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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation, v. 7 by Richard Hakluyt

Part 4 out of 6

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number and proportion of the ships) the greater and better part; and many
of them which came home, by reason of the toiles and inconueniences which
they sustained in this voyage, died not long after their arriuall. The Duke
of Medina immediatly vpon his returne was deposed from his authority,
commanded to his priuate house, and forbidden to repaire vnto the Court;
where he could hardly satisfie or yeeld a reason vnto his malicious enemies
and backbiters. Many honourable personages and men of great renowne
deceased soone after their returne; as namely Iohn Martines de Ricalde,
with diuers others. A great part also of the Spanish Nobility and Gentry
employed in this expedition perished either by fight, diseases, or drowning
before their arriuall; and among the rest Thomas Perenot of Granduell a
Dutchman, being earle of Cantebroi, and sonne vnto Cardinall Granduell his

Vpon the coast of Zeland Don Diego de Pimentell, brother vnto the Marques
de Tamnares, and kinseman vnto the earle of Beneuentum and Calua, and
Colonell ouer 32 bands with many other in the same ship was taken and
detained as prisoner in Zeland.

Into England (as we sayd before) Don Pedro de Valdez, a man of singular
experience, and greatly honoured in his countrey, was led captiue, being
accompanied with Don Vasquez de Silua, Don Alonzo de Sayas, and others.

Likewise vpon the Scottish Westerne Isles of Lewis, and Ila, and about Cape
Cantyre vpon the maine land, there were cast away certaine Spanish shippes,
out of which were saued diuers Captaines and Gentlemen, and almost foure
hundred souldiers, who for the most part, after their shipwracke, were
brought vnto Edenborough in Scotland, and being miserably needy and naked,
were there clothed at the liberality of the King and the Marchants, and
afterward were secretly shipped for Spaine; but the Scottish fleet wherein
they passed touching at Yarmouth on the coast of Norfolke, were there
stayed for a time vntill the Councels pleasure was knowen; who in regard of
their manifolde miseries, though they were enemies, wincked at their

Vpon the Irish coast many of their Noblemen and Gentlemen were drowned; and
diuers slaine by the barbarous and wilde Irish. Howbeit there was brought
prisoner out of Ireland, Don Alonzo de Lucon, Colonell of two and thirty
bandes, commonly called a terza of Naples; together with Rodorigo de Lasso,
and two others of the family of Cordoua, who were committed vnto the
custodie of Sir Horatio Palauicini, that Monsieur de Teligny the sonne of
Monsieur de Nouee (who being taken in fight neere Antwerpe, was detained
prisoner in the Castle of Turney) might be ransomed for them by way of
exchange. To conclude, there was no famous nor woorthy family in all
Spaine, which in this expedition lost not a sonne, a brother, or a

[Sidenote: New coines stamped for the memory of the Spaniards ouerthrow.]
For the perpetuall memorie of this matter, the Zelanders caused newe coine
of Siluer and brasse to be stamped: which on the one side contained the
armes of Zeland, with this inscription: GLORY TO GOD ONELY: and on the
other side, the pictures of certeine great ships, with these words: THE
SPANISH FLEET: and in the circumference about the ships: IT CAME, WENT, AND
WAS. Anno 1588. That is to say, the Spanish fleet came, went, and was
vanquished this yere; for which, glory be giuen to God onely.

Likewise they coined another kinde of money; vpon the one side whereof was
represented a ship fleeing and a ship sincking: on the other side foure men
making prayers and giuing thanks vnto God vpon their knees; with this
sentence: Man purposeth; God disposeth. 1588. Also, for the lasting memory
of the same matter, they haue stamped in Holland diuers such like coines,
according to the custome of the ancient Romans.

[Sidenote: The people of England and of the vnited prouinces, pray, fast,
and giue thanks vnto God.] While this woonderfull and puissant Nauie was
sayling along the English coastes, and all men did now plainely see and
heare that which before they would not be perswaded of, all people
thorowout England prostrated themselues with humble prayers and
supplications vnto God: but especially the outlandish Churches (who had
greatest cause to feare, and against whom by name, the Spaniards had
threatened most grievous torments) enioyned to their people continuall
fastings and supplications, that they might turne away Gods wrath and fury
now imminent vpon them for their sinnes: knowing right well, that prayer
was the onely refuge against all enemies, calamities, and necessities, and
that it was the onely solace and reliefe for mankinde, being visited with
affliction and misery. Likewise such solemne dayes of supplication were
obserued thorowout the vnited Prouinces.

Also a while after the Spanish Fleet was departed, there was in England, by
the commandement of her Maiestie, and in the vnited Prouinces, by the
direction of the States, a solemne festiuall day publikely appointed,
wherein all persons were enioyned to resort vnto the Church, and there to
render thanks and praises vnto God: and the Preachers were commanded to
exhort the people thereunto. The foresayd solemnity was obserued vpon the
29 of Nouember; which day was wholly spent in fasting, prayer, and giuing
of thanks.

Likewise, the Queenes Maiestie herselfe, imitating the ancient Romans, rode
into London in triumph, in regard of her owne and her subjects glorious
deliuerance. For being attended vpon very solemnely by all the principall
estates and officers of her Realme, she was carried thorow her sayd City of
London in a tryumphant chariot, and in robes of triumph, from her Palace
vnto the Cathedrall Church of Saint Paul, out of the which the ensignes and
colours of the vanquished Spaniards hung displayed. And all the Citizens of
London in their Liueries stood on either side the street, by their seuerall
Companies, with their ensignes and banners: and the streets were hanged on
both sides with Blew cloth, which, together with the foresayd banners,
yeelded a very stately and gallant prospect. Her Maiestie being entered
into the Church, together with her Clergie and Nobles gaue thanks vnto God,
and caused a publike Sermon to be preached before her at Pauls crosse;
wherein none other argument was handled, but that praise, honour, and glory
might be rendered vnto God, and that Gods name might be extolled by
thanksgiuing. And with her owne princely voice she most Christianly
exhorted the people to doe the same: whereupon the people with a loud
acclamation wished her a most long and happy life, to the confusion of her

Thus the magnificent, huge, and mighty fleet of the Spaniards (which
themselues termed in all places inuincible) such as sayled not vpon the
Ocean see many hundreth yeeres before, in the yeere 1588 vanished into
smoake; to the great confusion and discouragement of the authors thereof.
In regard of which her Maiesties happy successe all her neighbours and
friends congratulated with her, and many verses were penned to the honour
of her Maiesty by learned men, whereof some which came to our hands we will
here annexe.

* * * * *



Strauerat innumeris Hispanus nauibus aequor,
Regnis iuncturus sceptra Britanna suis.
Tanti huius, rogitas, quae motus causa? superbos
Impulit Ambitio, vexit Auaritia.
Quam bene te ambitio mersit vanissima ventus?
Et tumidos tumidae vos superastis aquae
Quam bene totius raptores orbis auaros,
Hausit inexhausti iusta vorago maris!
At tu, cui venti, cui totum militat aequor,
Regina, o mundi totius vna, decus,
Sic regnare Deo perge, ambitione remota,
Prodiga sic opibus perge iuuare pios,
Vt te Angli longum, longum Anglis ipsa fruaris,
Quam dilecta bonis, tam metuenda malis.

The same in English.

The Spanish Fleet did flote in narrow Seas,
And bend her ships against the English shore,
With so great rage as nothing could appease,
And with such strength as neuer seene before:
And all to ioyne the kingdome of that land
Vnto the kingdomes that he had in hand.

Now if you aske what set this king on fire,
To practise warre when he of peace did treat,
It was his Pride, and neuer quencht desire,
To spoile that Islands wealth, by peace made great:
His Pride which farre aboue the heauens did swell
And his desire as vnsuffic'd as hell.

But well haue windes his proud blasts ouerblowen,
And swelling waues alayd his swelling heart,
Well hath the Sea with greedie gulfs vnknowen,
Deuoured the deuourer to his smart:
And made his ships a pray vnto the sand,
That meant to pray vpon anothers land.

And now, O Queene, aboue all others blest,
For whom both windes and waues are prest to fight,
So rule your owne, so succour friends opprest,
(As farre from pride, so ready to do right)
That England you, you England long enioy,
No lesse your friends delight, then foes annoy.

* * * * *

A briefe and true report of the Honorable voyage vnto Cadiz, 1596. of the
ouerthrow of the kings Fleet, and of the winning, sacking, and burning of
the Citie, with all other accidents of moment, thereunto appertaining.

After that the two most Noble and Renowmed Lords Generals: The L. Robert
Earle of Essex, and the L. Charles Howard L. High Admirall of England, were
come vnto Plymmouth (which was about the beginning of May last, 1596.)
being there accompanied with diuers other Noble Peeres, as the Earle of
Sussex, the L. Thomas Howard, the L. Harbert, the L. Warden Sir Walter
Raleigh: the L. Marshall Sir Francis Vere: the L. Burk, Don Christopher
young Prince of Portingall, young Count Lodouick of Nassaw, and the
Admirall of the Hollanders, Sir Iohn Vanderfoord: besides many other most
worthy Knights and Gentlemen of great woorth attending vpon this most
honorable Action: It pleased them, there to make their abode for the time
of that moneth, aswell for the new furnishing and reuictualing of her
Maiesties Royall Nauie: as also for the expecting of some other ships,
which were to come from diuers places of the Realme, and were as yet
wanting: making that place as it should seeme the Rendezuous for all the
whole Fleete, there to complete the full number of al such companies both
for sea and land: as was in their noble and deepe wisedomes thought meete
and agreed vpon.

All the time of this their abode there, there was a most zealous and
diligent care had for the holy seruice of God dayly and reuerently to be
frequented: and also for other good and ciuill orders of militarie
discipline to be obserued, to the exceeding great comfort and reioycing of
all the hearts of the godly and well disposed.

And for that it might the better appeare, that there was small hope of
pardon to be expected of the offenders, if they did at any time neglect
their duties, about due obseruation of matters of importance: Their orders,
lawes, and decrees being once published: about the 8. or 9. of the same
moneth, there were two offenders executed a little without the towne, in a
very fayre pleasant greene, called the Ho: the one for beginning of a
muteny in his company, the other for running away from his Colours.

And about the same time in the Dutch Regiment, an other for murthering of
one of his companions, about a quarrell betweene themselues, rising as it
was supposed, vpon their drinke, was by order of Martiall law, presently
tyed to the partie so murthered, and foorthwith both of them so cast into
the sea.

Moreouer, about the 28. of the same moneth, a certaine Lieutenant (whose
name I will forbeare) was by sound of Drumme publikely in all the streetes
disgraced, or rather after a sort disgraded, and cashierd for bearing any
farther Office at that time, for the taking of money by way of corruption,
of certaine prest souldiers in the Countrey, and for placing of others in
their roomes, more vnfit for seruice, and of lesse sufficiency and
abilitie. This seuere executing of iustice at the very first did breed such
a deepe terror in the hearts of the whole armie, that it seemed to cut off
all occasion of the like disorder for euer afterwards to be attempted.

And here before their departure from Plymmouth, it pleased their Lordships
to publish in print, and make knowen to all the world, especially to such
as whom it concerned, and that both in the Latine, French, Dutch, English
and Spanish tongue, what were the true, iust and vrgent causes, that at
this time prouoked her Maiestie, to vndertake the preparing and setting
forth of this so great a Nauie, annexing thereunto a full declaration, what
was good will and pleasure should be done and performed of all them that
ment not to incurre their owne priuate present daungers, or else were
willing to auoyde her Maiesties future indignation and displeasure.

Likewise now, at the same instant, their owne most prouident and godly
decrees, which they had deuised for the honest cariage of euery particular
person in their degrees and vocation, were made knowen to all men, and
published in sundry writings, with diuers great punishments, set downe and
appointed for the wilfull offenders and brekers of the same.

Thus then, all things being in very good order and well appointed, the most
holy name of our Omnipotent God being most religiously and deuoutly called
vpon, and his blessed and sacred Communion being diuers times most
reuerently and publikely celebrated: These two most noble personages, with
all their honorable Associats, and most famous worthy Knights, Gentlemen,
Captaines, Leaders, and very willing and expert Souldiers, and Mariners,
being furnished with 150. good sayle of shippe or thereabout: In the name
of the most High and euerliuing God, and with all true and faithful
obedience, to her sacred Maiesty, to the infinite good and tranquillitie of
our Countrey, and to the perpetuall glory, and triumphant renowne of the
eternall memory of their honorable names to all posterity, the first day of
Iune embarked themselues, weighed Ancre, and hoysed vp sayle, and put to
sea onward their iourney from the Sownds of Plymmouth.

The winde, at the first setting foorth, seemed very fauourable: but yet in
the euening growing very scant, and all that night falling more and more
against vs, and we hailing sayled no further then to a certaine place
called Dodman Head: we were constrained the next day, to make our returne
to the road of Plymmonth againe, and there in the Sownds to lie at ancre
for that night.

About this time, and in this very place, by good fortune there came to my
handes a prayer in English, touching this present Action, and made by her
Maiestie, as it was voyced: The prayer seemed to me to be most excellent,
aswell for the matter as also for the manner, and therefore for certaine
diuers good motiues which then presently came to my minde, and whereof
hereafter in his more conuenient time and place, I will make farther
mention, I presumed at that very instant to translate it into Latine.

The Prayer is thus.

Most Omnipotent maker and guide of all our worlds masse, that onely
searchest and fadomest the bottome of all our hearts conceits, and in them
seest the true originals of all our actions intended: thou that by thy
foresight doest truely discerne how no malice of Reuenge, nor quittance of
iniury, nor desire of bloodshed, nor greedinesse of lucre hath bred the
resolution of our now set out Army, but a heedfull care, and wary watch,
that no neglect of foes, nor ouer-suretie of harme might breed either
daunger to vs, or glory to them: these being the grounds wherewith thou
doest enspire the mind, we humbly beseech thee with bended knees, prosper
the worke, and with best forewindes guide the iourney, speed the victory,
and make the returne the aduancement of thy glory, the tryumph of their
fame, and surety to the Realme, with the least losse of the English blood.
To these deuout petitions Lord giue thou thy blessed grant.

My homely translation, is thus.

Svmme praepotens Deus, immensae huius totius nostri mundi molis fabricator et
Rector, qui solus perscrutaris intimos cordis nostri sensus, et ad fundum
vsque nostrarum cogitationem explorando penetras, ac in eis, quid vere, et
ex ammo cogitemus, et quae sint actionum nostrarum rationes, ac fundamenta,
cognoscis: Tu, qui ea, quae in te est, ab omni aeternitate praescientia,
vides, quod nec aliqua viciscendi malitiosa cupiditas, nec iniuriarum
referendarum desiderium, nec sanguinis effundendi sitis, nec alicuius
lucri, quaestusue auiditas ad istam classem praeparandam, et emittendam nos
commouerit: sed potius, quod prouida quaedam cura, solersque vigilantia huc
nos impulerit: ne vel inimicorum nostrorum neglectus, vel status nostri
firmitaris nimium secura cogitatio, aut illis gloriam et honorem, aut nobis
damnum et periculum pariat: Cum, inquam, haec sint nostri, quicquid
attentatur, negotii fundamenta: cumque tu hunc nobis animum, mentemque
inieceris, vt istud aggrederemur: curuatis genibus a te humillime petimus,
vt velis hoc nostrum incoeptum secundissime fortunare, totum iter
prosperrimis flatibus dirigere, celerem et expeditiam victoriam nobis
concedere, reditumque talem nostris militibus elargiri, qualis et nomini
tuo incrementum gloriae, et illis famae, laudisque triumphum, et Regno nostro
firmam tranquillitatem possit apportare: idque cum minimo Anglorum
sanguinis dispendio. His nostris religiosis petitionibus concede, Domine,
sacrosanctum et annuentem voluntatem tuam.

After that we had anchored at Plymmouth that night, as I haue said, the
third of Iune very early in the morning, hauing a reasonable fresh gale of
winde, we set sayle, and kept our course againe, and the ninth of the same
moneth comming something neere to the North cape, in a maner in the same
altitude, or not much differing, which was about xliii. degrees, and
something more, yet bearing so, as it was impossible to bee descried from
the land: There it pleased the Lords to call a select Councell, which was
alwayes done by hanging out of a flagge of the armes of England, and
shooting off of a great warning peece. On this select or priuie Councell
were no moe than these: The two Lords Generall, the Lord Thomas Howard, the
Lorde Warden Sir Walter Raleigh, the Lord Martiall Sir Francis Vere, Sir
George Cary master of the Ordinance, Sir Coniers Clifford, and Sir Anthony
Ashley, Clarke of the sayde Councell. And when it pleased the Lords
Generall to call a common Counsell (as often times they did vpon weightie
matters best knowen to their honours) then they would cause an other kinde
of flagge to be hanged put, which was the Redcrosse of S. George, and was
verie easie to be discerned from the other that appertained onely to the
select Counsell, and so often as this flagge of Saint George was hanged
out, then came all the Masters and Captaines of all the ships, whose
opinions were to be demaunded, in such matters as appertayned vnto this
sayd select Counsell: It was presently concluded, that our course in
sayling should foorthwith be altered, and that we should beare more into
the West, for some purposes to them best knowen.

At that very instant many letters of instructions were addressed and sent
to euery particular Master and Captaine of the Ships: What the contentes of
those letters of instructions were it was not as yet knowne vnto any,
neither was it held meet to be enquired or knowen of any of vs. But vnder
the titles and superscriptions of euery mans particuler letter these wordes
were endorsed. Open not these letters on pain of your liues, vnles we
chance to be scattered by tempest, and in that case open them, and execute
the contents thereof: but if by mishap you fall into your enemies hand,
then in any case cast them into the sea, sealed as they are. It should
seeme that these letters did conteine in them the principall place and
meaning of this entended action, which was hitherto by their deepe
foresights kept so secret, as no man to my knowledge either did, or coulde
so much as suspect it, more then themselues, who had the onely managing
thereof. A conceite in my iudgement of greatest moment in the world, to
effect any matter of importance. I meane, to entertaine those two vertues,
Fidem, et Taciturnitatem: so much commended by the old writers. And if
there was euer any great designement, in this our age, and memorie,
discreetly, faithfully, and closely caried, I assure my selfe it was this,
and though it were but in respect to that poynt onely: yet for such
faithfull secrecie, it deserueth immortall praise.

All this while, our ships, God be thanked, kept in a most excellent good
order, being diuided into fiue squadrons: that is to say, The Earle of
Essex, the Lord Admirall, the Lord Thomas Howard, the Lord Warden Sir
Walter Raleigh, and the Admirall of the Hollanders. All which squadrons,
albeit they did euery day separate themselues of purpose, by the distance
of certaine leagues, as well to looke out for such shippes as were happily
vnder sayle, as also for the better procuring of sea-roome: yet alwayes
commonly eyther that day, or the next day, towarde euening, they came all
together, with friendly salutations and gratulations one to an other: which
they terme by the name of Hayling: a ceremonie done solemnly, and in very
good order, with sound of Trumpets and noyse of cheerefull voyces: and in
such sort performed as was no small encouragement one to the other, beside
a true report of all such accidents, as had happened in their squadrons.

Hitherto, as I sayde, our iourney was most prosperous, and all our shippes
in very good plight, more then that the Mary Rose, by some mischance,
either sprang or spent her fore-yarde, and two dayes after Sir Robert
Crosse had in a maner the like mischance.

Nowe being thus betweene the North cape, and cape S. Vincent, and yet
keeping, such a course a loofe, that by no meanes, those from the shoare
might be able to descrie vs: The tenth of Iune, a French Barke, and a
Fleming comming from the coast of Barbarie were brought in by some of our
companie: but they were both of them very honourably and well vsed by the
Lords Generall: and so after a fewe dayes tarrying, were peaceably sent
away, after that they had conferred with them about such matters, as was
thought good in their honorable wisedomes.

The twelfth of the same moneth, Sir Richard Leuison Knight, assisted with
Sir Christopher Blunt, fought with three Hamburgers, and in that fight
slewe two of them, and hurt eleuen, and in the end brought them all three
in: and this was the very first hansell and maydenhead (as it were) of any
matter of importance, or exployt worthy obseruation that was done in the
way outward of this honorable voyage, and was so well perfourmed of those
most worthy Gentlemen, as euery man highly commended them for their great
valure, and discretion, and no lesse reioyced at this their fortunate

The next day after, Sir Richard Weston meeting with a Flemming, who refused
to vale his foretoppe, with the like good courage and resolution, attempted
to bring him in. The fight continued very hot betweene them, for a good
space: in the end the Swan, wherein the sayd Sir Richard was, had her
forebeake strooken off: and having spent before in fight the one side of
her tire of Ordinance, while she prepared to cast about, and to bestow on
him the other side, in the meane time the Fleming taking this opportunity,
did get almost halfe a league from him: and so for that time made his
escape. And yet the next day after, the sayd Flemming being in a maner got
to the very mouth of the Riuer vp to Lisbone, was taken, and brought in by
M. Dorrell, being Captaine of the Iohn and Francis of London. Thus by
diuiding their squadrons, and spreading the whole sea ouer a mighty way,
there could not so much as the least pinke passe but she was espied and
brought in.

The 13. 14. and 15. dayes, certaine littte stragling Carauels were taken by
certaine of the Fleete, and in one of them a young beggarly Fryer vtterly
vnlearned, with a great packet of letters for Lisbon: the poore wretches
were maruellously well vsed by the Lords Generall, and that Carauel, and
the like still as they were taken were commaunded to giue their attendance,
and their Honours did vnderstand what they might of these poore men, of the
estate of Spaine for that present.

About this time and in this place it was, that first in all my life time I
did see the flying fishes, who when they are hardly pinched and chased by
the Bonitoes and other great fishes, then to auoyde the daunger, they
presently mount vp, and forsake the water, and betake themselues to the
benefite of their winges and make their flight, which commonly is not aboue
fiue or sixe score, or there about, and then they are constrayned to fall
downe into the water againe, and it is the Mariners opinion that they can
fly no longer then their wings be wet. The fish it selfe is about the
bignesse of a Mackrell or a great white Hearing, and much of that colour
and making, with two large wings shaped of nature very cunningly, and with
great delight to behold, in all the world much like to our Gentlewomens
dutch Fans, that, are made either of paper, parchment, or silke, or other
stuffe, which will with certaine pleights easily runne and fold themselues
together. One of these flying fishes was presented to my L. Admirall by a
fisher man, and newly taken in his L. returne from Cadiz, and then I [had]
good leisure and opportunitie to view it. ['had' missing in source

The 18. day early in the morning wee tooke an Irish man, and he came
directly from Cadiz, hauing beene there but the day before at twelue of the
clocke at high noone. This man being examined, told truely that there was
now great store of shipping at Cadiz, and with them xviii. or xix. gallies
in a readinesse, and that among those ships there were diuers of the kings
best: and namely, that the Philip of Spaine was amongst them, but what
their intent was, hee could not tell. This man was commanded also to giue
his attendance.

The 20. of Iune being Sunday, we came before Cadiz very early in the
morning, and in all this time as yet, the whole Nauy had not lost either by
sicknesse or by any other maner of wayes sixe men to my knowledge: as for
the Dutch company, I am not able precisely to say what happened there, for
that they were no part of our charge to be looked vnto, but were a regiment
entire of themselues, and by themselues to be prouided for, either for
their diet, or for the preservation of their healths by phisicke.

Thus then I say, being all in good plight and strong, the 20. of Iune wee
came to Cadiz, and there very earely in the morning presented our selues
before the Towne, ryding about a league or something lesse, from it. The
sea at that instant went maruelous high, and the winde was exceeding large.
Notwithstanding, a Councell being called, our Lords Generall foorthwith
attempted with all expedition to land some certaine companies of their men
at the West side of the Towne, by certaine long boats, light horsemen,
pynnesses, and barges made for the purpose, but could not compasse it, and
in the attempting thereof; they chanced to sinke one of their Barges, with
some foure score good souldiers well appointed in her, and yet by good hap
and great care the men were all saued excepting viii. And therefore they
were constrayned to put off their landing till an other more convenient

That morning very timely, there, lighted a very faire doue vpon the maine
yard of the L. Admirals ship, and there she sate very quietly for the space
of 3. or 4. houres, being nothing dismayed all that while, euery man gazed
and looked much vpon her, and spake their minds and opinions, yet all
concluding by no meanes to disquiet her: I for my part, tooke it for a very
good omen and boading, as in trueth (God be thanked) there fell out nothing
in the end to the contrary. And as at our very first comming to Cadiz this
chanced, so likewise on the very last day of our departing from the same
towne, another Doue presented her selfe in the selfe same order into the
same ship, and presently grew wonderfull tame and familiar to vs all, and
did so still keepe vs company, euen till our arriuall here in England.

We no sooner presented our selues, but presently a goodly sort of tall
Spanish ships came out of the mouth of the Bay of Cadiz, the Gallies
accompanying them in such good order, and so placed as all of them might
well succour each other, and therewithall kept themselues very close to
their towne, the castle, and the forts, for their better guard and defence,
abiding there still, and expecting our farther determination. All that day
passed, being very rough and boysterous, and litle or nothing could be
done, more then that about the euening there passed some friendly and kinde
salutations sent one from the other in warlike maner, by discharging
certain great peeces, but to my knowledge no hurt done at all, or else very

A carefull and diligent watch was had all that night thoroughout the whole
armie, and on monday morning being the 21. day, the winde and weather being
become moderate and fauourable, betweene fiue and sixe of the clocke in the
morning, our ships in the name of almightie God, and in defence of the
honour of England, without any farther delay, with all speed, courage, and
alacritie, did set vpon the Spanish ships, being then vnder sayle, and
making out of the mouth of the Bay of Cadiz, vp toward Puente de Suaco on
Grenada side, being in number lix. tall ships, with xix. or xx. Gallies
attending vpon them, sorted in such good order, and reasonable distance as
they might still annoy vs, and alwayes relieue themselues interchangeably:
hauing likewise the Castle, Forts, and Towne, continually to assist them
and theirs, and alwayes readie to play vpon vs and ours.

In most mens opinions it seemed that the enemy had a wonderful aduantage of
vs, all circumstances being well weighed, but especially the straightnesse
of the place, and the naturall forme and situation of the Bay it selfe,
being rightly considered. For albeit the very Bay it selfe is very large
and exceeding beautifull, so that from Cadiz to Port S. Mary, is some vi.
or vii. English miles ouer or there abouts, yet be there many rockes,
shelues, sands and shallowes in it, so that the very chanell and place for
sea roome, is not aboue 2. or 3. miles, yea and in some places not so much,
for the ships of any great burthen, to make way in, but that they must
either be set on ground or else constrained to run fowle one on another.
All this notwithstanding, with great and inuincible courage, the Lords
generall presently set vpon them, and sorting out some such conuenient
ships, as to their honorable wisedomes seemed fittest for that times
seruice, they were driuen to take some other course then before had beene
by them entended. Wherefore vpon a graue consultation had by a select
Counsell, what great dangers might ensue vpon so mightie a disaduantage as
appeared in all probability, if it were not by good and sound iudgement
preuented, and therewithall in their singular wisedomes foreseeing that
some great stratageme might be practised by the enemy, either by
fire-worke, or some other subtill politike deuise, for the hazarding of her
Maiesties ships of honor in so narrow a place, thus with al expedition they
concluded that the Viceadmirall, the L. Thomas Howard, that most noble L.
Howard (whose exceeding great magnanimity, courage, and wisedome, ioyned
with such an honorable kind of sweet courtesie, bountie, and liberalitie,
as is not able by me and my weakenes to be expressed, hath wonne him all
the faithfull louing hearts of as many as euer haue had any maner of
dealing with him) This L. Thomas, I say, in the Non Pareille for that time,
and the Reare Admirall Sir Walter Raleigh (a man of maruellous worth and
regard, for many his exceeding singular great vertues, right fortitude and
great resolutenes in all matters of importance) in the Warspight associated
with diuers most famous worthy knights, namely, Sir Francis Vere the L.
Martiall in the Rainbow, Sir George Cary M. of the Ordinance, in the Mary
rose, Sir Robert Southwell in the Lyon, gentlemen for all laudable good
vertues, and for perfect courage and discretion in all military actions, of
as great praise and good desert as any gentlemen of their degree whosoeuer,
hauing with them some of the shippes of London and some of the Dutch
squadron of reasonable burthen, should leade the dance, and giue the onset,
and that the two most noble Lords generall with some others of their
companies, should in their conuenient time and order, second the maine
battell. The fight being begunne and growen very hot, the L. Generall the
Earle of Essex, (whose infinite princely vertues with triumphant fame
deserue to be immortalized) being on Port S. Mary side, vpon a sudden and
vnlooked for of others, thrust himselfe among the formost into the maine
battell. The other most honorable L. Generall (whose singular vertues in
all respects are of such an excellencie and perfection as neither can my
praise in any part increase them, nor any mans enuy any whit blemish or
diminish them) vnderstanding, the most noble Earle to be in fight among
them, and perceiuing by the M. of his ship, the Arke Royall, that lacke of
water, it was not possible, that he might put any neerer, without farther
delay, called presently for his Pynnesse, and in the same Pynnesse put
himselfe, and his honorable son L. William Howard that now is, aboord the
Honor de la mer, and there remained in the fight till the battell was
ended. The fight was very terrible, and most hideous to the beholder by the
continuall discharging of those roaring thundering great peeces, on all
sides, and so continued doubtful till about one or two of the clocke in the
afternoone: about which time the Philip, whom in very truth, they had all
most fancie vnto, began to yeeld and giue ouer, her men that remained aliue
shifting for themselues as they were able, and swimming, and running a
shoare with all the hast that they could possibly, and therewithall, at the
very same instant themselues fired their ship, and so left her, and
presently thereupon a great Argosie, with an other mighty great ship, fired
themselues in the like maner. Immediately hereupon, the residue of the
ships ran themselues on ground, as farre from vs as they could, and therby
purchased their owne safety, or rather breathing space for the time. Of
them all two faire ships only were boorded and taken by our men with most
part of their furniture in them, the one called S. Matthy, a ship by
estimation of some xii. hundred tunne, and the other S. Andrew, being a
shippe of not much lesser burthen. The Gallies, seeing this suddaine great
victorious ouerthrow, made all the hast they could toward the Bridge called
Puente de Suaco, and there shrowded themselues in such sort as our shippes
could not by any meanes possible come nigh them for lacke of water.

The Spanish ships in all were lix. and as is sayd, all tall ships and very
richly furnished and well appointed, whereof some of them were bound for
the Indies, and other freighted and furnished for Lisbon, as themselues
affirme; and had we not come that very time that we did, (which for my
part, I do not attribute so much vnto meere chance, as to some secret deepe
insight and foreknowledge of the two most worthy Lords generall, who no
doubt spared for no cost or labour for true intelligence) we had certainely
mist of them all.

Of what great wealth and riches these ships were, that I leaue to other
mens iudgement and report, but sure I am that themselues offered two
millions and a halfe of ducats for the redemption of the goods and riches
that were in them: which offer of theirs, albeit it was accepted of the
Lords Generall, and should haue beene receiued, yet we were defeated of it,
as hereafter shall be more at large declared.

What maner of fight this was, and with what courage performed, and with
what terror to the beholder continued, where so many thundering tearing
peeces were for so long a time discharged, I leaue it to the Reader to
thinke and imagine. Yet such was the great mercy and goodnes of our liuing
God, that in all this cruell terrible fight, in the end, there were not
either slaine or hurt by any maner of meanes (excepting one mischance that
happened, wherof I will by and by make mention) many aboue the number of
100. of our men: notwithstanding diuers of our shippes were many times shot
thorow and thorow: yea and some of them no lesse then two and twentie
times, as I was enformed by credible report of the Captaines and Masters
themselues. I knowe not of any other hurt done, sauing onely that Sir
Robert Southwell, who alwayes shewed himselfe a most valiant resolute
knight in all this action, making a litle too much haste with his Pinnesse
to boord the Philip, had there his said Pinnesse burnt with the Philip at
the same instant, and yet by good care and diligence his men were saued.

One other mischance (as I said) there happened, and it was thus: One of the
Flemings flieboats, who had, in all the conflict before, caried himselfe
very well and valiantly, about ten of the clocke while the fight continued
sharpest, chanced by great negligence and misfortune, to be fired and
blowen vp by his owne powder, who could not haue any fewer in him, then one
hundred fighting men by all supposall, and so in the very twinckling of an
eye, both shippe and men were all cast away, excepting vii. or viii. which
by very good fortune, and great care and diligence of some of the other
ships were saued.

Immediatly vpon this notable victory without any farther stay in all the
world, the Lord generall the Earle of Essex put to shore and landed about
3000. shot, and pikemen: of the which number the one halfe was presently
dispatched to the bridge Puente de Suaco, vnder the conduct of three most
famous worth; knights. Sir Christopher Blunt, Sir Coniers Clifford, and Sir
Thomas Gerard: with the other halfe, being about fifteene hundred, the most
noble Earle of Essex himselfe, being accompanied with diuers other
honorable Lords, namely the Earle of Sussex, the Lord Harbert, the Lord
Burt, Count Lodouick of Nassaw, the Lord Martiall Sir Francis Vere, with
many other worthy Knights, and men of great regard, who all in that dayes
seruice did most valiantly behaue themselues, with all expedition possible
marched on foote toward the towne of Cadiz, which was about three English
miles march. That time of the day was very hot and faint and the way was
all of dry deepe slyding sand in a maner, and beside that, very vneuen, and
by that meanes so tiresome and painefull as might be. The enemie hauing
reasonable companie both of horse and footemen, stoode in a readinesse some
good distance without the towne to welcome vs, and to encounter the Lorde
Generall. But the most famous Earle with his valiant Troupes, rather
running in deede in good order, then marching, hastened on with such
vnspeakeable courage and celeritie, as within one houres space and lesse,
the horsemen were all discomfited and put to flight, their leader being
strooken downe at the very first encounter, whereat the footemen being
wonderfully dismayed and astonished at the vnexspected manner of the
Englishmens kinde of such fierce and resolute fight retyred themselues with
all the speede possible that they could, to recouer themselues into the
Towne againe, which being done by them, with farre swifter legges then
manly courage, our men were enforcd to skale the walles: which thing in
very deede, although it was not without great danger and difficulty to be
perfourmed: Yet such was the inuincible resolution, and the wonderfull
dexterity of the English, that in one halfe houre or thereabout, the enemie
was repulsed, and the towne wall possessed, by the noble Earle himselfe,
being in all this action, either the uery first man or else in a maner
ioyned with the first.

The towne walles being then possessed, and the English Ensigne being there
displayed vpon them, with all speede possible they proceeded on to march
through the towne, making still their waie with sworde and shot as well as
they could, being still fought withall at euery turne.

Immediately vpon this most famous entrie, the noble Earle, (according to
their resolutions, as I take it, put downe before) was seconded by the
noble L. Admirall in person, who was accompanied, with the noble L. Thomas
Howard, the most worthy gentleman his sonne, now L. Howard, Sir Robert
Southwell, Sir Richard Leuison, and with diuers other gentlemen, his L.
followers of good account: his colours being aduanced by that valiant
resolute gentleman, (a man beautified with many excellent rare gifts, of
good learning and vnderstanding) S. Edward Hobby Knight. And thus he
likewise marching with al possible speede on foote, notwithstanding his L.
many yeres, the Intolerable heate, for the time, and the ouertiring tedious
deepe sands, with other many impediments: Yet in good time, ioyned himselfe
with the Earle and his companies, and gaue them the strongest, and best
assistance that he could.

Thus then the two Lords Generall with their companies being ioyned
together, and proceeding so farre as the market place, there they were
hotly encountered, where and at what time, that worthy famous knight Sir
Iohn Winkfield, being sore wounded before on the thigh, at the very entry
of the towne, and yet for all that no whit respecting himselfe being caried
away, with the care he had to encourage and direct his company, was with
the shot of a musket in the head, most vnfortunately slaine.

And thus before eight of the clocke that night were these two most noble
Lords General, Masters of the market place, the forts, and the whole Towne
and all, onely the Castle as yet holding out, and from time to time as they
could, still annoying them, with seuen battering pieces. By this time night
began to grow on, and a kind of peace or intermission was obtained by them
of the Castle: to whome the Lords Generall had signified: that vnlesse
before the next day in the morning they would absolutely render themselues,
they should looke for no mercy, but should euery one be put to the sword:
vpon which message they tooke deliberation that night: but in the morning
before breake of day, they hanged out their flag of truce, and so without
any further composition did yeeld themselues absolutely to their mercy, and
deliuered vp the Castle.

And yet notwithstanding all this, in the night time while they had this
respite to pause, and deliberate about the peacemaking, there were diuers
great and suddaine alarms giuen: which did breed some great outrages and
disorder in the towne. At euery which alarme, the two Lordes Generall
shewed themselues maruelous ready and forward, insomuch that at the very
first alarme, skant wel furnished with any more defence then their shirts,
hose, and dublets, and those too altogether in a maner vntied, they were
abroad in the streets themselues, to see the vttermost of it. But for that
it is not as yet very well knowen (or at the least not well knowen vnto me)
either wherfore, or by whom these alarmes were attempted: I am therefore to
intreat, that a bare report, that such a thing was done, may suffice.

These things being done, and this surrender being made, present
proclamation was published, that the fury now being past, all men should
surcease from all maner of blood and cruell dealing, and that there should
no kind of violence or hard vsage be offered to any, either man, woman or
child, vpon paine of death: And so permitting the spoyle of so much of the
towne as was by them thought meete, to the common souldiers for some
certaine dayes, they were continually in counsell about other graue
directions, best knowen to their honourable wisedomes.

This honourable and mercifull Edict I am sure was streightly and
religiously obserued of the English: But how well it was kept by the Dutch,
I will nether affirme, nor yet denie. For I perceiue betweene them and the
Spaniards, there is in implicable hartburning, and therefore as soone as
the Dutch squadron was espied in the fight, immediatly thereupon both they
of Siuil and S. Lucar and also some, of some other places, did not onely
arrest all such Dutch ships, as delt with them friendly by the way of
traffick and Marchandise, and so confiscated their goods, but also
imprisoned the Marchants and Owners of the same, and, as the report goeth,
did intreat many of them with extreame cruelty thereupon.

In the meane while the very next day being the two and twenty day of Iune,
all the Spanish shippes which were left on ground in the Bay of Cadiz,
where the great ouerthrowe had beene but the day before, were by the
Spaniards themselues there set on fire, and so from that time forward they
neuer left burning of them, till euery one of them, goods and all, as farre
as wee know were burnt and consumed. This their doing was much maruelled at
of vs, and so much the more, for that, as I sayd before, there had bene
made some offer for the redemption and sauing of the goods, and it was not
to them vnknowen that this their offer was not misliked, but in all
probabilitie should haue bene accepted. The common opinion was, that this
was done either by the appointment of the Duke de Medina Sidonia, or els by
expresse commandement from the higher powers.

Not long after the same time (three dayes as I remember) the gallies that
were runne on ground, did quitte themselues also out of that place, and by
the bridge of the Iland called Puente de Suaco, made their way round about
the same Iland, and so by putting themselues to the maine sea, escaped to a
towne called Rotta, not farre off, but something vp towards the Towne of
Saint Lucars, and there purchased their safety by that meanes.

Thus was this notable victorie, as well by sea as by land, both begunne and
in effect perfourmed, within the compasse, in a maner, of foureteene
houres: A thing in trueth so strange and admirable, as in my iudgement will
rather bee wondered at then beleeued of posteritie. And if euer any notable
exploit in any age was comparable to Caesars Veni, Vidi, Vici, certainely in
my poore opinion it was this.

Here it is to be wished (and perchance of some too it is looked for) that
euery mans particular worthy acte in this dayes seruice, with the parties
names also, should be put downe, that thereby both they and their good
deserts might be registered to all posteritie: and for my part I would it
were so, and wish I were able to doe it. But for that I confesse it is a
matter that passeth my power, yea, and for that I thinke it also a thing
impossible to be precisely perfourmed by any other, I am to craue pardon
for that I rather leaue it out altogether, then presume to doe it maymedly:
and in this point I referre the Reader onely to the Mappe that is set
foorth of this iourney, where it is in some parte conueniently touched and

The Towne of it selfe was a very beautifull towne, and a large, as being
the chiefe See of the Bishop there, and hauing a goodly Cathedrall Church
in it, with a right goodly Abbey, a Nunnery, and an exceeding fine College
of the Jesuites, and was by naturall situation, as also by very good
fortification, very strong, and tenable enough in all mens opinions of the
better judgement. Their building was all of a kind of hard stone, euen from
the very foundation to the top, and euery house was in a manner a kinde of
a fort or Castle, altogether flat-roofed in the toppe, after the Turkish
manner, so that many men together, and that at ease, might walke thereon:
hauing vpon the house top, great heapes of weighty stoanes piled vp in such
good order, as they were ready to be throwen downe by euery woman most
easily vpon such as passed by, and the streetes for the most part so
exceeding narrow, (I thinke to auoide the intollerable great heat of the
Sunne) as but two men or three at the most together, can in any reasonable
sorte march thorough them, no streete being broader commonly then I suppose
Watling streete in London to be.

The towne is altogether without glasse, excepting the Churches, yet with
faire comely windowes, and with faire grates of iron to them, and haue very
large folding leaues of wainscot or the like. It hath very fewe Chimnies in
it, or almost none at all: it may be some one chimney in some one or other
of the lower out roomes of lest account, seruing for some necessary vses,
either to wash in, or the like, or els nowe and then perchance for the
dressing of a dish of meate, hauing, as it should seeme vnto me, alwayes a
greater care and respect how to keepe themselues from all kind of great
heat, then how to prouide for any store of great roste. It had in it by
report of them that should best know it, some foure thousand and moe, of
very good able fighting men, and sixe hundred horsemen at the least. No
question but that they were well furnished of all things appertaining
thereunto, especially so many good ships lying there, and being so well
stored with all manner of munition, shot, and powder, as they were.

Whether they had knowledge of our comming or no, I can say nothing to it:
Themselues giue it out that they vnderstood not of it, but onely by a
Carauel the Friday at euening before we came. But whether they knew it or
no, thus much I dare boldly affirme, that if the English had bene possessed
of that or the like Towne, and had bene but halfe so well prouided as they
were, they would haue defended it for one two moneths at the least, against
any power whatsoeuer in at Christendome. But surely GOD is a mighty GOD,
and hath a wonderfull secret stroke in all matters, especially of weight
and moment. Whether their hearts were killed at the mighty ouerthrow by
sea, or whether they were amased at the inuincible courage of the English,
which was more then ordinary, caring no more for either small shot or
great, then in a maner for so many hailestones, or whether the remorse of a
guilty conscience toward the English nation, for their dishonourable and
diuelish practices, against her Sacred Maiestie, and the Realme, (a matter
that easily begetteth a faint heart in a guilty minde) or what other thing
there was in it I know not, but be it spoken to their perpetuall shame and
infamie, there was neuer thing more resolutely perfourmed, of the
couragious English, nor more shamefully lost of the bragging Spaniard.

Of what wealth this towne should be, I am not able to resolue the asker:
for I confesse that for mine owne part, I had not so much good lucke, as to
be partaker so much as of one pennie, or penny worth. Howbeit my ill
fortune maketh that towne neuer a whit the poorer. But as it should appear
by the great pillage by the common souldiers, and some mariners too, and by
the goodly furnitures; that were defaced by the baser people, and thereby
vtterly lost and spoyled, as not woorth the carying away, and by the ouer
great plenty of Wine, Oyle, Almonds, Oliues, Raisins, Spices, and other
rich grocery wares, that by the intemperate disorder of some of the rasher
sort were knockt out, and lay trampled vnder feete, in euery common high
way, it should appeare that it was of some very mighty great wealth to the
first owners, though perchance, not of any such great commoditie to the
last subduers, for that I iudge that the better part was most ryotously and
intemperately spent and consumed. A disorder in mine opinion very much to
be lamented, and if it might be by any good meanes remedied, in my conceit,
it were a most honourable deuice.

The Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday following, the Lords Generall spent in
counsell, about the disposing of all matters, aswell touching the towne and
prisoners, as also concerning all other matters, thought meete of them in
their honourable wisedomes, and in all that meane while did shew such
honourable bounty and mercy, as is not able to be expressed. For not onely
the liues of euery one were spared, but also there was an especial care
had, that al the Religious, as wel men as women, should be well and
fauourably intreated, whom freely without any maner of ransome or other
molestation, they caused to be safely transported ouer to Port Saint Marie,
a towne in a maner as fayre as Cadiz: but at that time, as the case did
stand, certainly knowen to be of no wealth in the world, and it was some
sixe or seuen miles distant ouer against Cadiz, in a maner as Paules is
against Southwarke, on the other side of the Bay, in a part of Andaluzia,
subiect to the territory of the Duke de Medina Sidonio.

Moreouer, at the same instant they did appoint that worthy knight Sir Amias
Preston, and some others in some conuenient Barkes, to transport ouer to
the sayd Towne safely and in good order, a hundred or moe of the better
sort of ancient gentlewomen, and marchants wiues, who were suffered to put
vpon themselues, some of them two, yea, some three sutes of apparell, with
some conuenient quantitie of many Iewels, Chaines, and other ornaments
belonging to their estate and degree. Such was the heroicall liberality,
and exceeding great clemencie of those most honourable Lords Generall,
thereby, as it should seeme vnto mee, beating downe that false surmised
opinion, which hath bene hitherto commonly spread abroad, and setled among
the Spaniards: which is, That the English doe trouble them and their
countries, more for their golde, riches and pearle &c. then for any other
iust occasion. Whereas by these their honourable dealings it is manifest to
all the world, that it is onely in respect of a iust reuenge for the
manifolde iniuries, and most dishonourable practises that haue bene from
time to time attempted by them against vs and our nation, and also in the
defence of the true honour of England: which they haue sought, and daylie
doe seeke, by so many sinister and reprochfull deuices, so much as in them
lieth, to deface.

Vpon Saturday being the 26. Sir Iohn Winkfield knight was buried, in
honourable and warlike manner, so farre foorth us the circumstances of that
time and place could permit. At whose funerals the Nauie discharged a great
part of their Ordinance, in such order, as was thought meete and conuenient
by the Lords Generals commandement.

The twenty seuenth day being Sunday, in the Abbey the diuine seruice was
had, and a learned Sermon was made there by one Master Hopkins, the right
honourable Earle of Essex his Preacher, a man of good learning and sweete
vtterance, and euen there the same day, something before the sermon was
made, these worthie Gentlemen following were knighted by the Lords General.
And here I am to signifie by the way that two of these were knighted three
or foure dayes before, and some three or foure moe were knighted after that
time, vpon certaine occasions: but yet I holde it beste (and I trust
without offence) to recite their names in this place altogether.

The names of such noble men and gentlemen, as were knighted at Cadiz in
Iune 1596 by the two most honourable Lordes Generall.

June 21. Sir Samuel Bagnol. Sir Alexander Clifford.
22. Sir Arthur Sauage. Sir Maurice Barkley.
27. The Earle of Sussex. Sir Charles Blunt
The Lord Harbert. Sir George Gifford.
The Lord Burk. Sir Robert Crosse.
Count Ludowick. Sir Iames Escudamor.
Sir William Howard. Sir Vrias Leigh.
Sir George D'Eureux. Sir Iohn Leigh, alias Lee.
Sir Henry Neuel. Sir Richard Weston.
Sir Edmund Rich. Sir Richard Wainman.
Sir Richard Leuen. Sir Iames Wootton.
Sir Peter Egomort. Sir Richard Ruddal.
Sir Anthonie Ashley. Sir Robert Mansfield.
Sir Henry Leonard. Sir William Mounson.
Sir Richard Leuison. Sir Iohn Bowles.
Sir Horatio Vere. Sir Edward Bowes.
Sir Arthur Throchmorton. Sir Humfrey Druel.
Sir Miles Corbet Sir Amias Preston.
Sir Edward Conway. Sir Robert Remington.
Sir Oliuer Lambert Sir Iohn Buck.
Sir Anthony Cooke. Sir Iohn Morgan.
Sir Iohn Townesend. Sir Iohn Aldridg.
Sir Christopher Heydon. Sir Iohn Asshindon.
Sir Francis Popham. Sir Matthew Browne.
Sir Philip Woodhouse. Sir Iohn Acton.
Sir Thomas Gates. Sir Iohn Gylbert.
Sir Gilly Mericke. Sir William Haruie.
Sir Thomas Smith. Sir Iohn Gray.
Sir William Pooley. Don Christ. prince of Portingall.
Sir Thomas Palmer. Sir Iohn Vanderfoord,
Sir Iohn Stafford. Admirall of the Hollanders.
Sir Robert Louel. Sir Robert Duley. 8. August.

[_In the preceding List, the last name should undoubtedly be Sir Robert

I am not curious in placing these gentlemen, but put them downe at a
venture. Only I haue obserued, as neere as I could, the iust day and time
when they were created. And I trust where the place of it selfe is so
worthy and equall, there the bare naming and placing of the parties, shal
brede no offence, or make a disparity. The two gentlemen that were last
knighted receiued their knighthood in the way of our returne from Cadiz:
the one of them vpon the sea, not farre from the Bay of the Groyne, at what
time our ships stood vpon their staies for a space while certaine Pinnasses
were sent to descrie what shipping was at the Groine: The other at
Plimmouth in the open streete, when the Lords Generall came from the
Sermon. The one a man of long seruice, and good desert among the Dutch: the
other of so many good parts of a worthy gentleman, as the like are seldome
seene to concurre in any.

I spake in the beginning of her Majesties praier, which I presumed (though
vnworthy) to translate into Latine: and nowe at this very time there was
some opportunity offered, for to make some vse of that translation. For
nowe being in Cadiz, attending vpon my most honourable good Lord, I talked
with certaine of the Religious men, such as I found learned, whereof indeed
there were some, though not very many. I talked also with the Bishop of
Cusco there, a graue aged comely man, and being of late chosen to that
Bishopricke, he was as then to have gone to the Indies had not we then
taken him prisoner, and so stayed his iourney for that time. With these men
euer as occasion did serue, I did seeke nowe and then to spende some
speech, and to entertaine time withall, I would breake with them of this
our victorie, and of the iniuries and bad dealings of their Prince and
Countrey offered to her Maiestie, whereby shee was prouoked, and in a
manner drawn to this action: though otherwise of her own most excellent
princely good nature, she was altogether giuen to peace, and quietnes. And
alwayes in some part of our conferences, I would shew them a copie of her
Maiesties praier in Latine, which I had alwayes of purpose ready about me;
whereby it might the better appeare vnto them, how vnwillingly, and vpon
how great and vrgent occasions her Maiesty was, as it were enforced to
vndertake this action: and therewithall I did vse now and then to bestow
vpon them a copy of the same in writing. They seemed in all outward shew to
allow of my speeches, and to praise her Maiesties good inclination; and
earnestly to wish that there might be a firme concord and peace againe.

It pleased the Lords general to deale exceeding fauourably with this said
Bishop of Cusco: for it was their good pleasure to giue him his free
passage without any ransome, and therewithal to let him to vnderstand, that
they came not to deale with Church-men, or vnarmed men, or with men of
peace, weaklings and children, neither was it any part of their meaning to
make such a voyage for gold, siluer, or any other their wealth and riches,
&c. But that, their only comming was to meet with their dishonorable
practises, and manifold iniuries, and to deale with men of warre and
valour, for the defence of the true honour of England: and to let them to
vnderstand, that whensoeuer they attempted any base-conceited and
dishonorable practise to their soueraigne Queene, their Mistresse, that it
should be reuenged to the vttermost, &c.

In this meane space, while the Lords general continued at Cadiz, there came
to them certain poore wretched Turks, to the number of 38, that had bin a
long time gally-slaues, and either at the very time of the fight by sea, or
els immediately thereupon, taking the opportunity, did then make their
escape, and did swim to land: yeelding themselues to the mercy of their
most honorable Lordships. It pleased them with all speed to apparel them,
and to furnish them with money, and all other necessaries, and to bestow on
them a barke, and a Pilot, to see them freely and safely conueied into
Barbary, willing them to let the countrey vnderstand what was done, and
what they had seene. Whereby I doubt not, but as her Maiesty is a most
admirable Prince already, ouer all Europe, all Africk, and Asia, and
throughout Christendome: so the whole worlde hereafter shall haue iust
cause to admire her infinitely Princely vertues, and thereby bee prouoked
to confesse, that as she hath bin mightily protected from time to time, by
the powerful hand of the almighty, so vndoubtedly, that she is to be iudged
and accounted of vs, to be his most sacred handmaide, and chosen vessel.
And therefore, whatsoever wicked designement shalbe conspired and plotted
against her Maiesty hereafter, shalbe thought to be conspired, plotted, and
intended against the almighty himselfe: and for that cause, as I trust,
shalbe by the infinite goodnes and mercy of that almighty, mightily
frustrate and ouerthrowen.

The 28. day being Munday, the L. Admirall came aboord the Arke againe,
minding there to remaine for a space, as indeed he did, and vpon the aduise
of his Physition, to deale something in Physicke, for that his L. found his
body something out of frame. At that time it pleased his L. to write
certain letters to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, for the deliuerance of
English captiues, who were remaining in the gallies. For by this time, it
was reported, that the said Duke was come downe in person with some power,
and that he was either at Port S. Mary, or els at Rotta, or thereabout. His
L. did endite the letters himselfe, but his pleasure was, they should be
turned into Latine by another: and so to be sent (as indeed they were) in
the latine tongue vnto the Duke.

A copie of the Lord Admirals letters to the Duke of Medina Sidonia.

Illustrissimo Principi Duci de Medina Sidonia.

Illustrissime Princeps, ex nonnullis quibusdam Hispanis intelligimus,
Excellentiam vestram iam nunc esse apud portam S. Mariae. Et quoniam in anno
Domini 1588. id nobis tunc muneris assignatum erat a sereniss. nostra
Regina domina mea, vt contra vos, vestrasque copias, Ego solus pro eo
tempore Generalis essem constitutus: Idcirco non opinamur vobis ignotum
esse, quam mite quoddam, et humanum bellandi genus, tum hic iam in hoc ipso
tempore, aduersus huius loci populum atque incolas vsurpauerimus: tum etiam
saepius antehac quam humaniter, benigneque eos omnes tractauerimus, quos ex
vestris iure belli captiuos acceperimus. Ex quorum numero quam multa milia
etiam gratis, nullo accepto pretio, libertate donauerimus, id putamus
omnibus esse testatius, quam vt a quoquam denegetur. Quocirca, neque vllo
modo nobis in mentem venire potest, vt dubitemus, quin parem etiam in vobis
humanitatem aduersus nostros captiuos simus reperturi. Cum igitur nobis
compertum iam sit, habere vos in vestris galeris, ex Reginae nostrae
serenissimae Dominae meae subditis vnum et quinquaginta captiuos: non equidem
dubitamus, quin eos omnes sitis relaxaturi, et ad nos missuri: ea lege, ac
conditione, vt totidem ex vestris hic captiuis eiusdem loci atque ordinis,
melioris etiam fortassis notae, ac conditionis, homuncios, ad os vicissim
remittamus. Id quod nos facturos data fide spondemus, quam primum nostros
captiuos ex vestris manibus acceperimus. Hac in re si nostro desiderio ac
voluntati parum satisfactum erit, aliud profecto tunc posthac belli genus
ingrediemur, aliumque bellandi morem cogemur, etiam inuiti, et contra
voluntatem prosequi. Ex Regia Anglicana classe apud Cadiz vltimo Iunij,
stilo antiquo. 1596.

Carolus Howard.

These letters were sent by a Spaniard, and an answere was brought from the
Duke with al conuenient speed, and as it should seeme by the L. Admirals
next answere returned to him in writing, which immediately hereafter
foloweth, the Duke de Medina Sidonia his letters were honorable, and with
good regard.

A Copie of my L. Admirals second letter to the Duke of Medina Sidonia.

Illustrissimo Principi Duci de Medina Sidonia.

Illustrissime Princeps, literas ab excellentia vestra hodie accepimus: quae
vero nostra sit ad illas responsio, nobiles isti viri, qui vestras literas
ad nos pertulerunt: plenius declarabunt. Hoc interim cupimus esse penitus
persuasum Excellentiae vestrae; nos sedulo operam daturos, vt in omni
honorificae benignitatis humanitatisque genere, expectationi vestrae omni ex
parte respondeamus. Quod ad Anglicos nostros captiuos attinet, quos ab
Excellentia vestra huc ad nos crastino die missum iri expectamus, in ea re
pollicemur Excellentiae vestrae, quod plenius a nobis vestrae voluntati
satisfactum erit: et quod pro illis captiuis tales nos captiuos vobis
remittemus, quales tum ab ipso Dom. Mendoza, tum ab alijs illustrib. viris,
qui a Dom. Porta Carero in illorum ad nos fauorem mittebantur, communi cum
consensu erant ab ipsis approbati. Si vero quis alius iam captiuus est vel
posthac futurus erit in nostra potestate, pro cuius redemptione nondum
plene conuentum est et stipulatum de certo pretio persoluendo: concedimus
Excellentiae vestrae, vt in hoc etiam casu vos, vestro pro arbitrio, de illis
quicquid velitis, imperetis. Ex Regia classe Anglicana, apud Cadiz, 3. die
Iulij stylo antique. 1596.

Carolus Howard.

The next day after, being the 4. of Iuly, the L. L. generall caused the
towne of Cadiz to be set on fire, and rased and defaced so much as they
could, the faire cathedral Church, and the religious houses only being
spared, and left vnblemished. And with the town al such prouision for
shipping, and other things, as were seruiceable for the K. vse, and yet
were not either so conuenient for vs to be caried away, or els such as we
stood no whit at all in need of, were likewise at the same instant consumed
with fire. And presently therupon, their Lordships, with as conuenient,
speed as they could, and the whole army in such good order and leisure, as
they thought best, came aboord.

The next day being the 5. of Iuly, the L. L. generall with all the armie
being vnder saile and now making for England, and but as yet passing the
very mouth of the Bay of Cadiz, a galley full of English prisoners, with a
flag of truce, met vs from Rotta, sent by the D. of Medina Sidonia, and
sent as it should seeme, one day later then his promise: but yet their flag
being either not big enough, or not wel placed in the galley, or not wel
discerned of our men, or by what other mischance I know not: but thus it
was: by one of our smallest ships that sailed formost, assoone as the said
galley came within gunshot, there was a great peece discharged vpon her,
and at that instant there was one man slaine outright, and 2. other
grieuously hurt. The error being espied and perceiued, our ship gaue ouer
immediatly from any farther shooting. Assoone as the galley came neere vs,
my L. Admirall caused a gracious salutation to be sounded with his
trumpets, and willed the captains forthwith to come aboord his ship: which
they did, and then he feasted them with a very fine and honorable banket,
as the time and place might serve. And then by them vnderstanding of that
unfortunate mischance that had hapned by the shot of the said ship, he was
very sory for the same, and yet such was the merciful prouidence of
almighty God, that euen in this mischance also, he did hold his holy hand
ouer the English. And al the harme that was done did light onely vpon the
poore Turk, and the Spaniard himselfe. When this Lorde had well banqueted
them, hee presently called for his barge, and did accompany the said galley
to the Lorde general the Earle of Essex, who then did ride with his ship a
good distance off: and there they being in like maner most honorably
receiued, and intertained, the Spanish gentlemen deliuered vp their
prisoners the English captiues, of whom some had bin there 6 yere, some 8,
or ten: yea, and some 22. yeere, and vpward, and some of them but lately
taken in S. Francis Drakes last voiage to the Indies. The number of the
prisoners deliuered were but 39, and no mo, and were brought in, and
deliuered by Don Antonio de Corolla and his brother, and, by Don Pedro de
Cordua, and certaine others. If you demaund why, of one and fiftie
Captiues, there were no moe deliuered then was, I presuppose, (and I thinke
it true to) that at that time the residue were farther off in some remote
places of Spaine bestowed, and so by that meanes, not able at this time to
bee in a readinesse, but yet like enough that there is some good order
taken for them hereafter, to be redeemed, and sent ouer into England.

If any man presume here so farre, as to enquire how it chanced, that the
Lords generall rested so long at Cadiz, and went no farther, and why Port
S. Mary being so faire a towne, and so neere to them, was forborne? and why
Sheres alias Xeres? And why Rotta and the like? And why this or that was
done? And why that or this left vndone? I will not answere him with our
common English prouerbe, as I might, which is: That one foole may aske moe
questions in one houre, then ten discrete men can wel answere in fiue

But that graue auncient writer, Cornelius Tacitus, hath a wise, briefe,
pithy saying, and it is this: "Nemo tentauit inquirere in columnas
Herculis, sanctiusque ac reuerentius habitum est de factis Deorum credere,
quam scire." Which saying, in my fancy, fitteth marueilous well for this
purpose: and so much the rather, for that this Cadiz is that very place,
(at least by the common opinion) where those said pillers of Hercules were
thought to be placed: and, as some say, remaine as yet not farre off to be
seene. But to let that passe, the saying beareth this discrete meaning in
it, albeit in a prety kind of mystical maner vttered: That it befitteth not
inferiour persons to be curious, or too inquisitiue after Princes actions,
neither yet to be so sawcy and so malapert, as to seeke to diue into their
secrets, but rather alwayes to haue a right reuerend conceite and opinion
of them, and their doings: and thereon so resting our inward thoughts, to
seek to go no further, but so to remaine ready alwaies to arme our selues
with dutiful minds, and willing obedience, to perform and put in execution
that which in their deepe insight and heroicall designements, they shall
for our good, and the care of the common wealth determine vpon.

This, and much lesse to, might suffice to satisfie any honest minded man.
But yet if any will needs desire to be a little farther satisfied, albeit
it neede not, yet then, this much I dare say and affirme, that vpon my
knowledge, the chiefest cause why Port Saint Mary, and the rest were left
vntouched, was this: For that it was most certainly knowen, that they were
townes not woorth the saluting of such a royal companie, in which there was
no maner of wealth in the world left, more then bare houses of stone, and
standing walles, and might well haue serued rather as a stale, perchance,
to haue entrapped, then as a meanes to haue enriched. And it had bin more
then a suspicion of follie, for such an army as this, to haue sought to
fight with the aire, and to haue laboured with great paine and charges,
yea, and with some euident danger too, to haue ouerthrowen that, which
could very litle or nothing haue profited, being destroyed: and yet nowe,
can doe as little harme being left, as it is, vntouched.

And thus much for our iourney to Cadiz: for the accidents that happened by
the way, for the winning, spoiling, and burning of the saide towne, for the
ouerthrowe of the Spanish Fleet there, and for al other by-matters that
happened, as appendances to the same, both in the time of our abode there,
as also at the very last houre of our comming from thence.

As for our returne home, and our entrance into a part of Portingal by the
way, with the taking, spoyling, and burning of the towne of Faraon there,
and marching into the Spanish confines therabouts, &c. I minde to leaue it
to some other, whose chance was to be present at the action, as myselfe was
not, and shalbe of more sufficient ability to performe it.

* * * * *

The Most Honourable Tragedie of Sir Richard Grinuile, Knight. 1595.
[Footnote: At London, printed by I. Roberts, for Richard Smith, 1595.
(Written by Gervase Markham--KTH).]

That time of yeare when the inamored Sunne
Clad in the richest roabes of liuing fiers,
Courted the Virgin signe, great Nature Nunne,
Which barrains earth of al what earth desires
Euen in the month that from _Augustus_ wonne,
His sacred name which vnto heauen aspires,
And on the last of his ten trebled days,
When wearie labour new refresh assayes.

Then when the earth out-brau'd the beautious Morne,
Boasting his cornie Mantle stird with aire,
Which like a golden Ocean did adorne,
His cold drie carcasse, featurelesse, vnfaire,
Holding the naked shearers scithe in scorne,
Or ought that might his borrowed pride empaire,
The soule of vertue seeing earth so ritch,
With his deare presence gilds the sea as mitch.

The sea, which then was heauie, sad, and still,
Dull, vnapplyed to sportiue wantonnesse,
As if her first-borne _Venus_ had beene ill,
Or _Neptune_ seene the _Sonne_ his loue possesse,
Or greater cares, that greatest comforts kill,
Had crowned with griefe, the worlds wet wildernesse,
Such was the still-foot _Thetis_ silent paine,
Whose flowing teares, ebbing fell backe againe.

_Thetis_, the mother of the pleasant springs,
Grandam of all the Riuers in the world,
To whom earths veins their moistning tribut brings,
Now with a mad disturbed passion hurld,
About her caue (the worlds great treasure) flings:
And with wreath'd armes, and long wet hairs uncurld,
Within her selfe laments a losse vnlost,
And mones her wrongs, before her ioyes be crost

Thus whilst churning sorrowe ceaz'd her hart,
_Grinuile_ (o melt my spyrit in that name,)
As sings the Swan her funerall depart,
And waues her wings the ensignes of her fame,
So he, with vertue sweetning bitter smart,
Which from the seas long toyling seruice came:
For why, sixe Moones, and so oft times the Sunne
Was past, and had one halfe the signes ore-runne,

Ere he the earth, our common Mother saw;
Now earlie greets black _Flores_ banefull Ile,
(_Flores_, from whence afflictions selfe doth draw
The true memorialls of a weeping stile;)
And with _Caisters_ Querristers[1] which straw
Descant, that might Death of his darts beguile,
He tunes saluting notes, sweeter then long,
All which are made his last liues funerall song.

Skillesse in deaths great Parliament he cals
His fellow mat's, and minions to his fame,
Shewes them long lookt for land, and how it brauls,
Repulsing backe the billowes as they came,
Much he triumphes, and passed griefe for-stals
With present ioy (sorrow lights pleasures flame:)
And whilst his hopes of _Happy-Fortune_ sings,
_Misfortune_ by, controls them with her wings.

Desir'd reliefe, and euer welcome rest,
The elements that forme the wearie man,
Began to hold a counsaile in his brest,
Painting his wants by sicknes pale and wan;
With other griefes, that others force opprest,
Aduising stay, (as what is but they can,)
Whilst he that fate to come, and past, nere feard,
Concludes to stay till strength decayd repaird.

Then casts he Anchor hulling on the maine,
And all his shyps poore Citizens recounts,
And hundred iust were free from sicknes paine,
Fourscore and ten death their redress accounts;
So that of all both sicke and sound vnslaine,
Vnto two hundred wanting ten amounts.
A slender armie for so great a guide,
But vertue is vnknowne till it be tride.

Those whom their harts enabled to attempt,
He puts a shoare to make supplie for neede;
Those whom long sicknes taught of death contempt,
He visits, and from _Ioues_ great Booke doth reede
The balme which mortall poysen doth exempt;
Those whom new breathing health like sucklings feed,
Hie to the sands, and sporting on the same,
Finde libertie, the liues best liuing flame.

Looke how a troope of Winter-prisoned Dames,
Pent in th' inclosure of the walled townes,
Welcoms the Spring, Vsher to Somer flames,
Making their Pastimes in the flowrie downes,
Whose beauteous Arras[2] wrought in natures frames,
Through eyes admire, the hart with wonder crownes,
So the wood-walled citizens at sea,
Welcome both Spring and Sommer in a day.

The warring byllowes, seas artillerie,
With long held siege, had bruz'd their beaten keele,
Which to repaire the most, most busied be,
Lab'ring to cure, what want in labours feele;
All pleas'd with toyle, clothing extremitie
In Hopes best robes, that hang on Fortunes wheele
But men are men, in ignorance of Fate,
To alter chaunce, exceedeth humaine state.

For when the Sun, towred in heauens head,
Downe from the siluer mountaine of the skye,
Bent his bright Chariot on the glassie bed,
Faire christall, guilded with his glorious eye,
Fearing some usurpation in his stead,
Or least his Loue should too-long daliance spy
Tweene him and _Virgo_, whose attractiue face,
Had newly made him leaue the _Lyons_ chase.

In that same myd-daies hower came sayling in,
A thought-swift-flying Pynnase, taught by winde,
T' outstrip in flight Times euer flying wing;
And being come where vertue was inshrinde,
First vaild his plumes, and wheeling in a ring,
With Goat-like dauncing, stays where _Grinuile_ shynd,
The whyle his great Commaunder calls the name,
Which is ador'd of all that speakes the same.

The great Commaunder of this little Barke,
Which like an Eglet armes the Eagles side,
Was _Midleton_, the ayme of Honors marke,
That more had prou'd then danger durst haue tride,
Now seeing all good fortunes sun-shine darke,
Thrise calls Sir _Richard_, who as oft replyde,
Bidding him speake, and ring his newes aloude,
Ill, not apald, nor good could make him proude.

O then (quoth Midleton) thou soule of all
What euer boasts in magnanimitie,
Thou, whom pure Vertue her best part doth call,
Better then valure, stronger then dietie,
Whom men adore, and all the gods exhall
Into the bookes of endlesse memorie,
I bring thee tidings of a deadly fray,
Begun in Heauen, to end vpon the Sea.

The glorious Senate of the Skyes was set,
And all the gods were royaliz'd in state,
When _Happy-fortune_ and _Ill-fortune_ met,
Striuing who first should enter Heauen's gate,
The one made mad the others fame to let,
Neither but stirr'd with rage to wonder at,
Confusedly, as water floods doe passe
Their common bounds, such their rude entrance was.

The gods disturb'd, admire their strange aproch,
Censuring their angers by their gloing eyes,
_Ill-fortune_ was attended by _Reproch_,
_Good-fortune, Fame_, and _Vertue_ stellesies;[3]
One sweares the other doth her right incroch,
Which is the elder house, none can deuise:
The gods diuide, yet in the end agree
The Fates shall iudge each others pedigree.

_Good-Fortune_, drawes from heauen her hye descent,
Making hie _Ioue_ the roote of her large tree;
She showes from him how many god-heads went,
_Archangells, Angells_, heauen's posteritie:
From thence, she shows the glorious thrid she lent,
To _Monarks, Emperours_, and _Kyngs_ in fee,
Annexing as Colatteralls to her line,
_Honour, Vertue, Valure_, and _Endles-time_.

Naithlesse, _Ill-fortune_ will be elder borne,
She saith, she springs from _Saturne, Ioues_ wronged Sier,
And heauen, and earth, and hell her coate haue borne,
Fresh bleeding harts, within a field of fier;
All that the world admires, she makes her scorne,
Who farthest seemes, is to _Ill-fortune_ nier,
And that iust proofe may her great praise commend,
All that _Best-chaunce_ begins, _Ill-chaunce_ doth ende.

Thus they, dispute, guilding their tongues report
With instances, and argumental sawes,
_Ill-fortune_, bids let all the worlde resort,
And show within their Chronicles and lawes,
The man whose liue-line neuer did consort,
With sharpe affliction, deaths first grounded cause,
Then will she yeeld, else, is shee victor still.
Worlds good is rare, perpetuall is their ill.

Euen as the racket takes the balls rebound;
So doth _Good-fortune_ catch _Ill-fortunes_ proofe,
Saying, she wil her in herselfe confound,
Making her darts, Agents for her behoofe;
Bow but thine eies (quoth she) whence ha'ts abound,
And I will show thee vnder heauens roofe
Th' vnconquered man whom no mischance importunes.
Crown of my kingdom, deaths man to misfortune.

At this, the casments of the skye broke ope,
Discouering all what's girdled in her frame,
Whilst _Happy-fortune_ through her eyes large scope
Like a Cosmographer comments on the same;
Three parts with praise she past and future hope,
Then to the fourth, the Westerne world she came,
And there, with her eyes festrawe paints a storie,
Stranger than strange, more glorified than glorie.

See (sayd _Faire-fortune_, to her soule shapt _Foe_)
How on the scourge that beates against the Ile
Of _Flores_, whence they curst oblations growe,
A winde-taught capring ship which ayre beguiles,
(Making poore _Cephalus_ for-lorne with woe,
Curse arte, which made arte framed saile such smiles)
Richlie imbrodred with the Iems of warre,
In thy dispight commaunds a lucky starrye.

In that faire vessel liues my garlands flower.
_Grinuile_, my harts immortall arterie;
Of him thy deitie had neuer power,
Nor hath hee had of griefe one simpathie;
Successe attends him, all good hap doth shower
A golden raine of perpetuitie
Into his bossome, whete mine Empire stands,
Murdring the Agents of thy blacke commands.

Say, and say true, (for what but thou wilt say,)
That euer _Grinuils_ fortunes came before thee,
Of euer prostrate at thine Altars lay,
Or with one wreath of Cipresse did adore thee?
Proue one blacke storme in all his Sommers day,
Whose threatening clouds compeld him to implore thee.
Then wil I staine my milkwhite vaile with weeping,
And as thine handmaide dye in sorrowes keeping.

As wounds the lightning, yet preserues the skinne,
So did these words split _Lucklesse-fortunes_ hart,
Her smiling _Superficies_, lockt within
A deepe exulcerated festring smart;
Heere shee perceiu'd her first disgrace begin,
And wordlesse from the heauens takes her depart.
Yet as she flewe her wings in flying cri'd
On _Grinuile_ shall my fame and power be tride.

At her departure all the heauens were glad.
Triumphing in _Ill-fortunes_ banishment,
_Apollo_ set new _Anthems_ as _Ioue_ bad,
Which spheare tunes made more then most excellent;
No light in heauen but with new fier was clad,
Making next _Ioue, Good-fortune_ president,
Enrowling in the Bookes of destenie,
This memorable famous victorie.

Only the _Fat's_ su'd for her backe repeale,
(For they _Ill-fortune_ lou'd exceeding well)
Many her deedes and Tropheis they reueale,
And all her liues blacke legend, weeping tell;
Yet all they speake, cannot in heauen preuaile,
Which seene, in spight they follow her to hell,
And there inhoused with their mother _Night_,
All foure deuise, how heauen and earth to spight.

Hence sprang the loues of _Ioue_, the _Sonnes_ exile,
The shame of _Mars_ and _Venus_ in a net;
_Iunos_ forsaken bed; Saturns compile
Of frantike discontentment, which beset
All heauen with armes; _Diana_ hence had while
To court her sleeping boy; whilst _Thetis_ let
_Phoebus_ imbrace her in her _Neptunes_ stead,
Who made complaints, breach of his bridall bed:

Yet not content with these disparagments,
Much greater mischiefes issues from their minds,
_Grinuile_, thy mountaine honour it augments
Within their breasts, a Meteor like the winds,
Which thrall'd in earth, a reeling issue rents
With violent motion; and their wills combinds
To belch their hat's, vow'd murdrers of thy fame,
Which to effect, thus they begin the same.

Fast to _Iberia_ flies vntoward chaunce,
_Iberia_, which we vulgar Christen _Spaine_,
Vpon whose Sunne-burnt continent doth daunce
Westerne _Ducallidon_, the greatest maine,
Thither shee packs, _Error_ doth their aduance
Her coale-blacke standerd in the hands of paine;
And as escapt from rauishment or bale,
With false teares, thus shee tunes a falser tale.

Great Empire (said shee) blessed in thy birth,
Beautious created for-head of this round,
That with thy smiles first lent to heauen mirth,
And bout thy temples all perfections woond,
Lodgd in th' immagin'd corners of the earth;
Thou whom our centers Monarchesse art crownd,
Attend my suite, baptisd in mournefull teares,
Who but ere while triumphed on the spheares.

Nor for my selfe more then thine owne decay
Which blindfold pleasure clouds as they arise,
Be gracious, and retort the domefull daye
Which thee and me to shame would sacrifice.
Loe, on the great west-walling boisterous sea,
Which doth imbrace thy gold-enclosing eyes,
Of many sailes one man, of one poor Ile,
That will my fame, and all thy faire defile.

His numberlesse great infinits of fame,
Haue shut against me heauens great christall dore,
The clouds, which once my feets dust had to name,
Hang ore my forhead, threatning euermore
Death to my praise; life to my infant shame,
Whilst I with sighes mediate a new restore.
And in my selfe behold my pleasures past,
Swimming amongst the ioyes I cannot tast.

Th' ambrosian Nectar-filled banqueting,
No more shall I communicate, or see,
Triumphes in heauen, _Ioues_ masks, and reuelling,
Are cleene exempt, both from my ioyes and me.
The reason, for my loue to thee I bring,
Trimming the locks with Iems of dietie,
Making the gods a dread a fatall day,
Worse then the Giants warre or Centaurs fray.

Poore goddesse, rob'd of all eternall power,
Whose broken Statues, and down razed Fan's,
Neuer warm'd altars, euer forgotten hower
Where any memorie of praise is tane,
Witnes my fall from great _Olympus_ tower;
Prostrate, implore blame for receiued bane,
And dyre reuenge gainst heauens impietie,
Which els in shame will make thee follow mee.

Behold these robes, maps of my fortunes world,
Torne, and distaind with eye-scornd beggerie;
These rags deuide the Zones, wherein is hurld
My liues distemprate, hote cold miserie;
These teares are points, the scale these hairs vncurld,
My hands the compasse, woe the emperie:
And these my plaints, true and auriculer,
Are to my Globe the perpendiculer.

Looke how I am, such art thou like to be
If armes preuent not heauens intendiment,
_Grinuile_, which now surfeits with dignitie,
Burd'ning the Sea with my disparagement;
Chiding the wanton winds if greedelie
They kisse his sailes; or els too slowlie vent,
Like _Ioue_, which bad the day be and it was,
So bids he Conquest warre; she brings to passe.

The sole incouragement he giues his power,
Is Prophet-like presaging of thy death,
Courage he cries, euen in the dying hower,
And with his words, recalls departing breath;
O (sayes he to his Mat's) you are my glories tower,
Impregnable, wall'd with vnuanquisht faith,
You are the hands and agents of my trust,
I but the hart reuoluing what we must.

Liue Saints, til we haue ript the wombe of _Spayne_,
And wounded _Error_ in the armes of hell,
Crushing the triple Myter in disdaine,
Which on the seauenfold mounted Witch doth dwel,
Angells rewards for such dissignes remaine,
And on heauens face men shall your stories tell;
At this they shoute; as eager of the pray,
As Ants in winter of a sunne-shine day.

Thus like triumphant _Caesar_ drawne in Rome,
By winged _Valure_, and vnconquered _Chaunce_,
He plowes the Sea (o were it made his tombe)
Whilst _Happy-fortune_ pypes unto his daunce.
Yet may thy power alternat heauens doome,
So pleaseth thee thy forward will t'aduance,
And cheare the sinews of thy mighty arme,
Whose out-strecht force shall quell his proud alarme.

Then giue newe fuell to his honours fier,
Least slight regard wealth-winning _Error_ slay,
And so old _Saturns_ happie world retyer,
Making _Trueths_ dungion brighter than the day;
Was neuer woe could wound thy kingdom nyer,
Or of thy borrowed beautie make display,
Because this vow in heauens booke doth remaine,
That _Errors_ death shall consumate thy raigne.

Now, for my god-heads remnant liues in thee,
Whose lost successe breeds mine eternall end,
Take for thine ayde, afflicting _Miserie_,
_Woe_, mine attendant, and _Dispayre_ my freend,
All three my greatest great _Triumuerie_,
Blood bath'd _Carnifici_, which will protend
A murdring desolation to that will,
Which me in thee, and thee in mee would kill.

Here, with her fixed Comet-blazing eyes,
The damned _Augurs_ of vntimely death,
Shee ends her tale, whilst from her harts caue flyes
A storme of winds, no gentle sighing breath,
All which, like euill spirits in disguise,
Enter _Iberias_ eares, and to her sayth,
That all the substance of this damned storie,
Was zealous true, coyned for her _Spanish_ glorie.

Sworne to beleeue, for ill, in ill assies,
_Spayne_ then enamour'd with the _Romane_ trull,
Calls all her forces, more then Atomies,
And tells _Ill-fortunes_ storie to the full;
Many Parenthises shee doth deuise,
And frost-relenting words doth choycely cull,
Bewitching those whom oft shee had deceiued,
With such like Hemlock as her selfe receiued.

The first and greatest one, commaunding all,
The soule of mischiefes old created mother,
Was _Don Alphonso Bassan_, proud in brall,
The Marques _Sancta Cruces_ onely brother;
Him shee coniures by typ's emperiall,
And all that falshoods seeming trueth could couer,
To vndertake this hie (she termed it) act,
Which craues a curse of all that reads the fact.

Her selfe (shee said) and all the flowers of _Spayne_,
Should vnder his, as heauens Ensigne warre:
Thus from her harts foule dunghill flyes amaine
Grosse vapours, metamorphosd to a starre;
Her words in fumes like prodogies retaine
His hart, by her tongues witchcraft bound so farre,
And what shee will, that will hee vnder-take,
Be it to warre with heauen for her sake.

The seeming Nectar of her poysoning speech,
So well shee saw surprise his licoras sence,
That for to reare her ill beyonds ills reach,
With selfe-like tropes, decks self-like eloquence,
Making in _Britain Dona_ such a breach,
That her arm'd wits, conqu'ring his best wits sence,
He vowes with _Bassan_ to defende the broile,
Which men of praise, and earth of fame shal spoile.

To him shee giues the _Biscaynnoys_ for guard,
Mechanicall Artificers for death,
And those which of affliction neuer hard,
She tempers with the hammer of her breath:
To euery act shee giues huge lyp-reward,
Lauish of oathes, as falshood of her faith;
And for the ground of her pretended right,
T'is hate, which enuies vertue in a Knight.

These two to her fast bound in vassailage,
Vnto the Marques _Arumburch_ shee flyes,
Him shee prouokes, him shee finds apt to rage,
Imprisoning Pitties teares in flintie eyes;
To him the power of _Siuill_ for a gage
Shee doth bequeath; bidding his prowesse ryse,
And clense his Countries face from widowes tears,
To which he posts, like lightning from the sphears.

Lastly, to make vp mischiefes perfect square,
To _Luis Cutino_ shee takes her flight,
Him shee commaunds, he to her homage sware
To guide a Nauie to this damned fight,
Of Hulks and Fly-boats such as durst to dare.
Shee giues him soueraine rule, and publique right,
And then vniting all foure powers in one,
Sends them to sea, to calme _Misfortunes_ mone.

And now behold (diuine for valiancie)
Like flying Castells sayle they to this strand,
Fiftie three saile, strong in artillarie;
Best men of warre knowne in the _Spanish_ land;
Fifteene Armados, Kings of soueraigntie,
Which led the lesser with a mightie hand:
And these in foure battalions hither flie,
With whom three dayes I sailed in companie.

Then gentle _Grinuile, Thetis_ parramoure,
Dearer than _Venus_, Daughter of the flood,
Set sailes to wind, let not neglect deuoure
Thy gracious fortunes and thine Angell goode,
Cut through the maine, compell thy keele to scoure,
No man his ill too timelie hath with-stoode
And when _Best-chaunce_ shal haue repaird thy fortune,
Time for this flight may iust reuenge importune.

Here _Midelton_ did end the passing peale
Which gaue the warning to a dismall end,
And as his words last knell began to faile,
This damned Nauie did a glimmering send,
By which _Sir Richard_ might their power reueale,
Which seeming conquerlesse did conquests lend;
At whose appearance _Midelton_ did cry,
See where they come, for fame and pitty flie.

This certaine story, of too certaine ill,
Did not extinguish, but gaue honour fier,
Th'amazing prodigie, (bane of my quill,)
Bred not astonishment, but a strong desier,
By which this heauen-adopted Knights strong will,
Then hiest height of Fame, flew much more hier:
And from the boundlesse greatnes of his minde,
Sends back this answer through his lyps refin'd.

Thanks hardie _Midelton_ for thy dilate,
Perswasiue presage to auoyde my death,
But if thou wed my fortunes with my state,
This sauing health shall suffocate my breath,
To flye from them that holds my God in hate,
My Mistres, Countrey, me, and my sworne fayth,
Were to pull of the load from _Typhons_ back,
And crush my selfe, with shame and seruille wrack.

Nor if my hart degenerate should yeeld,
To entertaine an amorus thought of life,
And so transport mine honour to the field,
Where seeming valure dies by cowards knife,
Yet zeale and conscience shall new forces build,
And others soules, with my soule holdeth strife;
For halfe my men, and all that draw sound breath,
Are gone on shore, for foode to conquer death.

If I forsake them, certaine is their end,
If I obtaine them, doubtfull is our fall,
Vpon my flight, shame and their sacks depend,
Vpon my stay, hope of good hap doth call,
Equall to me, the meanest I commend;
Nor will I loose, but by the losse of all:
They are the sinewes of my life and fame,
Dismembred bodies perish cripple-lame.

This sayd, he sends a cock-boate to the shore,
To summon backe his men vnto their ship,
Who com'd a board, began with some vprore
To way their Anchors, and with care to dip
Their hie reuolues in doubt, and euermore,
To paint deaths visage with a trembling lip,
Till he that was all fearelesse, and feare slew,
With Nectard words from them all dangers drew.

When _Midelton_ saw _Grinuills_ hie reuolue,
Past hope, past thought, past reach of all aspire,
Once more to moue him flie he doth resolue,
And to that purpose tips his tongue with fier;
Fier of sweete words, that easelie might dissolue
And moisten flint, though steeld in stiffe attire,
Had not desier of wonder praise, and fame,
Extinkt the sparks, and still keepe dead the flame.

Greater, and better then inarked he,
Which in the worlds huge deluge did suruiue,
O let thy wings of magnanimitie,
Not vainlie flatter, _Honour_ to acchiue,
Gainst all conceit impossibilitie,
By which thou murderst _Vertue_, keepe aliue,
Nor in thy seeking of diuinitie,
Kill not heauens fame by base mortalitie.

O _Grinuile_ thou hast red Philosophy
Nature and Arte hath made thee excellent,
And what thou read'st, hath grafted this in thee,
That to attempt hie dangers euident
Without constraint or neede, is infamie,
And honor turnes to rashhes in th'euent:
And who so darrs, not caring how he darrs,
Sells vertues name, to purchase foolish starrs.

Deere Knight, thou art not forst to hazard fame,
Heauens haue lent thee meanes to scape thine ill,
If thou abide, as true as is thy name,
So truly shall thy fault, thy death fulfill:
And as to loue the life for vertues flame,
Is the iust act of a true noble will,
So to contemne it, and her helps exclude,
Is baseness, rashness, and no _Fortitude_.

He that compard mans bodie to an hoast,
Sayd that the hands were scouts, discouering harmes,
The feete were horsemen, thundring on the coast,
The brest, and stomacke, footmen, huge in swarmes.
But for the head, in soueraigntie did boast,
It Captayne was, director of alarms,
Whose rashness, if it hazarded an ill,
Not hee alone but all the hoast did spill.

Rash _Isadas_, the _Lacedemon_ Lord,
That naked fought against the _Theban_ power,
Although they crown'd his valure by accord,
Yet was hee find for rashness in that hower:
And those which most his carelesse praise affoard,
Did most condemne what follie did deuoure;
For in attempting, prowesse is not ment,
But wiselie doing what we doe attempt.

Then sith t'is valure to abandon fight,
And base to darre, where no hope is to winne,
(Renowned man, of all renowne the light)
Hoyst vp thy sailes, delay attrackts thy sinne,
Flie from ill-boding starres with all thy might,
Vnto thy hart let praise and pittie in.
This sayd, and more desirous much to crie,
Sir _Richard_ stayd him, with this rich replie.

Captayne, I praise thy warlike eloquence,
And sober Axioms of Philosophie,
But now's no time for schoole points difference,
When Deaths blacke Ensigne threatens miserie;
Yet for thy words sound of such consequence.
Making flight praise, and fight pale obloquie,
Once ere I die, Ile clense my wits from rust,
And proue my flying base, my stay most iust.

Whence shall I flie? from refuge of my fame,
From whom? euen from my Countreis mortall foe,
Whither? but to the dungeon of my shame,
Why shall I flie? for feare of happie woe,
What end of flight? to saue vile life by blame,
Who ist that flies? _Grinuile_? Captayne no,
T'is _England_ flies, faire Ile of happines,
And true diuine _Elizas_ holynes.

Shall then my life regard taynt that choice faire?
First will I perrish in this liquid round,
Neuer shall Sunne-burnt _Spanyards_ tongue endeare
_Iberian_ eares with what shall me confound,
The life I haue, I for my Mistris beare,
Curst were that life, should it her scepter wound,
And trebble cursed be that damned thought,
Which in my minde hath any fayntnes wrought.

Now, for Philosophie defends thy theame,
Euen selfe Philosophie shall arme my stile,
Rich buskin'd _Seneca_, that did declaime,
And first in _Rome_ our tragicke pompe compile,
Saith, _Fortitude_ is that which in extreme
And certaine hazard all base feares exile:
It guides, saith he, the noble minde from farre,
Through frost, and fier, to conquer honors warre.

Honie-tongd _Tullie_, Mermaid of our eares,
Affirmes no force, can force true _Fortitude_,
It with our bodies, no communion beares,
The soule and spyrit, sole doth it include;
It is that part of honestie which reares
The hart to heauen, and euer doth obtrude
Faint feare, and doubt, still taking his delight
In perrills, which exceed all perrills might.

_Patience, Perseuerance, Greatnes_, and _Strong Trust_,
These pages are to _Fortitude_ their King,
_Patience_ that suffers, and esteemeth iust,
What euer woe, for vertue fortunes bring;
_Perseuerance_, holds constant what we must,
_Greatnes_, that still effects the greatest thing.
And armed _Trust_, which neuer can dispaire,
But hopes good hap; how euer fatall deare.

The Roman _Sergius_, hauing lost his hand,
Slew with one hand foure in a single fight,
A thing all reason euer did with-stand.
But that bright _Fortitude_ spred forth her light
_Pompey_, by storme held from _th' Italyan_ land,
And all his sailors quaking in his sight,
First hoisted saile, and cry'd amidst the strife,
There's neede I goe, no neede to saue my life.

_Agis_ that guilt the _Lacedemon_ streete,
Intending one day battaile with his foes,
By counsaile was repeld, as thing vnmeete,
The enemie beeing ten to one in shoes;
But he reply'd, Tis needful that his feete
Which many leads, should leade to many bloes:
And one being good, an Armie is for ten
Foes to religion, and known naughty men.

To him that told _Dienecus_, his foes
Couer'd the Sun with darts and armed speares,
Hee made reply, Thy newes is ioy in woes,
Wee'le in the shadow fight, and conquer feares.
And from the _Polands_ words my humor floes,
I care for naught but falling of the Spheares.
Thunder affrights the Infants in the schooles,
And threatnings are the conquerors of fooles.

As these, my case is not so desperate,
And yet, then these, my darre shall be no lesse:
If this in them, for fame was wondred at,
Then this in mee, shall my desiers expresse;
Neuer shall _Greece_, nor _Rome_, nor Heathen state,
With shining honor, _Albions_ shine depresse,
Though their great circuits yeelds their acts large bounds,
Yet shall they neuer darr for deeper wounds.

And thus resolu'd, deere _Midelton_ depart,
Seeke for thy safetie in some better soyle,
Thy stay will be no succour in my smart,
Thy losse will make them boast of better spoyle.
And be assur'd before my last breath part,
Ile make the Sunne, for pittie backe recoyle.
And clothe the sea within a scarlet pale,
Iudge of their death which shall my life exhale.

This ship which now intombs my iealous soule,
Honestlie enuious of aspiring laude,
Is cald _Reuenge_, the scourge which doth controule,
The recreants that _Errors_ right applaud,
Shall like her selfe, by name and fame enroule
My spyrits acts, by no _Misfortune_ aw'd,
Within eternall Bookes of happie deeds,
Vpon whose notes, immortall Vertue reeds,

Say, if I perish, t'was mine honours will,
My Countries loue, religion, and my Queene,
And if that enuie glorie in mine ill,
Say that I dyed, conqu'ring, vnconquered seene.
Say fiftie three strong shyps could not fulfill,
Gainst one poore mayden vessell their foule teene,
But that in spight of death, or miserie,
She fought, and foyled, and scapt captiuitie.

Replie not _Midelton_, mine eares are clos'd,
Hie in heauen's for-head are my vowes ingrau'd,
I see the banefull Nauie nowt disclosed,
Begon betime, Fate hath thy fortune sau'd;
To me good starres were neuer yet opposed,
Glorie hath crownd me when I glorie crau'd,
Farwel, and say how euer be my chaunce,
My death at honours wedding learnt to daunce.

This sayd, away sailes Midelton with speede,
Sad, heauie, dull, and most disconsolate,
Shedding stout manlie teares at valures deed,
Greeuing the ruine of so great estate;
But _Grinuile_, whose hope euer did exceede,
Making all death in daungers fortunate,
Gan to prouide to quell this great vprore,
Then which the like was neuer heard before.

His fights set vp; and all things fit prepard,
Low on the ballast did he couch his sick,
Being fourscoore ten, in Deaths pale mantle snar'd,[4]
Whose want to war did most their strong harts prick.
The hundred, whose more sounder breaths declard,
Their soules to enter Deaths gates should not stick,
Hee with diuine words of immortall glorie,
Makes them the wondred actors of this storie.

Nothing he left vnsaid that tongue could say,
To breede contempt of death, or hate of thrall,
Honours reward, fame for a famous day,
Wonder of eares, that men halfe gods shall call:
And contrarie, a hopelesse certaine way,
Into a Tyrants damned fists to fall,
Where all defame, base thoughts, and infamie,
Shall crowne with shame their heads eternally.

In this great thunder of his valiant speech,
From whence the eares-eyes honors lightning felt,
The _Spanish_ Nauie came within the reach
Of Cannon shot, which equallie was delt
On eyther side, each other to impeach;
Whose volleys made the pittying skyes to melt,
Yet with their noyse, in _Grinuiles_ heart did frame,
Greater desier, to conquer greater fame.

And now the sunne was past his middle way,
Leaning more louely to his Lemans bed,
And the noones third hower had attacht the day,
When fiftie three gainst one were basely led;
All harts were fierd; and now the deadlie fray,
Began tumultuouslie to ouer-spread.
The sea with fier, the Element with smoake
Which gods, and monsters from their sleep awoake.

In foure great battailes marcht the _Spanish_ hoast,
The first of _Siuill_, led in two great squares,
Both which with courage, more then can be most,
Sir _Richard_ forst to giue him way with cares;
And as the Sea-men terme it in our coast,
They sprang their luffe, and vnder lee declares,
Their manie forces feebled by this one,
Whose thoughts, saue him, are rightly due to none.

And now he stands amidst the thickest throngs,
Walld round with wooden Castels on the waue,
Fiftie three Tygers greedie in their wrongs,
Besiedge the princelie Lion in his caue:
Nothing sees _Grinuile_ which to hope belongs,
All things are fled that any hap could saue;
Bright day is darkned by incurtaind night,
And nothing visits them but Canons light.

Then vp to heauen he lifts his loftie hart,
And cryes, old _Salon_, I am happy made.
All earthlie thoughts cleane from his spirits part,
_Vertue_ and _Valure_ all his sences lade,
His foes too fewe, too strong he holds his part,
Now doth he wish for millions to inuade,
For beeing conqueror he would conquer all,
Or conquered, with immortall honour fall.

Neuer fell hayle thicker then bullets flew,
Neuer show'rd drops faster than showring blowes,
Liu'd all the _Woorthees_, all yet neuer knew
So great resolue in so great certaine woes;
Had _Fame_ told _Caesar_ what of this was true,
His Senate-murdred spirite would haue rose,
And with faire honors enuie wondred then,
Cursing mortalitie in mightie men.

Whilst thus affliction turmoyld in this brall,
And _Grinuile_ still imployed his Actor death,
The great _San-philip_, which all _Spayne_ did call
Th' vnuanquisht ship, _Iberias_ soule and faith,
Whose mountaine hugenes more was tearmed then tall,
Being twice a thousand tuns as rumour saith,
Came rushing in, becalming _Grinuiles_ sailes,
Whose courage grew, the more his fortunes failes.

Hotlie on eyther side was lightning sent,
And steeled thunder bolts dinge men to hell,
Vnweldie _Phillip_, backt with millions lent,
Worse cracks of thunder then on _Phaeton_ fell,
That with the dayes fier fiered the Element;
And why? because within her ribs did dwell,
More store of shot and great artillarie,
Then might haue seru'd the worlds great victorie.

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