Colossenses. Ab hoc loco nauigando in
Cyprum, aspicitur absorptio Ciuitatis Sathali, qu sicut olim Sodoma
dicitur perijsse, propter vnicum crimen contra naturam a quodam Iuuene
petulante commissum. [Sidenote: Cyprus Insula.] Sciendum quod a Rhodo ad
Cyprum feruntur plen quingent quinquaginta leuc: Cyprus magna, et
pulchra est Insula habens Archiepiscopatum, cum quinque Episcopatibus
suffraganeis: Illuc Famagosta, est vnus de principalibus portibus mundi, in
quo fer omnium mercatores conueniunt nationum, tam Christianorum, quam
multorum Paganorom, et similiter apud portum Limechon. Est ibi et Abbatia
ordinis sancti Benedicti, in monte sanct Crucis, vbi dicitur saluati
latronis seruari crux, qui in eadem cruce audiuit Christo, Hodi mecum
eris in Paradiso. [Sidenote: Fortis Cypr vina.] Corpus etiam sancti
Hylarionis seruatur ibi, in castro Damers quod Rex Cypri facit
diligentissim custodiri: Vltr modum fortia vina nascuntur in Cypro, qu
primo rubra, post annum albescunt, et quo vetustiora, eo albiora ac magis
odorifera, ac fortia efficiuntur. Vlteris paucissim vill, aut Ciuitates
sunt Christianorum, sed fer omnia Saraceni possident infideles: et proh
dolor, ab Anno 1200. incarnationis Domini aut circa, pacific tenuerunt.
[Sidenote: Ioppa, vel Iaffe.] Qui autem a Cypro prospere legit spacia
maris, poterit in duobus naturalibus diebus peruenire in portum Iopp, qui
Iaffe nunc nuncupatur, et proximus est a Ireusalem, distans 16, tantum
leucas, hoc est dieta cum dimidia. [Sidenote: Portus Tyri, alias Sur.] Et
sciendum quod circa medium, inter Cyprum, et Iaffe est portus Tyri quondam
munitissim Ciuitatis, hanc dum vltimo Saraceni Christianis ceperunt
turpissim destruxerunt, custodientes iam curios portum, timore
Christianorum. Iste portus non vocatur modo Tyrus, sed Sur. Nam et ab illa
parte est ibi introitus terr Suri. Ante istam Ciuitatem Tyrum habetur
quidam lapis, super quem dominus noster Iesus Christus sedendo suis
discipulis vel populis prdicauit. Vnde, et Christiani olim super hunc
locum construxerunt Ecclesiam in nomine Saluatoris. Peregrinus vero qui ab
hoc loco vult peregrinari, moros sciat, quod ad octo leucas Tyro in
orientem est Sarepta Sydoniorum, vbi olim Elias Propheta filium vidu
suscitauit a morte. Itemque sciat, quod Tyro in vnica dieta pergere
potest in Achon, siue Acharon supra scripta. [Sidenote: Achon, olim
Acharon. Mons Carmeli.] Circa Acon verss mare, ad 120. stadia, quorum 16.
leucam constituunt, est mons Carmeli, vbi morabatur prfatus Elias, et
super alium montem Villa Saffra vbi sanctus Iacobus, et Ioannes germani
Apostoli nascebantur, et in quorum natiuitatis loco pulchra habetur
Ecclesia. [Sidenote: Fossa Beleon.] Item prop Acon ad ripam dictam Beleon,
est fossa multum vtilis, et mirabilis qu dicitur fossa Mennon, hc est
rotunda circumferentia, cuius diameter continet prope 100. cubitos, plena
alba et resplendente arena, et mundi ex qua conficitur mundum et perlucidum
vitrum. Pro hac arena venitur per aquas, et per terras, et exportatur
manibus et vehiculis prop et procul, et quantumcnque de die exhauritur,
repleta man altero reperitur: Et est in fossa ventus grandis et iugis, qui
mirabiliter arenam commouere videtur. Si quis autem vitrum de hac arena
factum in fossa reponeret, conuerteretur iterum in arenam, et qui imponeret
frustum metalli, verteretur in vitrum: nonnulli reputant hanc fossam esse
spiraculum maris arenosi, de quo mari aliquid locuturus sum in sequentibus.
Ab Acon via versus Jerusalem bifurcatur: nam qui tenet vnum latus potest
ire secus Iordanem fluuium, in Ciuitatem Damascum, qui ver aliud, ibit in
tribus aut quatuor dietis Gazam, de qua olim fortis Samson asportauit nocte
fores portarum: deinde in Csaream Philippi, et Ascalonem, et Ioppam portum
supradictum, Hincque in Rama, et Castellum Emaus, et sic in Ierusalem vrbem


Via Francia aut Flandria per solas terras vsque Ierusalem.

Itineribus, qu per terras, et per mare a nostris partibus ducunt in terram
promissionis descriptis, restat breuiter dicendum de alia via, per quam
omnino mare transeundum non est, videlicet per Almaniam, per Bohemiam, per
Prussiam, et hinc per terram Paganorum regni Lituani, et sic per longam,
et pessimam terram prim Tartari vsque in Indiam: Dico autem Tartari
prim, quoniam de hac exijt primus Imperator totius Tartari, qui semper
vocatur Grand Can, quo vix maiorem mundus habet terrenum Dominum, excepto
Imperatore superioris Indi, de quibus in secunda et tertia huius tractatus
partibus, aliquanto est diffusius narrandum. Cuncti principes huius prim
Tartari, quorum summus semper vocatur Bachu, et moratur in Ciuitate Horda,
[Marginal note: Horda est multitudo riuens in agris.] reddunt Imperatore
Grand Can, magna tributa. [Sidenote: Mores Tartarorum.] Est autem hc prima
Tartaria terra misera et sabulosa, et infructuosa: hoc enim scio, qud per
aliquod tempus steti in ea, et perambulaui Insulas, regiones, et terras
circumiacentes, scilicet, Russi, Inflau, Craco, Latton, Restau, et alias
nonnullas: crescunt nmque in ista Tartaria modica blada, pauca vina, et
fructuum, ac frugum parua copia, exceptis herbis pro pastu Bestiarum,
quarum ibi est abundantia: nam carnibus illarum vescuntur pro omnibus
cibarijs, ius earum sorbentes, et pro potu bibentes lac de omni genere
bestiarum. Quin etiam pauperiores manducant canes, lupos, catos, ratos,
talpas, ac mures, ac huiusmodi bestiolas omnes: sed nec aliquis Princeps
aut prlatus comedit vltra semel in die, et hoc parc, vel parcissim: et
sunt homines vald immundi, quia non nisi ben diuites vtuntur mappis,
linteaminibus, aut lineis indumentis: sed nec habent copiam lignorum, vnde
et fimum boum, ac omnium bestiarum desiccatum ad solem accipiunt pro ignis
materia, vbi se calefaciunt, et coquendo coquunt. Aestiuo tempore, cadunt
ibi frequenter tempestates, tonitruorum, fulminum, et grandinum, quibus
domus, arbores, besti, et homines, comburuntur, euelluntur, et occiduntur.
Nam et quandoque subrepent oritur ibi calor immoderatus, et improuiso
frigus immoderatum. Denque cum terra illa, se multum inclinet ad polum
Septentrionalem, fortius ibi gelare solet, et frequentius, ac diutius qum
ad partes nostras, vnde et quasi omnes habent ibi stupas, in quibus
manducant, et operantur. [Sidenote: Hyeme prcipue iter faciunt per
terram.] Nec valet nostris partibus ingredi ad illam nisi tempore
gelicidij, quod ad introitum eius sunt tres dict, de via molli, aquatica,
et profunda, in qua dum viator putaret se stare securum, profunderetur in
lutum ad tibias, ad genua, ad femora vel ad renes: hoc ergo sciendum qud
paucissimi tendunt per hanc viam in terram promissionis: Nam iter est
graue, distortum, longum, et periculosum sicut audistis, im periculosius
qum scribo.


Via de Cypro vel Ierusalem vsque in Babyloniam gypti.

Descripto sicut potui triplicitr itinere in terram sanctam, restat videre
de duabus alijs vijs, qu incidentr solent contingere peregrinis: Multi
nmque illorum ex speciali deuotione desiderant visitare ossa beatissim
Virginis Catharin in monte Sinay: [Sidenote: Babylonia Aegypti.] Cum
igitur ipsis sit necessarius Soldani Babyloni conductus eo quod Imperator
sit, et dominus omnium illarum terrarum, quidam postquam perueniunt in
Cyprum tendunt prim in Babyloniam gypti, pro impetrando conductu securo,
tque ind pergentes in Sinay vadunt in Ierusalem. Quidam ver postquam
perfecerunt peregrinationem Hierosolymitanam, pergunt per terras ad
Soldanum pro conductu, et tum in Sinay, propter qud vtramque viam breuiter
describo. [Sidenote: Damiata portus Aegypti.] De Cypro in gyptum itur per
mare relinquendo Hierosolymorum terram ad manum sinistram, et accipitur
primus portus gypti, dictus Damiata: ibi quondam fuit Ciuitas vald
munita, sed quod Christiani illam, primi et altera vice ceperunt, Sarraceni
vltim destruxerunt, et aliam remotius mari eiusdem nominis Ciuitatem
dificauerunt: [Sidenote: Alexandria.] Hinc venitur in portum Alexandri
gypti, qu est Ciuitas magna, pulchra, et fortis valde, sed bsque aquis
potabilibus. Adducit tamen sibi per longos ductus aquam Nili fluminis in
cisternis ad potandum. Alexandria nobilis, 30. stadia habet longitudinis
decmque in latum. In ea restant adhuc plures Ecclesi tempore
Christianorum, sed Sarraceni non sustinentes picturas Sanctorum omnes
parietes albauerunt. De Alexandria per terras venitur in Babyloniam gypti,
qu etiam fundata iacet supra prdictum Nilum fluuium: Dicitur autem hc
Babylonia minor ad differentiam magn Babyloni, siue Babel, vbi Deus
linguas confudit olim, qu tendendo inter Orientem et Septentrionem distat
ab ista dietas circiter 40. nec est sub potestate Soldani, sed Imperatoris
Persarum, qui illam tenet in homagio ab Imperatore Cathay, dicto, Grand
Can. [Sidenote: Cayr ciuitas.] Hc autem Babylonia gypti est Ciuitas
grandis et fortis, tamen vald prope eam est alia maior dicta Cayr, in qua
vt spis residet Soldanus, quanquam Babylonia nomen per seculum diffusius
est cognitum: Altera autem via peregrinorum de Hierosolymis pro conducta
tendentium ad Soldanum talis esse potest. [Sidenote: Abilech desertum.]
Prim tendant de Ierusalem in supr dictam Gazam Palestinorum, inde ad
Castellum Dayre, tque ex tunc exitur de terra Syri, et intratur
superiori parte in desertum longum arenosum, et sterile, prop ad septem
dietas, quod lingua eorum vocatur Abilech; tamen per illud inueniantur
plura hospitia, vbi haberi possunt ad victum nccessaria. Et qui in eundo
rectum iter tenet, veniet in Ciuitatem dictam, Balbes, qu est ad finem
Regni Halapi: Scque expleto Deserto, intratur terra gypti, quam ipsi
Canopat vocant, et aliqui Mersur, tque ex tunc in Babyloniam, et Cayr,
prfatam: In ista ver Babylonia habetur pulchra Ecclesia Mari virginis,
in loco vbi morabatur cum filio suo, et Ioseph tempore su fug, et
creditur ibi contineri corpus Virginis Barbar.


De Pallatio Soldani, ac numero, et nominibus prteritorum Soldanorum.

Cayr ciuitas Imperialis et Regalis est vald munita, et grandis, decorata
sede propria Sarracenorum Regn, vbi dominus eorum Soldanus communiter
residere solet, in suo Calahelick, id est, castro forti, et lato, ac in
euecta rupe statuto. Siquidem Soldanus eorum lingua sonat nomen similis
maiestatis, quo nos in Latino dicimus Csarem, aut Imperatorem. Pro
custodia huius Castri sunt ibidem omni tempore morantes sex millia
personarum, et pro, seruiendo, dum ibi residet, ipsi Soldano, qui omnes de
Curia eadem accipiunt necessaria, et donatiua. Iste Imperator Soldanus, est
Rex, Dominsque quinque Regnoram magnorum: Canopat, hoc est, gypti: totius
Iude, sicut olim Dauid, et Salomon; Halapi, in terra Machsyri, cuius
ciuitas Damascus olim erat principalis; Arabi, quod est regnum vald
protensum, et cum his possidet dominatus omnium Caliphorum: ad quod
sciendum, qud quaundque fuerunt tres Caliphorum dominatus: Ex quibus
primus Caliphus qui dicebatur Chaldorum, et Arabum, cuius erat sedes in
Ciuitate Baldac. Alter Barbarorum et Affricorum, cuius erat sedes in Maroco
super Mare Hispani. Tertius Aegypti: [Sidenote: Caliphus quid sit.] Est
autem Caliphus inter eos, velut inter nos Imperator, et Papa simul,
scilicet, Dominus temporalium et spiritualium. [Sidenote: Series Soldanorum
Aegypti.] Exactis igitur Caliphis circa annum incarnationis Christi 1150,
primus Soldanorum fuit nominatus Saracon: secundus filius eius, Saladin,
qui anno 1190. cum Turcis totam fer terram promissionis abstulit
Christianis. Et sub quo Richardus Rex Angli cum alijs principibus
Christianis custodiebat passum Rupium, ne ille sicut proposuerat transire,
profecisset vltra. Tertius Melachsala, quo sanctus Ludouicus rex Franci
captiuabatur in bello. Quartus Turquenna, qui Regem prdictum redemi
dimisit pro pecunia. Quintus Meleth. Sextus Melethemes. Septimus Melec
dayr, sub quo Edwardus Rex Angli intrauit cum nostris Syriam, damnificans
plurimum Sarracenos. [Sidenote: Edwardus princeps Angli, Regis Hen. 3.
filius.] Octauus Melec salle. Nonus Elphi, qui Anno Incarnationis Domini
1289. destruxit in illis partibus enormiter Christianos, et penitus omnes
inde fugauit, atque recepit Tripolim Ciuitatem. Decimus Melethasseras: hic
cepit Anno Domini 1291. in octaua pasch Accharon, fugatis vel occisis ex
ea omnibus Christianis. Exinde amissis succedentium nominibus, sextus
decimus dicebatur vel dicitur Melec Mandibron: sub isto steti ego per
aliquod tempus stipendiarius in guerris suis contra Bedones, qui ei tunc
temporis rebellabant. Horum etiam mores, et continentiam populorum, in
sequentibus declarabo: sicut veraciter fateri possum, ipse ad filiam
cuiusdam sui Principis me obtulit vxorare, et magnis dotari possessionibus,
dummod Christianitati resignassem: Emque dimisi Soldanum, quando de
partibus illis recessi. [Sidenote: Potentia Soldani Aegypti.] Soldanus
prter homines ad sua castra seruanda deputatos, potest educere quoties
velit in exercitum de hominibus de ipsius stipendijs viuentibus et ad eius
iugitr mandata paratis, 20. millia armatorum, ex sola gypto: Et ex Syria,
et Turcia, et alijs terris, 50. millia exceptis ruralibus, et Ciuitatem
comitatibus, qui sunt velut innumerabiles. Miles quidem stipendiarius
recipit de Curia pro anni Tempore 121. aureos, et sub tali stipendio seruit
cum tribus equis et vno Camelo. Quadringenti vel Quingenti horum militum
ordinati sunt sub vno rectore, que vocatur Admirabilis: Et ille solus
recipit de curia tantum, sicut omnes sibi subditi: Notandum quod nunquam
extraneus Nuncius ire permittitur ad Soldanum nisi auratis indutus
vestibus, vel panno Tartarico aut camoleoto ad modum nobilium Sarracenorum:
[Sidenote: Reuerentia exhibita Soldano.] et oportet vt vbicunque primum
nuncius Soldanum aspiciat, siue ad fenestras, siue alibi, vt cadat ad
genua, vel protinus osculetur terram, quia talem reuerentiam facere, signum
est qud ille desiderat ei loqui. Quamdiu autem tales loquuntur sibi, aut
literas ostendunt, circumstant Apparitores extensis brachijs leuatos
tenentes mucrones, gladios, gezas, et mackas ad feriendum, et occidendum,
si quid dictum vel nunciatum fuerit, quod Imperatori displiceat, quam cit
ille signauerit trucidari. Veruntamen sciendum est qud nullius hominis
personaliter ab ipso quidquam petentis consueuit repellere preces
rationabiles, et contra eorum leges aut mores non venientes. Porr ego in
Curia manens, vidi circa Soldanum vnum venerabilem, et expertum medicum, de
nostris partibus oriundum: [Marginal note: Cuius nomen erat M. Ioannes ad
Barbam.] solet namque circa se retinere diuersarum medicos nationum, et
quos nominand audierit esse fam: Nos tamen rar inuicem conuenimus ad
colloquium, e qud meum seruitium cum suo modicum congruebat: longo autem
poste tempore, et ab illo loco remot, videlicet in Leodij ciuitate,
composui hortatu et adiutorio eiusdem venerabilis viri hunc tractatum,
sicut in fine operis totius enarrabo. Itmque in Cayr ciuitate ducuntur ad
forum communitur tam viri qum mulieres aliarum legum, et nationum venales,
et ad modum bestiaram venduntur pro pecunia ad seruiendum in suis
artificijs. [Sidenote: Mos oua furnis fouendi.] Habetur quoque ibi domus
plena furnis paruis, in quibus per custodes domus tam hyeme qum state
fouentur oua gallinarum, anatum, aucarum, et columbarum, vsque ad
procreationem suorum pullorum, et hijs intendunt, pro certo pretio
accipiendo mulierculis illic oua ferentibus.


De Campo Balsami in Egypto.

[Sidenote: Balsamum.] Extra hanc ciuitatem Cayr, est Campus seu ager
Balsami: circa quod sciendum, qud optimum totius mundi Balsamum in magno
crescit Indi deserto, vbi Alexander Magnus dicitur quondam locutus fuisse
arboribus Solis et Lun, de quo in sequentibus aliquid est scribendum. Illo
itaque Indi Balsamo duntaxat excepto, non est liquor in vniuerso orbe, qui
huic creditur comparari. Has arbores seu arbusta Balsami fecit quondam
quidam de Caliphis Aegypti de loco Engaddi inter mare mortuum, et Ierico,
vbi Domino volente excreuerat, eradicari, et in argo prdicto plantari: est
tamen hoc mirandum, quod vbicuncque alibi siue prope, siue remote
plantantur, quamuis fort virent, et exurgant, non tamen fructificant. Et
contrario apparet hoc miraculosum, quod in hoc agro Cayr non se permittant
coli per Sarracenos, sed solummod per Christianos, vel aliter non
fructificarent: Et dicunt ipsi Sarraceni hoc spius se tentasse: sunt autem
arbusta trium vel quatuor pedem altitudinis, velut vsque ad renes hominis,
et lignum eorum aspiciendum, sicut vitis syluestris. Folia non marcescunt,
quin prius marcescant fructus, cernitur ad formam Cubeb, et gummi eorum
est Balsamum. Ipsi appellant arbores Enochkalse, fructum Abebifau, et
liquorum gribalse. Extrahitur ver gummi de arbusculis per hunc modem: De
lapide acuto, vel de osse fracto dant scissuras per cortices in ligno, et
ex vulneribus Balsamum lachrymatur, quod in vasculis suscipiunt, cauentes
quout possunt, ne quid de illo labatur in terram: Nam se de ferro, vel alio
metallo fieret incissura, liquor Balsami corrumperetur sua virtute.
[Sidenote: Virtutes veri Balsami.] Veri Balsami virtutes sunt magn quidem,
et innumeros: nam vix aliquis mortalium scire potuit omnes, quamuis inter
Physicos quinquaginta scribantur. Rar vtique Sarraceni vendunt Christianis
purum et verum Balsamum, quin pris commisceant, et falsificant sicut ego
ipse frequenter vidi. Nam aliqui tertiam, seu quartam partem immiscent
terrebynthin. [Sidenote: Sophisticationes Balsami.] Alii ramusculos
arbustarum, et fructus eorum coquunt in oleo, quod vendunt pro Balsamo: et
quidam (quod pessimam est) nil Balsami habentes, distillant oleum, per
clauos gariophillos, et spicum nardum, et similes odoriferas species, hoc
pro Balsamo exponentes, atque aliis pluribus modis deludunt ementes.
[Sidenote: Probatio veri Balsami.] Sed et Mercatores inuicem nonnunquam
sophisticant altera vice: probatio autem veri Balsaml potest haberi
pluribus modis, quorum aliquos hic describo. Est enim Citrini coloris,
vald clarum, et purum, et fortissimum in odoris fragrantia: si erg
apparet alterius qum Citrini coloris sciatur non simplicis, sed
cuiuscunque commixt substanti, vel ita spissum, vt non possit fluere,
scitote sophisticatum. Item si posueris modicum veri Balsami in manus
palma, non poteris sustinere eam linialiter in feruore splendentis Solis ad
spacium recitand Dominic orationis. Item si in clara flamma ignis vel
candeli cere miseris punctum cultelli cum gutta puri Balsami, ipsa gutta
de facil comburetur. Item si in scutella munda cum puro lacte caprino
posueris modicum veri Balsami, statim, miscebit se, et vnietur cum lacte,
ta vt Balsamum non cognoscetur. Item contr, si posueris verum Balsamum
cum aqua Lympida, nunquam miscebit se aqu, etiamsi aquam moueris
vehementer, im Balsamum semper tendit ad fundum vasis, nam est in sui
quanitate vald ponderosam, et iuxta quod mins ponderosum inueneris,
amplis falsificatum noueris.


De Nile fluuio, et Aegypti territorio.

Nilus supr dictus fluuius Aegypti appellatus est alio nomine Gyon, cuius
origo est Paradiso terrestri. Hic venit currens per deserta Indi
Maioris, hincque per meatus subterraneos transit plures terras: exiens sub
Monte Aloth, inter Indiam et Aethiopiam, et Mauritaniam intra deserta
Aegypti, irrigans totam longitudinem Aegypti vsque ad Alexandriam, ibque
se perdit in mare. [Sidenote: Inundatio Nilo.] Sole intrante signum Cancri
omni anno hoc est, ad quindenam ante Festum Natiuitatis Ioannis Baptist
incipit paulatim fluuius crescere, et inundare, quousque sol intret
Virginem, quod est circa Festum Laurentij, atque ex tunc decrescere, et
minui, donec Sole veniente in Lybram intra suos alueos se conseruet: Dmque
per inundationem nimis effluit, damnificat terr culturas, et fit Charistia
in Aegypto. [Sidenote: Raro in Aegyptio pluuia.] Et similiter dum parum
exundat, ingruit esuries, quoniam in Aegypto rarissim pluit, aut apparent
nubes, quoniam si quandoque pluerit in state, terra muribus adimpleur.
[Sidenote: Nubia.] Terra Aegypti continet in longitudine dietas quindecim,
in latitudine fer tres, et habet triginta dietas deserti: finibus
Aegypti vsque Nubiam, duodecim sunt diet. Hi Nubij sunt Christiani, sed
nigri, velut Aethiopes, vel Mauri.

[Sidenote: Phoenix visa a Mandeuillo.] Phoenix auis, de qua dicitur, quod
semper vnica sit in mundo, viuens per annos quingentos, qu et seipsam
comburit, ac de cineribus eius, siue per naturam, siue per miraculum alia
creatur, hc interdum apparet in Aegypto, et sicut mihi monstrabatur, vidi
duabus vicibus. Modicum est maior Aquila, cristam in capite maiorem
pauonis, collum habens croceum, dorsum Indicum, alas purpureas, caudam
duobus coloribus, per transuersum croceo et rubeo regulatam, qui singuli
colores sunt ad splendorem Solis delectabiliter videntibus resplendentes.
In Aegypto mult habentur arbores sexcies aut septies in anno
fructificantes, ibique frequenter inueniuntur in terra Smaragdi, et circa
oram Nili alij lapides pretiosi. [Sidenote: Mecha.] A Babylonia Aegypti,
vsque ad ciuitatem Meccam, (quam Pagani ibidem appellant Iacrib, et est in
magnis desertis Arabi) sunt triginta du diet. In ea veneratur
detestandum cadauer Machon siue Machometi honorabiliter et reuerenter in
Templo eius, quod ibi vocatur Musket, de cuius vita aliquid infr narrabo.
Per prdicta itaque apparet, quod Imperator Sarracenorum Soldanus
Babyloni, vald potens est Dominus.

CAPVT. 10.

De couductu Soldani, et via vsque in Sinay.

Pris dictum est de reuerentia Soldani, quand ad ipsum intratur exhibenda.
Sciendum erg, cum ab eo petitur securus conductus, nemini denegare
consueuit, sed datur petentibus communiter sigillum eius, in appenditione
absque literis: hoc sigillum, pro vexillo in virga aut hasta dum peregrini
ferunt, omnes Sarraceni videntes illud flexis genibus in terram se
reuerenter inclinant, et portantibus omnem exhibent humanitatem. Verumtamen
satis maior fit reuerentia literis Soldani sigillatis, quod et Admirabiles,
et quicunque alij Domini, quando eis monstrantur, antequam recipiant, se
multm inclinant: Deinde ambabus manibus eas capientes ponunt super propria
capita, poste osculantur, et tandem legunt inclinati cum magna
veneratione, quibus semel aut bis perlectis, offerunt se promptos ad
explendum quicquid ibi iubetur, ac insuper exhibent deferenti, quicquid
possint commodi, vel honoris: sed talem conductum per literas Soldani vix
quisquam peregrinorum accipit, qui non in Curia illius stetit, vel notitiam
apud illum habuerit. [Sidenote: Liter Soldani in gratiam Mandeuilli
concess.] Ego autem habui in recessu meo, in quibus etiam continebatur ad
omnes sibi subiectos speciale mandatum, vt me permitterent intrare, et
respicere singula loca, pro me placito voluntatis, et mihi exponerent
quorumcunque locorum mysteria distinct et absque vllo velamine veritatis,
ac me cum omni sodalitate mea benign reciperent, et in cunctis
rationalibus audirent, requisiti autem si necesse foret de ciuitate
conducerent in ciuitatem. Habito itaque peregrinis conductu, ad Montem
Sinay potest Cayr vnam duarum incipere semitarum, vsque vallem Helim, vbi
adhuc sunt duodecim fontes aquarum. Nam vna viarum est, vt pertranseat
passagium maris rubri, non long ab eodem loco, vbi olim populus Israel
Duce Mose, Deo iubente, siccis pedibus transiit idem mare. [Sidenote:
Ratio, cur Rubrum mare sic appellatur.] Quod quidem, lict aqua sit satis
clara, dicitur ibi Rubrum propter lapillos, et arenas subrufi coloris: et
continet ibi nunc temporis passus maris in latitudine fer sex leucas.
Transmissoque mari, ibit super hanc long ab oris eiusdem per dietas
quatuor, atque ex tunc relinquens mare, tendit per deserta sex aut septem
dierum, vsque in vallem prfatam. Alia est autem via, vt de Babylonia
intret Dyrcen deserta, tendens ad quendam fontem, quem dicitur Moses
[Marginal note: Vel Maus.] fecisse: et hinc ad riuulum Marach, qui quondam,
Mose imponente lignum, ab amaritudine dulcescebat, et sic tandem in
premissam vallem perueniant. Et restat via grandis diet ad Montem Sinay ab
hac valle. Nam Babylonia vsque in Sinay, stimatur esse via duodecim
dictarum, quamuis nonnulli citius perueniunt. Hoc ver sciendum, neminem
peregrinorum per hc deserta sine ductore posse tendere, cui not sunt vi,
sed nec equi valent transire, prcipu qud non inuenirent in desertis quid
bibere. [Sidenote: Abstinentia Camelorum ab aquis.] Aliquo tamen modo
transitur per Camelos, e qud se continere possunt de potu duobus aut
tribus diebus: Et oportet vt itinerantes ferant secum per viam necessaria
ad victum proprium, et Camelorum, nisi qud interdum fort Cameli aliquid
sibi abrodere possunt circa cortices arbustorum, et folia ramusculorum.

CAPUT. 11.

De Monasterio Sinay, et reliquijs beat Catherin.

Mons Sinay appellatur ibi desertum Syn: quasi in radice montis istius
habetur Coenobium Monachorum pergrande, cuius clausura in circuitu est
firmata muris altis, et portis ferreis, pro metu bestiarum deserti. Hi
Monachi sunt Arabes, et Grci, et in magno conuentu multum Deo deuoti:
viuunt in magna abstinentia, vtentes simplicibus cibariis, de lotis et
dactylis, et huiusmodi, nec vinum potantes, festis acceptis. Illic in
Ecclesia Beat Virginis et matris Catherin semper lampades plurim sunt
ardentes, nam habetur ibi plena copia olei oliuarum. A posteriori parte
magni altaris monstratur locus, vbi Moysi apparuit Dominus in rubo ardente,
ipsum rubum adhuc seruans, quem dum monachi intrant, semper se discalceant
gratia illias verbi, quo Deus iussit Moysi ibidem, Solue calciamentum de
pedibus tuis, locus enim in quo stas, terra sancta est: hunc locum
appellant Bezeleel, id est, vmbra Dei. Et prop altare tribus gradibus in
altitudine, habetur capsa, seu Tumba Alabastri, sanctissima continens ossa
Virginis. Christiani qui ibidem morantur, cum magna reuerentia
aduenientibus peregrinis, Monachorum prlato, seu ab alio in hoc
instituto, excipiuntur. Is quodam instrumento argenteo consueuit ossa
defricare, siue linire, vt ex iis exeat modicum olei, velut parumper
sudoris, quod tamen non apparet in colore sui tanquam olei seu Balsami, sed
aliquantulum pluris magnitudinis. Et ex isto traditur interdum aliquid
petentibus peregrinis, sed parm, quia nec multm exudat. Ostendere solent
et caput ipsius Catherin cum inuolumento sanguinolento, et multas prtere
sanctas, et venerabiles reliquias, qu omnia intuitus sum diligentur et
sp, oculis indignis. Habent quoque in ista Ecclesia propriam Lampadem
quilibet Monachorum, qu imminente illius discessu lumen per diuinum
miraculum variat vel extinguit. [Sidenote: Monarchorum sophismata.] Ego
etiam curiosius super vno dubio quod pris audieram, plures interrogationes
feci ab aliquibus Monachorum, vtrum scilicet prlato eorum decedente semper
successor per diuinum signum eligetetur: et vix tandem ab eis recepi
responsum, qud per vnum istorum miraculorum habetur successor, videlicit
in missa sepultur defuncti omnibus Monachorum lampadibus extinctis, illius
sola Dei nutu reaccenditur, quem fieri vult prlatum, vel de coelo
inuenitur missus breuiculus super altare, inscriptum habens nomen prlati
futuri. Intra hanc Ecclesiam nunquam musca, vel aranea, aut huiusmodi
immundi vermiculi nascuntur, quod similiter per diuinum accidit miraculum:
nam ant replebatur Ecclesia talibus immunditiis, et totus conuentus
recederet ad construendum Ecclesiam in alio loco. Et ecce Dei genetrix
virgo beata eis visibiliter obuiauit, iubens reuerti, et dicens nunquam
Ecclesiam similibus infestari. In cuius obuiationis loco in ascensu
procliuo huius montis per multos gradus construxerunt Ecclesiam, dificium
excellens, in honorem eiusdem virginis. Et alibuant altius, per eiusdem
montis ascensum est vetus Capella, quam vocant Eli Prophet, et locum
specialiter appellant Horeb. A cuius latere in montis appendentia colitur
vinea, quam nominant Iosu scophis, de qua quidam putare volunt, quod
Sanctus Ioannes Euangelista eam prim plantauit. In superiori ver montis
vertice, est Capella, quam dicunt Moysis, et illic rupis seruans adhuc
corporis eius formam impressam dum se abscondit, viritus dominum respicere
in facie. Locus quoque ibi ostenditur, in quo Deus tradidit ei decem
mandata, siue legem proprio digito scriptam, et sub rupe cauerna in qua
mansit ieiunus diebus 40. Ab hoc monte qui vocatur Mosi, restat via
producta ad quartam Leuc, vsque in montem qui dicitur Sanct Catherin per
vallem speciosam, ac multm frigidam. Circa eius medium habetur Ecclesia,
nomine 40. Martyrum constructa, vbi interdum veniunt Monachi cantare
missam: Hic mons est satis altior Monte Moysis, in cuius vertice Angeli Dei
pi creduntur attulisse, et sepeliisse corpus sanctissim Martyris
Catherin cum inuolumento capitis supr dicto. Attamen in ipso certo
sepultur loco, lict quandoque stetit Capella, mod non est habitaculum,
sed modicus aceruus petrarum. Notandum, qud vterque horum montium potest
vocari mons Sinay, eo quod totus circumiacens locus deserti Sin appellatur.
Sur desertum inter mare Rubrum, et solitudinem Sinay. Desertum Sur idem
Scriptura quod et Cades. Visitatis igitur peregrinis his sacrosanctis
memorijs, et valefacto Monachis, recommendant se eorum orationibus, et
meritis: tuncque solet aliquid victualium offerri peregrinis, pro inchoanda
via deserti Syri versus Ierusalem. Et sicut dixi de priori deserto, sic
nec istud secur est peragrandum absque Drogemijs; id est, semitarum
ductoribus, propter vastitudinem deserti.

CAPVT. 12.

Iter a deserto Sinay vsque ad Iudeam.

Per istud latum et longum desertum, moratur vel potius vagata maxima
multitudo malorum, et incompositorum hominum, qui non manent in domibus,
sed sub pellium tabernaculis, quemadmodum et olim filij Israel in eodem
deserto ambulauerunt, quoniam aqu non manent ibi diu in locis certis: et
ide mutant tabernacula sequentes aquas: non colunt terras, rar manducant
panem, sed tantm carnes bestiarum deserti quas venantur, coquentes super
petras calefactas ad Solem: fortes sunt et feroces, et velut desperati de
vita propria non curantes, qui lict non habeant arma prter lanceam, et
tarchiam, et caput grandi albo linteolo inuolutum, tamen non verentur
exercere guerras, et inire proelia contra Dominum suum Soldanum: nam et ego
stipendiarius in expeditione Soldani contra eos spius fui. Isti sunt
quidem Arabes, sed notiori nomine appellantur Bedoyns et Acopars, et
quamuis plurima mala agunt per desertum, rar tamen nocent peregrinis beat
Virginis Catharin. [Sidenote: Ioannes Mandeuil militans contra Arabes.
Beersheba.] Itaque peregrinus qui debitum tenuit iter, veniat finibus
deserti in primam ciuitatem Iude, qu dicitur Berseba: est vicus grandis
Hebron inde miliario vergens ad Austrum: Hieronymus. Notandum, Theros Mons
Dei in regione Maglaw iuxta Montem. Notandum similiter, Arabiam in deserto
esse, cui iungitur Mons et desertum Sarracenorum, quod vocatur Phaaran.
Mihi autem videtur, quod dupliei nomine, nupe Mons Sinay, nunc Oreb
vocatur. Hieronymus. Phaaran nunc oppidum trans Oreb, iam iunctum
Sarracenis, qui in solitudine vagi pererrant. Hos interfecerunt filij
Israel, cm de Monte Sinay castra mouissent. Est ergo, vt dixi, trans
Jordanem contra Australem plagam, et distat ab Helyn, contra Orientem,
itinere dierum trium. In deserto autem Phaaran, Scriptura commemorat
habitasse Ismaelem, vade et Ismaelit, qui nunc Sarraceni. Legimus quoque
Chederlaomer percussisse eos qui erant in deserto Phaaran quod nunc dicitur
Ascalon, et circa eam Regio Palestinorum. Hieronymus. Hc Bersheba erat
bona et spectabilis, vltimo tempore Christianorum, et adhuc ibi restant
nonnull Ecclesi.

[Sidenote: Ciuitas Hebron.] Hinc ad Leucas duas venitur in ciuitatem
Hebron, et Hebron ab Helyn distat ad Meridianam plagani millibus circiter
39. de qua legitur, qud primis temporibus fuerit habitatio maximorum
Gigantium, Regmque, poste Dauidis. In hac est illa spelunca duplex, qu
seruat ossa sanctorum Patriarcharum, Abrah, Isaac, et Jacob, Sar, et
Rebecc, consistitque ad radicem montis, et habetur super istam cum
propugnaculis ad modum castri constructa pulchra Ecclesia. Sarraceni
appellant istam speluncam Kariackaba, custodienies locum diligenter ac
reuerenter propter honorem Patriarcharum, et non permittentes quenquam
Christianorum aut Iudorum ingredi, nisi ostenderit super hc specialem
gratiam Soldano. Nam ipsi communiter reputant tam Christianos qum
Iudaeos pro canibus, et quando despectiu eos volunt appellare, dicunt
Kylp, id est, canis.

[Sidenote: Vallis Mambr Quercus arida.] Ab Hebron incipit vallis Mambr,
qu protenditur fer vsque Ierusalem: haud remot ad Hebron est mons
Mambre, et in ipso monte arbor quercus arid qu pro antiquitate sui,
speciale sibi nomen meruit in mundo vniuerso, vt vocetur arbor sicca:
Sarraceni autem eam dicunt Dirp: hc creditur stetisse ante tempora Abrah,
tamen quidam volunt putare mundi initio, virens donec passionis Christi
tempore siccaretur. Hoc autem certum est haberi eam ob omnibus nationibus
in venerationem.

[Sidenote: Gambil species Aromatis] In quodam loco prfat vallis est
planicies, vbi per plures fossas effodiunt homines Gambil, quod comeditur
loco specierum aromaticarum, et per villas defertur venale, sed et hoc
audiui, qud nulla ibi fossa ita valet exhauriri, si dimittatur per annum,
quin inueniatur de prdicta Gambil impleta.

Ad duas leucas de Hebron, monstratur sepultura Loth filii fratris Abraham.
Item de ciuitate Hebron per quinque leucas amoeni itineris, hoc est in
medio die, venitur in Bethleem Iude. [Sidenote: Kiriath Arbe.] Notandum,
Arbe, id est, quatuor, primum dicum de eo quod ibi tres Patriarch Abraham,
Isac, et Iacob sepulti sunt, et Adam magnus, vt in Iudorum libro scriptum
est, licet eum quidam conditum in loco Caluari suspicentur. Corrupt in
nostris codicibus Arboth scribitur, alibi erat arbor cm in Hebris legatur
Arbe, hc est autem eadem Hebron olim Metropolis Philistinorum, ab vno
filiorum Caleb sortita vocabulum.

The English Version.

Of the Weye fro Costantynoble to Jerusalem. Of Seynt John the Evaungelist;
and of Ypocras Daughter, transformed from a Woman to a Dragoun.

[Sidenote: Cap. IV] Now returne I azen, for to teche zou the way from
Costantynoble to Jerusalem. He that wol thorghe Turkye, he gothe toward the
cytee of Nyke, and passethe thorghe the gate of Chienetout, and alle weyes
men seen before hem the hille of Chienetout, that is righte highe: and it
is a myle, and an half from Nyke. And whoso will go be watre, be the brace
of Seynt George, and by the see, where Seynt Nycholas lyethe, and toward
many other places: first men gothe to an ile, that is clept Sylo.
[Footnote: Chios] In that ile growethe mastyck on smale trees: and out of
hem comethe gomme, as it were of plombtrees or of cherietrees. And aftre
gon men thorghe the ile of Pathmos, and there wrot Seynt John the
Evaungelist the Apocalips. And zee schulle undrestonde, that Seynt Johne
was of age 32 zeer, whan oure Lord suffred his passioun; and aftre his
passioun, he lyvede 67 zeer, and in the 100th zeer of his age he dyede.
From Pathmos men gone unto Ephesim, a fair citee and nyghe to the see. And
there dyede Seynte Johne and was buryed behynde the highe awtiere, in a
toumbe. And there is a fair chirche. For Cristene men weren wont to holden
that place alweyes. And in the tombe of Seynt John is noughte but manna,
that is clept aungeles mete. For his body was translated into paradys. And
Turkes holden now alle that place, and the citee and the chirche. And alle
Asie the lesse is y cleped Turkye. And zee schulle undrestonde, that Seynt
Johne leet [Footnote: Let.] make his grave there in his lyf, and leyd
himself there inne alle quyk. And therefore somme men seyn, that he dyed
noughte, but that he restethe there till the day of doom. And forsothe
there is a great marveyle: for men may see there the erthe of the tombe
apertly many tymes steren and meven, [Footnote: Stir and move.] as there
wern quykke thinges undre.

And from Ephesim men gon throghe many iles in the see, unto the cytee of
Paterane, [Footnote: Patera.] where Seynt Nicholas was born, and so to
Martha, [Footnote: Myra.] where he was chosen to ben bisschoppe; and there
growethe right gode wyn and strong; and that men callen wyn of Martha. And
from thens gone men to the ile of Crete, that the Emperour zaf somtyme to
Janeweys. [Footnote: The Genoese.] And thanne passen men thorghe the isles
of Colos and of Lango; [Footnote: Cos.] of the whiche iles Ypocras
[Footnote: Hippocrates.] was lord offe. And some men seyn, that in the ile
of Lango is zit the doughtre of Ypocras, in forme and lykeness of a gret
dragoun, that is a hundred fadme of lengthe, as men seyn: for I have not
seen hire. And thei of the isles callen hire, lady of the lond. And sche
lyethe in an olde castelle, in a cave, and schewethe twyes or thryes in the
zeer. And sche dothe none harm to no man, but zif men don hire harm. And
sche was thus chaunged and transformed, from a fair damysele, into lyknesse
of a dragoun, be a goddesse, that was clept Deane. [Footnote: Diana.] And
men seyn, that sche schalle so endure in that forme of a dragoun, unto the
tyme that a knyghte come, that is so hardy, that dar come to hire and kiss
hire on the mouthe: and then schall sche turne azen to hire own kynde, and
ben a woman azen: but aftre that sche schalle not liven longe. And it is
not long siththen, that a knyghte of the Rodes, that was hardy and doughty
in armes, seyde that he wole kyssen hire. And whan he was upon his
coursere, and wente to the castelle, and entred into the cave, the dragoun
lifte up hire hed azenst him. And whan the knyghte saw hire in that forme
so hidous and so horrible, he fleyghe awey. And the dragoun bare the
knyghte upon a roche, mawgre his hede; and from that roche, sche caste him
in to the see: and so was lost bothe hors and man. And also a zonge man,
that wiste not of the dragoun, wente out of a schipp, and wente thorghe the
ile, til that he come to the castelle, and cam in to the cave; and wente so
longe, til that he fond a chambre, and there he saughe a damysele, that
kembed hire hede, and lokede in a myrour: and sche hadde meche tresoure
abouten hire: and he trowed, that sche hadde ben a comoun woman, that
dwelled there to resceyve men to folye. And he abode, tille the damysele
saughe the schadewe of him in the myrour. And sche turned hire toward him,
and asked hym, what he wolde. And he seyde, he wolde ben hire limman or
paramour. And sche asked him, zif that he were a knyghte. And he seyde,
nay. And then sche seyde, that he myghte not ben hire lemman: but sche bad
him gon azen unto his fellowes, and make him knyghte, and come azen upon
the morwe, and sche scholde come out of the cave before him; and thanne
come and kysse hire on the mowthe, and have no drede; for I schalle do the
no maner harm, alle be it that thou see me in lyknesse of a dragoun. For
thoughe thou see me hidouse and horrible to loken onne, I do the to wytene,
[Footnote: Know.] that it is made be enchauntement. For withouten doubte, I
am non other than thou seest now, a woman; and therfore drede the noughte.
And zif thou kysse me, thou schalt have alle this tresoure, and be my lord,
and lord also of alle that ile. And he departed fro hire and wente to his
felowes to schippe, and leet make him knyghte, and cam azen upon the morwe,
for to kysse this damysele. And whan he saughe hire comen out of the cave,
in forme of a dragoun, so hidouse and so horrible, he hadde so grete drede,
that he fleyghe azen to the schippe; and sche folewed him. And whan sche
saughe, that he turned not azen, sche began to crye, as a thing that hadde
meche sorwe: and thanne sche turned azen, in to hire cave; and anon the
knyghte dyede. And siththen hidrewards, myghte no knyghte se hire, but that
he dyede anon. But whan a knyghte comethe, that is so hardy to kisse hire,
he schalle not dye; but he schalle turne the damysele in to hire righte
forme and kyndely schapp, and he schal be lord of alle the contreyes and
iles aboveseyd.

And from thens men comen to the Ile of Rodes, the whiche ile Hospitaleres
holden and governen; and that token thei sumtyme from the Emperour: and it
was wont to be clept Collos; and so callen it the Turks zit. And Seynt
Poul, in his Epistles, writeth to hem of that Ile, _ad Colossenses_.
[Footnote: The truth is the Epistle was written to the Church of Collos in
Phrygia Major.] This ile is nyghe 800 myle from Costantynoble.

And from this ile of Rodes, men gon to Cipre, where bethe many vynes, that
first bene rede, and aftre o zeer, thei becomen white: and theise wynes
that ben most white, ben most clere and best of smelle. And men passen be
that way, be a place that was wont to ben a gret cytee and a gret lond: and
the cytee was clept Cathaillye: the which cytee and lond was lost thorghe
folye of a zonge man. For he had a fayr damysele, that he loved wel, to his
paramour; and sche dyed sodeynly, and was don in a tombe of marble: and for
the grete lust, that he had to hire, he wente in the nyghte unto hire tombe
and opened it, and went in and lay be hire, and wente his way. And whan it
came to the ende of nine monethes, there com a voys to him, and seyde, Go
to the tombe of that woman, and open it and beholde what thou hast begotten
on hre: and if thou lette to go, thou schalt have a gret harm. And he zede
[Footnote: Went.] and opened the tombe; and there fleyghe out an eddere
righte hidous to see; the whiche als swythe fleighe aboute the cytee and
the contree; and sone after the cytee sank downe. And there ben manye
perilouse passages.

Fro Rodes to Cypre ben 500 myle and more. But men may gon to Cypre, and
come not at Rodes. Cypre is righte a gode ile and a fayr and a gret, and it
hathe 4 princypalle cytees within him. And there is an erchebysshoppe at
Nichosie, and 4 othere byschoppes in that lond. And at Famagost is on of
the princypalle havenes of the see, that is in the world: and there arryven
Cristene men and Sarazynes and men of alle naciouns. In Cipre is the hille
of the Holy Cros; and there is an abbeye of monkis blake; and there is the
cros of Dismas the gode theef, as I have seyd before. And summe men trowen,
that there is half the crosse of oure Lord: but it is not so: and thei don
evylle, that make men to beleeve so. In Cipre lythe Seynt Zenomyne: of whom
men of that contree maken gret solempnytee. And in the Castelle of Amours
lythe the body of Seynt Hyllarie: and men kepen it right worschipfully. And
besyde Famagost was Seynt Barnabee the apostle born. In Cipre men hunten
with papyonns, that ben lyche lepardes: and thei taken wylde bestes righte
welle, and thei ben somdelle [Footnote: Somewhat.] more than lyouns; and
thei taken more scharpely the bestes and more delyverly [Footnote:
Deliberately.] than don houndes. In Cipre is the manere of lordis and alle
othere men, alle to eten on the erthe. For thei make dyches in the erthe
alle aboute in the halle, depe to the knee, and thei do pave hem: and whan
thei wil ete, thei gon there in and sytten there. And the skylle is, for
thei may ben the more fressche: for that lond is meche more hottere than it
is here. And at grete festes and for straungeres, thei setten formes and
tables, as men don in this contree: but thei had lever sytten in the erthe.

From Cypre, men gon to the lond of Jerusalem be the see: and in a day and
in a nyghte, he that hathe gode wynd may come to the haven of Thire
[Footnote: Tyre.], that now is clept Surrye. There was somtyme a gret cytee
and a gode, of Crystene men: but Sarazins han destroyed it a gret partye;
and thei kepe that havene right welle, for drede of Cristene men. Men
myghte go more right to that havene, and come not in Cypre: but thei gon
gladly to Cypre, to reste hem on the lond, or elles to bye thingis, that
thei have nede to here lyvynge. On the see syde, men may fynde many rubyes.
And there is the welle, of the whiche Holy Writt spekethe offe, and seythe,
_Fons ortorum, et puteus aquarum viventium_: that is to seye, _The welle of
gardyns, and the dyche of lyvynge watres._ In this cytee of Thire, seyde
the woman to oure Lord, _Beatus venter qui te portavit, et ubera qu
succisti_: that is to seye, _Blessed be the body that she baar, and the
pappes that thou sowkedest._ And there oure Lord forzaf the woman of
Chananee hire synnes. And before Tyre was wont to be the ston, on the
whiche oure Lord sat and prechede: and on that ston was founded the Chirche
of Seynt Savyour.

And 8 myle from Tyre, toward the est, upon the see, is the cytee of
Sarphen, in Sarept [Footnote: Zarephath.] of Sydonyeus. And there was wont
for to dwelle Helye the prophete; and there reysed he Jonas the wydwes sone
from dethe to lyf. And 5 myle fro Sarphen is the cytee of Sydon: of the
whiche cytee, Dydo was lady, that was Eneas wyf aftre the destruccioun of
Troye; and that founded the cytee of Cartage in Affrick, and now is cleped
Dydon Sayete. And in the cytee of Tyre regned Agenore the fadre of Dydo.
And 16 myles from Sydon is Beruthe. [Footnote: Beyrout.] And from Beruthe
to Sardenare is 3 journeys. And from Sardenar is 5 myle to Damask.

And whoso wil go longe tyme on the see, and come nerrer to Jerusalem, he
schal go fro Cipre, be see, to the port Jaff. [Footnote: Jaffa.] For that
is the nexte havene to Jerusalem. For fro that havene is not but o day
journeye and an half to Jerusalem. And the town is called Jaff; for on of
the sones of Noe, that highte Japhet, founded it; and now it is clept
Joppe. And zee schulle undrestonde, that it is on of the oldest townes of
the world: for it was founded, before Noes flode. And zitt there schewethe
in the roche ther, as the irene cheynes were festned, that Andromade, a
gret geaunt was bounden with, and put in presoun before Noes flode: of the
whiche geaunt is a rib of his syde, that is 40 fote longe. [Footnote: Our
author here takes Andromeda for the monster that would have devoured her.]

And whoso wil arryve at the firste port of Thire or Surre, that I have
spoken of before, may go be londe, zif he wil, to Jerusalem. And men gothe
fro Surre unto the citee of Dacoun [Footnote: St. Jean d'Acre.] in a day.
And it was clept somtyme Tholomayde. And it was somtyme a cytee of
Cristenemen, fulle fair; but it is now destroyed: and it stont upon the
see. And fro Venyse to Akoun, be see, is 2080 myles of Lombardye. And fro
Calabre or fro Cecyle to Akoun, be see, is 1300 myles of Lombardye. And the
ile of Crete is right in the myd weye. And besyde the cytee of Akoun,
toward the see, 120 furlonges on the right syde, toward the southe, is the
hylle of Carmelyn, where Helyas the prophete dwellede: and there was first
the ordre of Freres Carmes founded. This hille is not right gret, ne fulle
highe. And at the fote of this hille was somtyme a gode cytee of Cristene
men, that men cleped Cayphas: For Cayphas first founded it: but it is now
alle wasted. And on the lift syde of the hille Carmelyn is a town, that men
clepen Saffre: and that is sett on another hille. There Seynt James and
Seynt Johne were born: and in the worschipe of hem, there is a fair
chirche. And fro Tholomayde, that men clepen now Akoun, unto a gret hille,
that is clept Scalle of Thires, is 100 furlonges. And besyde the cytee of
Akoun renneth a lytille ryvere, that is clept Belon. And there nyghe is the
fosse of Mennon, that is alle round: and it is 100 cubytes of largenesse,
and it is alle fulle of gravelle, schynynge brighte, of the whiche men
maken fair verres [Footnote: Glass.] and clere. And men comen fro fer, by
watre in schippes, and be londe with cartes, for to fetten of that
gravelle. And thoughe there be nevere so moche taken awey there of, on the
day, at Morwe it is as fulle azen as evere it was. And that is a gret
mervaille. And there is evermore gret wynd in that fosse, that sterethe
everemore the gravelle, and makethe it trouble. And zif ony man do
thereinne ony maner metalle, it turnethe anon to glasse. And the glasse,
that is made of that grevelle, zif it be don azen in to the gravelle, it
turnethe anon in to gravelle as it was first. And therefore somme men seyn,
that it was a sweloghe [Footnote: Whirlpool.] of the gravely see.

Also for Akoun aboveseyd gon men forthe 4 journees to the citee of
Palestyn, that was of the Philistyenes, that now is clept Gaza, that is a
gay cytee and a riche; and it is righte fayr, and fulle of folke, and it is
a lytillle fro the see. And from this cytee broughte Sampson the stronge
the zates upon an highe lond, whan he was taken in that cytee: and there he
slowghe in a paleys the king and hymself, and gret nombre of the beste of
the Philistienes, the whiche had put out his eyen, and schaven his hed, and
enprisound him, be tresoun of Dalida his paramour. And therefore he made
falle upon hem a gret halle, whan thei were at mete. And from thens gon men
to the cytee of Cesaire, and so to the Castelle of pylgrymes, and so to
Ascolonge, and than to Jaffe, and so to Jerusalem.

Of manye Names of Soudans, and of the Tour of Babiloyn.

[Sidenote: Cap. V.] And whoso wille go be londe thorghe the lond of
Babyloyne, where the Sowdan dwellethe comonly, he moste gete grace of him
and leve, to go more sikerly [Footnote: Surely.] thorghe tho londes and
contrees. And for to go to the mount of Synay, before that men gon
Jerusalem, thei schalle go fro Gaza to the castelle of Daire. And after
that, men comen out of Surrye, and entren in to wyldernesse, and there the
weye is sondy. And that wyldernesse and desert lastethe 8 journeyes. But
alleweyes men fynden gode innes, and alle that hem nedethe of vytaylle; And
men clepen that wyldernesse Achelleke. And whan a man comethe out of that
desert, he entrethe in to Egypt, that men clepen Egypt Canopac: and aftre
other langage, men clepen it Morsyn. And there first men fynden a gode
toun, that is clept Belethe; and it is at the ende of the kyngdom of
Halappee. And from thens men gon to Babyloyne and to Cayre.

At Babyloyne there is a faire chirche of oure lady, where sche dwelled 7
zeer, whan sche fleyghe out of the lond of Judee, for drede of Kyng
Heroude. And there lythe the body of Seynt Barbre the Virgine and Martyr.
And there duelled Josephe whan he was sold of his bretheren. And there made
Nabugodonozor the kyng putte three children in to the forneys of fuyr; for
thei weren in the righte trouthe of beleeve: the whiche children men
cleped, Ananya, Azaria, Mizlle; as the Psalm of Benedicite seythe. But
Nabugodbnozor cleped hem other wise, Sydrak, Misak, and Abdenago: that is
to seye, God glorious, God victorious, and God over alle thinges and remes.
[Footnote: Realms.] And that was for the myracle, that he soughe Goddes
sone go with the children thorghe the fuyr, as he seyde. There duellethe
the Soudan in his Calahelyke, (for there is comounly his see) in a fayr
castelle strong and gret and wel sett upon a roche. In that castelle
duellen alle wey, to kepe it and to serve the Sowdan, mo than 6000
persones, that taken alle here necessaries of the Sowdanes court. I oughte
right wel to knowen it; for I duelled with him as Soudyour in his werres a
gret while, azen the Bedoynes. And he wolde have maryed me fulle highely,
to a gret princes daughtre, zif I wolde han forsaken my lawe and my beleve.
But I thanke God, I had no wille to don it, for no thing, that he behighten
[Footnote: Promised.] me. And zee schulle undrestonde, that the Soudan is
lord of 5 kyngdomes, that he hathe conquered and apropred to him be
strengthe: and theise ben the names, the kyngdom of Canapak, that is Egypt;
and the kyngdom of Jerusalem, where that David and Salomon were kynges; and
the kyngdom of Surrye, of the whiche the cytee of Damasc was chief; and the
kyngdom of Alappe, [Footnote: Aleppo.] in the lond of Mathe, and the
kyngdom of Arabye, that was to on of the 3 kynges, that made offrying to
oure Lord, whan he was born. And many othere londes he holdethe in his
hond. And there with alle he holdethe calyffes, that is a fulle gret thing
in here langage: and it is als meche to seye as kyng. And there were wont
to ben 5 Soudans: but now there is no mo but he of Egypt. And the firste
Soudan was Zarocon, that was of Mede, (as was fadre to Sahaladyn) that toke
the Califfe of Egypt and sloughe him, and was made Soudan be strengthe.
Aftre that was Soudan Sahaladyn, in whoos tyme the Kyng of Englonde,
Richarde the firste, with manye othere, kepten the passage, that Sahaladyn
ne myghte not passen. Aftre Sahaladyn, regned his sone Boradyn; aftre him
his nephewe. Aftre that the Comaynz, that weren in servage in Egypt, felten
hem self, that thei weren of gret power, thei chesen hem a Soudain amonges
hem: the whiche made him to ben cleped Melethesalan. And in his tyme entred
in to the contree, of the kynges of France, Seynt Lowyz, and foughte with
him: and the Soudan toke him and enprisound him. And this was slayn of his
owne servauntes. And aftre thei chosen an other to be Soudan, that thei
cleped Tympieman. And he let delyveren Seynt Lowys out of presoun, for
certeyn ransoum. And aftre on theise Comaynz regned, that highte Cachas,
and sloughe Tympieman, for to be Soudan: and made him ben cleped
Melechemes. And aftre, another that hadde to name Bendochdare, that sloughe
Melechemes, for to be Soudan; and cleped himself Melechdare. In his tyme
entred the gode Kyng Edward of Englond in Syrye, and dide gret harm to the
Sarrazines. And aftre was this Soudan empoysound at Damasce; and his sone
thoghte to regne aftre him be heritage, and made him to ben clept
Meleschsache. But another, that had to name Elphy, chaced him out of the
contree, and made him Soudan. This man toke the cytee of Tripolee and
destroyede manye of the Cristene men, the zeer of grace 1289; but he was
anon slayn. Aftre that was the sone of Elphy chosen to ben Soldan, and
cleped him Mellethasseraff: and he toke the citee of Akoun, and chaced out
the Christene men: and this was also empoysond. And than was his brother y
made Soudan, and was cleped Melechnasser. And aftre, on that was clept
Guytoga, toke him and put him in prisoun, in the Castelle of Mountryvalle;
and made him Soudan be strengthe, and cleped him Melechcadelle: and he was
of Tartaryne. But the Comaynz chaced him out of the contree, and diden hym
meche sorwe; and maden on of hem self Soudan, that hadde to name Lachyn.
And he made him to ben clept Melechmanser: the whiche on a day pleyed at
the chesse, and his swerd lay besyde him; and so befelle, that on wratthed
[Footnote: Provoked.] him, and with his owne propre swerd he was slayn. And
aftre that, thei weren at gret discord, for to make a Soudan. And finally
thei accordeden to Melechnasser, that Guytoga had put in prisoun at
Mountrivalle. And this regnede longe and governed wisely; so that his
eldest sone was chosen aftre him, Melechemader; the whiche his brother leet
sle prevyly, for to have the lordschipe, and made him to ben clept
Melechmadabron. And he was Soudan, whan I departed fro the contrees. And
wyte zee wel, that the Soudan may lede out of Egipt mo than 20000 men of
armes. And out of Surrye, and out of Turkye, and out of other contrees,
that he holt, he may arrere [Footnote: Raise.--Anglo-Saxon, _Arran_.] mo
than 50000. And alle tho ben at his wages: and thei ben alle weys at him,
withouten the folke of his contree, that is withouten nombre. And everyche
of hem hath be zere the mountance of 6 score floreynes. But it behovethe,
that every of hem holde 3 hors and a cameylle. And be the cytees and be the
townes ben amyralles, that han the governance of the peple. On hath to
governe 4, and another hath to governe 5, another mo, and another wel mo.
And als moche takethe the amyralle be him allone, as alle the other
souldyours han undre hym. And therfore whan the Soudan wille avance ony
worthi knyghte, he makethe him a amyralle. And whan it is ony derthe, the
knyghtes ben right pore, and thanne thei sellen both here hors and here
harneys. And the Soudan hath 4 wyfes, on Cristene and 3 Sarazines: of the
whiche, on dwellethe at Jerusalem, and another at Damasce, and another at
Ascalon. And whan hem lyst, thei remewen to other cytees. And whan the
Soudan wille, he may go visite hem. And he hathe as many paramours, as hym
lykethe. For he makethe to come before him, the fairest and the nobleste of
birthe and the gentylleste damyseles of his contree, and he maketh hem to
ben kept and served fulle honourabely, and whan he wole have on to lye
withe him, he makethe hem alle to come before him; and he beholdethe in
alle, whiche of hem is most to his plesance, and to hire anon he sendethe
or castethe a ryng fro his fyngre: And thanne anon sche schalle ben bathed
and richely atyred, and anoynted with delicat thinges of swete smelle, and
than lad to the Soudanes chambre. And thus he dothe, als often as him list,
when he wil have ony of hem. And before the Soudan comethe no strangier,
but zif he be clothed in clothe of gold or of Tartarye or of Camaka, in the
Sarazines guyse, and as the Sarazines usen. And it behovethe, that anon at
the firste sight, that men see the Soudan, be it in wyndowe, or in what
place elles, that men knele to him and kysse the erthe: for that is the
manere to do reverence to the Soudanne, of hem that speken with him. And
whan that messangeres of straunge contrees comen before him, the Meynee of
the Soudan, whan the straungeres speken to hym, thei ben aboute the Souldan
with swerdes drawen and gysarmez and axes, here armes lift up in highe with
the wepenes, for to smyte upon hem, zif thei seye ony woord, that is
displeasance to the Soudan. And also, no straungere comethe before him, but
that he makethe him sum promys and graunt, of that the straungere asketh
resonabely, beso it be not azenst his Lawe. And so don othere prynces
bezonden. For thei seyn, that no man schalle come before no prynce, but
that he be bettre, and schalle be more gladdere in departynge from his
presence, thannie he was at the comynge before hym.

And undirstonde zee, that that Babyloyne that I have spoken offe, where
that the Soudan duellethe, is not that gret Babyloyne, where the dyversitee
of langages was first made for vengeance, by the myracle of God, when the
grete tour of Babel was begonnen to ben made; of the whiche the walles
weren 64 furlonges of heighte; that is in the grete desertes of Arabye,
upon the weye as men gon toward the kyngdom of Caldee. But it is fulle
long, sithe that ony man durste neyhe to the tour; for it is alle deserte
and fulle of dragouns and grete serpentes, and fulle of dyverse venymouse
bestes alle abouten. That tour, with the cytee, was of 25 myle in cyrcuyt
of the walles; as thei of the contree seyn, and as men may demen [Footnote:
Judge.] by estymation, aftre that men tellen of the contree. And though it
be clept the tour of Babiloyne, zit natheles there were ordeyned with inne
many mansiouns and many gret duellynge places, in lengthe and brede: and
that tour conteyned gret contree in circuyt: for the tour allone conteyned
10 myle sqware. That tour founded Kyng Nembrothe, that was kyng of that
contree: and he was firste kyng of the world. And he leet make an ymage in
the lyknesse of his fadre, and constreyned alle his subgettes for to
worschipe it. And anon begonnen othere lordes to do the same. And so
begonnen the ydoles and symulacres first. The town and the cytee weren
fulle wel sett in a fair contree and a playn; that men clepen the contree
of Samar: of the whiche the walles of the cytee werein 200 cubytes in
heighte, and 50 cubytes in breadthe. And the ryvere of Euphrate ran thorghe
out the cytee and aboute the tour also. But Cirus the Kyng of Perse toke
from hem the ryvere, and destroyede all the cytee and the tour also. For he
departed that ryvere in 360 smale ryveres: because that he had sworn, that
he scholde putte the ryvere in suche poynt, that a woman myghte wel passe
there, withouten castynge of of hire clothes; for als moche as he hadde
lost many worthi men, that trowden to passen that ryvere by swymmynge.

And from Babyloyne, where the Soudan dwellethe, to go right betwene the
oryent and the Septemtryon, toward the grete Babyloyne, is 40 journeys to
passen be desart. But it is not the grete Babiloyne, in the lond and in the
powere of the seyd Soudan; but it is in the power and the lordschipe of
Persye. But he holdethe it of the grete Cham, that is the gretteste
Emperour and the most sovereyn lord of alle the partes bezonde: and he is
lord of the iles of Cathay and of many othere iles, and of a gret partie of
Inde. And his lond marchethe unto Prestre Johnes lond; and he holt so moche
lond, that he knowethe not the ende. And he is more myghty and grettre lord
withoute comparisoun, than is the Soudan. Of his ryalle estate and of his
myghte, I schalle speke more plenerly when I schalle speke of the lond and
of the contree of Ynde.

Also the cytee of Methone [Footnote: Mecca.] where Machomet lythe, is of
the grete desertes of Arabye. And there lithe the body of hym fulle
honourabely in here temple, that the Sarazines clepen Muskethe. And it is
fro Babyloyne the lesse, where the Soudan duellethe, onto Methon aboveseyd,
in to a 32 journeyes. And wytethe wel, that the rewme of Arabye is a fulle
gret contree: but there in is over moche dysert. And no man may dwelle
there in that desert, for defaute of watre. For that lond is alle gravelly
and fulle of sond. And it is drye and nothing fructuous; because that it
hathe no moysture: and therefore is there so meche desart. And ziff it
hadde ryveres and welles, and the lond also were, as it is in other
parties, it scholde ben als fulle of peple and als fulle enhabyted with
folk, as in other places. For there is fulle gret multitude of peple, where
as the lond is enhabyted. Arabye durethe fro the endes of the reme of
Caldee, unto the laste ende of Affryk, and marchethe to the lond of Ydumee,
toward the ende of Botron. And in Caldee, the chief cytee is Baldak.
[Footnote: Bagdad.] And of Affryk, the chief cytee is Cartage, that Dydo,
that was Eneas wyf, founded. The whiche Eneas was of the cytee of Troye,
and aftre was Kyng of Itaylle. Mesopotamye strecchethe also unto the
Desertes of Arabye; and it is a gret contree. In this contree is the cytee
of Araym, where Abrahames fadree duelled, and from whens Abraham departed,
be commandement of the aungelle. And of that cytee was Effraym, that was a
gret clerk and a gret doctour. And Theophylus was of that cytee also, that
oure ladye savede from oure enemye. And Mesopotame durethe fro the ryvere
of Eufrates, unto the ryvere of Tygris. For it is betwene tho 2 ryveres.
And bezonde the ryvere of Tygre, is Caldee, that is a fulle gret kyngdom.
In that Rewyme, at Baldac aboveseyd, was wont to duelle the Calyffeez, that
was wont to ben bothe as Emperour and Pope of the Arabyenez; so that he was
lord spirituelle and temporelle. And he was successour to Machomete, and of
his generatioun; That cytee of Baldak was wont to ben cleped Sutis:
[Footnote: Susa.] and Nabugodonozor founded it. And there duelled the holy
prophete Daniel; and there he saughe vissiones of Hevene; and there he made
the expositioun of dremes. And in old tyme, there were ['wene' in source
text--KTH] wont to be 3 Calyffez; and thei dwelleden in the cytee of Baldak

And at Cayre besides Babyloyne duelled the Calyffee of Egypt. And at
Marrok, upon the west see, duelte the Calyffee of Barbaryenes and of
Affrycanes. And now is there non of the Calyffeez, ne noughte han ben,
sithe the tyme of Sowdan Sahaladyn. For from that tyme hidre, the Sowdan
clepethe him self Calyffee. And so han the Calyffeez y lost here name. Also
wytethe wel, that Babylone the lesse, where the Soudan duellethe, and at
the cytee of Cayr, that is nyghe besyde it, ben grete huge cytees manye and
fayr; and that on sytt nyghe that other. Babyloyne sytt upon the ryvere of
Gyson, somtyme clept Nyle, that comethe out of Paradys terrestre. That
ryvere of Nyle, alle the zeer, whan the sonne entrethe in to the signe of
Cancer, it begynnethe to wexe; and it wexethe alle weys, als longe as the
sonne is in Cancro, and in the signe of Lyoune. And it wexethe in suche
manere, that it is somtyme so gret, that it is 20 cubytes or more of
depnesse; and thanne it doth gret harm to the godes, that ben upon the
lond. For thanne may no man travaylle to ere [Footnote: Plough.] the
londes, for the grete moystness: and therefore is there dere tyme in that
contree. And also whan it waxethe lytylle, it is dere tyme in that contree:
for defaute of moysture. And whan the sonne is in the signe of Virgo,
thanne begynnethe the ryvere for to wane and to decrece lytyl and lytylle;
so that whan the sonne is entred into the signe of Libra, thanne thei
entren betwene theise ryveres. This ryvere comethe rennynge from Paradys
terrestre, betwene the desertes of Ynde; and aftre it smytt unto londe, and
rennethe longe tyme many grete contrees undre erthe: and aftre it gothe out
undre an highe hille, that men clepen Alothe, that is betwene Ynde and
Ethiope, the distance of five moneths journeyes fro the entree of Ethiope.
And aftre it envyronnethe alle Ethiope and Morekane, and gothe alle along
fro the Lond of Egipte; unto the cytee of Alisandre, to the ende of Egipte;
and there it fallethe into the See. Aboute this ryvere, ben manye briddes
and foules, as sikonyes, that thei clepen ibes.

Egypt is a long contree; but it is streyt, that is to seye narow; for thei
may not enlargen it toward the desert, for defaute of watre. And the
contree is sett along upon the ryvere of Nyle; be als moche as that ryvere
may serve be flodes or otherwise, that whanne it flowethe, it may spreden
abrood thorghe the contree: so is the contree large of lengthe. For there
it reyneth not but litylle in that contree: and for that cause, they have
no watre, but zif it be of that flood of that ryvere. And for als moche as
it ne reynethe not in that contree, but the eyr is alwey pure and cleer,
therfore in that contree ben the gode astronomyeres; for thei fynde there
no cloudes, to letten hem. Also the cytee of Cayre is righte gret, and more
huge than that of Babyloyne the lesse: and it sytt aboven toward the desert
of Syrye, a lytille above the ryvere aboveseyd. In Egipt there ben 2
parties; the Heghte, that is toward Ethiope; and the Lowenesse, that is
towardes Arabye. In Egypt is the lond of Ramasses and the lond of Gessen.
Egipt is a strong contree: for it hathe manye schrewede havenes, because of
the grete Roches, that ben stronge and daungerouse to passe by. And at
Egipt, toward the est, is the rede see, that durethe unto the cytee of
Coston: and toward the west, is the contree of Lybye, that is a fulle drye
lond, and litylle of fruyt: for it is over moche plentee of hete. And that
lond is clept Fusthe. And toward the partie Meridionalle is Ethiope. And
toward the Northe is the desart, that durethe unto Syrye: and so is the
contree strong on alle sydes. And it is wel a 15 journeyes of lengthe, and
more than two so moche of desert: and it is but two journeyes in
largenesse. And between Egipt and Nubye, it hathe wel a 12 journees of
desert. And men of Nubye ben Cristene: but thei ben blake as the Mowres,
for grete hete of the sonne.

In Egipt there ben 5 provynces; that on highte Sahythe, that other highte
Demeseer, another Resithe, that is an ile in Nyle, another Alisandre, and
another the lond of Damiete. That cytee was wont to be righte strong; but
it was twyes wonnen of the Cristene men: and therfore after that the
Sarazines beten down the walles. And with the walles and the tour thereof,
the Sarazenes maden another cytee more fer from the see, and clepeden it
the newe Damyete. So that now no man duellethe at the rathere toun of
Damyete. And that cytee of Damyete is on of the havenes of Egypt: and at
Alisandre is that other, that is a fulle strong cytee. But there is no
watre to drynke, but zif it come be condyt from Nyle, that entrethe in to
here cisternes. And who so stopped that watre from hem, thei myghte not
endure there. In Egypt there ben but fewe forcelettes or castelles, be
cause that the contree is so strong of him self. At the desertes of Egyptes
was a worthi man, that was an holy heremyte; and there mette with hym a
monstre, (that is to seyne, a monstre is a thing difformed azen kynde both
of man or of best or of ony thing elles: and that is cleped a monstre). And
this monstre, that mette with this holy heremyte, was as it hadde ben a
man, that hadde 2 hornes trenchant on his forehede; and he hadde a body lyk
a man, unto the nabele; and benethe he hadde the body lyche a goot. And the
heremyte asked him, what he was. And the monstre answerde him, and seyde,
he was a dedly creature, suche as God hadde formed, and duelled in tho
desertes in purchasynge his Sustynance; and besoughte the heremyte, that he
wolde preye God for him, the whiche that cam from Hevene for to saven alle
mankynde, and was born of a Mayden, and suffred passioun and dethe, (as we
well knowen) be whom we lyven and ben. And zit is the hede with the 2
hornes of that monstre at Alisandre for a Marveyle.

In Egypt is the cytee of Elyople, [Footnote: Heliopolis.] that is to seyne,
the cytee of the sonne. In that cytee there is a temple made round, aftre
the schappe of the temple of Jerusalem. The prestes of that temple han alle
here wrytinges, undre the date of the foul that is clept Fenix: and there
is non but on in alle the world. And he comethe to brenne him self upon the
awtere of the temple, at the ende of 5 hundred zeer: for so longe he
lyvethe. And at the 500 zeers ende, the prestes arrayen here awtere
honestly, and putten there upon spices and sulphur vif [Footnote: Live.]
and other thinges, that wolen brenne lightly. And than the brid fenix
comethe, and brennethe him self to ashes. And the first day next aftre, men
fynden in the ashes a worm; and the secunde day next aftre, men fynden a
brid quyk and perfyt; and the thridde day next aftre, he fleethe his wey.
And so there is no mo briddes of that kynde in alle the world, but it
allone. And treuly that is a gret myracle of God. And men may well lykne
that bryd unto God; be cause that there nys no God but on; and also, that
our Lord aroos fro dethe to lyve, the thridde day. This bryd men seen often
tyme, fleen in tho contrees: and he is not mecheles more than an Egle. And
he hathe a crest of fedres upon his hed more gret than the poocock hathe;
and his nekke is zalowe, aftre colour of an orielle, [Footnote: Golden.
From Latin, _Aurea_. Cf. Oriel College, Golden Hall.] that is a ston well
schynynge; and his bek is coloured blew, as ynde; [Footnote: Indigo.] and
his wenges ben of purple colour, and the Taylle is zelow and red, castynge
his taylle azens in travers. And he is a fulle fair brid to loken upon,
azenst the sonne: for he schynethe fully gloriously and nobely.

Also in Egypt ben gardyns, than han trees and herbes, the whiche beren
frutes 7 tymes in the zeer. And in that lond men fynden many fayre

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