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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries by Richard Hakluyt

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** Transcriber's Notes **

The printed edition from which this e-text has been produced retains the
spelling and abbreviations of Hakluyt's 16th-century original. In this
version, the spelling has been retained, but the following manuscript
abbreviations have been silently expanded:

- vowels with macrons = vowel + 'n' or 'm'
- q; = -que (in the Latin)
- y[e] = the; y[t] = that; w[t] = with

And the following substitutions have been made:

- I + reversed 'C' (for the number 500) = D
- CI + reversed 'C' (for 1000) = M

This edition contains footnotes and two types of sidenotes. Most footnotes
are added by the editor. They follow modern (19th-century) spelling
conventions. Those that don't are Hakluyt's (and are not always
systematically marked as such by the editor). The sidenotes are Hakluyt's
own. Summarizing sidenotes are labelled [Sidenote: ] and placed before the
sentence to which they apply. Sidenotes that are keyed with a symbol are
labeled [Marginal note: ] and placed at the point of the symbol, except in
poetry, where they are placed at a convenient point.

** End Transcriber's Notes **







Collected by



Edited by




[Title Page to volume 2 of the original edition.]















Alger, Tunis, and Tripolis in Barbary, to Alexandria and Cairo in Aegypt,
to the Isles of Sicilia, Zante, Candia, Rhodes, Cyprus, and Chio, to the
Citie of Constantinople, to diuers parts of Asia Minor, to Syria and
Armenia, to Ierusalem, and other Places in Iudea;


Arabia, downe the Riuer of Euphrates, to Babylon and Balsara, and so
through the Persian Gulph to Ormuts, Chaul, Goa, and to many Islands
adioyning vpon the South Parts of Asia;


Goa to Cambaia, and to all the Dominions of Zelabdim Echebar The Great
Mogor, to the Mighty Riuer of Ganges, to Bengala, Aracan, Bacola, and
Chonderi, to Pegu, to Iamahai in the Kingdome of Siam, and almost to the
very Frontiers of China.




To the Riuers of Senega, Gambra, Madrabumba, and Sierra Leona, to the Coast
of Guinea and Benin, to the Isles of S. Thome and Santa Helena, to the
Parts about the Cape of Buona Esperanza, to Quitangone, neere Mozambique,
to the Isles of Comoro and Zanzibar, To the Citie of Goa, Beyond Cape
Comori, to the Isles of Nicubar, Gomes Polo, and Pulo Pinaom, to the maine
Land of Malacca, and to the Kingdome of Iunsalaon.



ANNO 1599.






Right Honorable, hauing newly finished a Treatise of the long Voyages of
our Nation made into the Leuant within the Streight of Gibraltar, and from
thence ouer-land to the South and Southeast parts of the world, all
circumstances considered, I found none to whom I thought it fitter to bee
presented then to your selfe: wherein hauing begun at the highest
Antiquities of this realme vnder the gouerment of the Romans; next vnder
the Saxons; and thirdly since the conquest vnder the Normans, I haue
continued the histories vnto these our dayes. The time of the Romans
affoordeth small matter. But after that they were called hence by forren
inuasions of their Empire, and the Saxons by degrees became lords in this
Iland, and shortly after receiued the Christian faith, they did not onely
trauell to Rome, but passed farther vnto Ierusalem, and therewith not
contented, Sigelmus bishop of Shireburne in Dorsetshire caried the almes of
king Alfred euen to the Sepulcher of S. Thomas in India, (which place at
this day is called Maliapor) and brought from thence most fragrant spices,
and rich iewels into England: Which iewels, as William of Malmesburie in
two sundry treatises writeth, were remaining in the aforsayd Cathedrall
Church to be seene euen in his time. And this most memorable voyage into
India is not onely mentioned by the aforesayd Malmesburie, but also by
Florentius Wigorniensis, a graue and woorthy Author which liued before him,
and by many others since, and euen by M. Foxe in his first volume of his
acts and Monuments in the life of king Alfred. To omit diuers other of the
Saxon nation, the trauels of Alured bishop of Worcester through Hungarie to
Constantinople, and so by Asia the lesse into Phoenicia and Syria, and the
like course of Ingulphus, not long afterward Abbot of Croiland, set downe
particularly by himselfe, are things in mine opinion right worthy of
memorie. After the comming in of the Normans, in the yeere 1096, in the
reigne of William Rufus, and so downward for the space of aboue 300 yeeres,
such was the ardent desire of our nation to visite the Holy land, and to
expell the Saracens and Mahumetans, that not only great numbers of Erles,
Bishops, Barons, and Knights, but euen Kings, Princes, and Peeres of the
blood Roiall, with incredible deuotion, courage and alacritie intruded
themselues into this glorious expedition. A sufficient proofe hereof are
the voiages of prince Edgar the nephew of Edmund Ironside, of Robert
Curtois brother of William Rufus, the great beneuolence of king Henry the
2. and his vowe to haue gone in person to the succour of Ierusalem, the
personall going into Palestina of his sonne king Richard the first, with
the chiualrie, wealth, and shipping of this realme; the large contribution
of king Iohn, and the trauels of Oliuer Fitz-Roy his sonne, as is supposed,
with Ranulph Glanuile Erle of Chester to the siege of Damiata in Egypt: the
prosperous voyage of Richard Erle of Cornwall, elected afterward king of
the Romans, and brother to Henry the 3, the famous expedition of Prince
Edward, the first king of the Norman race of that name; the iourney of
Henry Erle of Derbie, duke of Hereford, and afterward King of this realme,
by the name of Henry the 4 against the citie of Tunis in Africa, and his
preparation of ships and gallies to go himselfe into the Holy land, if he
had not on the sudden bene preuented by death; the trauel of Iohn of
Holland brother by the mothers side to king Richard the 2 into those parts.
All these, either Kings, Kings sonnes, or Kings brothers, exposed
themselues with inuincible courages to the manifest hazard of their
persons, liues, and liuings, leauing their ease, their countries, wiues and
children; induced with a Zelous deuotion and ardent desire to protect and
dilate the Christian faith. These memorable enterprises in part concealed,
in part scattered, and for the most part vnlooked after, I haue brought
together in the best Method and breuitie that I could deuise. Whereunto I
haue annexed the losse of Rhodes, which although it were originally written
in French, yet maketh it as honourable and often mention of the English
nation, as of any other Christians that serued in that most violent siege.
After which ensueth the princely promise of the bountiful aide of king
Henry the 8 to Ferdinando newly elected king of Hungarie, against Solyman
the mortall enemie of Christendome. These and the like Heroicall intents
and attempts of our Princes, our Nobilitie, our Clergie, and our Chiualry,
I haue in the first place exposed and set foorth to the view of this age,
with the same intention that the old Romans set vp in wax in their palaces
the Statuas or images of their worthy ancestors; whereof Salust in his
treatise of the warre of Iugurtha, writeth in this maner: Sape audiui ego
Quintum maximum, Publium Scipionem, praterea ciuitatis nostra praclaros
viros solitos ita dicere, cum maiorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissime
animum sibi ad virtutem accendi. Scilicet non ceram illam, neque figuram,
tantam vim in sese habere, sed memoria rerum gestarum flammam eam egregijs
viris in pectore crescere, neque prius sedari, quam virtus eorum famam et
gloriam adaquauerit. I haue often heard (quoth he) how Quintus maximus,
Publius Scipio, and many other worthy men of our citie were woont to say,
when they beheld the images and portraitures of their ancestors, that they
were most vehemently inflamed vnto vertue. Not that the sayd wax or
portraiture had any such force at all in it selfe, but that by the
remembring of their woorthy actes, that flame was kindled in their noble
breasts, and could neuer be quenched, vntill such time as their owne valure
had equalled the fame and glory of their progenitors. So, though not in
wax, yet in record of writing haue I presented to the noble courages of
this English Monarchie, the like images of their famous predecessors, with
hope of like effect in their posteritie. And here by the way if any man
shall think, that an vniuersall peace with our Christian neighbours will
cut off the emploiment of the couragious increasing youth of this realme,
he is much deceiued. For there are other most conuenient emploiments for
all the superfluitie of euery profession in this realme. For, not to meddle
with the state of Ireland, nor that of Guiana, there is vnder our noses the
great and ample countrey of Virginia; the In-land whereof is found of late
to bee so sweete, and holesome a climate, so rich and abundant in siluer
mines, so apt and capable of all commodities, which Italy, Spaine, and
France can affoord, that the Spaniards themselues in their owne writings
printed in Madrid 1586, and within few moneths afterward reprinted by me in
Paris, [Footnote: This no doubt refers to the "History of the West Indies,"
which appears further on in this edition.] and in a secret mappe of those
partes made in Mexico the yeere before; for the king of Spaine, (which
originall with many others is in the custodie of the excellent
Mathematician M. Thomas Hariot) as also in their intercepted letters come
vnto my hand, bearing date 1595, they acknowledge the In-land to be a
better and richer countrey then Mexico and Nueua Spania itselfe. And on the
other side their chiefest writers, as Peter Martyr ab Angleria, and Francis
Lopez de Gomara, the most learned Venetian Iohn Baptista Ramusius, and the
French Geographers, as namely, Popiliniere and the rest, acknowledge with
one consent, that all that mightie tract of land from 67., degrees
Northward to the latitude almost of Florida was first discouered out of
England, by the commaundement of king Henry the seuenth, and the South part
thereof before any other Christian people of late hath bene planted with
diuers English colonies by the royal consent of her sacred Maiestie vnder
the broad seale of England, whereof one as yet remaineth, for ought we
know, aliue in the countrey. Which action, if vpon a good and godly peace
obtained, it shal please the Almighty to stirre vp her Maiesties heart to
continue with her fauourable countenance (as vpon the ceasing of the warres
of Granada, hee stirred vp the spirite of Isabella Queene of Castile, to
aduance the enterprise of Columbus) with transporting of one or two
thousand of her people, and such others as vpon mine owne knowledge will
most willingly at their owne charges become Aduenturers in good numbers
with their bodies and goods; she shall by Gods assistance, in short space,
worke many great and vnlooked for effects, increase her dominions, enrich
her cofers, and reduce many Pagans to the faith of Christ. The neglecting
hitherto of which last point our aduersaries daily in many of their bookes
full bitterly lay vnto the charge of the professors of the Gospell. No
sooner should we set footing in that pleasant and good land, and erect one
or two conuenient Fortes in the Continent, or in some Iland neere the
maine, but euery step we tread would yeeld vs new occasion of action, which
I wish the Gentrie of our nation rather to regard, then to follow those
soft vnprofitable pleasures wherein they now too much consume their time
and patrimonie, and hereafter will doe much more, when as our neighbour
warres being appeased, they are like to haue lesse emploiment then nowe
they haue, vnlesse they bee occupied in this or some other the like
expedition. And to this ende and purpose giue me leaue (I beseech you) to
impart this occurrent to your honourable and prouident consideration: that
in the yere one thousand fiue hundred eighty and seuen, when I had caused
the foure voyages of Ribault, Laudonniere, and Gourges to Florida, at mine
owne charges to bee printed in Paris, which by the malice of some too much
affectioned to the Spanish faction, had bene aboue twentie yeeres
suppressed, as soone as that booke came to the view of that reuerend and
prudent Counseller Monsieur Harlac the lord chiefe Iustice of France, and
certaine other of the wisest Iudges, in great choler they asked, who had
done such intolerable wrong to their whole kingdome, as to haue concealed
that woorthie worke so long? Protesting further, that if their Kings and
the Estate had throughly followed that action, France had bene freed of
their long ciuill warres, and the variable humours of all sortes of people
might haue had very ample and manifold occasions of good and honest
emploiment abroad in that large and fruitfull Continent of the West Indies.
The application of which sentence vnto our selues I here omit, hastening
vnto the summarie recapitulation of other matters contained in this worke.
It may please your Honour therefore to vnderstand, that the second part of
this first Treatise containeth our auncient trade and traffique with
English shipping to the Ilands of Sicilie, Candie, and Sio, which, by good
warrant herein alleaged, I find to haue bene begun in the yeere 1511. and
to haue continued vntill the yeere 1552. and somewhat longer. But shortly
after (as it seemeth) it was intermitted, or rather giuen ouer (as is noted
in master Gaspar Campions discreet letters to Master Michael Lock and
Master William Winter inserted in this booke) first by occasion of the
Turkes expelling of the foure and twentie Mauneses or gouernours of the
Genouois out of the Ile of Sio, and by taking of the sayd Iland wholie into
his owne hand in Aprill, 1566. sending thither Piali Basha with fourescore
gallies for that purpose; and afterward by his growing ouer mightie and
troublesome in those Seas, by the cruell inuasion of Nicosia and Famagusta,
and the whole Ile of Cyprus by his lieutenant Generall Mustapha Basha.
Which lamentable Tragedie I haue here againe reuiued, that the posteritie
may neuer forget what trust may bee giuen to the oath of a Mahometan, when
hee hath aduauntage and is in his choler.

Lastly, I haue here put downe at large the happie renuing and much
increasing of our interrupted trade in all the Leuant, accomplished by the
great charges and speciall Industrie of the worshipfull and worthy
Citizens, Sir Edward Osborne Knight, M. Richard Staper, and M. William
Hareborne, together with the league for traffike onely betweene her
Maiestie and the Grand Signior, with the great priuileges, immunities, and
fauours obteyned of his imperiall Highnesse in that behalfe, the admissions
and residencies of our Ambassadours in his stately Porch, and the great
good and Christian offices which her Sacred Maiestie by her extraordinary
fauour in that Court hath done for the king and kingdome of Poland, and
other Christian Princes: the traffike of our Nation in all the chiefe
Hauens of Africa and Egypt: the searching and haunting the very bottome of
the Mediterran Sea to the ports of Tripoli and Alexandretta, of the
Archipelagus, by the Turkes now called The white sea, euen to the walles of
Constantinople: the voyages ouer land, and by riuer through Aleppo, Birrha,
Babylon and Balsara, and downe the Persian gulfe to Ormuz, and thence by
the Ocean sea to Goa, and againe ouer-land to Bisnagar, Cambaia, Orixa,
Bengala, Aracan, Pegu, Malacca, Siam, the Iangomes, Quicheu, and euen to
the Frontiers of the Empire of China: the former performed diuerse times by
sundry of our nation, and the last great voyage by M. Ralph Fitch, who with
M. Iohn Newbery and two other consorts departed from London with her
Maiesties letters written effectually in their fauour to the kings of
Cambaia and China in the yere 1583, who in the yeere 1591. like another
Paulus Venetus returned home to the place of his departure, with ample
relation of his wonderfull trauailes, which he presented in writing to my
Lord your father of honourable memorie.

Now here if any man shall take exception against this our new trade with
Turkes and misbeleeuers, he shall shew himselfe a man of small experience
in old and new Histories, or wilfully lead with partialitie, or some worse
humour. [Marginal note: 1. King. cap. 5., 2. Chron. cap. 2.] For who
knoweth not, that king Solomon of old, entred into league vpon necessitie
with Hiram the king of Tyrus, a gentile? Or who is ignorant that the
French, the Genouois, Florentines, Raguseans, Venetians, and Polonians are
at this day in league with the Grand Signior, and haue beene these many
yeeres, and haue vsed trade and traffike in his dominions? Who can deny
that the Emperor of Christendome hath had league with the Turke, and payd
him a long while a pension for a part of Hungarie? And who doth not
acknowledge, that either hath traueiled the remote parts of the world, or
read the Histories of this latter age, that the Spaniards and Portugales in
Barbarie, in the Indies, and elsewhere, haue ordinarie confederacie and
traffike with the Moores, and many kindes of Gentiles and Pagans, and that
which is more, doe pay them pensions, and vse them in their seruice and
warres? Why then should that be blamed in vs, which is vsuall and common to
the most part of other Christian nations? Therefore let our neighbours,
which haue found most fault with this new league and traffike, thanke
themselues and their owne foolish pride, whereby we were vrged to seeke
further to prouide vent for our naturall commodities. And herein the old
Greeke prouerbe was most truely verified, That euill counsaille prooueth
worst to the author and deuiser of the same.

Hauing thus farre intreated of the chiefe contents of the first part of
this second Volume, it remayneth that I briefly acquaint your Honor with
the chiefe contents of the second part. It may therefore please you to
vnderstand, that herein I haue likewise preserued, disposed, and set in
order such Voyages, Nauigations, Traffikes, and Discoueries, as our Nation,
and especially the worthy inhabitants of this citie of London, haue
painefully performed to the South and Southeast parts of the world, without
the Streight of Gibraltar, vpon the coasts of Africa, about the Cape of
Buona Speranca, to and beyonde the East India. To come more neere vnto
particulars, I haue here set downe the very originals and infancie of our
trades to the Canarian Ilands, to the kingdomes of Barbarie, to the mightie
riuers of Senega and Gambia, to those of Madrabumba, and Sierra Leona, and
the Isles of Cape Verde, with twelue sundry voyages to the sultry kingdomes
of Guinea and Benin, to the Ile of San Thome, with a late and true report
of the weake estate of the Portugales in Angola, as also the whole course
of the Portugale Caracks from Lisbon to the barre of Goa in India, with the
disposition and qualitie of the climate neere and vnder the Equinoctiall
line, the sundry infallible markes and tokens of approaching vnto, and
doubling of The Cape of good Hope, the great variation of the compasse for
three or foure pointes towards the East between the Meridian of S. Michael
one of the Islands of the Azores, and the aforesaid Cape, with the returne
of the needle againe due North at the Cape Das Agulias, and that place
being passed outward bound, the swaruing backe againe thereof towards the
West, proportionally as it did before, the two wayes, the one within and
the other without the Isle of S. Laurence, the dangers of priuie rockes and
quicksands, the running seas, and the perils thereof, with the certaine and
vndoubted signes of land. All these and other particularities are plainly
and truely here deliuered by one Thomas Steuens a learned Englishman, who
in the yeere 1579 going as a passenger in the Portugale Fleete from Lisbon
into India, wrote the same from Goa to his father in England: Whereunto I
haue added the memorable voyage of M. Iames Lancaster, who doth not onely
recount and confirme most of the things aboue mentioned, but also doth
acquaint vs with the state of the voyage beyond Cape Comori, and the Isle
of Ceilon, with the Isles of Nicubar and Gomes Polo lying within two
leagues of the rich Island Sumatra, and those of Pulo Pinaom, with the
maine land of Iuncalaon and the streight of Malacca. I haue likewise added
a late intercepted letter of a Portugall reuealing the secret and most
gainefull trade of Pegu, which is also confirmed by Cesar Fredericke a
Venetian, and M. Ralph Fitch now liuing here in London.

And because our chiefe desire is to find out ample vent of our wollen
cloth, the naturall commoditie of this our Realme, the fittest places,
which in al my readings and obseruations I find for that purpose, are the
manifold Islands of Iapan, and the Northern parts of China, and the regions
of the Tartars next adioyning (whereof I read, that the countrey in winter
is Assi fria como Flandes, that is to say, as cold as Flanders, and that
the riuers be strongly ouer frozen) and therefore I haue here inserted two
speciall Treatises of the sayd Countries, the last discourse I hold to be
the most exact of those parts that is yet come to light, which was printed
in Lantine in Macao a citie of China, in China paper, in the yeere a
thousand fiue hundred and ninetie, and was intercepted in the great Carack
called Madre de Dios two yeeres after, inclosed in a case of sweete Cedar
wood, and lapped vp almost an hundred fold in fine Calicut cloth, as though
it had bene some incomparable iewel.

But leauing abruptly this discourse, I thinke it not impertinent, before I
make an end, to deliuer some of the reasons, that moued me to present this
part of my trauailes vnto your Honour. The reuerend antiquitie in the
dedication of their workes made choyse of such patrons, as eyther with
their reputation and credits were able to countenance the same, or by their
wisedome and vnderstanding were able to censure and approue them, or with
their abilitie were likely to stand them or theirs in steade in the
ordinarie necessities and accidents of their life. Touching the first, your
descent from a father, that was accounted Pater patria, your owne place and
credite in execution of her Maiesties inward counsailes and publike
seruices, added to your well discharging your forren imployment (when the
greatest cause in Christendome was handled) haue not onely drawen mens eyes
vpon you, but also forcibly haue moued many, and my selfe among the rest to
haue our labours protected by your authoritie. For the second point, when
it pleased your Honour in sommer was two yeeres to haue some conference
with me, and to demaund mine opinion touching the state of the Country of
Guiana, and whether it were fit to be planted by the English: I then (to my
no small ioy) did admire the exact knowledge which you had gotten of those
matters of Indian Nauigations: and how carefull you were, not to be
ouertaken with any partiall affection to the Action, appeared also, by the
sound arguments which you made pro and contra, of the likelihood and reason
of good or ill successe of the same, before the State and common wealth
(wherein you haue an extraordinarie voyce) should be farther engaged. In
consideration whereof I thinke myselfe thrise happie to haue these my
trauailes censured by your Honours so well approued iudgement, Touching the
third and last motiue I cannot but acknowledge my selfe much indebted for
your fauourable letters heretofore written in my behalfe in mine, honest
causes. Whereunto I may adde, that when this worke was to passe vnto the
presse, your Honour did not onely intreate a worthy knight, a person of
speciall experience, as in many others so in marine causes, to ouersee and
peruse the same, but also vpon his good report with your most fauourable
letters did warrant, and with extraordinarie commendation did approue and
allow my labours, and desire to publish the same. Wherefore to conclude,
seeing they take their life and light from the most cheerefull and benigne
aspect of your fauour, I thinke it my bounden dutie in all humilitie and
with much bashfulnesse to recommend my selfe and them vnto your right
Honorable and fauourable protection, and your Honour to the merciful
tuition of the most High. From London this 24. of October. 1599.

Your Honours most humble to be commanded,

Richard Hakluyt preacher.

Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and






The voyage of Macham an English man, wherein he first of any man discouered
the Iland of Madera, recorded verbatim in the Portugall history, written
by Antonio Galuano.

[Sidenote: Madera first discouered by one Macham an Englishman.] In the
yeere 1344, King Peter the fourth of that name reigning in Aragon, the
Chronicles of his age write that about this time the Iland of Madera,
standing in 32 degrees, was discouered by an English man, which was named
Macham, who sailing out of England into Spaine, with a woman that he had
stollen, arriued by tempest in that Iland, and did cast anker in that hauen
or bay, which now is called Machico after the name of Macham. And because
his louer was sea sicke, he went on land with some of his company, and the
shippe with a good winde made saile away, and the woman died for thought.
[Sidenote: Macham made there a chapel, naming it Iesus chapell.] Macham,
which loued her dearely built a chapell, or hermitage, to bury her in,
calling it by the name of Iesus, and caused his name and hers to be written
or grauen vpon the stone of her tombe, and the occasion of their arriuall
there. And afterward he ordeined a boat made of one tree (for there be
trees of a great compasse about) and went to sea in it, with those men that
he had, and were left behinde with him, and came vpon the coast of Afrike,
without saile or oare. And the Moores which saw it tooke it to be a
maruellous thing, and presented him vnto the king of that countrey for a
woonder, and that king also sent him and his companions for a miracle vnto
the king of Castile.

In the yeere 1395. King Henry the third of that name reigning in Castile,
the information which Macham gaue of this Iland, and also the ship of his
company, mooued many of France and Castile to go and discouer it, and also
the great Canaria, &c.

In the yeere 1417, King Iohn the second reigning in Castile, and his mother
Lady Katherine being Regent, one Monsieur Ruben of Bracamont, which was
Admirall of France, demanding the conquest of the Ilands of the Canaries,
with the title of King, for a kinsman of his named Monsieur Iohn
Betancourt, after that the Queene hath giuen him them, and holpen him, he
departed from Siuil with a good army. And they affirme also, that the
principall cause which moued him to this, was to discouer the Iland of
Madera, which Macham had found, &c. ibidem pag. 2. of Anthonio Galuano.
[Footnote: The romantic story of Machin or Macham has been recently
confirmed by authentic documents discovered in Lisbon. The lady eloped with
him from near Bristol. The name of Madeira is derived from its thick woods,
the word being the same as the Latin Materies.]

* * * * *

A briefe note concerning an ancient trade of the English Marchants to the
Canarie-ilands, gathered out of an olde ligier booke of M. Nicolas Thorne
the elder a worshipfull marchant of the city of Bristoll.

[Sidenote: The English had an ordinary trade to the Canaries 1526.] It
appeareth euidently out of a certaine note or letter of remembrance, in the
custody of me Richard Hakluyt, written by M. Nicolas Thorne the elder a
principall marchant of Bristoll, to his friend and factour Thomas Midnall
and his owne seruant William Ballard at that time resident at S. Lucar in
Andaluzia; that in the yeere of our Lord 1526 (and by all circumstances and
probabilities long before) certaine English marchants, and among the rest
himselfe with one Thomas Spacheford exercised vsuall and ordinary trade of
marchandise vnto the Canarie Ilands. For by the sayd letter notice was
giuen to Thomas Midnall and William Ballard aforesayd, that a certaine ship
called The Christopher of Cadiz bound for the West Indies had taken in
certaine fardels of cloth both course and fine, broad and narrow of diuers
sorts and colours, some arouas [Transcriber's note: sic.] of packthreed,
sixe cerons or bagges of sope with other goods of M. Nicolas Thorne, to be
deliuered at Santa Cruz the chiefe towne in Tenerifa one of the seuen
Canary-ilands. All which commodities the sayd Thomas and William were
authorised by the owner in the letter before mentioned to barter and sell
away at Santa Cruz. And in lieu of such mony as should arise of the sale of
those goods they were appointed to returne backe into England good store of
Orchell (which is a certaine kinde of mosse growing vpon high rocks, in
those dayes much vsed to die withall) some quantity of sugar, and certaine
hundreds, of kid skinnes. For the procuring of which and of other
commodities at the best and first hand the sayd Thomas and William were to
make their abode at Santa Cruz, and to remaine there as factours for the
abouesayd M. Nicolas Thorne.

And here also I thought good to signifie, that in the sayd letters mention
is made of one Thomas Tison an English man, who before the foresayd yere
1526 had found the way to the West Indies, and was there resident, vnto
whom the sayd M. Nicolas Thorne sent certaine armour and other commodities
specified in the letter aforesayd.

* * * * *

A description of the fortunate Ilands, otherwise called the Ilands of
Canaria, with their strange fruits and commodities: composed by Thomas
Nicols English man, who remained there the space of seuen yeeres

Mine intent is particularly to speake of the Canaria Ilands, which are
seuen in number, wherein I dwelt the space of seuen yeres and more, because
I finde such variety in sundry writers, and especially great vntruths, in a
booke called The New found world Antarctike, set out by a French man called
Andrew Thenet, the which his booke he dedicated to the Cardinall of Sens,
keeper of the great seale of France.

It appeareth by the sayd booke that he had read the works of sundry
Phylosophers, Astronomers, and Cosmographers, whose opinions he gathered
together. But touching his owne trauell, which he affirmeth, I refer to the
iudgement of the expert in our dayes, and therefore for mine owne part I
write of these Canaria Ilands, as time hath taught me in many yeres.

The Iland of Canaria.

The Iland of Canaria is almost equal in length and bredth, containing 12
leagues in length, touching the which as principall and the residue, the
Spanyards holde opinion, that they discouered the same in their nauigation
toward America, but the Portugals say, that their nation first found the
sayd Ilands in their nauigation toward Aethiopia and the East Indies.

[Sidenote: English men at the first conquest of the Canaries.] But truth it
is that the Spanyards first conquered these Ilands, with diuers English
gentlemen in their company, whose posterity this present day inioyeth them.
Some write that this Iland was named Canaria by meane of the number of dogs
which there were found: as for example, Andrew Theuet sayth, that one Iuba
carried two dogs from thence: but that opinion could I neuer learne by any
of the naturall people of the countrey, although I haue talked with many in
my time and with many of their children. For trueth it is, that there were
dogs, but such as are in all the Northwest lands, and some part of the West
India, which serued the people in stead of sheepe for victual. But of some
of the conquerors of those Ilands I haue heard say that the reason why they
were called the Canaria Islands is, because there grow generally in them
all fouresquare canes in great multitude together, which being touched will
cast out a liquor as white as milke, which liquor is ranke poison, and at
the first entry into these Ilands some of the discouerers were therewith
poisoned: for many yeeres after that conquest the inhabitants began to
plant both wine and sugar, so that Canaria was not so called by sugar

The people which first inhabited this land were called Canaries by the
conquerors, they were clothed in goat skinnes made like vnto a loose
cassocke, they dwelt in caues in the rocks, [Footnote: Many thousand
persons, including a colony of free negroes, still reside in cave dwellings
in the hill side.] in great amity and brotherly loue. They spake all one
language: their chiefe feeding was gelt dogges, goates, and goates milke,
their bread was made of barley meale and goates milke, called Gofia, which
they vse at this day, and thereof I haue eaten diuers times, for it is
accounted exceeding holesome.

Touching the originall of these people some holde opinion, that the Romans
which dwelt in Africa exiled them thither, as well men as women, their
tongues being cut out of their heads, for blasphemy against the Romane
gods. But howsoeuer it were, their language was speciall, and not mixed
with Romane speech or Arabian.

This Iland is now the principallest of all the rest, not in fertility, but
by reason it is the seat of iustice and gouernment of all the residue. This
Iland hath a speciall Gouernour for the Iland onely, yet notwithstanding
there are three Iudges called Auditours, who are superiour Iudges, and all
in one ioyntly proceed as the Lord Chanceller of any realme.

To this city from all the other Ilands come all such by appeale, as haue
sustained any wrong, and these good Iudges do remedy the same. [Sidenote:
Ciuitas Palmarum.] The city is called Ciuitas Palmarum, it hath a
beautifull Cathedrall church, with all dignities thereunto pertaining. For
the publike weale of the Iland there are sundry Aldermen of great
authority, who haue a councell house by themselues. The city is not onely
beautifull, but the citizens curious and gallant in apparell. And after any
raine or foule weather a man may goe cleane in Veluet slippers, because the
ground is sandy, the aire very temperate, without extreame heat or colde.

They reape wheat in February, and againe in May, which is excellent good,
and maketh bread as white as snow. This Iland hath in it other three
townes, the one called Telde, the second Galder, and the third Guia. It
hath also twelue sugar houses called Ingenios, in which they make great
quantity of good sugar. [Sidenote: The planting and growth of sugar canes.]
The maner of the growth of sugar is in this sort, a good ground giueth
foorth fruit nine times in 18 yere: that is to say, the first is called
Planta which is layd along in a furrow, so that the water of a sluce may
come ouer euery roote being couered with earth: this root bringeth foorth
sundry canes, and so consequently all the rest. It groweth two yeeres
before the yeelding of profit, and not sixe moneths, as Andrew Theuet the
French man writeth.

[Sidenote: The making of sugar.] Then are they cut euen with the ground,
and the tops and leaues called Coholia cut off, and the canes bound into
bundels like faggots, and so are caried to the sugar house called Ingenio,
where they are ground in a mill, and the iuyce thereof conueyed by a
conduct to a great vessell made for the purpose, where it is boiled till it
waxe thicke, and then is it put into a fornace of earthen pots of the molde
of a sugar loafe, and then is it carried to another house, called a purging
house where it is placed to purge the blacknesse with a certaine clay that
is layd thereon. Of the remainder in the cauldron is made a second sort
called Escumas, and of the purging liquor that droppeth from the white
sugar is made a third sort, and the remainder is called Panela or Netas,
the refuse of all the purging is called Remiel or Malasses: and thereof is
made another sort called Refinado.

When this first fruit is in this sort gathered, called Planta, then the
Cane field where it grew is burned ouer with sugar straw to the stumps of
the first canes, and being husbanded, watred and trimmed, at the end of
other two yeeres it yeeldeth the second fruit called Zoca. The third fruit
is called Tertia Zoca, the fourth Quarta Zoca, and so orderly the rest, til
age causeth the olde Canes to be planted againe.

[Sidenote: Wine.] This Iland hath singular good wine, especially in the
towne of Telde, and sundry sorts of good fruits, as Batatas, Mellons,
Peares, Apples, Oranges, Limons, Pomgranats, Figs Peaches of diuers sorts,
and many other fruits; [Sidenote: Plantano.] but especially the Plantano
which groweth neere brooke sides, it is a tree that hath no timber in it,
but groweth directly vpward with the body, hauing maruelous thicke leaues,
and euery leafe at the toppe of two yards long and almost halfe a yard
broad. The tree neuer yeeldeth fruit but once, and then is cut downe; in
whose place springeth another, and so still continueth. The fruit groweth
on a branch, and euery tree yeeldeth two or three of those branches, which
beare some more and some lesse, as some forty and some thirty, the fruit is
like a Cucumber, and when it is ripe it is blacke, and in eating more
delicate then any conserue.

This Iland is sufficiently prouided of Oxen, Kine, Camels, Goats, Sheepe,
Capons, Hens, Ducks, and Pidgeons, and great Partridges. Wood is the thing
that most wanteth: and because I haue particularly to intreat of the other
sixe Ilands, I leaue further inlarging of Canaria, which standeth in 27
degrees distant from the Equator.

The Ile of Tenerif.

The Iland of Tenerif standeth in 27 degrees and a halfe from the equator,
and is distant from Canaria 12 leagues Northward. This Iland containeth 17
leagues in length, and the land lieth high in forme of a ridge of sowen
lande in some part of England, and in the midst of the sayd place standeth
a round hill called Pico Deteithe, situated in this sort. The top of this
pike conteineth of heigth directly vpward 15 leagues and more, which is 45
English miles, out of the which often times proceedeth fire and brimstone,
and it may be about halfe a mile in compasse: the sayd top is in forme or
likenesse of a caldron. [Footnote: The Peak of Teneriffe is 12,182 feet
high.] But within two miles of the top is nothing but ashes and pumish
stones: yet beneath that two miles is the colde region couered all the yere
with snow, and somewhat lower are mighty huge trees growing called
Vinatico, which are exceeding heauy and will not rot in any water although
they lie a thousand yeeres therein. Also there is a wood called Barbusano,
of like vertue, with many Sauine trees and Pine trees. And beneath these
sorts of trees are woods of Bay trees of ten and 12 miles long, which is a
pleasant thing to trauell thorow, among the which are great numbers of
small birds, which sing exceeding sweet, but especially one sort that are
very litle, and of colour in all respects like a Swallow, sauing that he
hath a little blacke spot on his breast as broad as a peny. He singeth more
sweetly than all the rest, but if he be taken and imprisoned in a cage, he
liueth but a small while. [Sidenote: Lime.] This Iland bringeth foorth all
sorts of fruits, as Canaria doth: and also all the other Ilands in generall
bring foorth shrubs or bushes, out of the which issueth a iuice as white as
milke, which after a while that it hath come out waxeth thicke, and is
exceeding good birdlime, the bush is called Taybayba. This Iland also
bringeth foorth another tree called Drago, which groweth on high among
rocks, and by incision at the foot of the tree issueth out a liquor like
blood, which is a common drug among Apothecaries. Of the wood of this tree
are made targets greatly esteemed, because if any sword or dagger hit
thereon, they sticke so fast that it is hard plucking them out.

This is the most fruitfull Iland of all the rest for corne, and in that
respect is a mother or nurse to all the others in time of need. [Sidenote:
Orchel good for dying.] There groweth also a certaine mosse vpon the high
rocks called Orchel, which is bought for Diars to die withall. There are 12
sugar houses called Ingenios, which make great quantity of sugar. There is
also one league of ground which standeth between two townes, the one called
Larotaua, and the other Rialeio, and it is thought that the like plot of
ground is not in all the world. The reason is, that this one league of
ground produceth sweet water out of the cliffes or rocky mountaines, come
of all sortes, fruites of all sortes, and excellent good silke, flaxe,
waxe, and hony, and very good wines in abundance, with great store of sugar
and fire wood. Out of this Iland is laden great quantities of wines for the
West India, and other countreys. The best groweth on a hill side called the

There is in that Iland a faire citie, standing three leagues from the sea,
nere vnto a lake called Laguna, wherein are two faire parish churches,
there dwelleth the gouernour who ruleth all that Iland, with iustice. There
are also aldermen for the publike weale, who buy their offices of the king:
the most of the whole inhabitants of this city are gentlemen, merchants,
and husband men.

[Sidenote: Santa Cruz.] There are foure other townes called Santa Cruz,
Larotaua, Rialeio, and Garachico. In this Iland before the conquest dwelt
seuen kings, who with all their people dwelt in caues, and were clothed in
goat skinnes, as the Canaria people were, and vsed such like order of diet
as they had. Their order of buriall was, that when any died, he was carried
naked to a great caue, where he was propped vp against the wall standing on
his feet. But if he were of any authority among them, then had he a staffe
in his hand, and a vessell of milke standing by him. I haue seene caues of
300 of these corpses together, the flesh being dried vp, the body remained
as light as parchment. These people were called Guanches, naturally they
spake another language cleane contrary to the Canarians, and so
consequently euery Iland spake a seuerall language.

Note (gentle reader) that the Iland of Canaria, the Ile of Tenerif, and the
Ile of Palma appertaine to the king of Spaine, vnto whom they pay fifty
thousand duckats yeerely for custome and other profits. All these Ilands
ioyntly are one bishopricke, which pay to the bishop twelue thousand
duckats yeerely. And thus I conclude of the Ile of Tenerif, which standeth
in 27 degrees and a halfe, as I haue before declared.


The Iland of Gomera standeth Westward from Tenerif in distance sixe
leagues: this is but a small Iland conteining eight leagues in length. It
is an Earledome, and the Lord thereof is called the earle of Gomera. But in
case of any controuersie the vassals may appeale to the kings superior
Iudges which reside in Canaria.

This Iland hath one proper towne called Gomera, which hath an excellent
good port or harbour for ships, where often times the Indian fleet takes
refreshing for their voyage.

There is also sufficient graine and fruit for the maintenance of

There is one Ingenio or Sugar-house, with great plenty of wine and other
sorts of fruits, as Canaria and Tenerif hath.

This Iland yeeldeth no other commodity but onely orchell; it standeth in 27
degrees distant from the Equator toward the pole Arcticke.

The Ile of Palma.

The Ile of Palma standeth twelue leagues distant from the Ile of Gomera
Northwestward. This Iland is fruitfull of wine and sugar: it hath a proper
city called the city of Palma, where is great contraction for vines, which
are laden for the West India and other places. This city hath one faire
church, and a gouernour, and aldermen to maintaine and execute iustice. It
hath also another prety towne, called S. Andrewes. It hath also foure
Ingenios which make excellent sugar, two of the which are called Zauzes,
and the other two, Tassacort.

This Iland yeeldeth but little bread-corne; but rather is thereof prouided
from Tenerif and other places.

Their best wines grow in a soile called the Brenia, where yeerely is
gathered twelue thousand buts of wine like vnto Malmsies. This Iland
standeth round, and containeth in circuit neere fiue and twenty leagues. It
hath plenty of all sorts of fruits, as Canaria and Tenerif haue, it
standeth in twenty seuen degrees and a halfe.

The Iland of Yron, called Hierro.

This Iland standeth ten leagues distant from the Iland of Palma Westward:
it is but a little Iland, which containeth sixe leagues in circuit, and
hath but small extension. It appertaineth to the earle of Gomera. The
chiefest commodity of this Iland is goats flesh and orchell. [Sidenote: The
onely vineyard in Hierro planted by Ioh. Hill of Taunton.] There is no wine
in all that Iland, but onely one vineyard that an English man of Taunton in
the West countrey planted among rocks, his name was Iohn Hill.

This Iland hath no kind of fresh water, but onely in the middle of the
Iland groweth a great tree with leaues like an Oliue tree which hath a
great cisterne at the foot of the sayd tree. This tree continually is
couered with clouds, and by meanes thereof the leaues of the said tree
continually drop water, very sweet, into the sayd cisterne, which commeth
to the sayd tree from the clouds by attraction. And this water sufficeth
the Iland for all necessities, as well for the cattell, as for the
inhabitants. [Footnote: In connection with this fable, it is interesting to
see what is said by Le Maire, who visited these Islands in 1682. "As I had
been told of a wonderful tree in Ferro, whose long and narrow leaves were
always green, and furnished all the inhabitants with water, I wished to
find out if it were true. I asked if, as I had heard, such a heavy dew fell
on this tree that it dropped clear water into stone basins placed expressly
to receive it. There was enough of it for the islanders and their cattle,
Nature repairing by this miracle the defect of not providing pure water for
this isle. The inhabitants confirmed my belief that this was a pure fable.
There were some, however, who said that there might have been such a tree,
but it could never have furnished the quantity attributed to it." [See
VOYAGE TO THE CANARIES, etc, page 21, reprinted In _Bibliotheca Curiosa_.]]
It standeth in 27 degrees.

The Iland of Lanzarota

The Iland of Lanzarota standeth eighteene leagues distant from grand
Canaria Southeastward. The onely commodity of this Iland is goats flesh and
orchell. It is an earldome, and doth, appertaine to Don Augustine de
Herrerra, with title of earle of Fortauentura and Lanzarota. But the
vassals of these earledomes may in any cause of wrong appeale to the Kings
Iudges, which reside in Canaria, as I haue sayd before: because although
the king hath reserued to himselfe but onely the three fruitful Ilands,
called Canaria, Teneriff and Palma, yet he also reserued the rod of Iustice
to himselfe, because otherwise the vassals might be euil intreated of their

From this Iland do weekly resort to Canaria, Tenerif, and Palma, boats
laden with dried goats flesh, called Tussmetta, which serueth in stead of
bacon, and is very good meat. This Iland standeth in 26 degrees, and is in
length twelue leagues.

The Ile of Forteuentura.

The Ile of Forteuentura standeth fifty leagues from the promontory of Cabo
de Guer, in the firme land of Africa, and foure and twenty leagues distant
from Canaria Eastward. This Iland doth appertaine to the lord of Lanzarota.
It is reasonable fruitfull of wheat and barley, and also of kine, goats,
and orchel: this Ile is fifteene leagues long and ten leagues broad. On the
North side it hath a little Iland about one league distant from the maine
Iland, betweene both of the which it is nauigable for any ships, and is
called Graciosa.

Both Forteuentura and Lanzarota haue very little wine of the growth of
those Ilands. It standeth in 27 degrees.

Thus much haue I written of these seuen Ilands by experience, because I was
a dweller there, as I haue sayd before, the space of seuen yeeres in the
affaires of master Thomas Locke, master Anthonie Hickman, and master Edward
Caselin, who in those dayes were worthy merchants, and of great credite in
the citie of London.

A description of the Iland of Madera.

The Iland of Madera standeth in 32 degrees distant from the equinoctinall
line, and seuentie leagues from the Ile of Tenerif Northeastward and
Southwest from Hercules pillars. This Iland was first discouered by one
Macham an Englishman, and was after conquered and inhabited by the
Portugall nation. It was first called the Iland of Madera, by reason of the
great wildernesse of sundry sortes of trees that there did growe, and yet
doe, as Cedars, Cypres, Vinatico, Barbuzano, Pine trees, and diuers others,
and therefore the sayd Iland continueth still with the same name. Howbeit
they hold opinion, that betweene the sayd Iland, and the Ile of Palma is an
Iland not yet discouered, which is the true Iland Madera called saint
Brandon. This Iland yeeldeth a great summe of money to the king of
Portugall yeerely: it hath one faire citie called Fouchall, which hath one
faire port or harbour for shippes, and a strong bulwarke, and a faire
Cathedrall church, with a bishop and other dignities thereunto
appertaining. There is also iustice and gouernment according to the
Portugall vse. But causes of appellation are remitted to the citie of
Lisbone in Portugall to the kings superior iudges there. This Iland hath
another towne called Machico, which hath likewise a good road for ships,
which towne and road were so called after the name of Macham the
Englishman, who first discouered the same. There are also sixteene sugar
houses called Ingenios, which make excellent good sugar.

There is besides the goodly timber before declared, great store of diuers
sortes of fruites, as Peares, Apples, Plummes, wild Dates, Peaches of
diuers sortes, Mellons, Batatas, Orenges, Lemmons, Pomgranates, Citrons,
Figges, and all maner of garden herbes. There are many Dragon trees, such
as grow in the Canarie Ilands, but chiefly this land produceth great
quantitie of singular good wines which are laden for many places. On the
North side of this land three leagues distant from the maine Iland standeth
another litle Iland called Porto santo: the people thereof liueth by
husbandrie, for the Iland of Madera yeeldeth but litle corne, but rather is
thereof prouided out of France and from the Iland of Tenerif. On the East
side of the Ile of Madera sixe leagues distant standeth another litle Iland
called the Desert, which produceth onely Orchell, and nourisheth a great
number of Goates, for the prouision of the maine Iland, which may be
thirtie leagues in circuit: and the land is of great heighth where the
foresayd trees growe. It is woonder to see the conueyance of the water to
the Ingenios by Mines through the mountaines.

In the mid way betweene Tenerif and the Iland of Madera standeth a litle
solitarie Iland called the Saluages, which may bee about one league in
compasse, which hath neither tree nor fruit, but is onely food for Goates.










Printed at London:



[_This work was not included in the 1598-1600 edition of Hakluyt's Voyages.
It, however, formed part of the supplement issued in 1812._]







Aftre what time the barrein traueiles of longe seruice, had driuen me to
thinke libertie the best rewarde of my simple life, right honorable Erle
and that I had determined to leaue wrastlyng with fortune, and to giue my
self wholie to liue vpon my studie, and the labours of my hand: I thought
it moste fitting with the dutie that I owe to God and manne, to bestowe my
time (if I could) as well to the profite of other, as of myself. Not
coueting to make of my floudde, a nother mannes ebbe (the Cancre of all
commune wealthes) but rather to sette other a flote, where I my self strake
on ground. Tourning me therefore, to the searche of wisedome and vertue,
for whose sake either we tosse, or oughte to tosse so many papers and
tongues: although I founde aboute my self, verie litle of that Threasure,
yet remembred I that a fewe yeres paste, at the instaunce of a good
Citezein, (who might at those daies, by aucthoritie commaunde me) I had
begonne to translate, a litle booke named in the Latine, Omnium gentium
mores, gathered longe sence by one Iohannes Boemus, a manne as it appereth,
of good iudgemente and diligence. But so corrupted in the Printing, that
after I had wrasteled a space, with sondrie Printes, I rather determined to
lose my labour of the quartre tanslacion, then to be shamed with the haulf.
And throwing it a side, entended no further to wearie my self therwithall,
at the leaste vntill I mighte finde a booke of a bettre impression. In
searching whereof at this my retourne to my studie, although I found not at
the full that, that I sought for: yet vndrestanding among the booke sellers
(as one talke bringes in another) that men of good learning and eloquence,
bothe in the Frenche and Italien tonge, had not thought skorne to bestowe
their time aboute the translacion therof, and that the Emperours Maiestie
that now is, vouched saulfe to receiue the presentacion therof, at the
Frenche translatours hande, as well appereth in his booke: it kindled me
againe, vpon regard of mine owne profite, and other mennes moe, to bring
that to some good pointe, that earst I had begonne. For (thought I) seing
the booke hath in it, much pleasant varietie of thinges, and yet more
profite in the pitthe: if it faile to bee otherwise rewarded, yet shal it
thankefully of the good be regarded. Wherefore setting vpon it a fresshe,
where the booke is deuided acording to thaunciente diuision of the earth
into thre partes, Affrique, Asie, and Europe: hauing brought to an ende the
two firste partes, I found no persons in mine opinion so fitte as your
honour, to present theim vnto. For seing the whole processe ronneth vpon
gouernaunce and Lawes, for thadministracion of commune wealthes, in peace
and in warre, of aunciente times tofore our greate graundfathers daies: to
whom mighte I bettre presente it, then to a Lorde of verie nobilitie and
wisedome, that hath bene highe Mareshalle in the field abrode, deputie of
the locke and keie of this realme, and a counsailour at home, of thre
worthie princes. Exercised so many waies in the waues of a fickle Commune
wealthe: troubled sometime, but neuer disapoincted of honourable successe.
To your good Lordeshippe then I yelde and committe, the firste fruictes of
my libertie, the firste croppe of my labours, this first daie of the Newe
yere: beseching the same in as good parte to receiue it, as I humblie offre
it, and at your pleasure to vnfolde the Fardle, and considre the stuffe.
Whiche euer the farder in, shall sieme I truste the more pleasaunte and
fruictefulle. And to conclude, if I shall vndrestande, that your honour
delighteth in this, it shal be a cause sufficiente, to make me go in hande
with Europe, that yet remaineth vntouched. Almightie God giue vnto your
Lordeshippe prosperous fortune, in sounde honour and healthe.

Your Lordshippes moste humblie at commaundemente,


The Preface of the Authour.

I haue sought out at times, as laisure hath serued me, Good reader, the
maners and facions the Lawes, Customes and Rites, of all suche peoples, as
semed notable, and worthy to be put in remembrance, together with the
situation and description of their habitations: which the father of Stories
Herodotus the Greke, Diodorus, the Siciliane, Berosus Strabo, Solinus,
Trogus Pompeius, Ptolomeus, Plinius, Cornelius the still, Dionysius the
Africane, Pomponius Mela, Casar, Iosephus, and certein of the later
writers, as Vincentius, and Aeneas Siluius (which aftreward made Pope, had
to name Pius the seconde) Anthonie Sabellicus, Ihon Nauclerus, Ambrose
Calepine, Nicholas Perotte, in his cornu copia, and many other famous
writers eche one for their parte, as it were skatered, and by piece meale,
set furthe to posteritie. Those I saie haue I sought out, gathered
together, and acordyng to the ordre of the storie and tyme, digested into
this litle packe. Not for the hongre of gaine, or the ticklyng desire of
the peoples vaine brute, and vnskilfulle commendacion: but partly moued
with the oportunitie of my laisure, and the wondrefull profits and
pleasure, that I conceiued in this kinde of studie my self, and partly that
other also delightyng in stories, might with litle labour, finde easely
when thei would, the somme of thynges compiled in one Booke, that thei ware
wonte with tediousnes to sieke in many. And I haue shocked theim vp
together, as well those of aunciente tyme, as of later yeres, the lewde, as
well as the vertuous indifferentlie, that vsing them as present examples,
and paternes of life, thou maiest with all thine endeuour folowe the
vertuous and godlie, and with asmuche warenes eschewe the vicious and
vngodly. Yea, that thou maiest further, my (reader) learne to discerne, how
men haue in these daies amended the rude simplicitie of the first worlde,
from Adam to the floud and many yeres after, when men liued skateryng on
the earthe, without knowlege of Money, or what coigne ment, or Merchauntes
trade: no maner of exchaunge, but one good tourne for another. When no man
claimed aught for his seueralle, but lande and water ware as commune to al,
as Ayer and Skie. When thei gaped not for honour, ne hunted after richesse,
but eche man contented with a litle, passed his daies in the wilde fielde,
vnder the open heauen, the couerte of some shadowie Tree, or slendre
houelle, with suche companion or companions as siemed them good, their
diere babes and children aboute them. Sounde without carcke and in rest
full quietnesse, eatyng the fruictes of the fielde, and the milke of the
cattle, and drinking the waters of the christalline springes. First clad
with the softe barcke of trees, or the faire broade leaues, and in processe
with rawe felle and hide full vnworkemanly patched together. Not then
enuironed with walles, ne pente vp with rampers, and diches of deapthe, but
walking at free scope emong the wanderyng beastes of the fielde, and where
the night came vpon theim, there takyng their lodgyng without feare of
murtherer or thief. Mery at the fulle, as without knowledge of the euilles
that aftre ensued as the worlde waxed elder, through diuers desires, and
contrarie endeuours of menne. Who in processe for the insufficience of the
fruictes of the earthe, (whiche she tho gaue vntilled) and for default of
other thynges, ganne falle at disquiete and debate emong themselues, and to
auoied the inuasion of beastes, and menne of straunge borders, (whom by
themselues thei could not repelle) gathered into companies, with commune
aide to withstande suche encursions and violence of wrong. And so ioyning
in confederacie, planted themselues together in a plotte, assigned their
boundes, framed vp cotages, one by anothers chieque, diked in themselues,
chose officers and gouernours and deuised lawes, that thei also emong
theimselues might liue in quiete. So beginning a rough paterne of tounes
and of Cities, that aftre ware laboured to more curious finesse.

And now ware thei not contented, with the commodities of the fieldes and
cattle alone, but by diuers inuencions of handecraftes and sciences, and by
sondrie labours of this life, thei sought how to winne. Now gan thei
tattempte the sease with many deuices, to transplante their progenie and
ofspring into places, vnenhabited, and to enioye the commodities of eche
others countrie, by mutuall traffique. Now came the Oxe to the yoke, the
Horse to the draught, the Metalle to the stampe, the Apparel to
handsomenes, the Speache to more finesse, the Behauiour of menne to a more
calmenesse, the Fare more deintie, the Buildyng more gorgeous,
thenhabitours ouer all became milder and wittier, shaking of (euen of their
owne accorde) the bruteshe outrages and stearne dealinges, that shamefully
mought be spoken of. Nowe refrained thei from sleayng one of a nother, from
eatyng of ech others flesh, from rape and open defiling of mother, sister,
and daughter indifferently, and fro many like abominacions to nature and
honestie. Thei now marieng reason, with strength: and pollicie, with might:
where the earthe was before forgrowen with bushes and wooddes, stuffed with
many noisome beastes, drouned with meares, and with marshe, vnfitte to be
enhabited, waast and vnhandsome in euery condition: by wittie diligence,
and labour, ridde it from encombraunce, planed the roughes, digged vp trees
by the rootes, dried away the superfluous waters, brought all into
leauelle, banished barreinesse, and vncouered the face of the earth, that
it might fully be sene, conuerted the champeine to tillage, the plaines to
pasture, the valley to meadow, the hilles thei shadowed with wooddes and
with Vines, Then thruste thei in cultre and share, and with wide woundes of
the earthe, wan wine and corne plenteously of the grounde, that afore
scarcely gaue them Akornes and Crabbes. Then enhabited thei more thicke,
and spred themselues ouer all, and buylte euery where. Of Tounes, thei made
cities, and of villages, Tounes, Castles vpon the rockes, and in the
valleis made thei the temples of the goddes. The golden graueled springes,
thei encurbed with Marblo, and with trees right pleasauntlie shadowed them
aboute. From them they deriued into cities and Tounes, the pure freshe
waters, a great distaunce of, by conduicte of pipes and troughes, and suche
other conueyance. Where nature had hidden the waters, out of sighte, thei
sancke welles of greate deapth, to supplie their lackes. Riuers, and maigne
floudes, whiche afore with vnbrideled violence, oftymes ouerflowed the
neighboured aboute, to the destruction of their cattle, their houses, and
themselues: thei restrained with bancques, and kept them in a course. And
to the ende thei might not onely be vadable, but passed also with drie
foote, thei deuised meanes with piles of Timbre, and arches of stone,
maulgre the rage of their violent streames, to grounde bridges vpon them.
Yea, the rockes of the sea whiche for the daungier of the accesse, thoughte
themselues exempte from the dinte of their hande, when thei perceiued by
experience, thei ware noyous to sailers, with vnspeakeable labour did thei
ouerthrowe and breake into gobettes. Hewed out hauens on euery strond,
enlarged crieques, opened rodes, and digged out herborowes, where their
shippes mighte ride saulfe fro the storme. Finally thei so laboured,
beautified, and perfeighted the earthe, that at this daie compared with the
former naturalle forgrowen wastenesse, it might well sieme not to be that,
but rather the Paradise of pleasure, out of the whiche, the first paternes
of mankinde (Adam and Eue) for the transgression of Goddes precept, ware

Men also inuented and founde many wittie sciences, and artes, many
wondrefull workes whiche when by practice of lettres, thei had committed to
bookes, and laied vp for posteritie, their successours so woundered at
their wisedomes, and so reuerenced their loue and endeuours (whiche thei
spied to be meant toward them, and the wealth of those that shuld folow of
them) that thei thought them not blessed enough, with the estate of men
mortalle, but so aduaunced their fame, and wondered at their worthinesse,
that thei wan theim the honour and name of Goddes immortall.

Tho gan the Prince of the worlde, when men so gan to delight in thadournyng
of the worlde, to sowe vpon the good siede, the pestilente Dernell, that as
thei multiplied in nombre, so iniquitie might encrease, to disturbe and
confounde this blessed state.

First, therefore when he had with all kinde of wickedness belimed the
world, he put into their heades, a curious searche of the highest
knowledge, and suche as depended vpon destenie of thynges. And so practised
his pageauntes, by obscure and doubtfully attempted Responcions, and voices
of spirites, that after he had fettred the worlde in the trauers of his
toies, and launced into their hartes a blinde supersticion, and feare: he
trained it whole to a wicked worship of many goddes and Goddesses, that
when he ones had wiped cleane out of mynde the knowledge and honour of one
God euerlastyng, he might practise vpon manne, some notable mischief. Then
sette he vp pilgrimages to deuilles, foreshewers of thynges, that gaue
aduerisemente and answere to demaundes in sondrie wise. In the Isle of
Delphos one, in Euboea another, at Nasamone a thirde, and emong the
Dodonians, the famous okes, whose bowes by the blastes of the winde
resounded to the eare, a maner of aduertisemente of deuellishe delusion. To
the whiche Idolles and Images of deuelles he stirred vp men to do the
honour (Helas) due onely to God. As to Saturne in Italie, to Iupiter in
Candie, to Iuno in Samos, to Bacchus in India, and at Thebes: to Isis, and
Osiris in Egypte: in old Troie to Vesta: aboute Tritona in Aphrique, to
Pallas, in Germanie and Fraunce to Mercurie, vnder the name of Theuthe: to
Minerua at Athenes and Himetto, to Apollo in Delphos, Rhodes, Chio, Patara,
Troade and Tymbra. To Diane in Delos and in Scythia, to Venus in Paphos,
Ciprus, Gnydon, and Cithera. To Mars in Thracia, to Priapus in Lampsacho of
Hellespontus, to Vulcane in Lypara and Lennos, and in diuers other places
to sondrie other, whose remembraunce was then moste freshe in the memorie
of their people, for the benefaictes and merueilous inuencions bestowed
emong them.

Afterward, also when Iesus Christe the verie sonne of the almightie father,
shewyng hymself in the fleshe of our mortalitie, was conuersaunte in the
worlde, pointyng to the same, as with his fingre, the waie to immortalitie,
and endelesse blessednesse, and bothe with woorde and example, exhorted and
allured them to vprightnes of life, to the glorie of his father, sendyng
his disciples and scolers into the vniuersall worlde, to condemne
Superstition and all errour of wickednes, with the moste healthsome woorde:
to plante true Religion, and geue newe preceptes, and directions of the
life, and had now set the matier in suche forwardnesse and poincte, that
the Gospell beyng generally of all nacions receiued, there lacked but
continuaunce to perfeicte felicitie: The deuell eftesones retournyng to his
naturall malice, desirous to repossesse that, that constrainedly he
forsooke, betrappyng again the curious conceipte of man, some he reuersed
into their former abuses and errours, and some with newe Heresies he so
corrupted, snarled, and blynded, that it had bene muche bettre for them,
neuer almoste to haue knowen the waie of truthe, then after their
entraunce, so rashely and maliciously to haue forsaken it.

At this daie in Asia the lesse, the Armenianes, Arabians, Persians,
Sirians, Assirians and Meades: in Aphrique, the Egipcians, Numidians,
Libiens, and Moores. In Europe, the whole countrie of Grecia, Misia,
Thracia, and all Turquie throwyng awaie Christe, are become the folowers
and worshippers of Mahomet and his erronious doctrine. The people of
Scithia, whom we now cal Tartares (a greate people and wide spread) parte
of them worshippe the Idolle of their Emperour Kamme, parte the Sonne, the
Moone, and other Starres, and part according to the Apostles doctrine, one
onely God. The people of Inde, and Ethiope, vnder the gouernaunce of
Presbiter Ihon perseauer in Christiane godlinesse, howbeit after a sort,
muche different from ours.

The sincere and true faithe of Christ, wherewith in time it pleased God to
illumine the worlde, remaineth in Germanie, Italy, Fraunce, Spaine,
Englande, Scotland, Ireland, Denmarke, Liuon, Pruse, Pole, Hungarie, and
the Isles of Rhodes, Sicilie, Corsica, Sardinia, with a fewe other. This
bytter enemie of mankinde hauyng thus with his subtilties, inueiled our
mindes, and disseuered the christian vnion, by diuersitie of maners and
facions of belief, hath brought to passe thorough this damnable wyckednes
of Sacrifices, and Rites, that whilest euery people (vndoubtedly with
religious entent) endeuour theim selues to the worshippe of God, and
echeone taketh vpon him to be the true and best worshipper of him, and
whilest echone thinke theim selues to treade the streight pathe of
euerlastyng blessednes, and contendeth with eigre mode and bitter dispute,
that all other erre and be ledde farre a wrie: and whilest euery man
strugglethe and striueth to spread and enlarge his owne secte, and to
ouerthrowe others, thei doe so hate and enuie, so persecute and annoy
echone an other, that at this daie a man cannot safely trauaill from one
countrie to another: yea, thei that would aduenture saufely or vnsaufely,
be almost euery where holden out. Wherof me thinkes I see it is like to
come to passe, that whilest one people scant knoweth the name of another,
(and yet almost neighbours) all that shall this daie be written or reported
of theim, shalbe compted and refused as lyes. And yeat this maner of
knowledge and experience, is of it self so pleasant, so profitable and so
praise worthy, that sundrie (as it is well knowen) for the onely loue and
desire thereof, leauing their natiue countrie, their father, their mother,
their wiues and their children, yea, throwyng at their heles their sauftie
and welfare, haue with greate troubles, vexations, and turmoilynges taken
vpon theim for experience sake, to cutte through the wallowying seas, and
many thousande miles, to estraunge theimselues fro their home, yea, and
those men not in this age alone, but euen from the firste hatchyng of the
worlde haue been reputed and founde of moste wisedome, authoritie, and good
facion, sonest chosen with all mennes consent, bothe in peace and warre, to
administre the commune wealth as maisters and counsaillours, Iudges and
Capitaines. Suche ware thancient sages of Grece and of Italy, Socrates,
Plato, Aristotle, Antisthenes, Aristippus, Zeno, and Pythagoras, who
through their wisedomes and estimacion for trauailes wan them greate
nombres of folowers, and brought furthe in ordre the sectes named
Socratici, Academici, Peripateci, Cynici, Cyrenaici, Stoici, and
Pythagorici, echone chosyng name to glorie in his maister. Suche ware the
prudente lawemakers of famous memorie, Minois and Rhadamanthus emong the
Cretenses, Orpheus emong the Thraciens, Draco and Solon emong the
Athenienses, Licurgus emong the Lacedemonians, Moses emong the Iewes, and
Zamolxis emong the Scythians, and many other in other stedes whiche dreamed
not their knowledge in the benchehole at home, but learned of the men in
the worlde moste wise, the Chaldeies, the Brachmanni, the Gymnosophites and
the priestes of Egipte, with whom thei had for a space bene conuersant.
Like glorie, by like trauaill happened to the worthies of the worlde, as to
Iupiter of Crete (reported fiue times to haue surueied the whole worlde)
and to his twoo sonnes Dionisius (otherwise called Bacchus) and Hercules
the mightie. Likewise to Theseus and Iason, and the rest of that voiage. To
the vnlucky sailer Vlisses, and to the banished Eneas, to Cyrus, Xerxes,
and Alexander the Greate, to Hanniballe and Mithridate, kyng of Pontus,
reported able to speake fiftie sondrie languages, to Antiochus, the greate
and innumerable Princes of Roome, bothe of the Scipioes, Marii, and
Lentuli. To Pompeius the greate, to Iulius Cesar, Octauian, and Augustus,
to the Constantines, Charles, Conrades, Henrickes, and Frederickes. Whiche
all by their exploictes vpon straunge nacions, haue gotten their immortall
and euerlastyng renoume. Wherefore, seyng there is in the knowledge of
peoples, and of their maners and facions, so greate pleasure and profite,
and euery man cannot, yea, fewe men will, go traueile the countries
themselues: me thinkes gentill reader, thou oughtest with muche thanke to
receyue at my hande these bookes of the maners and facions of peoples most
notable and famous, togyther with the places whiche thei enhabite: And with
no lesse cherefulnes to embrase theim, then if beyng ledde on my hande from
countrey to countrey, I should poynct the at eye, how euery people liueth,
and where they haue dwelte, and at this daye doe. Let it not moue the, let
it not withdrawe the, if any cankered reprehendour of other mens doynges
shall saie vnto the: It is a thyng hath bene written of, many yeares agone,
and that by a thousand sondry menne, and yet he but borowyng their woordes,
bryngeth it foorthe for a mayden booke, and naimeth it his owne. For if
thou well considre my trade, thou shalt fynd, that I haue not only brought
thee other mennes olde store, but opened thee also the treasury of myne
owne witte and bokes, not euery where to be found, and like a liberall
feaster haue set before thee much of myne owne, and many thynges newe.
Farewell and thankefully take that, that with labour is brought thee.

The Fardle of Facions, conteining the aunciente maners, customes and lawes,
of the peoples enhabiting the two partes of the earth, called Affricke
and Asie.


The first Chapiter.

The true opinion of the deuine, concernyng the beginnyng of man.

When God had in V. daies made perfecte the heauens and the earth, and the
furniture of bothe: whiche the Latines for the goodlinesse and beautie
thereof, call Mundus, and we (I knowe not for what reason) haue named the
worlde: the sixth daie, to the entent there mighte be one to enioye, and be
Lorde ooer all, he made the moste notable creature Man. One that of all
earthly creatures alone, is endowed with a mynde, and spirit from aboue.
And he gaue him to name, Adam; accordyng to the colour of the molde he was
made of. Then drawing out of his side the woman, whilest he slept, to
thende he should not be alone, knitte her vnto hym, as an vnseparable
compaignion, and therwith placed them in the moste pleasaunt plot of the
earth, fostered to flourishe with the moisture of floudes on euery parte.
The place for the fresshe grienesse and merie shewe, the Greques name
Paradisos. There lyued they a whyle a moste blessed life without bleamishe
of wo, the earth of the own accorde bringing forth all thing. But when they
ones had transgressed the precepte, they ware banysshed that enhabitaunce
of pleasure and driuen to shift the world. And fro thenceforth the
graciousnes of the earth was also abated, and the francke fertilitie therof
so withdrawen, that labour and swette, now wan [Footnote: _Wan_ and won
were used indifferently. Thus in Drayton's _Polyolbion_, xi., p. 864 we
find--"These with the Saxons went, and fortunately _wan_,
Whose Captain Hengist first a Kingdom here began."

And in the same page:
"As mighty Hengist here, by force of arms had done,
So Ella coming in, soon from the Romans won
The counties neighb'ring Kent."]

lesse a great deale, then ydle lokyng on before tyme had done. Shortly
crepte in sickenes, and diseases, and the broyling heate and the nipping
cold began to assaile their bodyes. Their first sonne was Cayin, and the
seconde Abell, and then many other. And as the world grewe into yeares, and
the earth began to waxe thicke peopled, loke as the nombre did encreace, so
vices grew on, and their lyuing decaied euer into woors. For giltelesse
dealyng, wrong came in place, for deuoutnesse, contempte of the Goddes, and
so farre outraged their wickednes, that God skarcely fyndyng one iuste Noha
on the earth (whom he saued, with his housholde, to repayre the losse of
mankind and replenysshe the worlde) sente a floude vniuersall, which
couering all vnder water, killed all fleshe that bare lyfe vppon earth,
excepte a fewe beastes, birdes, and wormes that ware preserued in the
misticall arke. In the ende of fiue Monethes aftre the floude began, the
Arque touched on the mounteines of Armenia. And within foure Monethes
aftre, Noas and all his beyng restored to the earth, with Goddes
furtheraunce in shorte space repeopled the worlde. And to thende the same
myghte euery wheare again be enhabited, he dispersed his yssue and
kyndredes into sondrie coastes. After Berosus opynion he sent Cham
otherwyse, named Cameses and Chamesenuus with his ofspring, into Egipte.
Into Lybia and Cirene, Triton. And into the whole residewe of Affrike the
ancient Iapetus called Attalus Priscus, Ganges he sent into Easte Asia with
certeine of the sonnes of Comerus Gallus. And into Arabia the fertile, one
Sabus, sirnamed Thurifer. Ouer Arabia the Waste he made Arabus gouernour,
and Petreius ouer Petrea. He gaue vnto Canaan, all that lyeth from Damasco
to the outemost bordre of Palestine. In Europe he made Tuisco king of
Sarmatia, from the floude of Tanais vnto the Rhene. And there were ioyned
vnto him all the sonnes of Istrus, and Mesa, with their brethren, fro the
mounteyne of Adula to Mesemberia pontica. Archadius and Emathius gouerned
the Tirianes, Comerus Gallus, had Italie and Fraunce, Samothes, Briteigne
and Normandie, and Inbal, Spayne. That spiedie and vnripe puttyng forthe of
the children from their progenitours, before they had throughly learned and
enured them selues with their facions and maners, was the cause of all the
diuersitie that after ensued. For Cham, by the reason of his naughty
demeanour towarde his father, beyng constrayned to departe with his wyfe
and hys chyldren, planted him selfe in that parte of Arabia, that after was
called by his name. And lefte no trade of religion to his posteritie,
because he none had learned of his father. Whereof it came to passe, that
when in processe of tyme they ware encreased to to many for that londe:
beyng sent out as it ware, swarme aftre swarme into other habitations and
skatered at length into sondrie partes of the worlde (for this banysshed
progeny grewe aboue measure) some fel into errours wherout thei could neuer
vnsnarle [Footnote: _To snarle_, to entangle; hence, _to unsnarle_--to
disentangle. "And from her head ofte rente her snarled heare." _Spencer_,
_Faerie Queene_, iii., xii., 17. "You snarle yourself into so many and
heynouse absurdities, as you shall never be able to wynde yourself
oute."--_Cranmer's Answer to Bp. Gardiner_, p. 168. "Supposed to be formed
from _snare_." [Nares].] themselues. The tongue gan to altre and the
knowledge of the true God and all godlie worsshippe vanished out of mind.
Inso muche that some liued so wildely (as aftre thou shalt here) that it
ware harde to discerne a difference betwixte them and the beastes of the
felde. Thei that flieted into Egipt, wonderyng at the beautie and course of
the Sonne, and the Moone, as though there had been in them a power diuine,
began to worship them as Goddes: callyng the lesse, Isis and the bigger
Osiris. To Iupiter also thei Sacrificed, and did honour as to the
principall of life. To Vulcan for fire, to Pallas, as Lady of the skie, to
Ceres as gouerneresse of the arth, and to sondry other for other sondry
considerations. Neyther staied that darkenesse of iniquitie in Egipte
alone, but where so euer the progeny of Cham stepte in from the begynnyng,
there fell true godlines, all oute of minde and abondage to the deuell
entred his place. And there neuer was countrie, mother of moe swarmes of
people, then that part of Arabia, that he, and his, chase to be theirs. So
greate a mischief did the vntymely banishemente of one manne, bring to the
whole. Contrarily the progenie of Iapheth, and Sem, brought vp to full
yeres vndre their elders, and rightly enstructed: contentyng them selues
with a litle circuite, straied not so wide as this brother had doen.
Whereby it chaunced that the zeale of the truthe, (I meane of good liuyng
and true worshippe of one onely God) remained as hidden in one onely
people, vntill the tyme of Messias.

The seconde Chapitre.

The false opinion of the Philosophre concernyng the begynnyng of man.

But the aunciente Philosophers, whiche without knowledge of God, and his
truthe, many yeres ago, wrate vpon the natures of thinges, and thistories
of times had another opinion of the originall of man. For certain of them,
belieued the worlde euer to haue been, and that euer it should be, and man
together with it to haue had no beginnyng. Certaine did holde that it had a
beginnyng, and an ende it should haue, and a time to haue been, when man
was not. For saie thei, the begynner of thynges visible, wrapped vp bothe
heauen and earth at one instant, togither in one paterne, and so a
distinction growing on betwixte these meynte bodies, the worlde to haue
begon in suche ordre as we see. The aire by nature to be continually
mouyng, and the moste firie parte of thesame, for the lightenesse thereof,
moste highe to haue climbed. So that sonne and Moone, and the planetes all,
participatyng of the nature of that lighter substaunce: moue so muche the
faster, in how muche thei are of the more subtile parte. But that whiche
was mixed with waterie moisture, to haue rested in the place, for the
heauinesse thereof, and of the watery partes, the sea to haue comen: and
the matier more compacte to haue passed into a clamminesse firste, and so
into earth. This earth then brought by the heate of the sonne into a more
fastenesse. And after by the same power puffed and swollen in the
vppermoste parte, there gathered manye humours in sondry places, which
drawing to ripenesse enclosed them selues in slymes and in filmes, as in
the maresses of Egipt, and other stondynge waters we often se happen. And
seynge the heate of thaier sokynly warmeth the cold ground and heate meint
[Footnote: Mingled.--A word of Chaucer's time. "And in one vessel both
together meint." _Fletcher's Purple Island_, iv., st. 21.] with moisture is
apt to engendre: it came to passe by the gentle moisture of the night aire,
and the comforting heate of the daie sonne, that those humours so riped,
drawyng vp to the rinde of thearth, as though their tyme of childbirthe
ware come, brake out of their filmes, and deliuered vpon the earth all
maner of liuing thinges. Emong whiche those that had in them moste heate,
became foules into the aire: those that ware of nature more earthie, became
wormes and beastes of sondrie kindes: and where water surmounted, thei
drewe to the elemente of their kinde, and had to name fishes. But
afterwarde the earth beyng more parched by the heate of the Sonne, and the
drouthe of the windes, ceased to bring furthe any mo greate beastes: and
those that ware already brought furthe, (saie thei) mainteined, and
encreased by mutualle engendrure, the varietie, and nombre. And they are of
opinion that in the same wise, men ware engendred in the beginning. And as
nature putte them forth emong other beastes, so liued they at the first an
vnknowen lyfe wyldely emong them, vpon the fruictes, and the herbes of the
fieldes. But the beastes aftre a while waxing noysome vnto them, they ware
forced in commune for eche others sauftie to drawe into companies to
resiste their anoyaunce, one helping another, and to sieke places to make
their abiding in. And where at the firste their speache was confuse, by
litle and litle they sayed it drewe to a distinctenesse, and perfeigthe
difference: in sorte that they ware able to gyue name to all thinges. But
for that they ware diuersely sparckled in diuers partes of the worlde, they
holde also that their speache was as diuers and different. And herof to
haue aftreward risen the diuersitie of lettres. And as they firste
assembled into bandes, so euery bande to haue broughte forthe his nation.
But these men at the firste voide of all helpe and experience of liuyng,
ware bittrely pinched with hongre and colde, before thei could learne to
reserue the superfluous plenty of the Somer, to supply the lacke of Winters
barreinesse, whose bitter blastes, and hongrie pinynges, consumed many of
them. Whiche thing when by experience dere bought, thei had learned: thei
soughte bothe for Caues to defende them fro colde, and began to hourde
fruictes. Then happe found out fire, and reason gaue rule of profite, and
disprofite, and necessitie toke in hand to sette witte to schoole. Who
gatheryng knowledge, and perceiuyng hymself to haue a helpe of his sences,
more skilful then he thought, set hande a woorke, and practised connyng, to
supplie all defaultes, whiche tongue and lettres did enlarge and distribute

Thei that had this opinion of the originall of manne, and ascribed not the
same to the prouidence of God, affirmed the Etopiens to haue bene the
firste of all menne. For thei coniectured that the ground of that countrie
lyng nierest the heates of the Sonne must needes first of all other waxe
warme. And the earth at that tyme beyng but clammie and softe, through the
attemperaunce of that moysture and heate, man there first to haue bene
fourmed, and there to haue gladlier enhabited (as natiue and naturall vnto
him) then in any other place, when all places ware as yet straunge, and
vnknowen, whiche aftre men soughte. Beginnyng therfore at them, after I
haue shewed how the worlde is deuided into thre partes (as also this
treatise of myne) and haue spoken a litle of Aphrique, I wyll shewe the
situacion of Aethiope, and the maners of that people, and so forthe of al
other regions and peoples, with suche diligence as we can.

The thirde Chapitre.

The deuision and limites of the Earthe.

Those that haue bene before our daies, (as Orosius writeth) are of opinion,
that the circuite of the earth, bordered about with the Occean Sea:
disroundyng hym self, shooteth out thre corner wise, and is also deuided
into thre seuerall partes, Afrike, Asie, and Europe. Afrike is parted from
Asie with the floude of Nilus, whiche comyng fro the Southe, ronneth
through Ethiope into Egipte, where gently sheadyng hymself ouer his
bancques, he leaueth in the countrie a marueilous fertilitie, and passeth
into the middle earth sea, with seuen armes. From Europe it is separate
with the middle earth sea, whiche beginnyng fro the Occean aforesaied: at
the Islande of Gades, and the pileurs of Hercules, passeth not tenne miles
ouer. But further entryng in, semeth to haue shooued of the maigne lande on
bothe sides, and so to haue won a more largenesse. Asie is deuided from
Europe, with Tanais the floude, whiche comyng fro the North, ronneth into
the marshe of Meotis almoste midwaie, and there sincking himself, leaueth
the marshe and Pontus Euxinus, for the rest of the bounde. And to retourne
to Afrike again, the same hauyng Nilus as I saied on the Easte, and on all
other partes, bounded with the sea, is shorter then Europe, but broader
towarde the Occean, where it riseth into mounteigne. And shoryng towarde
the Weste, by litle and litle waxeth more streighte, and cometh at thende
to a narowe poincte. Asmuche as is enhabited therof, is a plentuous soile,
but the great parte of it lieth waste, voide of enhabitauntes, either to
whote [Footnote: Too hot.] for menne to abide, or full of noisome and
venemous vermine, and beastes, or elles so whelmed in sande and grauell,
that there is nothing but mere barreinesse. The sea that lieth on the
Northe parte, is called Libicum, that on the Southe Aethiopicum, and the
other on the West Atlanticum.

At the first the whole was possest by fower sondrie peoples. Of the whiche,
twaine (as Herodotus writeth) ware founde there, tyme out of minde, and the
other twaine ware alienes and incommes. The two of continuance, ware the
Poeni, and Ethiopes, whiche dwelte, the one at the Northe of the lande, the
other at the South. The Alienes, the Phoenices, the Grekes, the old
Ethiopians, and the Aegipcienes, if it be true that thei report of
themselues. At the beginnyng thei were sterne, and vnruly, and bruteshely
liued, with herbes and with fleshe of wilde beastes, without lawe or rule,
or facion of life, roilyng and rowmyng vpon heade, heather and thether
without place of abode, where night came vpon them, there laiyng their
bodies to reste. Afterwarde (as thei saie) Hercules passyng the seas out of
Spaine, into Libie (a countrie on the Northe shore of Afrike) and bringyng
an ouerplus of people thence with hym, somewhat bettre facioned and manered
then thei, trained them to muche more humanitie. And of the troughes
[Footnote: Ships.] thei came ouer in, made themselues cotages, and began to
plante in plompes [Footnote: Clumps, bodies.] one by another. But of these
thinges we shall speake here aftre more at large.

Afrike is not euery place a like enhabited. For toward the Southe it lieth
for the moste part waste, and vnpeopled, for the broilyng heate of that
quatre. But the part that lieth ouer against Europe, is verie well
enhabited. The frutefulnesse of the soile is excedyng, and to muche
merueillous: as in some places bringyng the siede with a hundred folde
encrease. It is straunge to beleue, that is saied of the goodnesse of the
soile of the Moores. The stocke of their vines to be more then two menne
can fadome, and their clousters of Grapes to be a cubite long. The
coronettes of their Pasnepes, and Gardein Thistles (whiche we calle
Hortichokes) as also of their Fenelle, to be twelue Cubites compasse. Their
haue Cannes like vnto those of India, whiche may contein in the compasse of
the knot, or iointe, the measure of ij. bushelles. Ther be sene also
Sparagi, of no lesse notable bigguenesse. Toward the mounte Atlas trees bee
founde of a wondrefull heigth, smothe, and without knaggue or knotte, vp to
the hard toppe, hauyng leaues like the Cypres, but of all other the moste
noble Citrus, wherof the Romaines made great deintie. Affrike hath also
many sondrie beastes, and Dragones that lye in awaite for the beastes, and
when thei se time, so bewrappe and wreathe them aboute, that takyng fro
theim the vse of their ioynctes, thei wearie them and kille theim. There
are Elephantes, Lyons, Bugles, Pardales, Roes, and Apes, in some places
beyonde nombre. There are also Chamelopardales and Rhizes, like vnto
Bulles. Herodote writeth, that there be founde Asses with hornes, Hienas
Porpentines, wilde Rambes, a beast engendered of the Hiene and the Woulfe
named Thoas, Pantheres, Storckes, Oistruthes, and many kindes of serpentes,
as Cerastes, and Aspides, against whom nature hath matched the Ichneumon (a
verie little beast) as a mortall enemie.

The. iiij. Chapitre.

Of Ethiope, and the auncient maners of that nation.

Two countreies there ware of that name Ouerlanders, and Netherlanders. The
one pertaynyng to Aphrique, the other to Asie. The one whiche at this daie
is called Inde, hath on the east the redde sea, and the sea named
Barbaricum, on the northe it toucheth vpon Egypte, and vpon that Libie that
standeth on the vtter border of Afrike toward the sea. On the west it is
bounded with the other Libie that standeth more into the mayne londe. The
residue that runneth toward the south, ioyneth vpon the netherland Ethiope,
whiche lyeth more southerly, and is muche greater. It is thought that these
Ethiopes toke name of Ethiopus Vulcanes sonne, that (as Plinie saieth) was
gouernour there. Or els of the Greke wordes aythoo and ops, whereof the
former signifieth to broyle, or to bourne vp with heate, and the other, in
the eye or sight. Whiche sheweth in effecte, that the countreie lyeng in
the eye of the Sonne, it must nedes be of heate almost importable. As in
diede it lyeth in the full course of the sonne, and is in continuall heate.
Toward the weast it is hilly, in the middes grauell and sande, and on the
easte waste and deserte. There be in it dyuers peoples of sondry phisonomy
and shape, monstruous and of hugly shewe. They are thought (as I saied) to
haue bene the fyrst of all men, and those whiche of all other maye
truelyest be called an homeborne people. Neuer vnder the bondage of any:
but euer a free nacion. The first wae of worshippyng God (say thei) was
deuised and taught emonge theim: with the maners and ceremonies there to
appertinent. They had two kyndes of letters, one, whiche ware knowen onely
to their priestes for matters of Religion, whiche they called misticall,
and another for the vse of the people hidden from none. Yeat ware not their
Letters facioned to ioyne together in sillables like ours, but Ziphres, and
shapes of men and of beastes, of heades, and of armes, and artificers
tooles, which signified in sondrie wise echone accordyng to his propertie.
As by the picture of an hauke swiftenes and spiede, by the shape of a
crocodile [Transcriber's note: 'crocoiled' in original] displeasure or
misfortune, by the figure of an eye, good watche or regarde, and so forthe
of other. Emong their priestes, loke whome they sawe startle aboute as
haulfe wood, [Footnote: Mad, from the Saxon _wod_. See "Two Gentlemen of
Verona," ii., 3, and "Mids. N. Dr.," ii., 3.] him did iudge of all
othermooste holy, and making him their king, they fall downe and worship
him, as thoughe there ware in him a Godhead, or as thoughe at the least he
ware by goddes prouidence giuen them. This king for al that, must be
gouerned by the lawe, and is bounde to all thinges after thorde of the
contry. He his selfe maye neither punishe or guerdon any manne. But loke
vpon whome he wyl haue execution done, he sendeth the minister appoincted
for the purpose, to the person with a token of deathe: whiche when he hath
shewed, the officier retourneth, and the persone what soeuer he be,
incontinent fordoeth him self. So greatly ware they giuen to thee honour of
their kynges, suche a feruencie had they towarde them, that if it fortuned
the king through any mishap, to be maymed or hurte in any parte of his
bodye, as many as ware towarde him, namely of householde, voluntarily
woulde giue them selues the lyke hurt, thincking it an vnfitting
[Transcriber's note: original 'unsitting'] thing the kynge to lacke an eye
or the vse of a legge, and his frindes neither to halt, ne yet to lacke
parte of their sight. Thei say it is the manier also, that when the king
dieth, his friendes should wilfully dispatche theim selues and die with
hym, for this compte they glorious and a testimony of very friendship. The
moste part of them, for that they lye so vnder the Sonne, go naked:
couering their priuities with shiepes tayles. But a feawe of them are clad
with the rawe felles [Footnote: Skin. "To feed on bones, when flesh and
fell is gone." _Gasc. Steel Glass_ (Chalm. Poet.), ii., 556, etc.] of
beastes. Some make them brieches of the heares of their heades vp to the
waeste. They are comonly brieders and grasiers in commune together. Their
shepe be of very small body, and of a harde and roughe coate. Their dogges
also are neuer a whitte bigger, but thei are fierce and hardie. They haue
good store of gromel and barly, wherof they vse to make drincke. All other
graine and fruictes thei lacke, excepte it be dates whiche also are verye
skante. Some of them lyue with herbes and the tender rootes of cannes or
Riedes. Other eate flesshe, milke, and chese. Meroe, was in time past the
heade citie of the kyngdome, whiche stondeth in an Isle of the same name
facioned like a shielde, stretching it self thre thousand furlong alongest
by Nilus. Aboute that Islande do the cattle masters dwelle, and are muche
giuen to hunting, and those that be occupied with tilthe of the grounde
haue also mines of gold. Herodotus writeth that thethiopians named
Macrobij, do more estieme latten then thei do golde whiche thei put to
nothyng that thei compt of any price. In so muche that the Ambassadours of
Cambises, when thei came thether, found the prisoners in the gaole fettred
and tied with Chaines of golde. Some of theim sowe a kinde of graine called
Sesamus, and other the delicate Lothom. Thei haue greate plenty of Hebenum,
a woode muche like Guaiacum, and of Siliquastrum. Thei hunte Elephantes and
kyll them to eate. There be Lions, Rhinocerotes, Basiliskes, Pardales, and
Dragones, whiche I said enwrappe thelephauntes, and sucke them to death,
for their bloude. There be found the precious stones called the Iacinthe,
and the Prasne. There is also cinamome gathered. Thei occupie bowes of
woode seasoned in the fire, of foure cubites long. Women be trayned also to
the warres, and haue for the moste parte a ring of latton hanging throughe
their lippe. Certeine of theim worshippe the Sonne at his vprijste, and
curse him moste bitterly at his doune gate. Diuers of them throwe their
dead into Riuers, other cofer them vp in earthen cofres, some enclose them
in glasse, and kepe them in their houses a yeare, and in the meane season
worship them deuoutly, and offre vnto them the first of all their encreace.
In the naming of a newe king, they giue their voice chiefly to him that is
moste goodly of stature, moste conning in brieding of cattle, and of
strength and substance passing the reast. The lawe hath bene, that the
priestes of Memphis shoulde haue the aucthoritie to sende the Kinge the
token of deathe, and to set vp another in the place of the deade, whom they
thoughte good. They haue an opinion that ther are two Goddes, one
immortall, by whome all thinges haue their beginning and continuance vnder
his gouernement, and another mortall, and he is vncerteine. Their king, and
him that best deserueth of the city next vnto him, they honour as Goddes.
This was the state of Ethiope from the beginning, and many yeares sence.

But at this daye as myne Authour Sabellicus saieth that he learned of those
that are enhabitantes in that countrey: The King of Ethiope (whom we
commonly calle Pretoianes or Presbiter Ihon) is a man of suche power, that
he is reported to haue vndre him thre skore and two other kinges. If the
heade Bysshoppess of the Realme desire to do, or to haue aughte done, al is
referred vnto him. Of him be giuen al benefices, and spiritual promocions,
which prerogatiue the Pope hath giuen, to the maiestie of kinges. Yet is he
him selfe no priest, he hath any maner of ordres. There is of
Archebisshoppes (that is to say of superiour and head bisshoppes) a great
nombre, whiche haue euery one vndre them at the least twenty other. The
Princes, Dukes, Earles, and head Bishoppes, and suche other of like
dignitie, when they come abrode, haue a crosse, and a basine of golde
filled ful of earthe caried before them: that thone [Footnote: The one.]
maye put them in remembraunce that earth into earth must again be resolued,
and the other renewe the memory of Christes suffering. Their priestes to
haue yssue, mary one wyfe, but she ones beyng dead, it is vnlawfull to mary
another. The temples and churches ther, are muche larger, much richer, and
more gorgeous then ours, for the moste part voulted from the floore to the
toppe. They haue many ordres of deuout men, moche like to our ordres of
Religious: as the ordre of S. Anthony, Dominique, Calaguritani, Augustines,
and Machareanes, whiche are bound to no colour but weare some suche one as
Tharchebysshoppe shall allowe. Next vnto the supreame and souereigne GOD,
and Mary the virgin his mother, they haue moste in honour Thomas sirnamed
Didimus. This King, of all other the worthiest, whome they call Gias (a
name giuen him of his mightiness and power) is of the bloud of Dauid,
continued from one generation to another (as they are perswaded) by so many
yeres of succession. And he is not as the moste of the Ethiopians are,
blacke, but white. Gamma the chiefe citie, and as we terme it the chambre
of the king, stondeth not by building of masonrie, and carpentrie as ours,
but strieted with tentes and pauilions placed in good ordre, of veluet and
saten, embrauded with silkes and purples of many diuers sortes. By an
auncient ordre of the realme, the king liueth euer in presence and sighte
of his people, and neuer soiourneth within the walles aboue two daies.
Either for that they iudge it an vncomely thing, and a token of delicate
slouthfulnes, or elles for that some law doth forbid it. His army in the
warres is ten hundred thousande men, fiue hundred Elephantes, and horses,
and Cameles, a wonderfull nomber, and this is but a meane preparacion. Ther
are througheout the whole nacion certeine houses and stockes, that are
pencionaries at armes, whose issue is as it ware branded with the marcke of
the crosse, the skinne beyng pretely slitte. Thei vse in the warres, Bowe,
Pique, Habregeon, and helmette. Their highest dignitie is priesthode, the
next, thordre of the Sages, whiche thei cal Balsamates, and Tamquates. They
attribute moche also to the giltelesse and vprighte dealing man, whiche
vertue they estieme as the firste staier to climbe to the dignitie of the
sages. The nobilitie hath the thirde place of dignitie, and the
pencionaries aforesaid, the fourthe. When the iudges haue giuen sentence of
life, or of deathe, the sentence is brought to the headborough of the Citie
(whom we call the Mayour) and they Licomegia: he supplieth the place of the
King. Lawes written thei occupy none, but iudge accordyng to reason and
conscience. If any man be conuict of adulterie he forfeicteth the fourtieth
parte of his goodes, but thadulteresse is punished at home, accordyng to
the discretion of the partie offended. The men giue dowrie to those whom
thei mary withal, but not to those that thei purchase besides. Their womens
attire is of Golde, (whereof that country hathe plentie) of pearle, and of
Sarsenette. Bothe men and women are apparelled in long garmentes downe to
the foote, slieued, and close rounde aboute of al maner of colours, sauing
only blacke for that in that contry is proper for morning. They bewaile
their dead xl. daies space. In bancquettes of honour, in the place of our
fruicte (which the latine calleth the seconde boorde) they serue in rawe
flesshe very finely minced and spiced, whervpon the gestes fiede very
licouricely. [Footnote: Gluttonously, daintily. (N. Wiley's Dictionary,
1737).] They haue no maner of wollen webbe, but are eyther cladde in
sarsenettes, or in linnen. One maner of speache serueth not througheout the
whole contry, but sondry and diuerse, aswel in phrase as in naming of
thinges. Thei haue twise in the yere haruest, and twise in the yere somer.
These Ethiopians or Indianes excepted, al the reste of the people of Libia
Westward, are worshippers of Mahomet, and liue aftre the same sorte in
maner, that the Barbariens do in Egipte at this present, and are called
Maures, or Moores, as I thincke of their outleapes and wilde rowming. For
that people was no lesse noysome to Lybie in those cursed tymes (when so
greate mutacion of thinges happened, when peoples ware so chaunged, suche
alteration of seruice, and religion broughte in, and so many newe names
giuen vnto contries) then the Sarasens ware.

The v. Chapiter

Of Aegipte, and the auncient maners of that people.

Aegipte is a Countrie lying in Affrike, or as some hold opinion, borderyng
thervpon, so named of Aegiptus, Danaus brother, where afore it was called
Aeria. This Aegipte (as Plinie recordeth in his fiueth boke) toucheth on
the East, vppon the redde Sea, and the land of Palestine; On the West
fronteth vpon Cirene, and the residue of Afrike. On the South it stretcheth
to Aethiope: And on the Northe is ended with the sea, to whom it giueth
name. The notable Cities of that Countrie, were in tyme past, Thebes,
Abydos, Alexandrie, Babilon, and Memphis, at this daie called Damiate,
alias Chairas or Alkair, and the seate of the Soldan, a citie of notable
largenesse. In Aegipt as Plato affirmeth, it was neuer sene rain. But Nilus
suppliyng that defaulte, yerely about saincte Barnabies tide, with his
ouerflowynges maketh the soile fertile. It is nombred of the moste parte of
writers, emong the Islandes: For that Nilus so parteth hymself aboute it,
that he facioneth it triangle wise.

The Aegiptians firste of all other, deuised the names of the twelue Goddes,
builte vp Altares, and Images, erected Chappelles and Temples, and graued
in stone the similitude of many sondrie beastes. All whiche their doynges,
dooe manifestly make, that thei came of the Aethiopes, who (as Diodore the
Sicilian saieth) ware the firste inuentours of all these. Their women in
old tyme, had all the trade of occupiyng, and brokage [Footnote: To _broke_
i.e. to deal, or transact business particularly of an amorous character.
(See Fansh. Lusiad, ix., 44; and Daniel, Queen's Arcadia, iii., 3.)]
abrode, and reuelled at the Tauerne, and kepte lustie chiere: And the men
satte at home spinnyng, and woorkyng of Lace, and suche other thynges as
women are wonte. The men bare their burdeins on the heade, the women on the
shulder. In the easemente of vrine, the men rowked [Footnote: To bend.]
doune, the women stoode vprighte. The easemente of ordure thei vsed at
home, but commonly feasted abrode in the stretes. No woman tooke ordres,
either of God or Goddesse. Their maner of ordres, is not to make seuerally
for euery Goddesse and God, a seuerall priest, but al at a shuffe, in
generall for all. Emong the whiche, one is an heade, whose sonne enheriteth
his roume by succession. The men children, euen of a custome of that
people, did with good wil kepe their fathers and mothers, but the women
children (yf they refused it) ware compelled. The moste part of men in
solempne burialles, shaue their heades, and let theyr beardes growe, but
Thegiptians shaued their beardes and let their heades grow. They wrought
their doughe with their fiete, and their claye with their handes. As the
Grecians do beleue, this people, and their ofspring, are they that vsed
circumcision. Thei ordre their writyng from their right hande towarde their
left, contrary to vs. It was the maner emong them, that the menne should
weare two garmentes at ones, the women but one. As the Aethiopes had, so
learned they of them, two maner of lettres; the one seuerall to the
priestes thother vsed in commune. Their priestes, euery thirde daye shaued
their bodies, that there might be none occasion of filthinesse when they
shold ministre or sacrifie. Thei did were garmentes of linnen, euer cleane
wasshed, and white: and shoes of a certeine kinde of russhes, named
Papyrus, whiche aftre became stuffe, to geue name to our paper. They
neither sette beane their selues, ne eate them where soeuer they grewe: ne
the priest may not loke vpon a beane, for that it is iudged an vncleane
puls. They are wasshed euery daye in colde water thrise, and euery nighte
twise. The heades of their sacrifices (for that they vsed to curse them
with many terrible woordes) did they not eate, but either the priestes
solde them to such strangiers as had trade emonge them, or if there ware no
suche ready in time, they threwe them in to Nilus.

All the Egiptians offer in sacrifice, neither cowe, ne cowe calfe, because
they are hallowed to Isis their goddesse, but bulles and bulle calues, or
oxen, and stieres. For their meate they vse, moche a kynde of pancake, made
of rye meale. For lacke of grapes they vse wyne made of Barly. They liue
also with fisshe, either dried in the Sonne and so eaten rawe, or elles
kept in pikle. They fiede also vpon birdes, and foules, firste salted, and
then eaten rawe. Quaile, and mallard, are not but for the richer sorte. At
all solempne suppers, when a number is gathered, and the tables withdrawen,
some one of the company carieth aboute in an open case, the image of death,
caruen out of woode, or drawen with the pencille as niere to the vine as is
possible, of a cubite, or two cubites long at the moste. Who shewyng it
aboute to euery of the gestes, saieth, loke here: drinke and be mery, for
aftre thy death, suche shall thou be. The yonger yf they miete their
auncient, or bettre vpon the way, giue them lace, going somewhat aside: or
yf the aunciente fortune to come in place where they are sitting, they
arise out of their seate, wherein they agre with the Lacedemoniens. When
they miete in the waye, they do reuerence to eche other, bowing their
bodies, and letting fall their handes on their knees. They weare long
garments of lynnen, hemmed about the skirtes beneth, which the call
Casiliras: ouer the which they throwe on another white garment also. Wollen
apparelle thei neither weare to the churche, ne bewry any man in.

Nowe for asmoche as they afore time that euer excelled in anye kinde of
learning, or durste take vppon them, to prescribe lawe, and rule of life
vnto to other, as Orpheus, Homeire, Museus, Melampode, Dedalus, Licurgus,
Solon, Plato, Pithagoras, Samolxis, Eudoxus, Democritus, Inopides, and
Moses the Hebrue, with manye other, whose names the Egiptians glorie to be
cronicled with theim: trauelled first to the Egiptians, to learne emongest
them bothe wisedome, and politique ordre (wherein at those daies they
passed all other) me thinketh it pleasaunte and necessarie also, to stande
somewhat vpon their maners, ceremonies and Lawes, that it may be knowen
what they, and sondry more haue borowed of them, and translated vnto other.
For (as Philip Beroalde writeth in his commentary vpon Apuleius booke,
entituled the Golden Asse) the moste parte of the deuices that we vse in
our Christian religion, ware borowed out of the maner of Thegiptians. As
surpluis and rochet, and suche linnen garmentes: shauen crownes, tourninges
at the altare, our masse solempnities, our organes, our knielinges,
crouchinges, praiers, and other of that kinde. The kinges of Egipte (saieth
Diodore the Sicilian in his seconde booke) liued not at rouers [Footnote:
From the expression _to shoot at rovers_, i.e., at a mark, but with an
elevation, not point blank.] as other kinges doe, as thoughe me lusteth
ware lawe, but bothe in their monie collections, and daily fare and
apparell, folowed the bridle of the lawe. They had neither slaue that was
homeborne, ne slaue that was forein bought, appointed to attende or awaite
vpon them. But the sonnes of those that ware priestes of honour, bothe
aboue thage of twenty yeres, and also singulerly learned. That the king
hauing these attendant for the body both by daie and by night, restrained
by the reuerence of the company about hym might commit nothing that was
vicious, or dishonourable. For men of power are seldome euil, where they
lacke ministres for their vnlawfull lustes. There ware appoincted houres,
both of the daie and the night, in the whiche the kinge mighte lawfully
doe, what the Lawe did permit. In the morning, assone as he was ready, it
behoued him to peruse al lettres, supplicacions, and billes: that knowing
what was to be done, he might giue aunswer in tyme: that all thinges might
rightlie, and ordrely be done. These being dispatched, when he had washed
his bodie emong the Pieres of the Realme, he put on some robe of estate,
and Sacrificed to the goddes. The maner was, that the Primate, or head of
the spiritualty (the beastes appoincted for the sacrifices being brought
harde to the altare, and the Kyng standing by) should with a loude voyce,
in the hearing of the people, wysshe to the king (that bare him selfe
iustely towarde his subiectes) prosperous healthe, and good fortune in all.
And should further particulerly recite the vertues of the king, his
deuoutnes and reuerence towarde God, and clemency towarde men. Commende him
as chaste, iuste, and vpright: of noble and great coinage, sothfaste,
liberal, and one that well brideled al his desires. Punisshing thoffendour
vnder his desertes, and rewarding the well doer aboue his merites. Making a
processe of these, and such other like: in the ende with the rehersalle of
the contrary vices, he cursed the wicked and euil. Then absoluing the King
of his offences, he laied all the faulte vpon the ministres, and
attendauntes, that should at any time moue the king to any thing vnright,
or vnlawfull. These thinges beinge done, he preached vnto the King the
blessednes of the life, led accordyng to the pleasure of the goddes, and
exhorted him thervnto: as also to frame his maners and doinges vnto vertue,
and not to giue eare to that, that leude men should counsaile him, but to
followe those thynges that led vnto honour and vertue. In thende, whan the
King had sacrificed a bulle, the priest declared certain preceptes and
examples of excellente, and moste worthy men: written in their holy
scripture. To thende that the Kynge admonisshed by the example of theim,
might ordre his gouernaunce iustlye, and godly, and not geue hym selfe to
couetous cloinyng, [Footnote: Probably from the old French, _encloyer_, to
glut, or surfeit.] and hourdyng of tresure. He neither satte to iudge, ne
toke his vocacion, ne walked abrode, ne washed at home, ne laye with his
Quiene, ne finally did any maner of thing, but vpon the prescripte of the

Their fare was but simple, nothing but veale, and goose, and their wine by
measure appoincted. So that thone should nether ouerlade the bealy, ne the
other the heade. To conclude, their whole life so bounde vpon temperaunce,
that it might be thoughte raither to haue bene prescribed them by a
discrete Phisicen to preserue helthe, then by a politique Lawyer. It
siemeth wondrefull that the Egiptians mighte not rule their owne priuate
life, but by the Lawes. But it semeth more wonderfull that their King had
no liberty of him selfe, either to sitte in iudgement, to make collections
of money, or topunishe any man, vpon wilfulnes, stoute stomacke, angre,
displeasure, or anye vniuste cause: But to be holden vnder lawe as a
commune subiecte, and yet not to be agreued therwith, but to thincke them
selues moste blessed in obeyeng and folowyng the lawe, and other in
folowing their lustes most vnhappy, as being led by them into many
daungiers, and damages. For suche oftentimes, euen when they know them
selues to do euill, either ouercome with malice, and hatred, or some other
mischiefe of the minde, are not able to witholde theim selues from the
euille. But they which by wisedome and discretion, gouerne their liues,
offende in fewe thinges. The kinges vsing suche an equitie, and vprightnes
towarde their subdites, are so tendred againe of them, that not onely the
priestes, but all the Egiptians in generall, haue more care for the health
and the welfare of the King, then for their wiues, their children, or any
other princes.

He that to his death continueth in this goodnesse, him being dead, do they
in general lamente. They teare their clothes, they shut vp the churche
dores, they haunte no place of wonte commune concourse, they omytte all
solempne holy daies: and girding them selues vnder the pappes with brode
Ribbond of Sarsenet, two or thre hundred on a company, men and women
together, renewe euery daye twise, thre skore and xii. daies together, the
buriall bewailing, casting dirte on their heades, and singing in rithme the
vertue of the Kinge. They absteine from al flesshe of beastes, all meates
that touche fire, all wine and all preparation of seruice at the table.
They bathe not, thei smel of no swietes, they go to no beddes, they
pleasure not in women: but as folkes that had buried their beste beloued
childe, all that continuance of time they lamente. During these seuenty and
two daies (hauyng prepared all thinges necessarie for the funerall pompe):
the laste daye of all, the bodie beyng enbaulmed and cofred, is sette
before the entrie of the Toombe. Thereaftre the custome, one redeth an
abridgemente of all the thinges done by the king in his life. And if there
be any man disposed to accuse the deade, libertie is giuen him. The
priestes are present, and euer giue praise to his well doings, as they be
recited. There stondeth also rounde about the Toombe a multitude of the
communes, which with their voices allowe asmuche as is trew, and crie out
vpon that, that is false, with vehement gainsaienges. Wherby it hath
happened, that sondry kynges by the repugnynges of the people haue lien
vntoombed: and haue lacked the honoure of bewrialle, that the good are
wonte to haue. That feare, hath driuen the kynges of Aegipte, to liue
iustly, and vprightly, lesse the people aftre their deathes, might shewe
them suche dishonour, and beare them perpetuall hatred. This was the maner
specially, of the aunciente kynges there.

The whole realme of Egipte was diuided into Shieres: and to euery Shiere
was appoincted a Presidente, whiche had the gouernaunce of the whole
Shiere. The reuenewes of the realme ware diuided into iii. partes: whereof
the companie of the priestes had the first parte, which ware in greate
estimacion emong them, both for the administration of Goddes Seruice, and
also for the good learnyng, wherin thei brought vp many. And this porcion
was giuen theim, partely for the administracion of the Sacrifices, and
partely for the vse and commoditie of their priuate life. For thei neither
thincke it mete, that any parte of the honour of the Goddes should bee
omitted, or that thei, whiche are Ministres of the commune counsaill and
profecte, should be destitute of necessary commodities of the life. For
these menne are alwaie in matters of weighte, called vpon by the nobles,
for their wisedome and counsaille: And to shewe (as thei can by their
connyng in the Planettes, and Starres, and by the maner of their
Sacrifices) the happe of thinges to come. Thei also declare vnto them, the
stories of men of olde tyme, regested in their holy Scripture, to the ende
that accordyng to them the kynges maie learne what shall profighte, or
disprofighte. For the maner is not emong them, as it is emong the Grecians,
that one manne, or one woman, shoulde attende vpon the sacrifices and
Ceremonies alone: but thei are many at ones aboute the honour of their
Goddes, and teache the same ordre to their children. This sorte of menne is
priuileged, and exempte from all maner of charges, and hath next vnto the
kyng, the second place of dignitie and honour.

The second portion cometh to the king to maintein his owne state, and the
charges of the warres: and to shewe liberalitie to men of prowesse
according to their worthinesse. So that the Communes are neither burdoned
with taxes nor tributes.

The thirde parte do the pencionaries of the warres receiue, and suche other
as vpon occasions are moustered to the warres: that vpon the regard of the
stipende, thei maie haue the better good wille and courage, to hasarde
their bodies in battaile. Their communaltie is deuided into thre sortes of
people. Husbande men, Brieders of cattle, and men of occupacion. The
Husband-men buyeng for a litle money a piece of grounde of the Priestes,
the king, or the warriour: al the daies of their life, euen from their
childhode, continually applie that care. Whereby it cometh to passe, that
bothe for the skoolyng that thei haue therin at their fathers handes, and
the continuall practisyng fro their youthe, that thei passe all other in

The Brieders, aftre like maner, learnyng the trade of their fathers,
occupie their whole life therabout. We see also that al maner of Sciences
haue bene much bettred, yea, brought to the toppe of perfection, emong the
Egiptians. For the craftes men there, not medlyng with any commune matiers
that mighte hindre theim, emploie them selues onely to suche sciences as
the lawe doeth permit them, or their father hath taught them. So that thei
neither disdaine to be taughte, nor the hatred of eche other, ne any thing
elles withdraweth them from their crafte.

Their Iudgementes and Sentences of lawe, are not there at giuen aduenture,
but vpon reason: for thei surely thought that all thinges well done, muste
niedes be profitable to mannes life. To punishe the offendours, and to
helpe the oppressed, thoughte thei the best waie to auoide mischiefes. But
to buye of the punishmente for money or fauour, that thought thei to be the
very confusion of the commune welfare. Wherefore thei chase out of the
chief cities (as Heliopole, Memphis, and Thebes) the worthiest men, to be
as Lordes chief Iustice, or Presidentes of Iudgementes, so that their
Iustice benche did sieme to giue place, neither to the Areopagites of the
Athenienses, ne yet to the Senate of the Lacedemonians that many a daie
after theim ware instituted. Aftre what tyme these chief Iustices ware
assembled (thirtie in nombre) thei chase out one that was Chauncellour of
the whole: and when he failed, the citie appoincted another in his place.
All these had their liuynges of the kyng: but the Chauncellour more
honorably then the rest. He bare alwaie about his necke a tablette, hangyng
on a chaine of golde, and sette full of sundrie precious stones, whiche
thei called Veritie and Truthe. The courte beyng set and begunne, and the
tablet of Truthe by the Chauncellour laied furthe, and theight bookes of
their lawes (for so many had thei) brought furth into the middes emong

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