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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries by Richard Hakluyt

Part 7 out of 8

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qui his prŠerant regulos, Fylkis Konga) ad Monarchiam armis potentibus
redegit. Id cum et genere et potentia valentes aliquot regni incolŠ ŠgrŔ
ferrent, patria exulare, quÓm ipsius Tyrannidis iugum non detrectare
maluerunt. Vnde hi in Islandiam, antea quidem Ó quibusdam visam et
inuentam, at desertam tamen, colonias, dicto Superius Anno 874.
transtulerunt: Atque sic genti nostrŠ originem prŠbentes, se Islandos
nuncuparunt, quod nomen hodiŔ posteri retinent. Vixerunt itaque Islandi
diu, nullius imperium agnoscentes, annis scilicet 386. plus minus. Et
quamuis Rex NoruagiŠ Haquinus ille conatus, qui omnium regum NoruagiŠ
diutissimŔ, nempe plusquam 66. annos imperium gerebat, sŠpŔ per legatos
tentarat tributarios sibi facere Islandos, constanter tamen semper
restiterunt, donec tandem circa annum Domini 1260. homagium ipsi
prŠstarent. [Sidenote: Margareta.] Atque postea semper in data fide
persistentes, et regibus NoruagiŠ parentes, translato per Margaretam,
DaniŠ, SueciŠ, et NoruagiŠ reginam, Noruagorum imperio, ad Danos, vnÓ cum
reliquis imperij Noruagici Insulis, Serenissimum DaniŠ regem; Dominum et
Regem suum hodiŔ salutant.

The same in English.

THE FIFTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: Munsterus. Krantzius.] The King of Denmarke and Norway sendeth
euery yeere a Lieutenant into the Countrey.

In the yeere of our Lord eight hundred fortie and sixe Harold Harfagre
(which is to say, golden haires or faire lockes) was borne. Who afterward
in the yeere eight hundred fiftie and eight, being chosen king of Norway,
when he was growen to age, and full strength, chaunged the forme of the
Noruagian gouernment. For whereas before it was diuided into pettie
Prouinces (which they called Fylki, and the pettie kings that gouerned
them, fylkis konga) he reduced it by force of armes vnto a Monarchie.
[Sidenote: The occasion of the first inhabiting of Island by the people of
Norway.] But when some inhabitants of the countrie, being mightie, and
descended of good parentages, could not well brooke this hard dealing, they
chose rather to be banished their countrey, then not to shake off the yoke
of tyranny. Whereupon, they in the yeere aboue named eight hundred seuentie
and foure, transported colonies into Island being before discouered by some
men and found out, but vnpeopled as yet: And so being the first founders of
our nation, they called themselues Islanders, which name their posteritie
reteineth vnto this day. And therefore the Islanders liued a long time,
namely, three hundred eightie and sixe yeeres, more or lesse, acknowledging
no submission to any other Nation. [Sidenote: Haquinus coronatus.] And
although Haquinus that crowned King of Norway who reigned longest of any
Noruagian king, namely, about sixtie sixe yeares, did oftentimes attempt by
Ambassadours to make the Islanders become tributaries vnto him,
notwithstanding at all times they constantly withstoode him, till at length
about the yeere of our Lord 1260. they performed homage vnto him. And
afterward continued alwayes in their promised loyaltie, being subiects to
the king of Norway. But now at this day, since the Empire of the Noruagians
was translated by Margaret Queene of Denmarke, Suedeland, and Norway vnto
the Danes, they doe honour as their soueraigne Lord and King the most
gracious king of Denmarke.

SEXIO SEXTA.

[Sidenote: Krantzius Munsterus] Omnia eos communia sunt, prŠter vxores.

Hoc loco prŠmittit Krantzius talem Ironiam.

Multa insignia in moribus illorum, &c. Porr˛ etiam hic fidem vestram eleuat
ingenium, ad asserendum res incompertas nimis procliue, cupidinem
nouitatis, et nominis ac famaŠ, im˛ veritatis curam preposteram arguit,
omnium et rerum personar˙mque et temporum experientia: O scriptores
suspiciendi.

Testes sunt leges politicŠ, quibus inde ab initio cum Noruagis vsi sunt
eisdem Islandi: De Rege et subditis: De foro, et his quŠ in forensem
disceptationem cadere possunt: De hŠreditatibus: adoptionibus, nuptijs,
furto, rapinis, mutuo contractibus et cŠteris: QuŠ omnia, quorsum illis,
quebus res omnes sunt communes? Testes sunt, tot de bonis mobilibus et
immobilibus contentiones, turbŠ et certamina, in foris ac iudicijs
Islandorum: Testes sunt Reges nunc DaniŠ et olim NoruagiŠ, qui tot libellis
supplicibus Islandorum, ad componendas istas de possessionibus
controuersias, olim et nunc interpellati sŠpŔ fuerant. Testis contra
seipsum Krantzius, cuius verba distinction. i. huius, hŠc fuerunt. Ante
susceptam Christi fidem (Islandi) lege naturali viuentes parum Ó lege
nostra discrepabant, &c. Si lege naturŠ, certŔ lege illa iustitiŠ, quŠ
tribuit vnicuique suum: Si lege iustitiŠ, certŔ proprietatum et dominiorum
distinctiones in nostra gente locum habuisse oportet: Quanquam autem in
hanc ipsam legem etiam in Ecclesia, et quidem satis atrocitur, sŠpŔ
delinquitur tamen et Ecclesia et Ethnici iustissimam et optimam esse semper
fassi sunt.

The same in English.

THE SIXTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: Krantzius. Munsterus.] All things are common among them except
their wiues.

Here Krantzius in the first place beginneth with such a gybe There be many
notable things in their manners, &c. Moreouer, your wit being too hastie in
affirming things vnknowen, doth here also diminish your credite. The
experience as well of all things as of persons and times proueth your ouer
greedie desire of noueltie, of fame and vaine glorie, and argueth your
great negligence in maintaining the truth. O worthy writers.

But whether the aforesayde things bee true or no, wee call the lawes of our
Countrey to witnesse, which the Islanders from the beginning haue vsed all
one with the Norwayes: of the King and his subiects: of the seate of
iustice, and of law cases which come to be decided there, of inheritances:
of adoptions, marriages, theft, extortions, lending, bargaines, and the
rest: all which, to what purpose should they be enioyned vnto them with
whom all things are common? We call to witnesse so many broyls and
contentions in our courts, and places of iudgement in Island concerning
goods mooueable, and immooueable: we call to witnesse our kings now of
Denmarke, aforetime of Norway, who by so many billes of supplication out of
Island in old time, and of late haue beene often interrupted, for the
setting through of controuersies concerning possessions. Wee call Krantzius
himselfe to witnesse against himselfe, whose words in the first section
were these: Before the receiuing of Christian faith the Islanders liuing
according to the lawe of nature did not much differ from our lawe &c. If by
the lawe of nature, then doubtlesse by that lawe of iustice, which giueth
to euery man his owne: If by the lawe of iustice, then certainely
distinctions of properties and possessions must needes haue taken place in
our Nation: and although this very lawe is often transgressed, and that
haynously euen in the Church: notwithstanding both the Church, and also
heathen men doe acknowledge it to be most iust and good.

SECTIO SEPTIMA.

Catulos suos et pueros Šquo habent in precio: Nisi quod Ó pauperioribus
facilius impetrabis filium quÓm catulum, &c.

Quamuis principio huius commentarioli censuerim, Munsterum et alios magni
nominis viros, in ijs, quŠ de Islandia scripta reliquerunt, esse Ó calumnŠ
nota liberandos: num tamen id hţc, etiam Ó candidissimo et maxime sincero
quocunque fieri possit, non satis video. Quid enim mouit tantos viros, vt
Nautarum maleuolas nugas et mendacia secuti, tam atroci et contumelioso
opprobrio gentem nostram diffamarent, commacularentque? Nihil profect˛,
nisi secura ridendi et contemnendi gentem pauperem et ignotam, licentia, et
si quŠ sunt huic vicia confinia.

CŠterum n˘rint omnes non tam Islandis, quÓm ipsis Authoribus, incommodare
hoc mendacium. Cum enim illud, et plurima etiam alia in historiam suam
accumulant, efficiunt vnÓ, vt alibi quoque suspectŠ fidei habeantur.
Illudque quod ait Aristoteles lucrantur, vt cum vera dixerint, illis sine
suspitione non credatur.

Sed age Lector, subsiste paulisper, mec¨mque grauitatem et sapientiam
tantorum virorum expende: Ne tantum IslandiŠ Elogium intactum prŠtereamus.
Docuerunt hactenus Krantzius et Munsterus: Islandos esse Christianos. Item:
Islandos ante susceptam Christi fidem lege naturali vixisse. Item: Islandos
vixisse lege quadam non multum Ó lege Germanorum discrepante. Item: Vixisse
eos in sancta simplicitate. Adesdum igitur Lector, et quas Christianismi,
Legis naturalis, legis Germanorum, santŠ simplicitatis notas Authores illi
requirant, et in Islandis monstrent ac depingant, perpende. Vna fuit supra,
qu˛d infernum siue carcerem damnatorum montis HeclŠ voragine et radicibus
circumscribant Islandi: de quo vide Sect. i. huius: et sect. 7. prior.
part. Altera nota, qu˛d, cum Anabaptistis, proprietatum et dominiorum
distinctiones tollant: de quo Sect. prŠced. Tertia eÓque longe
excellentissima hŠc est: illi prŠclari affectus naturales, amor, cura, et
animus tam pius et paternus Islandorum in liberos, qu˛d videlicit eiusdem
precij sint apud illos canes et filij, aut hi etiam viltoris. Siccine nobis
Munstere et Krantzi. Legem Christi, naturŠ, Germanorum, et sanctam
simplicitatem depingitis: O picturam prŠclaram et excellentem, quamuis non
prorsus ApellŠam: O Inuentum acutum et admirandum, si benŔ authenticum: O
scientiam plusquÓm humanam, etsi non prorsus diuinam.

Nos ver˛ Islandi, quamuis vltimi et gelidum conclusi ad Arcton, longŔ alias
Christianismi notas requirimis. Nam et prŠceptum Dei habemus, vt quilibet
proximum diligat velut seipsum. Iam nemo est, puto, qui seipsum non plus
diligat, aut pluris faciat, quÓm canem. Quod si tantus esse debet proximi
cuiuslibet fauor, tanta Šstimatio, tantus amor, quantus quŠso erit in
liberos? Quorum arctissimum amorem, prŠterquam quod ipsa parens natura
nobis firmissimŔ conciliauit, etiam Lex diuina curam summam in enutriendo
habere iussit (Exo. 12. 24. Ephe. 6, 4.) vt scilicet sint in sancto
coniugio, EcclesiŠ quŠdam seminaria, omnis pietatis et honestatis
exercitia: Prout vates ille pulcherrimŔ cecinit.

Vult Ecclesiolam quamlibet esse domum.

Item: Coniugium humanŠ quŠdam est Academia vitŠ.

Vt iam satis constet, apud Christianos longŔ pluris faciendos et curandos
filios, quÓm canes: Et, si qui non aliter curent, Christianos non esse.

Sed et hic in prolem dulcissimam affectus naturalis in Ethnicis etiam satis
apertŔ conspicitur: vt si quos hoc penit¨s exueris, eosdem etiam homines
esse negaueris. Monstrant id matres Carthaginenses, cum tertio bello Punico
adolescentes quique lectissimi obsides in Siciliam mitterentur, quos illŠ
fletu et lamentatione miserabili ad naues comitatŠ, et ex his quŠdam Ó
filioram compleximus ŠgrŔ diuulsŠ, cum ventis pandi vela cernerent,
nauesque Ŕ portu egredi, dolore stimulante, in subiectos fluctus
dissiluere: Sabellico authore. Monstrat Ăgeus, qui nauem filij Thesei, cum
velis atri coloris, ex Creta redeuntem cerneret, perijsse filium ratus,
vitam in proximis vndis finiuit. Sabellic. lib. 3. cap. 4. Monstrat
Gordianus senior, AfricŠ proconsul, qui similiter, ob rumores de morte
filij, vitam suspendio clausit. Campofulgos. lib. 5. cap. 7. Monstrant idem
Iocasta Creontis filia, Auctolia Sinonis F. Anius Tuscorum Rex, Orodes Rex
Parthorum, et alij numero innumero. De quibus vide stat. lib. 2.
Plutarchum, et alios, &c. Huc illud. Amor descendit, &c. Ade˛, vt videas
non minus esse homini proprium, sobolem intimŔ diligere, et summo amore
prosequi, quÓm aut volare; vt si iam aliquando homines esse Islandos, nedum
Christianos scriptores nostri fassi sint, hunc amorem et affectum in filios
ijsdem, quantumuis inuiti et repugnantes, adscribant: sin minus, non mod˛
hominis titulum et dignitatem illis detrahant, sed etiam infrÓ bruta et
quasuis bestias, quŠ ipsŠ, stimulante natura, maximo prolis suŠ et
arctissimo amore tenentur, deprimant.

Non addam contra hoc impudens mendacium exempla etiam nostratium satis
illustria: Tacebo leges nostras plagiarias ipsis Islandis antiquiores,
quippe a Noruagis acceptas, quŠ exstant in codice legum nostrarum, titulo
Mannhelge: cap. 5. Si quis hominem liberum (quemuis nedum filium) extraneis
vendat, &c.

Iam ver˛ si quis e˛ fortunŠ deueniat, vt proprium filium, siue incolŠ, siue
extranei alicuius potestati, vel fame vel extrema quacunque vrgente
necessitate, aut periculo, permittat, ne familicum *media deficientem
aspicere cogatur, canem ver˛ in proprias dapes reseruet, Is minimŔ dicendus
est filium Šquo aut inferiore loco habere quÓm canem, siue id faciant,
Islandi, siue extranei quilibet.

Offenderant fortŔ Germanorum vel Danorum nautŠ apud nos mendicos quosdam,
liberis onustos, quorum hţc maximus est numerus, qui iocando, vt sunt nugis
scurrilibus addicti, dixerint: Da mihi aut vende hoc vel illud: Cumque
rogarint extranei: Quid tu mihi vicissim? Responderint mendici. Habeo
liberos 10. vel 14. dabo ex eis vnum vel plures, &c. Solet enim ista
mendicorum colluuies istiusmodi scurriles dialogismos cum extraneis
instituere. Quod si tum quispiam bonus vir, misertus stoliditatis et inopiŠ
mendicorum, vno illos filio leuauerit, eique propter Deum in alijs terris,
aliquo tandem modo benŔ prospexerit, num mendicus, qui alioqui cum filio,
fame et paupertate moriturus, filium miserenti permittit et committit,
filium istum suum minoris facit quÓm canem? PrŠstitum est Ó multis tam
Islandis quÓm extraneis huiusmodi beneuolentiŠ et commiserationis opus: ex
quibus fuit vir nobilissimus Accilius Iulius Ó serenissimo rege DaniŠ olim
missus ad Islandos, Anno Domini 1552. Qui vt audiui, 15. pueros pauperculos
assumpsit et secum in Daniam auexit: Vbi postea ipsius beneficio singulos
suo vitŠ generi addictos, in viros bonos et frugi euasisse, mihi narratum
est.

Quid si quis in extrema constitutus angustia, filium non mod˛ vendat; sed
si emptorem non habet, ipse mactet et comedat? Nota sunt huius rei exempla:
Parentum videlicet inuitiŠ crudelitatis in filios, stimulante non odio vel
astorgia, sed ineuitabili necessitate compellente. Num quis inde vniuersale
gentis alicuius conuicium exstruxerit? Legimus, in obsidione SamariŠ matres
duas filios suos mactasse, et coctos comedisse: 4. Reg. C. 6. Legimus in
obsidione Ierosolymitana, quam flebilis fuerit vox miserrimŠ matris, filium
misellum iam mactaturŠ. Infans, ait, (referam enim Eusebij verba de hac re,
etsi notissima, vt miserŠ matris affectus appareat,) miselle et infelix,
cuinam in hoc belli. famis, et seditionis tumultu, te commodŔ reseruem? Si
Romanorum subijciamur imperio, illic seruitutis iugo pressi, vitam
infoeliciter exigemus. Sed seruitutum credo fames anteuertet. Accedit
factiosorum prŠdonum turba, his vtrisque miserijs toleratu mult˛ asperior.
Age igitur mi gnate, sis matri cibus, sis prŠdonibus furia, sis communi
hominum vitŠ fabula, quŠ res vna ad IudŠorum calamitates deesse videtur.
QuŠ cum dixisset, natum trucidat, assatumque dimidium mox comedit, dimidium
reseruat &c. Eusebius libro 3. capite 6. Iam quis est, qui non credat
misserrimam hanc matrem filium hunc suum, domini alicuius, si se
obtulisset, apud quem credidisset seruatum iri, aut emptoris possessioni
fuisse permissuram? Nota est fames, Calagurium, HispaniŠ vrbem, olim Ó
Cneio Pompeio obsessam opprimens (Val. libro septimo cap. 7.) cuius
ciuibus, vxores et liberi in vsum estremŠ dapis conuersi sunt, quos
profect˛; pro cibarijs et alijs dapibus haud inuiti vendidissent. Nota est
quoque fames, quŠ Anno Domini 851. (Vincent. libro 25. cap. 36.) Germaniam
attriuit, vt etiam pater filium suum deuorare voluerit. Notum etiam est,
post mortem Henrici septimi Imperat fame per triennium continuata, quomodo
parentes liberos, vel liberi parentes deuorarint, et prŠcipuŔ quidem in
Polonia et Bohemia. Et ne exempla tant¨m antiqua petamus, accepimus tantam
annonŠ sŠuitiam, Anno 1586. et 1587. in Hungaria grassatam fuisse, vt
quidam alimentorum inopia adacti immanissimo Christianorum hosti proprios
liberos vendiderint, et in perpetuum seruitutis iugum manciparint: quidam
paruulos suos, quos vlterius tolerare non sustinebant, crudeli misericordia
in Danubium proiecisse, et, suffocasse dicantur. Sed, num hŠc et similia
exempla quempiam e˛ insaniŠ adigent, vt dicat hanc vel illam nationem,
liberos in escam propriam mactare *consuettisse, Turcis libenter vendere,
aut aquis submergere et suffocare solitam esse? Non opinor. Sic neque, qu˛d
mendici apud Islandos, extrema vrgente necessitate, cuius durissimi sunt
morsus, filios suos libenter amittant, toti genti, et quidem probri loco,
communiter adscribendum est Ó quoquam, nisi apud eundem omnis pudor,
candor, humanitas, veritas exulent.

CŠterum optarim ego, parcius Islandis canum curam exprobrare illos populos,
quorum matronŠ, et prŠcipuŔ nobiles, canes in maximis delicijs habent, vt
eos vel in plateis, ne dicam in sacris concionibus, sinum gestent, quem
morem in peregrinis quibusdam, quos RomŠ catulos simiarum et canum in
gremio circumferre CŠsar conspexit, hac quŠstione reprehendit, dum
quŠreret: Numquid apud ipsos mulieres liberos non parerent? Monens errare
eos, qui Ó natura inditos sibi affectus, quibus in amorem hominum ac
prŠcipuŔ sobolis incitarentur, in bestias transferunt, quarum deliciarum
voluptas Islandorum gentem, nunquam cepit aut habuit. Quare iam Munstere et
Krantzi, alias nobis Christianitatis, (vt sic dicam) legis naturŠ, legis
item Germanorum, et sanctŠ simplicitatis notas qusente.

The same in English.

THE SEVENTH SECTION.

They make all one reckoning of their whelpes, and of their children: except
that of the poorer sort you shall easier obtaine their sonne then their
shalke.

Although in the beginning of this Treatise I thought that Munster and other
men of great name in those things which they haue left written concerning
Islande, were not to bee charged with slander, yet whether that fauour may
here be shewed by any man whatsoeuer (be he neuer so fauourable, and neuer
so sincere) I doe not sufficiently conceiue. For what should moue such
great men, following the despightful lyes, and fables of mariners, to
defame and staine our nation with so horrible and so shamefull a reproch?
Surely nothing else but a carelesse licentiousnesse to deride and contemne
a poore and vnknowen Nation, and such other like vices.

But, be it knowen to all men that this vntrueth doth not so much hurt to
the Islanders, as to the authors themselues. For in heaping vp this, and a
great number of others into their Histories, they cause their credite in
other places also to be suspected: And hereby they gaine thus muche (as
Aristotle sayth) that when they speake trueth no man will beleeue them
without suspition.

But attend a while (Reader) and consider with me the grauitie and wisedome
of these great Clarkes: that we may not let passe such a notable
commendation of Island. Krantzius and Munster haue hitherto taught, that
the Islanders are Christians. Also: that before receiuing of Christian
faith they liued according to the lawe of Nature. Also: that the Islanders
liued after a law not much differing from the lawe of the Germanes. Also,
that they liued in holy simplicitie.

Attend I say (good Reader) and consider, what markes of Christianitie, of
the lawe of nature, of the Germanes law, of holy simplicitie, these authors
require, and what markes they shew and describe in the Islanders. There was
one of the sayd markes before: namely, that the Islanders doe place hell or
the prison of the damned, within the gulfe and bottome of mount Hecla:
concerning which, reade the first section of this part, and the seuenth
section of the former. The seconde marke is, that with the Anabaptists they
take away distinctions of properties and possessions: in the section next
going before. The third and most excellent is this: those singular and
natural affections, that loue and tender care, and that fatherly and godly
minde of the Islanders towards their children, namely, that they make the
same accompt of them, or lesse then they doe of their dogges. What? Will
Munster and Krantzius after this fashion picture out vnto vs the lawe of
Christ, the lawe of nature, the lawe of the Germanes, and holy simplicitie?
O rare and excellent picture, though not altogether matching the skill of
Apelles: O sharpe and wonderfull inuention, if authenticall: O knowledge
more then humane, though not at all diuine.

But wee Islanders (albeit the farthest of all nations and inhabiting a
frozen clime) require farre other notes of Christianitie. For we haue the
commaundement of God, that euery man should loue his neighbour as himselfe.
Nowe there is none (I suppose) that doeth not loue or esteeme more of
himselfe then of his dogge. And if there ought to bee so great fauour, so
great estimation, so great loue vnto our neighbour, then how great
affection doe we owe vnto our children? The most neare and inseparable loue
of whom, besides that nature hath most friendly setled in our mindes, the
loue of God also commaundeth vs to haue speciall regard in trayning them vp
(Exod 12. 24. Ephes. 6. 4.) namely that there may be in holy marriage
certaine seminaries of Gods Church, and exercises of all pietie and
honestie according to the excellent saying of the Poet--

God will haue each family,
A little Church to be,

Also,

Of humane life or mans societie,
A Schole or College is holy matrimonie

That it may be manifest, that among Christians their sonnes are more to be
accompted of and regarded, then their dogges: and if any doe no otherwise
esteeme of them, that they are no Christians.

But this naturall affection towarde our most deare of-spring is plainely
seene in the heathen themselues: that whomsoeuer you totally depriue of
this, you denie them also to bee men. The mothers of Carthage testifie this
to be true, when as in the third Punic warre the most choyse and gallant
young men in all the Citie were sent as pledges into Sicilia, whom they
followed vnto the shippes with most miserable weeping and lamentation, and
some of them being with griefe separated from their deare sonnes, when they
sawe the saules hoysed, and the shippes departing out of the hauen, for
very anguish cast themselues headlong into the water: as Sabellicus
witnesseth. EgŠus doth testifie this, who when he sawe the shippe of his
sonne Theseus, returning out of Creete with blacke sayles, thinking that
his sonne had perished, ended his life in the next waters: Sabell lib. 3.
cap 4. Gordianus the elder, Proconsul of Affrica, doth testifie this, who
likewise, vpon rumours of the death of his sonne, hanged himselfe. Campoful
lib 5. cap. 7. Also, Iocasta the daughter of Creon, Auctolia daughter of
Simon, Anius King of the Thuscans, Orodes King of the Parthians, and an
infinite number of others. Concerning whom reade Plutarch stat. lib. 2. and
other authors, &c. To these may be added that sentence, Loue descendeth,
&c. So that you see, it is no lesse proper to a man entirely to loue his
children, then for a bird to flie: that if our writers at any time haue
confessed the Islanders to be men (muche lesse to be Christians,) they
must, will they nill they, ascribe vnto them this loue and affection
towardes their children: if not, they doe not onely take from them the
title and dignitie of men, but also they debase them vnder euery brute
beast, which euen by the instinct of nature are bound with exceeding great
loue, and tender affection towards their young ones.

I will not adde against this shamelesse vntruth most notable examples of
our owen countreymen: I will omit our lawes of man-stealing, more ancient
then the Islanders themselues, being receiued from the Noruagians, and are
extant in our booke of lawes vnder the title Manhelge cap. 5, Whosoeuer
selleth a free man (any man much more a sonne) vnto strangers, &c.

Now if any man be driuen to that hard fortune, that he must needs commit
his own sonne into the hands of some inhabitant or stranger, being vrged
thereunto by famine, or any other extreame necessity, that he may not be
constrained to see him hunger-starued for want of sustenance, but keepeth
his dogge still for his owne eating, this man is not to be sayd, that he
esteemeth equally or more basely of his sonne then of his dogge: whether
Islanders or any other countreymen do the same.

[Sidenote: The occasion of this slander.] The Germane or the Danish
mariners might perhaps find amongst vs certaine beggars laden with children
(for we haue here a great number of them) who in iesting maner, for they
are much giuen to trifling talke, might saye: Giue me this, or sell me
that: and when the stranger should aske, What will you giue me for it? the
beggar might answere: I haue ten or foureteene children, I will giue you
some one or more of them, &c. For this rabble of beggars vseth thus fondly
to prate with strangers. Now if there be any well-disposed man, who pitying
the need and folly of these beggers, releaseth them of one sonne, and doth
for Gods sake by some meanes prouide for him in another countrey: doth the
begger therefore (who together with his sonne being ready to die for hunger
and pouerty, yeeldeth and committeth his sonne into the hands of a
mercifull man) make lesse account of his sonne then of his dogge? Such
works of loue and mercie haue bene performed by many, as well Islanders
themselues as strangers: one of which number was that honourable man
Accilius Iulius, being sent by the most gracious King of Denmarke into
Island in the yere of our Lord 1552, who, as I haue heard, tooke, and
carried with him into Denmarke fiftene poore boyes: where afterward it was
reported vnto me, that, by his good meanes euery one of them being bound to
a seuerall trade, proued good and thriftie men.

What if some man be driuen to that passe, that he doth not onely sell his
sonne but not finding a chapman, his owne selfe killeth and eateth him?
Examples of this kinde be common, namely of the vnwilling and forced
cruelty of parents towards their children, not being pricked on through
hate, or want of naturall affection, but being compelled thereunto by
vrgent necessity. Shall any man hereupon ground a generall reproch against
a whole nation? We reade that in the siege of Samaria, two mothers slew
their sonnes, and eat them sodden: 4. King, chap. 6. We reade in the siege
of Ierusalem, how lamentable the voice of that distressed mother was, being
about to kill her tender childe: My sweete babe, sayth she (for I will
report Eusebius owne words, concerning this matter, though very common,
that the affection of a mother may appeare) borne to miserie and mishap,
for whom should I conueniently reserue thee in this tumult of famine, of
warre, and sedition? If we be subdued to the gouernment of the Romans, we
shall weare out our vnhappy dayes vnder the yoke of slauery. But I thinke
famine will preuent captiuity. Besides, there is a rout of seditious rebels
much more intollerable then either of the former miseries. Come on
therefore, my sonne, be thou meat vnto thy mother, a fury to these rebels,
and a byword in the common life of men, which one thing onely is wanting to
make vp the calamities of the Iewes. These sayings being ended, she killeth
her sonne, roasting and eating one halfe, and reseruing the other, &c.
Eusebius lib 3. cap. 6. Now, what man will not beleeue that this vnhappy
mother would full gladly haue passed ouer this her sonne into the
possession of some master or chapman, if she could haue happened vpon any
such, with whom she thought he might haue beene preserued: That famine is
well knowen which oppressed Calagurium, a city of Spaine, when in olde time
Cneius Pompeius layed siege thereunto (Valerius lib. 7. cap. 7.) the
citizens whereof conuerted their wiues and children into meat for the
satisfying of their extreame hunger, whom doubtlesse they would with all
their heartes haue solde for other victuals. That famine also is well
knowen which in the yere of our Lord 851. (Vincent lib. 35. cap 26.)
afflicted Germany, insomuch that the father was glad to deuoure his owne
sonne. It was well knowen after the death of the Emperour Henry the
seuenth, in a famine continuing three whole yeres, how the parents would
deuoure their children, and the children their parents, and that especially
in Polonia and Bohemia. And that we may not onely allege ancient examples:
it is reported that there was such a grieuous dearth of corne in the yeeres
1586, and 1587, thorowout Hungary, that some being compelled for want of
food were faine to sell their children vnto the most bloudy and barbarous
enemy of Christians, and so to enthrall them to the perpetuall yoke of
Turkish slauery: and some are sayd to haue taken their children, whom they
could no longer sustaine, and with cruell mercy to haue cast them into
Danubius, and drowned them. But should these stories and the like make any
man so mad as to affirme that this or that nation accustometh to kill their
children for their owne food, and to sell them willingly vnto the Turks, or
to drowne and strangle them willingly in the water? I cannot thinke it. So
neither (because beggers in Island being enforced through extreame and
biting necessitie, do willingly part with their sonnes) is this custome
generally to be imputed vnto the whole nation, and that by way of disgrace,
by any man, except it be such an one who hath taken his leaue of all
modesty, plaine dealing, humanity, and trueth.

But I could wish that the loue of dogges in Islanders might be more
sparingly reprehended by those people, whose matrons, and specially their
noble women, take so great delight in dogs, that they carry them in their
bosomes thorow the open streetes. I will not say in Churches: which feshion
CŠsar blamed in certaine strangers, whom he sawe at Rome carrying about
yoong apes and whelpes in their armes, asking them this question: Whether
women in their countrey brought foorth children or no? signifying heereby,
that they do greatly offend who bestow vpon beasts these naturall
affections, wherewith they should be inuited to the loue of mankinde, and
specially of their owne ofspring, which strange pleasure neuer ouertooke,
nor possessed the nation of the Islanders. Wherefore now (Munster and
Krantzius) you must finde vs out other marks of Christianity, of the law of
nature, of the Germans law, and of holy simplicity.

SECTIO OCTAVA.

[Sidenote: Krantzius Munsterus] Episcopum suum colunt pro Rege ad cuius
nutum respicit totus populus. Quicquid ex lege, scripturis, et ex
consuetudine aliarum gentium constituit, quÓm sancte obseruant.

Fuit equidem initio ferŔ ad repurgatam Euangelij doctrinam maxima Episcopi
obseruantia; sed nunquam tanta vt exteris legibus aut consuetudini cederent
nostrŠ leges politicŠ, ex nutu Episcopi. Nec tempore Alberti Krantzij,
mult˛ minus Munsteri (quorum ille 1517, hic 1552. post partum salutiferum
decessit) Episcopi Islandorum regiam obtinuerunt authoritatem, c¨m scilicet
multi ex ijs, qui diuitijs paul˛ plus valebant aduersus ipsos consurgere
non dubitarint; quŠ res apud nostrates liquido constat. Intenm tamen
Episcopi, anathematis fulmine terribiles, alios in suam potestatem
redegerunt, alios furibunda sŠuitia id temporis persecuti sunt.

Porr˛ etsi tum fuit magna, im˛ maxima Episcopi obseruantia, tamen nunc
dispulsis tenebris Papisticis, alia ratione homines Satan aggreditur,
eor¨mque mentes contemptus libertate et refractaria contumacia, aduersus
Deum et sacrum ministerium, etiam hţc armare non negligit.

The same in English.

THE EIGHTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: Krantzius, Munsterus] They honour their Bishop as their King
vnto whose command all the whole people haue respect. Whatsoeuer he
prescribeth out of the law, the scriptures, or the customes of other
nations, they do full holily obserue.

There was indeed at the beginning, about the time of the reformation of
religion, great reuerence had vnto the bishop; but neuer so great, that our
politique lawes at the bishops command should giue place to outlandish
lawes and customes. Neither in the time of Albertus Krantzius, much lesse
of Munster (of which two the first deceased in the yere of our Lord 1517,
and the second 1552) the bishops of Island had the authonty of kings, when
as many of the country which were of the richer sort, would not doubt to
rebell against them; which thing is too well knowen in our countrey. Yet in
the meane time, the bishops being terrible with their authority of
excommunication, reduced some vnder their subiection, and others at that
time they cruelly persecuted.

Moreouer, albeit at that time the bishop was had in great, yea, in
exceeding great reuerence, yet now adayes, the darkenesse of popery being
dispelled, the deuill assaulteth men after another sort, and euen here
amongst vs, he is not slacke to arme their minds with contempt, and
peruerse stubburnnesse against God, and his holy ministery.

SECTIO NONA.

[Sidenote: Munster.] Illic victitant plerumque piscibus, propter magnam
penuriam frumenti, quod aliunde Ó maritimis ciuitatibus infertur: & qui
inde cum magno lucro pisces exportant. Item Munsterus. Illic piscibus
induratis vtuntur loco panis qui illic non crescit.

Vide Lector, quÓm Munsterum iuuet, eadem oberrare chorda: vt cum de gente
ignota nihil scribere possit, quod coloris aliquid habeat, vel falsa
afferre, vel eadem sŠpius repetere, sicque cramben eandem recoquere
sustineat: Dixerat enim paul˛ ante, Islandos piscibus viuere. Verba ipsius
superi¨s etiam recitata, hŠc sunt. Islandia populos continet multos, solo
pecorum pastu et nunc captura piscium victitantes, etc. Et vt cŠtera
transeam in quibus leue quiddam notari poterat: Illud sanŔ, panem in
Islandia non crescere, perquam ver¨m est. Quod etiam illi cum Germania
commune esse crediderim, qu˛d videlicet nec illic panis crescat, nisi fortŔ
in Munsteri, agro, vbi etiam acetum naturale optimŔ crescit. Sed hŠc,
troporum indulgentia, scilicet, salua erunt. Ad conicia autem, quŠ ex victu
Islandorum petunt extranei, infrÓ paucis respondebitur, Sect. 15.

The same in English.

THE NINTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: Munsterus.] They liue there for the most part vpon fishes,
because of their great want of corne, which is brought in from the port
townes of other countreys: who cary home fishes from thence with great
gaine. Also Munster sayth, they do there vse stockefish in stead of
bread, which groweth not in that countrey.

Consider (friendly reader) how Munster is delighted to harpe vpon one
string, that when he can write nothing of an vnknowen nation which may cary
any shew with it, he is faine either to bring in falshood, or often to
repeat the same things, and so to become tedious vnto his reader: for he
sayd a little before, that the Islanders liue vpon fish. His words aboue
recited were these: Island conteineth many people liuing onely with the
food of cattell, and sometimes by taking of fishes. And that I may omit the
rest in which some trifle might be noted whereas he sayeth that bread
groweth not in Island: it is most true: which I thinke is common therewith
to Germany also, because bread groweth not there neither, except it be in
Munsters field where naturall vineger also doth marueillously encrease. But
these toyes, by the liberty of rethoricke forsooth, shall be out of danger.
Howbeit, vnto these reproches, which strangers do gather from the meats and
drinks of the Islanders, we will hereafter briefly answere, Sect. 15.

SECTIO DECIMA.

[Sidenote: Munster. Krantzius.] IncolŠ res maiorum et sui temporis
celebrant cantibus et insculpunt scopulis, atque promontorijs, vt nulla,
nisi cum naturŠ iniuria, intercidant apud posteritatem.

[Sidenote: Frisius.] CitharŠdi, et qui testudine ludunt, apud eos
reperiuntur quÓm plurimi, qui prŠdulci modulamine et volucres et pisces
irretiant et capiant.

[Sidenote: Veterum gesta apud Islandes conseruata.] Quin veterum gesta
aliquot cantibus et poematibus nostratium, vt et soluta oratione, apud nos
conseruentur, non negamus. Qu˛d ver˛ Ó nobis aut maioribus nostris eadem
scopulis vel promontorijs insculpta sunt, eam non licet nobis, vt neque
illam tantam CitharŠdorum, aues aut pieces demulcentium, laudem accipere.
Statuimus enim animi esse generosi ac veracis, vt crimina falsa refellere,
ita laudem immeritam sibi haud vendicare, nec, etsi quis tribuat,
agnoscere.

The same in English.

THE TENTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: Munsterus. Krantzius.] The inhabitants do celebrate the actes of
their ancestours, and of their times, with songs, and they graue them in
rocks and promontories, that they may not decay with posterity, but onely
by the defect of nature.

[Sidenote: Frisius.] There be diuers found amongst them that be minstrels,
and can play vpon the lute, who with their delectable musicke ensnare and
take both fowles and fishes.

[Sidenote: The Islanders preserue in writing the acts of their ancestors.]
We denie not but that some woorthy actes of our forefathers be reserued in
the songs and poemes of our countreymen, as also in prose: but that the
same things haue beene engrauen by vs, or by our ancestors in rocks or
promontories, we may in no case acknowledge that praise be due vnto vs, nor
yet the other of minstrels, and taking of birds and fishes. For we holde it
to be part of an honest and ingenuous mind, as to refute false crimes, so
not to challenge vndeserued praise vnto himselfe, nor to accept it being
offered.

SECTIO VNDECIMA.

Sed cum scriptoribus iam dictis, viris alioqui spectatŠ eruditionis et
preclari nominis, qui tamen hŠc ita inconsideratŔ scriptis suis
interseruerunt, actionis finis esto.

Etiam magna mei pars est exhaosta laboris:

Sed restat tamen fŠtus ille vipereus Germanicus, quem idcirc˛ anonymum
secundo partu mater edi voluit, vt venenatis aculeis nomen Islandorum tant˛
liberi¨s pungeret.

Porr˛ licet aduersus hanc bestiam in arenam descendere non dubitem, omnibus
tamen constate volo, quonam hoc animo faciam, videlicet, non vt cum illius
pestifera virulentia, conuicijs aut maledicentia certem (Nam vt est in
triuiali paroemia,

Hoc scio pro certo, quod si cum stercore certo,
Vinco, seu vincor, semper ego maculor:)

Sed vt bonis et cordatis omnibus, etiam extraneis, satisfaciam qui
maledicentiam istam Germanicam lecturi vel audituri sunt, aut olim
audierint, ne et hi nos merit˛ calumniam tantam sustinere credant: Tum
etiam vt alios qui istis virulentis rhythmis Germanicis, in gentis nostrŠ
opprobrium vtuntur, et inde dicteria et comumeliosas subsannationes ad
despiciendos Islandos petunt, ab ilia mordendi licentia in posterum, si
fieri possit, abducamus.

Erg˛, ne longis ambagibus Lectori fastidium oratio nostra pariat, ad ea
narranda accedam, quŠ maledicus ille Gennanus in suum pasquillum congessit:
Quem etiam sua de Islandis carmina Encomiastica recitantem in his pagellis
introducerem, nisi prŠuiderem foetum ilium probrosum, tot et tam varijs
maledictis turgidum, omnibus bonis nauseam mouere posse, ac sua spurcitie
ab ijs legendis absterrere.

Referam igitur prŠcipua, (ijs scilicet omissis quŠ cum alijs communia
habet, atque hactenus ventilata sunt) sed, quÓm ille, longe mitius; ne, vt
dixi, linguŠ ipsius obscoena petulantia, aures bonŠ et eruditŠ offendantur:
Qui ipsum videre aut audire volet, quŠrat apud propolas. Nobis inquam, non
est in animo putida ipsius calumnia et conuiciorum sentina, has chartas
inquinare. [Sidenote: 1. Obiectio seu conuicium.] Prim¨m igitur obijcit
Germanicus hic noster, si Dijs placet, Historicus: Multos ex pastoribus
IslandiŠ toto biennio sacram concionem ad populum nullam habere: Vt in
priore editione, huius pasquilli legitur, quod tamen posterior editio
eiusdem refutat: Dicens, eosdem pastores in integro anno tantum quinquies
concionari solitos: quŠ duo quÓm ritŔ sibi consentiant, videas bone Lector,
cum constet Authorem mox Ó prima editione vix vidisse Islandiam. Ita
scilicet pler˙mque mendacium mendacio proditur, iuxta illud: Verum ver˛
consentit; Falsum nec vero nec falso.

Sed com nostrum non sit veritatem vspiam dissimulare, nos haud negandum
ducimus conciones sacras circa id tempus, quo iste Sycophanta in Islandia
vixit, nempe anno 1554. aut circiter mult˛ fuisse rariores, quÓm sunt
hodiŔ, tum scilicet tenebris Papisticis vix dum discussis. Quod etiam de
Psalmis Dauidicis Ó vulgo LatinŔ demurmuratis, vt idem nostratibus
exprobrat, intelligere est: PapistŠ enim totam spem salutis in sua Missa
collocantes, de concione aut doctrina parum fuere solliciti. Postquam ver˛
caligine illa exempti sumus, aliter se rem habere, Deo imprimis gratias
agimus: Licet quorundam pastorum nostrorum tardam stupiditatem, segnitiem
et curam prŠposteram non possimus omni modo excusare. Quod vtrum in nullos
suorum popularium etiam competat, aliŠ quoque nationes viderint.

The same in English.

THE ELEVENTH SECTION.

But now, let this be the end of our controuersie with the authours
aforesayd, being otherwise men of excellent learning, and of great renoume,
who notwithstanding so inconsiderately haue entermedled these things in
their writings. And now the better part of my labour is finished.

But yet there remaynes that viperous German brood, the mother whereof would
haue come to light, as it were at a second birth, without name, that it
might so much the more freely wound the fame of the Islanders with venomous
sting.

Moreouer, although I be not afrayd to encounter with this beast, yet would
I haue all men to know with what minde I vndertake this enterprise, namely,
not that I meane to contend with his pestiferous rancour, by reproches, and
railing speeches (for as it is in the common prouerbe:

I know, that if I striue with dung most vile,
How ere it be, my selfe I shall defile);

but that I may satisfie all honest and well affected men, euen strangers
themselues, who shall hereafter reade or heare, or haue heretofore heard
that Germane pasquill, least they also should thinke that we woorthily
sustaine so monstrous a disgrace: and also that I may from henceforth, if
it be possible, restraine others (who vse those venomous Germaine rimes to
the vpbrading of our nation, and from hence borrow their scoffes, and
reproachfull taunts to the debasing of vs Iselanders) from that libertie of
backbiting.

Therefore, that I may not be tedious to the reader with long circumstances,
I will come to the rehearsing of those things which that railing Germane
hath heaped vp in his leud pasquill: whom also I could bring in, repeating
his friendly verses of the Ilanders, within the compasse of this my booke,
but that I doe foresee that the sayd slanderous libell being stuffed with
so many and diuers reproches, might breed offence to all honest men, and
deterre them from reading it, with the filthinesse thereof.

I will therefore repeat the principall matters (omitting those things which
he hath common with others, or, that heretofore haue been examined) but
farre more modestly then he, least (as I sayd) I cause good and learned
mens cares to tingle at his leud and vnseemely rimes: that they are
desirous to see or heare him let them enquire at the Stationers. It is no
part of our meaning (I say) to defile these papers with his stinking
slanders, or with the filthy sinke of his reproches.

[Sidenote: The first obiection or reproch.] First therefore, this our
goodly Germaine Historiographer obiecteth that there be many Pastours in
Island, which preach not to their people once in two yeres, as it is read
in the former edition of this pasquill, which notwithstanding the latter
edition doth refute: saying that the sayd Pastours vse to preach but fiue
times in an whole yeere which two, how well they agree together, let the
reader be iudge, seeing it is manifest that the authour himselfe, presently
after the first edition, had scarse seene Island. So oftentimes one he
betrayeth another, according to that saying: Trueth agreeth vnto trueth;
but falshood agreeth neither to trueth nor to falshood.

But sith it is our part not to dissemble the trueth in any place, we will
not denie that holy sermons, about the time wherein this sycophant liued in
Island, namely in the yere 1554, were seldomer in vse then they are at this
day, namely, the darkenesse of popery being scarsely at that time
dispelled. Which also is to be vnderstood concerning the Psalmes of Dauid
mumbled by the common people in Latine, as he casteth vs in the teeth: for
the Papists grounding all the hope of their saluation in the Masse, did
little regard the sermon or doctrine. But after we were freed from that
mist, it hath bene (God be thanked) farre otherwise with vs: although we
cannot altogether excuse the dulnesse, slouth, and preposterous care of
certeine of our Pastours. Which, whether it agreeth to any of their
countreymen or no, let other nations iudge.

SECTIO DUODECIMA.

[Sidenote: 2. Conuitium] Secund˛ calumniatur vitilitigator: Adulteria et
scortationes non mod˛ publica esse et frequentia scelera inter Islandos:
sed ab ijs pro scelere ne haberi quidem.

Etsi autem foedissimŠ istŠ turpitudines etiam in nostra repub. non prorsus
inusitatŠ sunt: tamen cum omnibus constet in alijs quoque nationibus longŔ
etiam frequentiores esse, cum ibi quoque populi frequentia maior: immerit˛
et malignŔ hoc nomine magis Islandos, quÓm populos et gentes reliquas,
quarum, vt dixi, nomen etiam plus nostratibus hoc crimine malŔ audit,
notauit.

Et licet ex animo optarim longŔ minus ad scelera, et turpitudines in nostra
patria conniueri, quÓm passim hţc fieri videmus: tamen etiam innata illa
mordendi libidine, hoc veterator in prŠsenti conuitio attexuit: videlicet,
qu˛d scelera ista ab Islandis pro scelere non habeantur. Nam in quÔ demum
repub. id impudens ille asserere audet? Illane; quŠ in legem codicis ll.
titulo Mannhelge: cap. 28. iurauit; quŠ statuit, vt iterum adulterium qui
cum coniuge alterius commiserit, confiscatis suis bonis, capite etiam
pectatur? Illane, quŠ pro adulterio, Ó famulo cum vxore domini commisso,
non ita dudum 80. thalerorum mulctam irrogauit? Illane, quŠ eundem, si ad
statutum tempus non soluerit vel vades dederit, in exilium proscribendum
decreuit? Illane: cuius leges politicŠ, quemuis in adulterio cum vxore, Ó
viro legitime deprehensum, si euaserit, homicidij mulctam expendere iubent?
Illane, cuius itidem leges politicŠ, in complexu matris, filiŠ aut sororis,
Ó filio, patre, vel fratre deprehensum, vitam suam midio eius, quod quis si
eundem insontem interfecisset, expendere teneretur, redimere iubent?
Illane, cuius leges politicŠ adultorium sceleris infandi nomine notarunt et
damnarunt? Et in eo terti˛ deprehensum, capite plectendum seuerŔ mandant?

Cernis igitur, Lector benigne, quÓm iniurium habeamus notarium, dicentem:
Adulterium et scortationes in Islandia peccati aut sceleris nomen non
mereri. Nam licet politici quidam hoc vel illud scelus impunitum omittant,
non debet tota gens, non leges, non boni et pij omnes, eo nomine in ius
vocari, aut male audire.

The same in English.

THE TWELFTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: The second reproach. ] Secondly, the trifler shamefully
reporteth, that adulteries and whoredomes are not onely publique, and
common vices amongst Islanders: but that they are not accounted by them
for vices.

Although indeed these most filthy abominations, euen in our common wealth,
be not altogether vnusuall: notwithstanding, since al men know that they
are farre more common in other nations, where be greater multitudes of
people, he did vndeseruedly, and maliciously note the Islanders rather with
this reproch, then other people and nations, who are more infamous with
this crime then our countreymen.

And albeit I wish with all mine heart that vices and enormities were much
lesse wincked at in our countrey, then we see they are, yet notwithstanding
this iugler by reason of his naturall inclination to backbiting, hath added
this in his last reproch: namely that these vices by the Iselanders are not
accounted for vice. For, in what common wealth dare the impudent companion
affirme this to be true? What? in that common wealth which hath sworne to
obserue the law contained in our statute booke vnder the title of Manhelge
chap 28, whereby it is enacted, that whosoeuer committeth adultery with
another man's wife the second time, his goods being confiscate, he shall be
punished with death? Or in that common wealth, which not long since hath
inflicted the penalty of 80 dollers vpon a seruant committing adultery with
his masters wife? Or in that common wealth which hath decreed that if he
doth not pay, nor lay in sureties at the day appointed he shalbe banished
the country? Or in that common wealth the politike lawes whereof doe
streightly command that whosoeuer be according to law found in adultery
with another man's wife, by her husband, if he escape, he shall vndergoe
the punishment of manslaughter? Or in that common wealth, the politike
lawes whereof do also enioyne a man that is taken in carnall copulation
with the mother, daughter, or sister, by the sonne, father, or brother, to
redeeme his life with the one halfe of that which he oaght to haue payed,
if he had shed the innocent bloud of the sayd party? Or in that common
wealth the pollitike lawes whereof haue noted and condemned adultery vnder
the name of a most heinous offence? And do straightly command that he which
is taken the third time in that beastly act shalbe punished with death?

You see therefore (friendly readers) what an iniurious Notary we haue,
affirming that adultery and whoredome in Island deserueth not the name of
sinne and wickednesse for although some officers let slip this or that vice
vnpunished, yet ought not the whole nation, nor the lawes, nor all good and
godly men, in that regard, to be accused or euill spoken of.

SECTIO DECIMATERTIA.

[Sidenote: 3. Conuitium] Tertium conuicium est, quo fraudis et perfidiŠ
erga Germanos Islandis notam inurit. Fuit autem proculdubio famosi huius
libelli author, cerdo et propola circumforaneus, mult˛sque IlandiŠ angulos,
sordidŠ mercaturŠ gratia, ostintim adierat: quod ipse de se in prŠclaris
illi suis rythmis testatur, maximam IslandiŠ partem sibi peragratam esse.
Vnde cum ipse mala fide cum mulus egerit (plerumque enim fraus et mendacia
coniunguntur, et mendacem se fuisse, hac ingenij sui experientia satis
probauit) etiam fortŔ Ó se deceptorum fraudem est expertus. Hinc illa in
totam gentem criminatio extitit: Dissimulato intereÓ, qua fide quidam
Germanorum, quibus annua est nauigatio ad Islandos, cum nostris hominibus
agant. Ea autem querela, cum non alios conuiciari, sed aliorum in gentem
nostram immerita conuncia monstrare instituerim, consult˛ supersedeo.

The same in English.

THE THIRTEENTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: The third reproach] The third reproch is, whereby he doth brand
the Islanders with the marke of deceit and trechery toward the Germans.

Doubtles the author of this libell was some vagabond huckster or pedler,
and had gone particularly into many corners of Island to vtter his trumpery
wares, which he also testifieth of himselfe in his worthy rimes, that he
had trauailed thorow the greatest part of Island, whereupon when he had
played the cousining mate with others (for often times deceit and lying are
ioyned together, and he hath sufficiently proued himselfe to be a liar, by
this triall of his wit) peraduenture himselfe was beguiled by them whom he
before time had defrauded.

From hence proceedeth this slander, against our whole Nation: dissembling
in the meane time with what honestie certaine Germans, making yerely
voyages into Island, deale with our men. But seeing by this complaint I
haue not determined to reproch others, but to lay open the vndeserued
reproches of others against oar nation, I do here of purpose surcease.

SECTIO DECIMAQUARTA.

[Sidenote: 4. 5. 6. & 7. Conuitia.] Quarto: negat in conuituijs quemquam
discumbentium Ó mensa surgere: sed matres familias singulis conuiuis
quoties opus fuerit matellas porrigere. PrŠtereÓ variam conuiuiorum
edendi bibendÝque rusticitatem notat.

Cubandi et prandendi ritus obijcit: quod decem plus minus in eodem lecto
promiscuŔ viri cum foeminis pernoctent, inque lecto cibum capiant: atque
interea se non nisi aleŠ aut latrunculorum ludo exerceant.

Sexto. Calumniatur eosdem faciem et os vrina proluere.

Septimo. Nuptiarum, sponsalium, natalitiorum celebritatem et funerum ritus
contemptuosŔ extenuat.

HŠc et huiusmodi plurima in gentem insontem, im˛ de se et suis optimŔ
meritam, impurus calumniator euomit. QuŠ quidem eius generis sunt, vt illi
de his respondere prorsus dedignemur. Nam vt demus (quod tamen non damus)
aliquid huiusmodi apud homines sordidos, et ex ipsa vulgi colluuie infimos,
quibuscum longŔ sŠpius, quÓm bonus et honestis conuersabatur,
animaduertisse prŠclarum hunc notarium Gemanicum (vixerat enim, vt eius
rhythmi testantur, diutiuscule in locis maritimis IslandiŠ, quo ferŔ
promiscuum vulgus, tempore piscaturŠ annuatim confluit, et tam extraneorum
nautarum, quÓm sua nequitia corruptum, sŠpius inhonestŔ mores et vtam
instituit) Tamen manifestiorem etiam hoc loco iniuriam nobis facit, vnius
nebulonis et desperati SycophantŠ turpitudine, totam gentem (vt ferŔ solent
etiam alij) aspergendo, quÓm vt refutatione vlla indigeat. Cuius rei etiam
ipsi extranei in nostra Insula non parum versati, locupletissimi testes
esse possunt.

Possem multas eius farinŠ foeditates, rusticitates et obscoenitates etiam
in ipsius natione deprehensas colligere. Sed odi facundiam caninam, nec in
aliorum opprobrium disertum esse iuuat: nec tam tenet esse volo, vt
verbulis transuerberer. Id tantum viderint boni et pij omnes, cuius sit
animi, pessima quŠque ab vno aut altera designata, toti genti obijcere. Si
quis GermaniŠ aut alterius nationes vrbes et pagos omnes peragret, et
scelera ac mores pessimos, furta, homicidia, parricidia, scortationes,
adulteria, incestus luxuriem, rapinas et reliquas impietates et
obscoenitates in vnum coactas, omnibus Germanis, aut alioqui alteri cuiuis
toti nationi communes esse asserat, atque hŠc omnia insigniter mentiendo,
exaggeret, Ýsne optimŠ rei studiosus habebitur?

Sed quid mirum, licet verbero, et, vt propriŔ notem, porcus impurus, iste,
inquam, Rhythmista, naturam et ingenium suum eiusmodi loidoria prodiderit?

Notum est enim porcos, cum hortos amŠnissimos intrarint, nec lilium nec
rosas aut flores alioqui pulcherrimos et suauissimos decerpere: Sed rostro
in coenum prono, quicquid est luti et stercoris volutare, vertere et
inuertere, donec impurissima, hoc est, suo genio apprimŔ congruentia
eruant, vbi demum solida voluptate pascuntur.

Ad istum igitur modum hic porcus Rythmista, optima, et quŠ in nostra Repub.
laudabilia esse possunt, sicco pede prŠterit, pessima quŠque atque ea, vel
Ó nullo, vel admodum paucis designata, hoc est, suŠ naturŠ, et ingenio
aptissima, vt se esse, qui dicitur, re ipsa probaret, corrasit; vnde
posthac porci nomen ex moribus et ingenio ipsius factum, sortitor.

The same in English.

THE FOURTEENTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: The 4. 5. 6. & 7. reproches.] Fourthly, he sayth that in bankets
none of the ghests vse to rise from the table: but that the good wife of
the house reacheth to euery one a chamber pot, so oft as need requireth.
Moreouer, he noteth much vnmanerliness of eating and drinking at bankets.

Fiftly, he obiecteth customes of lying in bed, and of dining: namely that
ten persons, more or lesse, men and women be altogether in the same bed,
and that they eat their meat lying in bed: and that in the meane time
they do nothing but play at dice or at tables.

Sixtly, he reporteth that they wash their hands or their faces in pisse.

Seuenthly, he despightfully abaseth our solemnizings of marriages,
spousals, birth-dayes, and our customes at burials.

These, and a number of such like reproches hath this impure slanderer,
spued foorth against an innocent nation, yea and that nation which hath
deserued right well of him and his countrimen. Which are of the same kind
with these, in so much that we altogether disdeigne to make answere vnto
them. For, that we may graunt (which notwithstanding we will in no case
yeelde vnto) that this worthy Germane notarie obserued some such matter
among base companions, and the very of-scouring of the common people, with
whom he was much more conuersant than with good and honest persons (for he
had liued, as his rimes testifie, somewhat long vpon the coast of Island,
whither a confused rout of the meanest common people, in fishing time do
yerely resort, who being naught aswell through their owne leudnesse, as by
the wicked behauiour of outlandish mariners, often times doe leade a badde
and dishonest life) notwithstanding we are in this place more manifestly
wronged through the knauery of this one varlet, and desperate sycophant by
his defaming of the whole nation (as others also vsually do) then that it
should neede any refutation at all. Of which thing strangers themselues,
who are not a little conuersant in our Iland, may be most sufficient
witnesses.

I could also gather together many such filthy, vnmannerly, and baudie
fashions noted by others euen in his own countrey. But I detest this dogged
eloquence, neither take I any pleasure to be witty in the disgracing of
others: and yet I will not shew my selfe such a milke-soppe as to be
daunted with light words. Onely, let all honest and good men consider, what
disposition it argueth, for one to obiect against a whole nation certaine
misdemeanours committed by some one or other particular man. If any man
should trauell thorowout all the cities and townes of Germanie or any other
nation, and heaping together the offences, and most leud maners, the
robberies, manslaughters, murthers, whoredomes, adulteries, incests, riots,
extortions, and other prophane, and filthy actes, should affirme them to be
common to all Germans, or otherwise to any other whole nation, and should
exaggerate all these things with notorious lies, is he to be accounted one
that spends his time in a good argument? But what maruaile is it, though a
varlet, and, that I may giue him his true title, a filthy hogge, that imer
(I say) hath bewrayed his nature and disposition in reproches? For it is
well knowen that swine, when they enter into most pleasant gardens, do not
plucke lilies or roses, or any other most beautifull aud sweet flowers; but
thrusting their snouts into the ground, doe tumble and tosse vp and downe
whatsoeuer durt and dung they can finde, vntill they haue rooted vp most
vncleane things, namely such as are best agreeable to their nature,
wherewith they greedily glut themselues: Euen so this hoggish Rimer lightly
passeth ouer the best and most commendable things of our Common wealth, but
as for the woorst, and those which haue been committed by none, or by very
few, namely, such things as best fit his humour and disposition (that he
might indeed show himselfe to be the same which we haue termed him) those
things (I say) hath he scraped vp together: whereupon hereafter by my
consent, for his maners and disposition let him enioy the name of a swine.

SECTIO DECIMAQUINTA.

[Sidenote: 9. Conuitium.] Nonum conuicium hic recensebimus, quod Ó victu,
ac prŠcipuŔ cibo potu Islandorum maledicus ille porcus, non vno aut paucis
verbis, sed prolixa inuectiua petiuit: Nempe qu˛d cibis vtantur vetustis,
et insulsis, idque sine panis vsu: Tum etiam qu˛d varia et incognita
extraneis piscium genera illis sint esui, et aquam ac serum lactis in potum
misceant. QuŠ omnia venenatus hic pasquillus diserta contumelia, et
ingeniosa calumnia, pulchrŔ amplificauit.

CŠterum etsi ilium prolixiore responsione non dignemur: tamen propter
alios, qui hodie hanc rem partim mirantur, partim haud leuiter nostrŠ genti
obijciunt, pauca hoc loco addenda videbantur.

Prim¨m igitur totam hanc gentem bipartit˛ secabimus: In mendicos, et hos
qui et se et cum alijs etiam mendicos alunt. Mendicorum, et eorum qui ad
hos proximŔ accedunt, omnia cibaria recensere aut examinare haud facile
est, nec quod illos edere, aut edisse, extrema aliquando coegit necessitas,
reliquŠ genti cibariorum genera aut numerum prŠscribere fas est. Nam et de
suffocatis quidem non comedendis legem habemus inter canones, quorum
seruantissima videri voluit antiquitas.

Deinde etiam tempora distinguemus, vt nihil minim sit grassante annonŠ
sŠuitia, multa Ó multis ad explendam famem adhiberi aut adhibita fuisse,
quŠ alias vix canes pascant. Vt nuperrimŔ de Parisiensibus accepimus, Anno
1590, arctissima Henrici 4. NauarrŠi obsidione pressis, et famem
Saguntinam, vt P. Lindebergius loquitur, perpessis; eos non mod˛ equinam,
sed morticinam quoque carnem ex mortuorum ossibus in mortario contusis
farinŠ pugillo vno aut altero misto, confectam, in suas dapes conuertisse,
et de alijs quoque populis notum est, qui simili vrgente inopia, etiam
murium, felium et canum esu victi tarint. Sic etiam Islandis aliquando vsu
venit (quanquam a canina, munum et felium, vt et humana carne hactenus,
nobis quantum constat, abstinuerint) licet non ab hoste obsessis: Nam c¨m
ad victum necessaria ex terra marique petant, et ab extraneis nihil
commeatus, aut parum admodum aquehatur, quoties terrŠ, marisque munera DEVS
prŠcluserit, horrendam annonŠ caritatem ingruere et ingruisse, et dira fame
vexare incolas, necesse est. Vnde fit, vt illos qui in diem viuere soliti
fuerint, nec prŠcedentium annorum superantes commeatus habuerint, extrema
tentasse, quoties egestas vrserit, credibile. CŠterum, vtrum hŠc res
publico et perpetuo opprobrio magis apud Islandos, quÓm alias nationes,
occasionem merit˛ prŠbere debeat, candidis et bonis animis iudi candum
relinquo.

Porr˛ quod de gentis nostrŠ proprijs et consuetis alimentis multi obijcere
solent, potissimum de carne, piscibus, butyro, absque sale inueteratis,
Item de lacticinijs, frumenti inopia, potu aquŠ, &c. et reliquis: id nos in
plurimis IslandiŠ locis (nam sunt multi quoque nostratium, qui Danorum et
Germanorum more, quantum quidem castis et temperatis animis ad
mediocritatem sufficere debet, licet magna condimentorum varietate, vt et
ipsis Pharmacopolijs, destituimur, mensam instruere et frugaliter viuere
sustineant) ita se habere haud multis refragabimur, videlicet prŠdicta
victus genera, passim sine salis condimento vsitata esse. Et insuper
addemus, hŠc ipsa cibaria, quŠ extranei quidam vel nominare horrent, ipsos
tamen extraneos apud nos, non sine voluptate, manducare solitos. [Sidenote:
Ratio conseruandos cibos sine sale.] Nam etsi frumenti aut farris penŔ
nihil vulg˛ habeamus, nec sal, gulŠ irritamentum, ad cibaria condienda,
omnibus suppetit: docuit tamen Deus opt. max. etiam nostros homines
rationem tractandi et conseruandi, quŠ ad vitam sustentandam spectant, vt
appareat, Deum in alendis Islandis non esse ad panem vel salem alligatum.
Qu˛d ver˛ sua omnia extranei iucundiora et salubriora clamant; negamus
tamen satis causŠ esse, cur nostra nobis exprobrent: Nec nos DEVM gulŠ
nostrŠ debitorem reputamus; quin potius toto pectore gratias agimus, quod
sine opiparis illis delicijs et lautitijs, quŠ tam iucundŠ et salubres
putantur, etiam nostrŠ gentis hominibus, annos et Štatem bonam, tum
valetudinem etiam firmissimam, robur ac vires validas (quŠ omnia statimus
boni et conuenientis alimenti, [Greek: kai tes euchrasias] esse indicia)
concedere dignetur, cum ingenio etiam non prorsus tam crasso ac sterili,
quÓm huic nostro aŰri et alimentis assignare Philosophi videntur, quod re
libentius, quÓm verbis multi fortasse nostratium comprobare poterant.

Ni nos (vt inquit ille) paupertas inuidia deprimeret.

Sed hic vulgi iudicium, vt in alijs sŠpŔ, etiam eos qui sapere volunt (iam
omnes bonos et cordatos excipio) nimis apertŔ decipit: Videlicet hoc ipso,
qu˛d omnia, quŠ illorum vsus non admittit, aut quŠ non viderunt, aut
experti sunt antea, continu˛ damnent. Veluti, si quis, qui mare nunquam
vidit, mare mediterraneum esse aliquod, non possit adduci vt credat: Sic
illi sensu suŠ experientiŠ omnia metiuntur, vt nihil sit bonum, nihil
conductibile, nisi quo illi soli viuunt: At profect˛ nos, e˛ dementiŠ non
processimus, vt eos qui locustis vescuntur, quod tum de alijs, tum ĂthiopiŠ
quibusdam populis, ideo (autore Diodoro) Acridophagis appellatis, et IndiŠ,
gente, cui Mandrorum nomen Clytharcus et Magestanes dederunt, teste
Agatarchide, didicimus; aut ranis, aut cancris mannis, aut squillis gibbis,
quŠ res hodiŔ nota est, vulgi propterea ludibrijs exponere prŠsumamus, a
quibus tamen edulijs, in totum nostra consuetudo abhorret.

The same in English.

THE FIFTEENTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: The ninth reproch.] Wee will heere rehearse the ninth reproch,
which that slanderous hogge hath drawen from the maner of liuing, and
specially from the meat and drinke of the Islanders, and that not in one or
a few wordes, but in a large inuectiue: namely, that they eate olde and
vnsauoury meates, and that, without the vse of bread. Also that they eate
diuers kinds of fishes which are vnknowen to strangers: and that they
mingle water and whey together for drinke. All which this venemous
pasquill, with eloquent railing and wittie slaunder hath set out at the
full.

And albeit we doe scarse vouchsafe to stand longer about answering of him,
yet in regard of others, who at this day partly woonder at the matter, and
partly obiect it to our nation, we thought good to adde some few things in
this place.

First therefore we will diuide this our nation into two parts: into
beggers, and those that susteine both themselues, and amongst others,
beggers also. As touching all kinds of meats wherewith beggers and other
poore men satisfie their hunger, it is no easie matter to rehearse and
examine them; neither, because extreame necessity hath at some times
compelled them to eate this or that, therefore it is meet to prescribe
certeine kindes and number of meats to the rest of the nation. For we haue
also a law among the canons apostolicall, which forbiddeth to eat things
strangled: in the obseruing of which canons, antiquity hath seemed to be
very deuout.

Moreouer, we will make a distinction of times also, that it may seeme no
strange accident in the time of famine, though many things are, and haue
bene vsed by a great number of men to satisfie their hunger, which at other
times are scarse meat for dogges. As very lately in the yeere 1590 we heard
concerning the citizens of Paris, being enuironed with the most streite
siege of Henrie the fourth, King of Nauarre, suffering (as Petrus
Lindebergius speaketh) the famine of Saguntum; insomuch that they did not
onely eate their horses, but also taking the flesh of dead men, and beating
their bones to powder in a morter, they mingle therewith a bandfull or two
of meale, esteeming it dainties. And it is well knowen also of other
nations who in the like vrgent necessities haue liued by eating of mise,
cats and dogs. In like maner sometimes are we Islanders constrained to doe,
not being besieged by our enemies (although hitherto we haue abstained from
mans flesh, yea, and to our knowledge, from dogs, mise, and cats) for
whereas we prouide things necessary for food out of the land and sea, and
no sustenance, or very little is brought vnto vs by strangers: so often as
God withholdeth his gifts of land and sea, then must follow and ensue a
dreadfull scarsity of victuals, whereupon the inhabitants are sometimes
vexed with grieuous famine. And therefore it is likely that they amongst vs
which vsed to liue from hand to mouth, and had not some prouision of former
yeeres remaining, haue beene driuen to great extremities, so often as need
hath enforced them thereunto. But whether this thing ought woorthily to
minister occasion to a publike and perpetuall reproch against the
Islanders, more then other nations, I referre it to the iudgement of
indifferent and honest mindes.

Moreouer, whereas diuers vse to obiect concerning the proper and accustomed
fare of our country, especially of flesh, fish, butter being long time kept
without salt, also concerning white-meats, want of corne, drinking of
water, and such like: in most places of Island (for there be many of our
countrimen also, who, after the maner of the Danes and Germans so farre
foorth as ought in a meane to suffice chast and temperate minds, although
we haue not any great variety of sauce, being destitute of Apothecaries
shops, are of ability to furnish their table, and to liue moderately) we
confesse it to be euen so: [Sidenote: Want of salt in Island.] namely that
the foresaid kind of victuals are vsed in most places without the seasoning
of salt. And I wil further adde, that the very same meats, which certaine
strangers abhorre so much as to name, yet strangers themselues, when they
are among vs do vse to eat them with delight. [Sidenote: The Islanders
meanes of preseruing their meates without salt.] For albeit for the most
part we haue no corne, nor meale, nor yet salt the prouocation of gluttony,
for the seasoning of our victuals, is common to vs all, yet notwithstanding
almighty God of his goodnesse hath taught our men also the wauy how they
should handle, and keepe in store those things which belong to the
sustentation of life, to the end it may appeare, that God in nourishing and
susteining of vs Islanders, is not tyed to bread and salt.

But whereas strangers boast that all their victuals are more pleasant and
wholesome: yet we denie that to be a sufficient reason, why they should
vpbraid vs in regard of ours: neither do we thinke God to be a debter vnto
our deinty mouthes: but rather we giue him thanks with our whole hearts,
that he vouchsafeth without this delicate and nice fare, which is esteemed
to be so pleasant and wholesome, to grant euen vnto the men of our countrey
many yeeres, and a good age as also constant health, and flourishing
strength of body; all which we account to be signes of wholesome and
conuenient nourishment and of a perfect constitution. Besides, our wits are
not altogether so grosse and barren, as the philosophers seeme to assigne
vnto this our aier, and these nourishments, which perhaps many of our
countreymen could much rather verifie in deeds then in words, if (as the
Poet sayth) enuious pouerty did not holde vs downe.

But here the iudgement of the common people, as often in other matters,
doth too plainly deceiue (I except all good and well experienced men) some
of them which would seeme to be wise, namely, that whatsoeuer their vse
doth admit, or that they haue not seene, nor had trial of beforetime, they
presently condemne. As for example, he that neuer saw the sea will not be
persuaded that there is a mediterrane sea; so doe they measure all things
by their owne experience and conceit, as though there were nothing good and
profitable, but that onely wherewith they mainteine their liues. But we are
not growen to that pitch of folly, that because we haue heard of certaine
people of Aethiopia, which are fed with locusts, being therefore called by
Diodorus, Acridophagi, and of a certaine nation of India also, whom
Clitarchus and Megasthenes haue named Mandri, as Agatarchides witnesseth,
or of others that liue vpon frogs or sea-crabs, or round shrimps, which
thing is at this day commonly knowen, that (I say) we should therefore
presume to make them a laughing stocke to the common people, because we are
not accustomed to such sustenance.

SECTIO DECIMASEXTA.

[Sidenote: 10. Conuicium.] Decimo. Hospitalitatem nostris hominibus
inhumanissimus porcus obijcit. Marsupium inquit, non cirumferunt, nec
hospitiari aut conuiuari gratis pudor est. Nam si quis aliquid haberet,
quod cum alijs communicaret, id faceret sane in primis ac libenter. His
quoque annectamus, quod templa, seu sacras Šdiculas domi propriŠ Ó multis
Islandorum extructas velut pudendum quiddam commemorat: quodque eas prim¨m
omnium de manŔ oraturi petant, nec Ó quoquam prius interpellari patiantur.
HŠc ille velut insigne quoddam dedecus in Islandis notauit.

Scilicet, quia nihil cum Amaricino, sui:

Nec porci diuina vnquam amarunt: quod sanŔ metuo ne nimis verŔ de hoc
conuiciatore dicatur, id quod vel ex his vltimis duabus obiectionibus
constare poterit.

Ver¨m enimuer˛ c¨m ipse suarum virtutum sit testis locupletissimus, nos
Lectorem eius rei cupidum ad ipsius hoc opus PoŰticum remittimus, quod is
de Islandia composuit, et nos tam aliquot proximis distinctionibus
examinauimus: cuius maledicentiŠ et foeditatis nos hic pro ipso puduit;
ita, vt quŠ is Satyrica, at quid Satyrica? Sathanica, inquam, mordacitate
et maledicentia in nostram gentem scribere non erubuit, nos tamen referre
pigeat: Tanta eius est et tam abominanda petulantia, tam atrox calumnia.
DEVS BONE: Hoc conuiciorum plaustrum (paucissima namque attigimus: Nolui
enim laterem lauare, et stulto, vt inquit ille sapientissimus, secundum
stultitiam suam respondere, cum in ipsius Rhythmis verbum non sit quod
conuicio careat) qui viderit, nonne iudicabit pasquilli istius autorem
hominem fuisse pessimum, im˛ fŠcem hominum, cum virtutis ac veritatis
contemptorem, sine pietate, sine humanitate?

Sed hţc merit˛ dubitauerim, peiusne horum conuiciorum autor de Islandis
meritus sit, an ver˛ Typographus ille Ioachimus Leo (et quicunque sunt
alij, qui in suis editionibus, nec suum nec vrbis suŠ nomen profiteri ausi
sunt) qui illa iam bis, si non sŠpius Typis suis Hamburgi euulgauit.
Hoccine impunŔ fieri sinitis, ˘ senatus populusque Hamburgensis? Hanccine
statuistis gratiam deberi IslandiŠ, quŠ vrbi vestrŠ iam plurimos annos,
exportatis affatim nostratium quibusuis commodis, pecudum, pecorumque
carnibus butyro et piscium copia quotannis, penŔ immodica, quŠdam quasi
cella penuaria fuit? [Sidenote: Vrbes AngliŠ commercia olim in Islandia
excercentes.] Sensere huius InsulŠ commoda etiam HollandiŠ olim et AngliŠ
vrbes aliquot: PrŠterea Danis, Bremensibus, et Lubecensibus cum Islandis
commercia diu fuerunt. Sed a nullis vnquam tale encomium, talem gratiam
reportarunt, qualis hŠc est Gregoriana calumnia: In vestrÔ, vestrÔ inquam
vrbe, nata, edita, iterata, si non tertiata: quŠ alias nationes, quibus
Islandia vix, ac ne vix quidem, nomine tenus, alioqui innotuerat, ad huius
gentis opprobrium et contemptum armauit: quam Ó ciue vestro acceptam
iniuriam, iam 30. annos, et plus e˛, Islandia sustinet. Sed etiam, inscio
magistratu, eiusmodi multa sŠpŔ fiunt: Neque; enim dubitamus, quin viri
boni eiusmodi scripta famosa indignŔ ferant, et ne edantur, diligenter
caueant: cum tales editiones pugnent cum iure naturali: Ne alteri facias,
quod tibi factum non velis: Et CŠsareo, de libellis famosis: in quo
irrogatur poena grauissima ijs, qui tales libellos componunt, scribunt,
proferunt, emi vendiue curant, aut non statim repertos discerpunt.

CŠterum iam tandem receptui canamus: Nosque ad te, Islandia parens
carissima, quÓm nec paupertas, nec frigora, nec id genus incommoda alia,
quamdiu Chnsto hospitia cupidŔ et libenter exhibere non desistis, inuisam
fecient conuertamus: Vbi te prim¨m ad id quod mod˛ diximus, nempŔ serium et
ardens studium ac amorem DEI, et diuinŠ scientiŠ, nobis in Christo
patefactŠ, totis viribus hortamur: vt vni huic cuncta posthabeas, doctrinŠ
et verbi cupiditate flagres: Sacrum ministerium et ministros, non parum
cures, non contemnas aut odio prosequeris: sed reuerearis, foueas, ames.
Contra facientes, pro impijs et profanis habeas: vt omnia ad pietatis et
honestatis prŠscriptum geras, in vita priuata et communi, vt huic status et
ordines Ecclesiastici et Politici, in vniversum obtemperent: In vtroque
vitŠ genere ab illi amussi seu norma Šqui et boni dependeas, et cŠteros qui
pertinacia ac impietate ab ea deflectunt, auersens, quos Šquum est poenis
condignis affici, id quod magistratur curŠ futurum non diffidimus. In
pritmis ver˛ nullos nisi spectatŠ fidei et probitatis viros, quique ad
istas virtutes, reliquas huc pertinentes coniungant, ad gubernacula
admittas, qua ratione reliquis incommodis ritŔ occurritur Res ista enim, si
probe curetur, vt videlicet, qui munus publicum gerunt, ex bonis omnibus
optimi quique deligantur, improbi et huic rei inepti, procul inde
arceantur, subditorum conditio, longŔ erit optatissima: vita et mores tant˛
magis laudabiles sequentur: pietas et honestas tant˛ erunt illustriores. At
ver˛ si secus fiat. si Pastores Ecclesiarum suo muneri, vel vita vel
doctrina non respondeant, si ad administrationem politicam promiscuŔ
admittantur, quicunque e˛ propria leuitate, ambitione vel auaritia et
contentione honoris, ruunt: si ijdem criminum aut improbitatis, vel
suspecti vel conuicti sint, aut suspectorum et conuictorum protectores, vel
ijsdem illicite indulgentes, quis tuus quŠso demum futurus est status? quŠ
facies? quŠ conditio? Certe longe omnium miserrima. Nec enim alio pacto
citius ad ruinam et interitum tuum appropinquabis, quÓm si istis te
regendam commiseris, qui quod in ijs est, licet sint et ipsi ex tuis,
iugulum tuum, propter emolumenta priuata, et odia latentia, quotidiŔ petere
contendunt/ Quamobrem (ne ista pluribus agam) quanti intersit, vt hŠc probŔ
curentur, facile, ˘ Patria, intelligis.

Sed dum hŠc tuis auribus Ó me occinuntur, utinam gemitus meos altissimos,
qui sub hac ad te Apostrophe latent, Serenis simŠ RegiŠ Maiestatis aures
exaudiant, apud quam ego pro te ita deploro damna publica, quŠ ea de causa
exoriuntur maximŔ, qu˛d patria nostra Ó regia sede, et conspectu, tant˛
interuallo sit remota, vt multi propterea tant˛ sibi maiorem sumant
licentiam, et impunitatem securius promittant. CŠterum ista numini
iustissimo, quod Šquis omnia oculis aspicit, committenda ducimus.

Reliquum est, ˘ patria, vt studium in te nostrum, eo quo speramus animo i.
comi et benigno, suscipias: quod quamuis minimŔ tale est, quale optaremus,
tamen cum VELLE SIT INSTAR OMNIVM, nolui idcirco desistere, quod pro tuo
nomine, tua dignitate, tua innocentia pugnare me satis strenuŔ diffiderem.
Quin potius, quicquid id est si mod˛ quicquam est et quantulumcunque
tandem, quod ad tui patrocinium pro mea tenui parte afterre possem,
nequaquam supprimendum putaui nec enim illos laudare soleo,

Qui, quod desperent inuicti membra Glyconis,
Nodosa nolunt corpus prohibere Chiragra.

Me sanŔ, si hŠc commentatiuncula non erit tibi aut mihi dedecori, operŠ
nequaquam poenitebit. Quod si ad laudem vel aliquale patrocinium tui
aliquid faciat, operam perdidisse haud videbor. Sin ver˛ alios alumnos,
meos conterraneos, arte et industria superiores, ad causam tuam, vel nunc,
vel in posterum suscipiendam, hoc conatu tenello excitauero, quid est cur
operŠ precium non fecisse dicar? quibus scribentibus, licet mea fama in
obscuro futura est, tamen prŠstantia illorum, qui nomini officient meo, me
consolabor: Nam etsi famŠ et nominis cura surnma esse debett maior tamen
patriŠ; cuius dignitate salua et incolumni, nos quoque saluos et incolumes
reputabimus.

Scripsi Holis HialtŠdalensium in Islandia, ĂrŠ ChristianŠ Anno 1592. 17.
Kalendas Maias.

The same in English.

THE SIXTEENTH SECTION.

[Sidenote: The tenth reproch.] Tenthly, that vnciuill beast casteth our men
in the teeth with their good hospitality. They do not (sayth he) carry
about money with them in their purses, neither is it any shame to be
enterteined in a strange place, and to haue meat and drinke bestowed of
free cost. For if they had any thing which they might impart with others,
they would very gladly. Moreouer, he maketh mention of certeine churches or
holy chappels (as of a base thing) which many of the Islanders haue built
in their owne houses: and that first of all in the morning, they haue
recourse thither, to make their prayers, neither do they suffer any man
before they haue done their deuotion to interrupt them. These be the things
which he hath set downe as some notable disgrace vnto the Islanders. And no
maruell:

For filthy swine detest all cleanly ones,
And hogs vncleane regarde not precious stones.

Which I feare, least it may be too truely affirmed of this slanderer, as it
is manifest out of these two last obiections.

Howbeit, sithens he himselfe is a most sufficient witnesse of his owne
vertues, we will referre the reader, who is desirous to know more of him
vnto his booke of rimes against Island, which we haue now examined in our
former sections at whose railing and filthy speeches we haue bene ashamed
on his behalfe: insomuch that those things which he with satyrical,
satyrical? nay sathanicall biting and reuiling of our nation, hath not
blushed to write, are irksome for vs to repeat: so great and abominable is
his insolency and his reproches so heinous. Good God! whosoeuer shall view
this cartlode of slanders (for we haue mentioned the least part thereof,
because I was loth to lose my labour, or, as the wise man sayth, to answere
a foole according to his foolishnesse, whereas in his rimes there is not
one word without a reproch) will he not iudge the authour of this pasquill
to haue bene a most lewde man, yea the very drosse of mankinde, without
pietie, without humanitie?

But here I haue iust occasion to doubt whether the authour of these
reuilings hath bene the more iniurious to Islanders, or the Printer thereof
Ioachimus Leo (and whatsoeuer else they be who in their editions dare
neither professe their own name, nor the name of their Citie) which Leo
hath nowe twise, if not oftener, published the saide pamphlet at Hamburg.
Doe you suffer this to goe vnpunished, O ye counsell and commons of
Hamburg? What? [Sidenote: The commodities of Island.] Haue you determined
to gratifie Island in this sort, which these many yeeres, by reason of your
aboundant traffique with vs, and your transporting home of all our
commodities, of our beeues and muttons, and of an incredible deale of
butter and fishes, hath bene vnto your Citie in stead of a storehouse.
[Sidenote: The ancient traffique of England with Island.] In times past
also, certaine Cities of England and of Holland haue reaped the commodities
of this Isle. Moreouer, there hath bene ancient traffique of Denmarke,
Breme, and Lubeck with the Islanders. But they neuer gained by any of their
chapmen such commendations, and such thanks, as are contained in this
libell: It hath in your, in your Citie (I say) bene bred, brought foorth,
iterated, if not the thirde time published: which I hath armed other people
vnto whom the name of Island was otherwise scarce knowne, to the disdaine
and contempt of this our Nation: and this iniurie offered by a Citizen of
yours, hath Island susteined these 30. yeeres and more, and doeth as yet
susteine. But many such accidents often come to passe without the knowledge
of the magistrate, neither do we doubt but that good men are grieued at
such infamous libels, and do take diligent heed that they be not published:
for such editions are contrary to the lawe of nature: Doe not that to
another which thou wouldest not haue done vnto thy selfe: [Sidenote: Lawes
against libels.] and to the laws Emperial of infamous libels: wherein is
enioyned a most grieuous penaltie vnto those who inuent, write, ytter, or
cause such libels to be bought or sold, or do not presently vpon the
finding thereof teare them in pieces.

But now time bids vs to sound a retreat: and to returne home vnto thee,
Island (our most deare mother) whom neither pouertie, nor colde, nor any
other such inconueniences shall make ircksome vnto vs, so long as thou
ceasest not to giue heartie and willing entertainment vnto Christ: where,
first we doe earnestly exhort thee to the serious and ardent affection, and
loue of God, and of the heauenly knowledge reueiled vnto vs in Christ: that
thou wouldest preferre this before all things, being enflamed with desire
of doctrine, and of the worde: that thou wouldest not lightly esteeme,
contemne or hate the holy ministerie and ministers, but reuerence, cherish
and loue them. Accompting those that practise the contrary as wicked and
prophane: and managing all thine affaires both priuate and publique,
according to the prescript rule of pietie and honestie, that vnto this, thy
states and orders Ecclesiasticall and politique may in all things be
conformed; and so in either kinde of life relying thy selfe vpon that
leuell and line of equitie and iustice, and auoyding others, who vpon
stubbernesse and impietie swerue therefrom. That thou wouldest also inflict
iust punishments vpon offenders: All which we doubt not but the Magistrate
will haue respect vnto. But especially that thou admittest none to be
Magistrates, but men of approued fidelitie and honestie, and such as may
adioyne vnto these vertues others hereto belonging, by which meanes
inconueniences may fitly be preuented. For if this matter be well handled,
namely that they which are the best of all good men be chosen to beare
publicke authoritie, wicked and vnfit men being altogether reiected; the
condition of the subiects shalbe most prosperous: the hues and maners of
all men shal proue by so much the more commendable; godlinesse also and
honestie shal become the more glorious. But on the contrary, if pastours of
Churches be not answerable to their function, either in life or doctrine;
if all men without respect or difference be admitted to the gouernment of
the common wealth, who aspire thereunto by their owne rashnesse, ambition,
or auarice, and desire of honour, yea though they be suspected or conuicted
of crimes and dishonestie, or be protectours or vniust fauourers of such
persons as are suspected and conuicted; then what will be thy state, oh
Island? What wil be thy outward show or condition? Doubtlesse most
miserable. Neither shalt thou by any other meanes more suddenly approch to
thy ruine and destruction, then if thou committest thy selfe to the
gouernment of such men, who to the vttermost of their power, although they
be of thine owne brood, dayly seeke thine ouerthrow for their owne priuate
aduantage and secret malice. Wherefore (to be short) let these be to
aduertise my deare Countrey, how behouefull it is that the matters
aforesaid be put in practise.

But whilest I am speaking these things vnto thee (my Countrey) oh that my
deepe and dolefull sighes, which lie hid in the former speach, might pierce
the eares of our Kings most excellent Maiestie, before whom, on thy behalfe
I doe bewaile the publique miseries, which in this respect especially doe
arise, because wee are so farre distant from the seate and royall presence
of our King, that many therefore take more libertie, and promise more
securitie of offending vnto themselues. But we will commit all these
matters to the most iust Judge of heauen and earth who beholdeth all things
in equitie.

Nowe it remaineth (my beloued Countrey) that thou wouldest take in good
part these my labours employed in thy seruice, and accept them with that
fauourable and courteous minde which I haue expected. And although they be
not of such worth as I could wish, yet sith a willing minde is worth all, I
would not therefore giue ouer because I mistrusted my selfe as one
insufficient to contend for thine innocencie, for thy reputation, and thine
honour, my deare Countrey. But rather whatsoeuer it be (if it be ought) and
how mickle soeuer which for my slender abilitie I was able to afford in thy
defence, I thought good not to suppresse it: for I esteeme not those men
worthy of commendation, who despairing

To ouergrow the limmes of Lyco stoute,
Neglect to cure their bodies of the goute:

And in very deed, it doeth no whit repent me of my labour, if this little
treatise shall tend neither to thine, nor to mine owne disgrace. But if it
shall any thing auaile to thine honour or defence, I will thinke my
trauaile right well bestowed. Yea, if by this my slender attempt, I may but
onely excite other of thy children, and my natiue Countreymen, being farre
my superiours both in learning and industrie to take thy cause in hand,
either nowe or hereafter what reason is there why any man should say that
it is not worth my labour? Nowe, if they addresse themselues to write,
howsoeuer my fame shalbe obscured, yet wil I comfort my selfe with their
excellencie, who are like to impaire my credite: for albeit a man ought to
haue speciall regard of his name and fame, yet he is to haue more of his
Countrey, whose dignitie being safe and sound, we also must needes esteeme
our selues to be in safetie.

Written at Holen Hialtedale in Island, the yeere of our Lord 1592. the 17.
of the Kalends of May.

* * * * *

A letter written by the graue and learned Gudbrandus Thorlacius Bishop of
Holen in Island, concerning the ancient state of Island and Gronland, &c.

Reuerendissimo viro, eruditione et virtute conspicuo, D. Hugoni Branham,
EcclesiŠ Hareuicensis in Anglia pastori vigilantissimo, fratri et
symmystŠ obseruando.

Mirabar equidem (vt conijcis, reuerende domine pastor) primo literarum
tuarum intuitu, ignotum me, ab ignoto, scriptis salutari. CŠter¨m, cum
vlterius progrederer, comperi me, si non aliter, certŔ nomine ten¨s, tibi
(quŠ tua est humanitas) innotuisse: Sim˙lque qu˛d te nominis Islandorum
studiosum experirer, ex animo gauisus sum. Vnde etiam faciam, vt tua
pietas, tu˙mque nomen, de Euangelio Iesu Christi nobis congratulantis,
dŔque gente nostra tÓm benignŔ tßmque honorificŔ sentientis, et scribentis
apud nos ignotum esse desinat.

[Sidenote: Commentarius breuis de Islandia: per Arngrimum Ionam Islandum
editus, 1593.] Qu˛d ver˛ ad antiquitatis monimenta attinet, quŠ hic extare
creduntur, nihil sanŔ est (prŠter illa, quorum in Commentario isto de
Islandia, quem vidisse te scribis, fit mentio) de hac nostra insula lectu
scriptuuÓ dignum, quod cum humanitate tua communicem. De vicinis itidem
terris pauca, prŠter historiam Regum NoruegiŠ, seu veri¨s eiusdem historiŠ
fragmenta; quŠ alijs alitŔr descripta sunt: sunt tamen talia, quŠ Krantzius
non attigerit, aut eorum certŔ pauca. De vicina quoque Gronlandia, id
veterum opinione habemus, eam magno circuitu ab extrema Noruegia, vbi
Biarmlandia [Marginal note: Biarmia.] nuncupatur, et Ó qua haud vasto
interuallo sita sit, circum quasi Islandiam exporrigi. Illic nostrates
aliquando commercia exetcuisse, et eam terram tempore Pontificiorum suos
Episcopos habuisse annales nostri testantur. CŠtera nobis incognita.
[Sidenote: Gronlandia olim suos habuit Episcopos.] At hodie fama est,
vestris Brittannis (quos ego propŔ maris dominos appellarim) quotannis csse
in Gronlandia negotmiones de qua re, si me certiorem feceris, non erit
iniucundum. Euam velim quŠcunque noua erunt de rebus vestratium aut
vicinorum regnorum, ea non omittas.

Vale foeliciter (reuerende Dom. pastor) Deo musis, et commissio gregi quÓm
diuttssime superstes, Amen. Ex Islindij in festo visitationis D. MariŠ Anni
1595.

Human. tuŠ studiosus Gudbrandus Thorlacius Episcopus Holensis in Islandia.

The same in English.

To the reuerend, learned, and vertuous, Master Hugh Branham minister of the
Church of Harewich in England, his brother and felow pastour, &c.

I much marueiled (euen as you your selfe, reuerend sir coniectured that I
would) at the first sight of your letters, that being a stranger I should
be saluted in writing by one altogether vnknown vnto mee. Howbeit, reading
a little further I found my selfe, if not otherwise, yet by name at least
(which procedeth of your courtesie) knowne vnto you: And also, for that I
sawe you desirous of the credite and honest report of vs Islanders, I
greatly reioyced. Wherefore I my selfe will be a meane, that your vertue
and good name (because you congratulate with vs for the gospel of Christ
here published, and doe thinke and write so louingly and honourably of our
nation) may sease hereafter to be vnknown amongst vs.

[Sidenote: This is the brief Commentarie of Ionas Arngrimus immediatly
going before.] As touching the monuments of antiquitie which are here
thought to be extant, there is, in very deede nothing (except those
particulars, whereof mention is made in the Commentary of Island which you
write vnto me that you haue seene) worthy to be read or written, which I
may communicate with you. And as concerning our neighbor Countreys we haue
litle to shewe, besides the history of the Kings of Norway, (or rather some
fragments of the same history) which others haue otherwise described:
howbeit they are all in a maner such things as Crantzius neuer mentioned:
vnlesse it be some fewe relations. Moreouer, as touching Grondland, we
holde this from the opinion of our ancestours, that, from the extreeme part
of Norway, which is called Biarmlandia [Marginal note: Biarmia.] and from
whence the saide Gronland is not farre distant, it fetcheth about the
Northren coast of Island with an huge circuit in maner of an halfe Moone.
[Sidenote: Gronland in old time had Christian Bishops.] Our Chronicles
likewise doe testifue that our owne countreymen in times past resorted
thither for traffique, and also that the very same countrey of Gronland had
certaine Bishops in the dayes of Poperie. More then this we cannot auouch.
But now it is reported that your Englishmen (whom I may almost call the
lordes of the Ocean sea) make yeerely voyages vnto Gronland: concerning
which matter if you please to giue me further aduertisement, you shall doe
me an especial fauour. Moreouer, whatsoeuer newes you heare concerning the
the affaires of England or of other Countreys thereabout, I pray you make
vs acquainted therewith. Thus (reuerend sir) wishing you long life, for the
seruice of God, for the increase of learning, and the benefit of the people
committed to your charge, I bid you farewel. From Island vpon the feast of
the visitation of the blessed Virgine Mary, Anno Dom. 1595.

Yours Gudbrandus Thorlacius Bishop of Hola in Island.

INDEX.

_Where the same Document is given in Latin and English the reference is
to the English Version._

NB--The large print indicates that the _whole_ section refers to the
subject mentioned.

ADAMS, Clement, mentioned
AFFRICA, daughter of Fergus of Galway, marries Olavus
AFRICA, a peninsula
--Circumnavigated
--Portuguese trade with
AGATHA marries Edward Atheling
AGINCOURT, battle of
ALCOCK, Thomas his voyage
ALEPPO, Elizabeths communications with
ALEXANDER (the Great), mentioned
ALEXANDRIA (Egypt), mentioned
ALFRED mentioned
ALGESIRAS or Algezar, mentioned
ALGIERS, English at
AMERICA, discovered
ANGLES, mentioned
ANGLESEY, conquered
--CONQUEST OF BY EDMUND
ANTIOCH, taken
AQUITAINE, mentioned
ARABIA, Felix, mentioned
ARABIAN Gulf, mentioned
ARDOK (River), visited by Jenkinson
ARDOVIL, mentioned
ARGYLE, mentioned
ARISTOTLE, quoted
ARMADA, The Great
ARMENIA, English in
ARSACES, mentioned
ARTHUR, King, mentioned
--THE CONQUESTS OF
--Buried at Glastonbury
--Alluded to (_ note_)
ASAFI, English at
ASCHILIUS, King, submits to Arthur
ASTRAKHAN, English at
ATHELSTAN, mentioned
ATHELWOLD, Bishop, mentioned (_note_)
ATLANTIS, mentioned
AUGUSTINE, Archbishop of Britain
AUGUSTUS, mentioned
AUSTRO HUNGARIAN ARCTIC EXPEDITION, mentioned (_note_)
AZORES, mentioned

BAATU, mentioned
BABYLON, Elizabeth's communications with
BALE, mentioned
BALSARA, Elizabeth's communications with
BALTIC, mentioned
--Described
BARBAROSSA Frederick, HIS TREATY WITH HENRY II
--Biographical Notice (_note_)
BARENTZ, mentioned (_note_)
BARGENLAND (_see Borhalme_)
BEDE, Venerable, quoted
--HIS ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF ANGLESEY AND MAN
--THE VOYAGE OF BERTUS
--HIS TESTIMONY TO THE IMPORTANCE OF LONDON VNDER THE SAXONS
BEDFORD, John, Duke of, defeats the French
--Defeats Genoese
BENGORION, Joseph, quoted
BENIN, English in
BERGEN, mentioned
BERTUS, mentioned
--Account of his voyage into Ireland
BIARMIA described
--Mentioned
BLEKINGIE, mentioned
BOATS, limited to three iron nails
BOKHARA or Boghar, mentioned
--Visited by Jenkinson
BONA SPERANZA (Cape of), Englishmen double
BORHOLME, mentioned
BORIS, Emperor, mentioned
BORISTHENES, mentioned
BOSTON (Lincolnshire), mentioned
BOWES, Jerome, mentioned
BRABANT, mentioned
BRACTON, Henry, quoted
BRAZIL, first English trade to
BREMEN, mentioned
BRISTOL, mentioned
--Its trade with Norway and Ireland
BRITTANY, mentioned
BRUNSWICK, mentioned
BURLEIGH, Lord, mentioned
BURROUGH, Hubert defeats the Welsh
BURROUGH, Stephen, mentioned
BURROUGH, William, assists Hakluyt
--His voyage
BUTE, mentioned

CABOT, John, patent granted by Henry VII. to
CABOT, Sebastian, created Grand Pilot
CADIZ, Expedition to, mentioned
CAIRO, mentioned
CALAIS, mentioned
CAMDEN, eulogised
--His eulogy of Hakluyt.
--His CHRONICLES OF THE KINGS OF MAN
CANARY ISLES, mentioned
CANDISH, Thomas, mentioned
CANUTE obtains privileges at Rome
--Mentioned
CAPE VERDE Islands, English in
CARDANUS, quoted
CARPINI, Joannes de Piano, his journey
CASBEN, mentioned
CASPIAN (Sea), mentioned
--Visited fourteen times
CATALONIA, mentioned
CAZAN, mentioned
CHANCELLOR, Richard, doubles North Cape
--Arrives in Russia
CHARLEMAGNE, concludes treaty with Offa
--Mentioned
CHARLES V. founds lecture on navigation
CHAUCER, Geoffrey, mentioned
--Quoted
CHAUEZ, Alonso de, quoted
CHAUEZ, Hieronymo de, quoted
CHAUL, Englishmen at
CHERRILLAND, mentioned
CHESTER, Rainulf de, quoted
CHILI, Englishmen in
CHINA, traffic with
--Sends Embassy to Rome
--Mentioned
CHRISTIAN IV, dedication of Commentary on Iceland to
CHRISTINA, daughter of Edward Atheling
CINQUE (Ports), mentioned
--HISTORY OF, FROM EDWARD THE CONFESSOR TO EDWARD I.
CNOYEN, James, quoted
COG, The, mentioned
COLBY, (River), mentioned
COLGOIEVE (Gulf of), mentioned
COLMOGRO, mentioned
COLOGNE, mentioned
COLUMBUS, Christopher, mentioned
--Discovers America
COMETS
COMMERCE, HISTORY OF
CONDORA, visited
CONRAD, Emperor, confers privileges on Canute
CONSTANTINOPLE, mentioned
COPE, William, his collection of curiosities
CORELIA, coasted
CORNWALL, Richard, Earl of, King of the Romans
COURCY, John de, conquers Ulster
--Taken prisoner
--Invades Man
COURLAND, mentioned
CROUAlN, Godred, mentioned
CRUZES burnt by Drake
CUMBERLAND, Earl of, sends Expedition to South West
CYRUS, mentioned

DANTZIG, mentioned
DARIEN, (Isthmus of), crossed by Oxnam
DAVIS, John, mentioned
DEAL, mentioned
DEDICATION To First Edition
--To Second Edition
DEE, Doctor, mentioned
--His Testimony Touching Nicholas de Lenna
--Biographical notice
DENMARK, submits to Arthur
--Conquered by Malgo
--Mentioned
DENMARK (Sound of), [_See Baltic_]
DEPTFORD, Guild of Navigation founded at
DERBENT, visited by Jenkinson
--Mentioned
DERBY, Henry, Earl of, his journey
DIODURUS, quoted
DOLDAVIUS, King, submits to Arthur
DONALD, usurps kingdom of Man
DOOMSDAY Book, quoted
DOUGLAS (Man), mentioned
DOVER, one of Cinque Ports
--Mentioned
DRAKE Sir Francis, mentioned
DUBLIN, mentioned
--Taken by Gadred Cronan
DUGALD, son of Sumerled, becomes King of Man
DWINA (River), English on
--Mentioned
--Visited
--Description of
DYER or Dier, Edward, assists Hakluyt

EASTERLINGS, mentioned
EASTLAND (_See Lithunia_)
EASTMEERE, mentioned
EST(Sea) (_See Baltic_)
ECFRID, mentioned
--Sends army into Ireland
EDEN, Richard, mentioned
EDGAR, Atheling, mentioned
EDGAR, King, mentioned
--His navigation
--Surnamed Pacificus--Buried at
Glastonbury
EDMUND, Prince, mentioned
--His Voyage into Hungary
EDRIC, mentioned
EDWARD, Atheling, mentioned
--His voyage into Hungary
EDWARD the Conftssor, mentioned
EDWRD I, confers privileges on Cologne, Lubeck, and Hanse Towns
--Grants the Great Charter
--Grants Charter to Cinque Ports
EDWARD II, corresponds with Haco
--Decree of Staple
EDWARD III, his fleet against Calais
EDWARD IV, trade under
KDWARD VI, names Sebastian Cabot, Grand Pilot of England
EDWIN, King, conquers Man and Anglesey
ELAND, mentioned
ELIZABETH, Queen, portrait
ELSENBORG, mentioned
ELY, Foundation Charter of Cathedral
EMDEN, mentioned
ENNIUS, Father, mentioned
EPISTLE to Cupid, quoted
--Its authorship
ESSEX, Earl of, his expedition against Cadiz
--Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, Earl of
EUDOXUS, mentioned
EUPHRATES (River), Englishmen on
EUROPE, Map of Northern
EUXINE (Sea), mentioned

FABIAN, Robert, quoted
FALSTER, mentioned
FARAON, taken by Howard
FAROE Islands, mentioned
FAVERSHAM, mentioned
FEMELAND, mentioned
FENTON, Edward, mentioned
FERNELIUS, John, quoted
FINGAL, King of Man
FINMARK, visited
--Mentioned
FINONS, described
--Pay tribute to Biarmes
FLANDERS, mentioned
FLETCHER, Doctor, mentioned
FLORENCE, mentioned
FLORES Historiarum, quoted
FLORIDA, discovered by Cabot
FLORUS, Lucius, quoted
FOLKESTONE, mentioned
FONTANAS, mentioned
FOX, mentioned
FRANCE, mentioned
FRANZ-JOSEF Land, discovered
FREDERICK SAXO, mentioned
FREDERIC III, changes constitution of Norway
FRISIUS, mentioned
--Confuted
FROBISHER, mentioned
FRUSO, mentioned

GADES (_see Gibraltar_)
GALWY, subdued by Magnus
GAMA, Vasco de, doubles Cape of Good Hope
GARGANUS (Mount), mentioned
GARTH or Garthe, Richard, his collection of curiosities
GENOA, mentioned
GERMANY, a Charter for Merchants of
--Mentioned
GEORGIA, English in
GIBRALTAR (Straits of), mentioned
GILBERT, Sir Humphrey, mentioned
GILLAN (Persia), English in
GIRALDUS CAMBRIENSIS, quoted
GLASTONBURY, Invocation to
GOA, Englishmen at
GODRED, his voyage to Norway
--Mentioned
GODRED, son of Olavus
--Murdered
GODRED. (_See Cronan_)
GOLETTA, English at
GOROPIUS, Joannes, quoted
GOSPATRICIUS, usurps Man
GOTHLAND, submits to Arthur
--Mentioned
--Conquered by Malgo
GRANADA, mentioned
GREENLAND, mentioned
GRESHAM COLLEGE, founded
GRESHAM, Sir John, mentioned
GRESHAM, Sir Richard, mentioned
GRESHAM, Sir Thomas, founds lectures
--Biographical sketch (_note_.)
GUILLAUMURIUS, King, sends Ambassadors to Arthur
GUINEA, English in
GUNFACIUS, King, submits to Arthur

HACO takes possession of the Islands
HACO HUSBAC invades the Islands
HACO IV., his treaties with Henry III.
--HIS CORRESPONDENCE WITH HENRY III.
--His expedition to Scotland
HAINAULT, mentioned
HAKLUYT, Edmund, tutor to Lord William Howard
HAKLUYT, Richard, of Middle Temple
--Assists his cousin
HAKLUYT, Richard, preacher, biographical notice
--Greek eulogy of
--Latin eulogy by Richard Mukaster
--Anonymous eulogy
--Latin eulogy by Camden
--Italian eulogy by M. A. Pigafeta
--Eulogy by Oldys
--Eulogy by Zouch
HAMBURG, mentioned
HANNO, mentioned
HANSE towns, treat with Edward I.
--With Henry IV.
HARFLEUR, mentioned
HAROLD, daughter of, marries Jeruslaus
HAROLD Harfager, mentioned
HAROLD, son of Godred Crouan
HAROLD, son of Godwin, mentioned
HAROLD, son of Olave, King of Man, mentioned
--Regains his kingdom
HAROLD (the Black), mentioned
HASTINGS, mentioned
HAWKINS, Sir John, his voyage
--Assists Hakluyt
HEBRIDES, mentioned
--Conquered by Edwin
HECLA, mentioned
HELGAFEL (Mount) mentioned
HELIGOLAND, mentioned
HENRY, Emperor of Germany, mentioned
HENRY II., his treaty with Frederick Barbarossa
--His charter quoted
--Mentioned
HENRY III, his treaties with Haco
--His CORRESPONDENCE WITH HACO
--His PRIVILEGES TO LUBECK
HENRY IV his treaties with the Great Masters of Prussia
His CHARTER TO ENGLISH MERCHANTS
HENRY V, mentioned
--His FLEET
HENRY VI, trade under
HENRY VII, offer made by Columbus to
HENRY VIII employs Knevett
--Supports explorations
--Founds Guilds of Navigation
HERDLE-VOER, mentioned
HERODOTUS, quoted
--Mentioned
HETHA, mentioned
HINGE, King of Norway
HIREAN, mentioned
HISPANIA, Nova, Englishmen in
HISPANIOLA, visited by Hawkins
HODSON, Christopher, mentioned
HORSEY, HIEROME, his journey
HOVEDEN, Roger de, mentioned
HOWARD, Lord Charles, mentioned
--Dedication of Second Edition to
--Biographical notice
--Accompanies Essex
HOWARD, Lord William, mentioned
HUGO, Earls, taken and slain
HUMBER (River), mentioned
HUNGARY, mentioned
HUNGERFORD, Earl of, mentioned
HY, Isle of, mentioned
HYRCAMlA, English in
HYTHE, mentioned

ICELAND, true state of
--Conquered by Arthur
--Sends Ambassadors
--Mentioned
--Conquered by Malgo
--A COMMENTARY OF, BY ARNGRIMUS JONAS
--Map of
--Longitude and latitude
--Mean Temperature
--Size
--Barrenness
--Mountains and volcanoes
--Volcanic eruptions
--Gysers
--Brimstone mines
--Abundance of fish
--Reindeer
--Fauna
--Conversion to Christianity
--Oldest chronicles
--Bishops of Schalholt
--Bishops of Holen
--The houses are built of fishes' bones
--Men and beasts all live in one house
--The habits of the inhabitants
--Their morals
--A yearly governor sent from Denmark
--Community of property
--Their want of love for their children
--The status of the bishops
--Food
--Ancient trade with England
ICELANDIC clergy, defended
IERUSLAUS. (_See Jeruslaus_)
ILSING, mentioned
INDIAN (Ocean), discovered by Portuguese
INDIES (West) first visited by Englishmen
--Mentioned
--Described by Plato
INDUS (River), mentioned
INGEMUNDUS lands in Lewes

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