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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, by Richard Hakluyt

Part 7 out of 7

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When this commandement shall come vnto you, know you, that the Consull of
the English Nation in our port of Patrasso, hath giuen vs to vnderstand,
that formerly we granted him a commandement that hauing paied once custome
for the currants bought to lade in their ships, they shall not pay it
again: according to which they bringing it to the port of Patrasso,
informing thereof Mahomet the Nadir of Lepanto, he contrary to the tenor
thereof and former order, doth againe take another custome of him, and
requiring him to know why he so did contrary to our commandement, he
answered vs, he tooke it not for custome, but for a present. Moreouer the
sayd Consull certified vs how that the said Nadir contrary to ancient
custome doth not take for the kings right as he ought currents, but will
haue of the poore men money at his pleasure, and therewith buyeth currents
at a very low price, which after he doth forcibly sell to vs at a much
higher price, saying it is remainder of the goods of the king, and by this
meanes doth hurt the poore men and do them wrong. Wherefore I command you
by this my commandement, that you looke to this matter betweene this
Consull, the Nadir, and this people, and do therein equally according to
right. And see that our commandement in this matter be obserued in such
sort, as they hauing once in the port paied full custome, do not pay it
againe, neither that this Nadir do take any more money of them by the way
of present, for that therein it is most certaine he doth them iniurie
contrarie to the Canon. And if with you shall be found to the value of one
Asper taken heretofore wrongfully of them, see it presently restored to
them, without any default. And from hencefoorth see that he doe neither him
nor his people wrong, but that he deale with them in all things according
to our Canon, that the Consull and his hereafter haue no occasion any more
to complaine here in our Court, and that the Nadir proceed in gathering
corants of the people after the old order and not otherwise. This know you
for certaine, and giue credit to this my commaundement, which hauing read
deliuer againe into the Consuls handes. From Constantinople the yeere of
Mahomet 993.

* * * * *

A commandement for Chio.

Vobis, Beg et Cadi et Ermini, qui estis in Chio, significamus: quod
serenissima Regina Maiestatis Anglia orator, qui est in excelsa porta per
literas significauit nobis, quod ex nauibus Anglicis vna nauis venisset ad
portum Chio, et illinc Constantinopolim recto cursu voluisset venire, et
contra priuilegium detinuistis, et non siuistis venire. Hac pradictus
orator significauit nobis; et petiuit a nobis in hoc negocio hoc mandatum,
vt naues Anglica veniant et redeant in nostras ditiones Casareas.
Priuilegium datum et concessum est ex parte Serenitatis Casarea nostra: et
huius priuilegij copia data est sub insigni nostro: Et contra nostrum
priuilegium Casareum quod ita agitur, qua est causa? Quando cum hoc mandato
nostro homines illorum ad vos venerint ex pradicta Anglia, si nauis venerit
ad portum vestrum, et si res et merces ex naue exemerint, et vendiderint,
et tricessimam secumdam partem rediderint, et res qua manserint
Constantinopolim auferre velint, patiantur: Et si aliquis contra
priuilegium et articulos eius aliquid ageret, non sinatis, nec vos facite:
et impediri non sinatis eos, vt recta Constantinopolim venientes in suis
negotiationibus sine molestia esse possint. Et quicunque contra hoc
mandatum et priuilegium nostrum aliquid fecerit, nobis significate. Huic
mandato nostro et insigni fidem adhibete. In principio mensis Decembris.

* * * * *

A commandement for Baliabadram.

Serenissima Regina Anglia orator literis supplicatorijs in porta nostra
fulgida significauit, quod Baliabadram venientes mercatores, naues et
homines eorum, contra priuilegium impedirentur et molestarentur. Inter nos
enim et Reginam cum foedus sit, vt mercatores, homines et naues eorum
contra priuilegium impediantur aut molestentur, nullo vnquam pacto
concedimus. Mandamus igitur, vt litera nostra Casarea, quam primum tibi
exhibita fuerint, has in persona propria cures, secundum quod conuenit,
videasque ex Anglia Baliabadram cum mercibus venientibus mercatoribus, et
alias ob causas venientibus hominibus, in summa Angliensibus et nauibus
eorum, et in nauibus existentibus mercibus et rebus contra foedus et
priuilegium, iniuria, vis aut damnum non inferatur: sed, vt conuenit,
defendas, vt naues, mercatores, et homines, nostri velut proprij subditi,
liberi ab omni vi et iniuria permaneant; et negotijs suis incumbant. Et
quod ilius loci Ianisseri illos impedirent, significatum est: vt illi illis
nocumento sint nullo modo concedimus. Iuxta tenorem mandata huius illos
commonefacias, vt nihil quicquam contra foedas faciant, ita vt nunquam
huiusmodi querela huc veniat, quia quicquid acciderit, a te expostulabimus.
Negligentiam postponito, et insigni Casareo fidem adhibeto.

* * * * *

A commaundement for Egypt.

Scito quod orator Regina Anglia in porta mea existens libellum supplicem ad
portam nostram mittens significauit, quod cum ex Agypto Consul eorum
abesset, Consul illic Gallicus existens, Vento nuncupatus, quamuis ante hac
tempora ne manus in Anglos mitteret mandatum nostrum fuerit datum, Angli
sub vexillo et tutela nostra sunt inquiens, mandatum Casareum vili
existimans, non cessauit perturbare Anglos. Quare scito quod Regina Anglia
priuilegium nostrum est datum. Iuxta illud priuilegium Anglis nulla ratione
Consul Gallicus Consulatum agat, neue manus immittat, mandatum nostrum
postulauit eius legatus. Quare mando, vt contra priuilegium nostrum Consul
Gallicus Anglis iniuriam non inferat, neue Consulatum agat. Iudici Agypti
litera nostra sunt data: hanc ob causam mando tibi quoque, vt iuxta illud
mandatum nostrum, contra priuilegium nostrum Anglis Gallum Consulatum agere
nunquam patiare. Sic scito, et insigni meo fidem adhibeto.

* * * * *

A commaundement of the Grand Signior to the Cadie or Iudge of Alexandria.

The Embassadour for the Queenes most excellent Maiestie of England
certified vs howe that at the death of one of their marchants in Alexandria
called Edward Chamberlaine, the French Consul Vento sealing vp his fondego
and chamber, tooke vnder his seale al his goods and merchandise into his
power, and required our commandement that all the goods might be restored
againe according to iustice vnto the Englishmen: wherefore we commaund you
that hauing receiued this our commandement, you assemble those of the one
part and of the other together, and if it be not passed fiue yeeres, if you
haue not looked to it heretofore, now carefully looke to it, and if it be
according to their Arz or certificate presented vnto vs, that the foresaid
French Consull Vento hath wrongfully taken into his power the goods of the
deceased English marchant vnder his seale, that then you cause him to
restore all the said goods and marchandise sealed by him, and make good
that which is thereof wanting vnto the English marchants: doe in this
matter according to iustice, and credite this our seale.

* * * * *

A commandement to the Bassa of Alexandria.

The Embassadour for the Queenes most excellent Maiesty of England by
supplication certified vs, how that notwithstanding our priuilege granted
them to make Consuls in al parts of our dominions to gouerne their nation
according to their owne custome and law, to defend them against all wrongs
and iniuries whatsoeuer: yet that the French Consull affirming to thee that
art Bassa, that they were vnder his banner, and that he should gouerne
them, and ouersee their businesse, and hauing got a new priuilege,
mentioning therein the English men to be vnder his banner, did by all
meanes molest and trouble them, insomuch that their Consull oppressed with
many iniuries fled away, and that thou which art Beglerbie didst maintaine
the French Consul herein: whereupon the Embassadour required our
commandement, that they might haue iustice for these iniuries: wherefore we
commaunde thee that hauing receiued this our commandement, you examine
diligently that this priuilege, and send the copie thereof hither, and if
it be found that the French Consull Vento hath by subtilitie got the
aforesaid priuilege written, that you then see him punished, and suffer not
hereafter the French or Venetian Consuls to intermeddle with their
businesse. Obey this our commaundement, and giue credit to the seale.

* * * * *

A commaundement to the Byes, and Cadies of Metelin and Rhodes, and to all
the Cadies and Byes in the way to Constantinople.

To the Saniakbies of Rhodes and Metelin, to the Saniacbies bordering on the
sea coast, and to the Cadies in Rhodes and Metelin, and to the Ermins in
the other ports and coastes. This commaundement comming to you, know that
the Embassadour of England required of vs our commaundement that their
ships comming to Chio, and from thence to Constantinople; no man should
hurt them or offer any violence, either in the way on the sea or on the
land, or in the portes. I haue commaunded, that their ships comming to any
of the said places or ports with marchandise, if they themselues will, they
may sell their commodities, and as much, and as little as they will, and if
it be in a place where custome was not woont to be taken, hauing taken the
custome due by the olde Canon you suffer them not to bee iniuried, either
in the way, portes, or other places, but that they may come in quietnesse
to Constantinople, and certifie vs of those that be disobedient to our
commaundement, and giue credite to our seale. And hauing read this our
commandement, giue it to them againe.

* * * * *

A commaundement for Aleppo.

When my letters shal come vnto you, know that the Queene of England her
Embassador by supplication certified how that before this time we had giuen
our commaundement that the summe of 70 ducats, and other marchandize
belonging to one William Barret in Aleppo, now dead, saying he was a
Venetian, should be giuen to the Venetians. And if they did find that he
was not a Venetian, my will was that they should send all his goods and
marchandize to our port into my treasuries. But because that man was an
Englishman, the Embassadour required that the sayde goods might not be
diminished, but that they might be restored to one of their Englishmen.
This businesse was signified vnto vs in the nine hundred ninety and fourth
yere of Mahomet, and in the moneth of May the 10. day. This businesse
pertaineth to the Englishmen, who haue in their handes our priuilege,
according to which priuilege being in their hands let this matter be done.
Against this priuilege do nothing, aske nothing of them, but restore to
euery one his goods. And I command that when my commandement shall come
vnto you, you doe according to it. And if it be according as the
Ambassadour certified, that they haue the priuilege, peruse the same, looke
that nothing be committed against it and our league, and let none trouble
them contrarie to it, restore them their goods according to iustice, and
take heede diligently in this businesse: if another strange marchant be
dead, and his goods and marchandize be taken, if he be neither Venetian,
nor Englishman, let not his goods perish among you. Before this time one of
our Chauses called Cerkes Mahomet chaus was sent with our commaundement to
sende the money and marchandize of a dead marchant to our port, and
hitherto no letters or newes is come of this matter, for which you shall be
punished. Wherefore beware, and if he that is dead be neither Venetian nor
Englishman in veritie, doe not loose the goods of the said dead marchant,
vnder the name of a Venetian or Englishman, doe not to the discommoditie of
my treasurie, for after it will be hard to recouer it.

* * * * *

The voyage of Master Henry Austell by Venice and thence to Ragusa ouer
land, and so to Constantinople: and from thence by Moldauia, Polonia,
Silesia and Germanie to Hamburg, &c.

The 9. of Iune we tooke shipping at Harewich and the next day landed at the
Ramekins in the Isle of Walcheren with very stormy weather, and that night
went to Middleburch in the same Island.

The twelft we tooke shipping for Holland, and the 13. we landed at
Schiedam: and the same day went to Delft by boat, and so that night to the

The 17. we tooke shipping at Amsterdam, and the 18. we landed at

The 19. we tooke shipping and by the Zuydersee we passed that day the Vlie,
and so into the maine sea; And the next day we entred into the riuer of
Hamburg called the Elbe.

The 21. we came to anker in the same riuer before a towne of the bishop of
Breme called Staden, where they pay a certaine toll, and specially for
wine, and so that night wee landed at Hamburg, where we stayde three dayes.

The 24. wee departed from Hamburg in the company of Edward Parish Marchant,
and that day wee baited at Wyntson, and so ouer the heathes we left
Lunenburg on the left hand, and trauailed all that night.

The 25. we met with Master Sanders vpon the heathes, and passed by a towne
of the duke of Lunenburg called Geftherne, [Footnote: Gifhorn, on the river
Aller.] and from thence through many waters, wee lay that night within an
English mile of Brunswig.

The 27. we lay at Halberstat, which is a great towne subiect to the bishop
of that towne.

The 28. we baited at Erinsleiben: and there wee entred into the duke of
Saxon his countrey: and the same night we lay at a town called Eisleben,
where Martine Luther was borne. [Footnote: 10th November, 1483.]

The 29. we passed by Mansfield, where there are many Copper mines: and so
that night went to Neuburg vpon the riuer of Sala; [Footnote: Saale.] and
at that time there was a great faire.

30. we baited at a proper towne called Iena vpon the same riuer and the
same night wee lay at Cone vpon that riuer.

The first of Iuly we baited at Salfeld: and the same day we entred first
into the great woods of fine trees, and that night to Greuandal.

The second to dinner to Neustat.

The 3. day to dinner at Bamberg: and before wee came to the towne wee
passed the riuer of Mayne that runneth towards Arnfurt, and that night to

The 4. we came to Nurenberg, and there stayed two dayes.

The 6. to bed to Blayfield. [Footnote: Pleinfeld.]

The 7. we passed without Weissenburg to dinner at Monhaim, and that night
we passed the riuer of Danubius at Tonewertd, [Footnote: Donauwerth.] and
so to be to Nurendof.

The 8. we came to Augspurg, otherwise called Augusta, vpon the riuer of

The 9. we lay at Landsberg vpon the said riuer, in the duke of Bauars

The 10. to dinner at Suanego, [Footnote: Shongau.] and that night to
Hambers [Footnote: Amergan.] against the mountains, where the small toyes
be made.

The 11. to dinner to Parcberk, [Footnote: Partenkirch.] and that night to
Sefelt in the Archduke of Austria his countrey.

The 12. to dinner at Inspruck, and that night to bed at Landeck, where
there is a toll, and it is the place where Charles the fift and his brother
Ferdinand did meet. And there is a table of brasse with Latine letters in
memorie thereof.

The 13. we passed by Stizen, and dined at Prisena, and so that night to
Clusen. [Footnote: Autstell thus crossed the Alps by Trent and not by the
Brenner, which would seem the most direct route to Venice.]

The 14. to dinner at Bolsan and to bed at Neumark, and by the way we passed
the dangerous place, where so many murthers haue bene committed.

The 15. to dinner at Trent: That day we entred the borders of Italy, that
night to Lenigo. [Footnote: Probably a misprint for Levigo.]

The 16. to dinner at Grigno, where the last toll of the Emperour is: and so
we came by Chursa, which is a streight passage. And the keeper thereof is
drawne vp by a cord into his holde. And that night we went to Capana to bed
in the countrey of the Venetians.

The 17. to dinner at castle Franco: by the way we stayed at Taruiso, and
there tooke coche, and that night came to Mestre to bed.

The 18. in the morning we came to Venice, and there we stayed 15. dayes. In
which time the duke of Venice called Nicholas de Ponte died, and we saw his
burial. The Senators were continually shut vp together, as the maner is, to
chuse a new duke, which was not yet chosen when we departed from thence.

The 2. of August at night wee did embarke our selues vpon the Frigate of
Cattaro, an hauen neere Ragusa.

The 3. we came to a towne in Istria called Citta noua.

The 4. we came to Parenzo, and so that night to Forcera of the bishop.

The 5. we passed by Rouigno: and a litle beyond we met with 3. Galies of
the Venetians: we passed in the sight of Pola; and the same day passed the
gulfe that parteth Istria from Dalmatia. [Footnote: Gulf of Quarnero.]

The 6. of August we came to Zara in Dalmatia, a strong towne of the
Venetians: and so that night to Sebenico, which standeth in a marueilous
goodly hauen, with a strong castle at the entrie thereof.

The 7. we came to Lezina, and went not on shoore, but traueiled all night.

The 8. we passed by a very well seated towne called Curzola, which standeth
in an island of that name.

The 9. in the morning betimes we landed at Ragusa, and there stayed three
daies, where we found many friendly gentlemen.

The 11 being prouided of a Ianizarie we departed from Ragusa in the company
of halfe a dosen Marchants of that towne: and within 6 miles we entred into
the countrey of Seruia. So trauailing in barren and craggie mountaines for
the space of foure dayes, wee came by a small Towne of the Turkes called
Chiernisa, being the 14. of the moneth; and there wee parted from the

The 16. we dined in a Cauarsara hi a Towne called Focea, [Marginal note:
Or, Fochia.] [Footnote: Fotchia.] being then greatly infected with the

The 17. we lay by a Towne called Taslizea. [Footnote: Tachlidcha.]

The 20. we came to Nouibazar.

The 21. we parted from thence, trauailing stil in a countrey very ill
inhabited, and lying in the fields.

The 22. we passed within sight of Nicea. [Sidenote: Or, Nissa.]

The 23. we passed in sight of another towne called Circui: [Footnote:
Sharkei.] and about those places wee began to leaue the mountaines, and to
enter into a very faire and fertile countrey, but as euill inhabited as the
other, or worse.

The 27. we came to Sophia, where wee stayed three dayes, being our
Ianizaries home: and by good chance we lay in a Marchants house of Ragusa,
that came in company with vs from Nouibazar; and also wee had in company,
euer since wee came from Focea, a Turke which was a very good fellow, and
he kept with vs till we came very neere Constantinople.

The first of September we came to Philippopoli, which seemeth to be an
ancient towne, and standeth vpon the riuer of Stanuch. [Footnote: The

The 4. we came to Andrinopoli, a very great and ancient towne, which
standeth in a very large and champion [Footnote: Flat--"the Champion fields
with corn are seen," (Poor Robin, 1694).] countrey, and there the great
Turks mother doth lye, being a place, where the Emperours of the Turkes
were wont to lye very much.

The 5. we lay in one of the great Cauarzaras that were built by Mahomet
Bassha with so many goodly commodities.

The 6. we lay in another of them.

The 8. we came to Siliueri, [Footnote: Silivri.] which by report was the
last towne that remained Christian.

The 9. of September wee arriued at the great and most stately Citie of
Constantinople, which for the situation and proude seate thereof, for the
beautifull and commodious hauens, and for the great and sumptuous buildings
of their Temples, which they call Moschea, is to be preferred before all
the Cities of Europe. And there the Emperour of the Turkes then liuing,
whose name was Amurat, kept his Court and residence, in a marueilous goodly
place, with diuers gardens and houses of pleasure, which is at the least
two English miles in compasse, and the three parts thereof ioyne vpon the
sea: and on the Northeast part of the Citie on the other side of the water
ouer against the Citie is the Towne of Pera, where the most part of the
Christians do lye. And there also wee did lye. And on the North part of the
saide Towne is the Arsenal, where the Galies are built and doe remaine: And
on the Southside is all the Ordinance, artilerie, and houses of munition.
Note that by the way as wee came from Ragusa to Constantinople, wee left on
our right hand the Countreys of Albania, and Macedonia, and on the left
hande the countreys of Bosnia, Bulgaria, and the riuer of Danubius.

The 14. of September was the Turkes Beyram [Footnote: Bairam is the
designation of the only two festivals annually celebrated by the Turks and
other Mohammedan nations. The first is also called _Id-at-Fitr_, "the
festival of the interruption," alluding to the breaking of the universal
fast which is rigorously observed during the month Ramazan. It commences
from the moment when the new moon of the month Shewel becomes visible, the
appearance of which, as marking the termination of four weeks of abstinence
and restraint is looked for and watched with great eagerness. The second
festival, denominated _Id-al-Asha_ or _Kurban Bairam_, "the festival of the
sacrifices," is instituted in commemoration of Abraham offering his son
Isaac and is celebrated seventy days after the former, on the 10th of
Zulhijjah, the day appointed for slaying the victims by the pilgrims at
Mecca. The festival lasts four days. At Constantinople the two bairams are
celebrated with much pomp. Amurath III, son of Selim II.] that is, one of
their chiefest feastes.

The 16. we went to the blacke Sea called Pontus Euxinus, and there vpon a
rocke we sawe a piller of white Marble that was set vp by Pompeius: and
from thence we passed to the other side of the water, vpon the shore of
Asia and there we dined.

The 25. we departed from Constantinople.

The 29. we came to an ancient Towne called Cherchisea, that is to say,
fourtie Churches, which in the olde time was a very great City, now full of
scattered buildiugs.

The 4. of October wee came to Prouaz, one dayes iourney distant from Varna
vpon the Blacke Sea.

The 9. we came to Saxi [Footnote: Tsakchi, S. E. of Galatz.] vpon the riuer
of Danubius.

The 10. we passed the said riuer which in that place is about a mile ouer,
and then we entered into the countrey Bogdania [Marginal note: Or,
Moldauia]: they are Christians but subiects to the Turkes.

The 12. we came to Palsin vpon the riuer Prut. [Footnote: Faltsi.]

The 14: wee came to Yas [Footnote: Jassy.] the principall Towne of
Bogdania, where Peter the Vayuoda prince of that Countrey keepeth his
residence, of whom wee receuied great courtesie, and of the gentlemen of
his Court: And he caused vs to be safe conducted through his said Countrey,
and conueyed without coste.

The 17. we came to Stepanitze. [Footnote: Stephanesti, on the frontier
between Moldavia and Bessarabia.]

The 19. we came to Zotschen, [Footnote: Chotin.] which is the last towne of
Bogdania vpon the riuer of Neister, that parteth the said countrey from

The 20. we passed the riuer of Nyester and came to Camyenetz [Footnote: on
the river Smokriz.] in the countrey of Podolia, subiect to the king of
Poland: this is one of the strongest Townes by nature and situation that
can be seene.

The 21. we came to Skala. [Footnote: A market town on the Podhoree, S. of

The 22. to Slothone, or Scloczow. [Footnote: Czorkorw, on the Sered.]

The 24. to Leopolis [Footnote: Lemberg, also called Leopol.] which is in
Russia alba, and so is the most part of the countrey betwixt Camyenetz and
it. And it is a towne very well built, well gouerned, full of trafique and
plentifull: and there we stayed fiue dayes.

The 30. we baited at Grodecz, and that night at Vilna [Footnote: Probably

The 31. we dined at Mostiska, [Footnote: Mosciska.] and that night at
Rodmena. [Footnote: Radymno.]

The first of Nouember in the morning before day wee passed without the
Towne of Iaroslaw, where they say is one of the greatest faires in all
Poland, and chiefly of horses, and that night to Rosdnoska. [Footnote:

The second to diner at Lanczut, [Footnote: Lanaif.] at night to Retsbou.
[Footnote: Rzeszow.]

The thirde to Sendxizow, [Footnote: Sedziszow.] at night to Tarnow, and
that night wee mette with the Palatine Laski.

The fourth to Vonuez, [Footnote: Woinicz.] and that night to Brytska.
[Footnote: Brzesko.]

The fift to Kuhena. [Footnote: Perhaps, Kozmice.]

The 6. to Cracouia the principall Citie of all Poland: at which time the
King was gone to Lituania: for he doeth make his residence one yeere in
Poland, and the other in Lituania. Cracouia standeth on the riuer of

The 9. wee departed from Cracouia, and that night wee came to a village
hard by a Towne called Ilkusch, [Footnote: Olkusz.] where the leade Mines

The 10. wee passed by a Towne called Slawkow: where there are also leade
Mines, and baited that day at Bendzin, [Footnote: Bedzin.] which is the
last tome of Poland towards Silesia; and there is a toll.

[Sidenote: Salt digged out of mountaines in Poland] Note that all the
Countreys of Poland, Russia alba, Podolia, Bogdania, and diuers other
Countreys adioyning vnto them, doe consume no other salt but such as is
digged in Sorstyn mountaine neere to Cracouia which is as hard as any
stone; it is very good, and goeth further then any other salt. That night
we lay at Bitom, [Footnote: Beuthen.] which is the first Towne of Silesia.

The 12. we passed by a great towne called Strelitz, and that night we lay
at Oppelen vpon the riuer of Odera.

The 13. we passed by Schurgasse, [Footnote: Schurgast.] and that night wee
lay without the towne of Brigk: [Footnote: Brieg.] for wee coulde not bee
suffered to come in by reason of the plague which was in those partes in
diuers Townes.

The 14. we passed by Olaw, [Footnote: Oblau.] and that night we came to the
Citie of Breslaw, which is a faire towne, great, well built and well seated
vpon the riuer of Odera.

The 16. we baited at Neumargt. [Footnote: Neumark.]

The 17. wee passed by Lignizt and by Hayn, [Footnote: Hainau.] and that
night to Buntzel. [Footnote: Buntzlau.]

The 18. we passed by Naumburg through Gorlitz vpon the riuer of Neiss, and
that night lay without Reichenbach.

The 19. wee passed by Baudzen and Cannitz, [Footnote: Camenz.] and that
night to Rensperg.

The 20. we passed by Hayn, by Strelen, were we should haue passed the riuer
of Elbe, but the boate was not there, so that night we lay at a towne
called Mulberg.

The 21. we passed the said riuer, wee went by Belgern, by Torga, by
Dumitch: and at night to Bretch.

The 22. wee passed the Elbe againe at Wittenberg, which is a very strong
towne, with a good Vniuersitie: and that day we passed by Coswig.

The 23. wee passed through Zerbst in the morning, and that night at
Magdeburg, a very strong Towne, and well gouerned as wee did heare. The
most part of the Countrey, after wee were come one dayes iourney on this
side Breslawe to this place, belongeth to the Duke of Saxon.

The 24. wee passed by a castle of the Marques of Brandenburg called
Wolmerstat, and that night we lay at Garleben.

The 25. wee lay at Soltwedel.

The 26. at Berg.

The 27. we baited at Lunenborg, and that night we lay at Winson.

The 28. we came to Homborg, and there stayed one weeke.

The 5. of December wee departed from Hamborg, and passed the Elbe by boate
being much frosen, and from the riuer went on foote to Boxtchoede, being a
long Dutch mile off, and there we lay; and from thence passed ouer land to

Thence hauing passed through Friseland and Holland, the 25. being Christmas
day in the morning we came to Delft: where wee found the right honourable
the Earle of Leicester with a goodly company of Lords, knights, gentlemen,
and souldiers.

The 28. at night to Roterodam.

The 29. to the Briel, and there stayed eight dayes for passage.

The fift of Ianuary we tooke shipping.

The 7. we landed at Grauesend, and so that night at London with the helpe
of almightie God.

* * * * *

The Turkes passeport or safeconduct for Captaine Austell, and Iacomo

Know thou which art Voyuoda of Bogdania, and Valachia, and other our
officers abiding and dwelling on the way by which men commonly passe into
Bogdania, and Valachia, that the Embassador of England hauing two English
gentlemen desirous to depart for England, the one named Henry Austel, and
the other Iacomo de Manuchio, requested our hignesse letters of Safeconduct
to passe through our dominions with one seruant to attende on them.
Wherefore wee straightly charge you and all other our seruants by whom they
shall passe, that hauing receiued this our commandement, you haue diligent
care and regard that they may haue prouided for them in this their iourney
(for their money) all such necessary prouision as shalbe necessary for
themselues and their horses, in such sort as they may haue no cause
hereafter to complaine of you. And if by chaunce they come vnto any place,
where they shal stand in feare either of their persons or goods, that then
you carefully cause them to bee guarded with your men, and to be conducted
through all suspected places, with sufficient company; But haue great
regard that they conuey not out of our countrey any of pur seruiceable
horses. Obey our commandement, and giue credite to this our Seale.

* * * * *

A Passeport of the Earle of Leicester for Thomas Foster gentleman
trauailing to Constantinople.

Robertus Comes Leicestria, baro de Denbigh, ordinum Garterij et Sancti
Michaelis eques auratus, Serenissima Regina Anglia a Secretioribus
consilijs, et magister equorum, dux et capitaneus generalis exercitus
eiusdem Regia maiestatis in Belgio, et gubernator generalis Hollandia,
Zelandia, et prouinciarum vnitarum et associatarum, omnibus, ad quos
prasentes litera peruenerint, salutem. Cum lator prasentium Thomas Foster
nobilis Anglus necessarijs de causis hinc Constantinopolim profecturus sit,
et inde ad nos quanta potest celeritate reuersurus: petimus ab omnibus et
singulis Regibus, principibus, nobilibus, magistratibus, et alijs, mandent
et permittant dicto Thoma cum duobus famulis liberum transitum per eorum
ditiones et territoria sine detentione aut impedimento iniusto, et
prouideri sibi de necessarijs iustum precium reddenti, ac aliter
conuenienter et humaniter tractari, vt occasiones eius eundi et redeundi
requirent: Sicut nos Maiestates, Serenitates, Celsitudines, et dominationes
vestra paratos inuenietis, vt vestratibus in similibus casibus gratum
similiter faciamus.

Datum in castris nostris Duisburgi, decimo die Septembris, anno 1586. stylo

* * * * *

The returne of Master William Harborne from Constantinople ouer land to
London 1588.

I departed from Constantinople with 30. persons of my suit and family the
3. of August. Passing through the Countries of Thracia, now called Romania
the great, Valachia and Moldauia, where ariuing the 5. of September I was
according to the Grand Signior his commandement very courteously
interteined by Peter his positiue prince, a Greeke by profession, with whom
was concluded that her Maiesties subiects there trafiquing should pay but
three vpon the hundreth, which as well his owne Subiects as all other
nations answere: [Sidenote: The letters of the Prince of Moldauia to the
Queene. Letters of the Chanceler of Poland to the Queene.] whose letters to
her Maiestie be extant. Whence I proceeded into Poland, where the high
Chanceler sent for mee the 27. of the same moneth. And after most honorable
intertainment imparted with me in secret maner the late passed and present
occurrents of that kingdome, and also he writ to her Maiestie.

Thence I hasted vnto Elbing, where the 12. of October I was most friendly
welcomed by the Senate of that City, whom I finde and iudge to be
faithfully deuoted to her Maiesties seruice, whose letters likewise vnto
the same were presented me. No lesse at Dantzik the 27. of that moneth I
was courteously receiued by one of the Buroughmasters accompanied with two
others of the Senate, and a Ciuil doctor their Secretarie. After going
through the land of Pomer I rested one day at Stetin, where, for that the
duke was absent, nothing ensued. At Rostoke I passed through the Citie
without any stay, and at Wismar receiued like friendly greeting as in the
other places: but at Lubeck, for that I came late and departed early in the
morning, I was not visited. At Hamburg the 19. of Nouember, and at Stoad
the ninth of December in like maner I was saluted by a Boroughmaster and
the Secretarie, and in all these places they presented mee sundry sorts of
their best wine and fresh fish, euery of them with a long discourse,
congratulating, in the names of their whole Senate, her Maiesties victory
ouer the Spaniard, and my safe returne, concluding with offer of their
ready seruice to her future disposing. Yet the Dantziks after my departure
thence caused the Marchants to pay custome for the goods they brought with
them in my company, which none other towne neither Infidels nor Christians
on the way euer demanded. And notwithstanding the premisses, I was most
certainly informed of sundry of our nation there resident that most of the
Hansetowns vpon the sea coasts, especially Dantzik, Lubeck, and Hamborough
haue laden and were shipping for Spaine, great prouision of corne, cables,
ropes, powder, saltpeter, hargubusses, armour, iron, leade, copper, and all
other munition seruing for the warre. Whereupon I gather their fained
courtesie proceeded rather for feare then of any good affection vnto her
Maiesties seruice, Elbing and Stoad onely excepted, which of duetie for
their commoditie I esteemed well affected.

* * * * *

The priuilege of Peter the Prince of Moldauia graunted to the English

Petrus Dei gratia princeps Valachia et Moldauia; significamus prasentibus,
vniuersis et singulis quorum interest ac intererit, quod cum magnifico
domino Guilielmo Hareborne oratore Serenissima ac potentissima domina,
domina Elizabetha Dei gratia Anglia, Francia, ac Hibernia Regina apud
Serenissimum ac potentissimum Turcarum Imperatorem hanc constitutionem
fecerimus: Nimirum vt dehinc sua Serenitatis subditis, omnibusque
mercatoribus integrum sit hic in prouincia nostra commorandi, conuersandi,
mercandi, vendendi, contrahendique, imo omnia exercendi, qua mercatura ac
vita humana societas vsusque requirit, sine vlla alicuius contradictione,
aut inhibitione: saluo ac integro tamen iure Telonij nostri: hoc est, vt a
singulis rebus centum ducatorum pretij, tres numerent. Quod ratum ac firmum
constitutione nostra haberi volumus. In cuius rei firmius testimonium,
sigillum nostrum appressum est. Actum in castris nostris die 27. mensis
Augusti, anno Domini 1588.

The same in English.

Peter by the grace of God prince of Valachia and Moldauia; we signifie by
these presents to all and singuler persons, whom it doth or shall concerne,
that we haue made this agreement with the worthy gentleman William
Hareborne Ambassador of the right high and mighty prince, the Lady
Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, France and Ireland, with
the most puissant and mightie Emperour of the Turkes: To witte, that from
hencefoorth it shalbe lawfull for her highnesse subiects and all her
Marchants, to remaine, conuerse, buy, sel, bargaine and exercise all such
things, as the trade of marchandise, and humane societie and vse requireth,
without any hinderance or let: the right of our Custome alwayes reserued;
That is, that they pay three ducats vpon all such things as amount to the
price of one hundred ducats. Which by this our ordinance we command to be
surely and firmely obserued; For the more assured testimony whereof our
seale is hereunto annexed. Giuen in our Campe the 27. of the moneth of
August in the yeere of our Lord 1588.

* * * * *

The letters of Sinan Bassa chiefe counsellour to Sultan Murad Can the Grand
Signior, to the sacred Maiestie of Elizabeth Queene of England, shewing
that vpon her request, and for her sake especially, hee graunted peace
vnto the King and kingdome Of Poland.

Gloriosissima et splendore fulgidissima foeminarum, selectissima Princeps
magnanimorum IESVM sectantium, regni inclyti Anglia Regina Serenissima
Elizibetha, moderatrix rerum et negotiorum omnium plebis et familia
Nazarenorum sapientissima; Origo splendoris et gloria dulcissima; nebes
pluuiarum gratissima, heres et domina beatitudinis et gloria regni inclyti
Anglia; ad quam omnes supplices confugiunt, incrementum omnium rerum et
actionum Serenitatis vestra beatissimum, exitusque foelicissimos a Creatore
omnipotente optantes, mutuaque et perpetua familiaritate nostra digna vota
et laudes sempiternas offerentes: Significamus Ser. vestra amicissime; Quia
sunt anni aliquot, a quibus annis potentissima Casarea celsitudo bella
ineffabilia cum Casul-bas, Principe nempe Persarum gessit; ratione quorum
bellorum in partes alias bellum mouere noluit, ob eamque causam in partibus
Polonia latrones quidam Cosaci nuncupati, et alij facinorosi in partibus
illis existentes, subditos Casaris potentissimi turbare et infestare non
desierunt. Nunc autem partibus Persicis compositis et absolutis, in
partibus Polonia et alijs partibus exurgentes facinorosos punire
constituens, Beglerbego Gracia exercitu aliquo adiuncto, et Principi
Tartarorum madato Casaris misso, anno proxime praterito pars aliqua Regni
Polonia infestata, turbata et deuastata fuit, et Cosaci alijque facinorosi
iuxta merita sua puniti fuerunt. Quo rex Polonia viso duos legatos ad
Casaream celsitudinem mittens, quod facinorosos exquirere, et poena
perfecta punire, et ab annis multis ad portam Casarea celsitudinis missum
munus augere vellet, significauit. Casarea autem celsitudo (cui Creator
omnipotens tantam suppeditauit potentiam, et qua omnes supplices exaudire
dignata est) supplicatione Regis Polonia non accepta, iterum in regem
Polonia exercitum suum mittere, et Creatoris omnipotentis auxilio regnum
eius subuertere constituerat. Verum Legato Serenitatis vestra in porta
beata et fulgida Casarea celsitudinis residente sese interponente. Et quod
Serenitati vestra ex partibus Polonia, fruges, puluis, arbores nauium,
tormenta, et alia necessaria suppediterantur significante, et pacem pro
regno et rege Polonia petente, neue regnum Polonia ex parte Casarea
celsitudinis turbaretur vel infestaretur intercedente, Serenitatisque
vestra hanc singularem esse voluntatem exponente, Legati serenitatis vestra
significatio et intercessio cum Casarea celsitudini significata fuisset, In
fauorem serenitatis vestra, cui omnis honos et gratia debetur, iuxta modum
pradictum, vt Cosaci facinoros exquirantur et poena perfecta puniantur, aut
ratione muneris aliquantuli eorum delicta condonentur, hac inquam
conditione litera Casarea celsitudinis ad Regem Polonia sunt data. Si autem
ex parte Serenitatis vestra foedus et pax sollicitata non fuisset, nulla
ratione Casara celsitudo foedus cum regno Polonia inijsset. In fauorem
autem Serenitatis vestra regno et Regi Polonia singularem gratiam Casarea
celsitudo exhibuit. Quod tam Serenitas vestra, quam etiam Rex et regnum
Polonia sibi certo persuadere debent. Serenitatem vestram bene
foelicissimeque valere cupimus. Datum Constantinopoli in fine mensis Sabaum
nuncupati, Anno propheta nostri sacrati Mahumeddi nongentesimo, nonagesimo,
octauo. IESV vero Anno millesimo quingentesimo nonagesimo, die duodecimo
mensis Iunij.

The same in English.

Most glorious, and the most resplendent of women, most select Princesse,
most gratious Elizabeth Queene of the valiant followers of Iesus in the
famous kingdom of England, most wise gouernesse of all the affaires and
bussinesses of the people and family of the Nazarens, most sweet fountaine
of brightnesse and glory, most acceptable cloud of raine, inheritresse and
Ladie of the blessednesse and glory of the renowmed kingdome of England, to
whom in humble wise all men offer their petitions: wishing of the almightie
Creator most happie increase and prosperous successe vnto all your
Maiesties affaires and actions, and offering vp mutuall and perpetuall
vowes worthy of our familiarity; with eternall prayses: In most friendly
manner we signifie vnto your princely Highnesse, that certaine yeeres past
the most mightie Cesarlike maiestie of the Grand Signor waged vnspeakeable
warres with Casul-bas the Prince of the Persians, in regarde of which
warres he would not goe in battell against any other places; and for that
cause certaine theeues in the partes of Polonia called Cosacks, and other
notorious persons liuing in the same partes ceased not to trouble and
molest the subiects of our most mightie Emperour. But now hauing finished
and brought to some good issue his affaires in Persia, determining to
punish the saide malefactors of Poland, and for that purpose committing an
army vnto the Beglerbeg of Grecia, and the yeere last past, sending his
imperiall commaundement vnto the Prince of the Tartars, he hath forraged,
molested, and layed waste some part of the kingdome of Poland, and the
Cosacks and other notorious offenders haue receiued condigne punishment.
Which the king of Poland perceiuing sent two Embassadours to his imperiall
Highnesse signifying, that he would hunt out the said malefactors, and
inflict most seuere punishments vpon them, and also that he would better
his gift, which he hath for many yeeres heretofore ordinarily sent vnto the
porch of his imperiall Highnesse. Howbeit his imperiall maiestie (vpon whom
the almightie creator hath bestowed so great power, and who vouchsafeth to
giue eare vnto all humble suppliants) reiecting the supplication of the
King of Poland, determined againe to send his armie against the said king,
and by the helpe of the Almightie creator, vtterly to subuert and
ouerthrowe his kingdome. But your Maiesties Embassadour resident in the
blessed and glorious porch of his imperiall Highnesse interposing himselfe
as a mediatour, signifying that from the partes of Poland you were
furnished with corne, gun-powder, mastes of ships, guns, and other
necessaries, and crauing peace on the behalfe of the kingdome and king of
Poland, and making intercession, that the said king might not be molested
nor troubled by the meanes of the Grand Signior, and declaring that this
was your Maiesties most earnest desire; so soone as the report and
intercession of your Maiesties Embassadour was signified vnto the Grand
Signor, for your sake, vnto whom all honour and fauourable regard is due,
vpon the condition aforesaid, namely, that the wicked Cosacks might be
sought out and grieuously punished, or that their offences might be
remitted for the value of some small gift, vpon this condition (I say) the
letters of his imperiall Highnesse were sent vnto the king of Poland.
Howbeit had not this conclusion of league and amitie beene sollicited on
the behalfe of your Maiestie, his imperiall Highnesse would neuer haue
vouchsafed the same vnto the kingdome of Poland. But for your Maiesties
sake his imperiall Higrrnesse hath exhibited this so singular a fauour vnto
the said king and kingdome of Poland. And hereof your Maiestie and the king
of Poland ought cenainely to be perswaded. We wish your Maiestie most
happily and well to fare. Giuen at Constantinople in the ende of the moneth
called Sabaum, in the yeere of our sacred prophet Mahomet 998, and in the
yeere of Iesus 1590, the 12 of Iune.

* * * * *

A letter written by the most high and mighty Empresse the wife of the Grand
Signior Sultan Murad Can to the Queenes Maiesty of England, in the yeere
of our Lord, 1594.

Il principio del ragionamento nostro sia scrittura perfetta nelle quatro
parte del mondo, in nome di quello che ha creato indifferentemente tante
infinite creature, che non haueuano anima ni persona, e di quello che fa
girar gli noue cieli, e che la terra sette volte vna sopra l'altra fa
firmar; Signor e Re senza vicere, e che non ha comparacion alla sua
creatione ne opera, e vno senza precio, adorato incomparabilmente,
l'altissimo Dio creatore; che non ha similitudine, si come e descrito dalli
propheti: a la cui grandessa non si arriue, e alla perfettione sua compiuta
non si oppone, e quel omnipotente creatore e cooperatore; alla grandessa
del quale inchinano tutti li propheti; fra quali il maggior e che ha
ottenuto gracia, horto del paradiso, ragi dal sole, amato del altssimo Dio
e Mahomet Mustaffa, al qual e suoi adherenti e imitatori sia perpetua pace:
alla cui sepultura odorifera si fa ogni honore. Quello che e imperator de
sette climati, e delle quatro parti del mondo, inuincibile Re di Gracia,
Agiamia, Vngeria, Tartaria, Valachia, Rossia, Turchia, Arabia, Bagdet,
Caramania, Abessis, Giouasir, Siruan, Barbaria, Algieri, Franchia,
Coruacia, Belgrado, &c. sempre felicissimo e de dodeci Auoli possessor
della corona, e della stirpe di Adam, fin hora Imperator, figliolo
del'Imperatore, conseruato de la diuina prouidenza, Re di ogni dignita e
honore, Sultan Murat, che Il Signor Dio sempre augmenti le sue forzze, e
padre di quello a cui aspetta la corona imperiale, horto e cypresso
mirabile, degno della sedia regale, e vero herede del commando imperiale,
dignissimo Mehemet Can, filiol de Sultan Murat Can, che dio compisca li
suoi dissegni, e alunga li suoi giorni felici: Dalla parte della madre del
qual si scriue la presente alla serenissima e gloriosissima fra le
prudentissime Donne, e eletta fra li triomlanti sotto il standardo di Iesu
Christo, potentissima e ricchissima regitrice, e al mondo singularissima
fra il feminil sesso, la serenissima Regina d'Ingilterra, che segue le
vestigie de Maria virgine, il fine della qoale sia con bene e perfettione,
secondo il suo desiderio. Le mando vna salutacion di pace, cosi honorata,
che non basta tutta la copia di rosignoli con le loro musiche ariuare, non
che con questa carta: l'amore singulare che e conciputo fra noi, e simile a
vn'horto di Vccelli vagi; che il Signor Dio la faci degna di saluacione, e
il fine suo sia tale, che in questo mondo e nel' futuro sia con pace. Doppo
comparsi li suoi honorati presenti da la sedia de la Serenita vostra,
sapera che sono capitati in vna hora che ogni punto e stato vna consolation
di lungo tempo, per occasione del Ambassadore di vostra serenita venuto
alla felice porta del Imperatore, con tanto nostro contento, quanto si
posso desiderare, e con quello vna lettera di vostra sereneta, che ci
estata presentata dalli nostri Eunuchi con gran honore; liccarta de la
quale odoraua di camfora e ambracano, et l'inchiostro di musco perfetto, et
quella peruenuta in nostro mano tutta la continenza di essa a parte ho
ascoltato intentamente. Quello che hora si conuiene e, che correspondente
alla nostra affecione, in tutto quello che si aspetta allie cose attenente
alli paesi che sono sotto il commando di vostra serenita, lei non manchi di
sempre tenermi, dato noticia, che in tutto quello che li occorera, Io possi
compiacerla; de quello che fra le nostre serenita e conueniente, accioche
quelle cose che si interprenderano, habino il desiderato buon fine; perche
Io saro sempre ricordeuole al altissimo Imperatore delle occorenze di
vostra serenita, per che sia in ogni occasione compiaciuta. La pace sia con
vostra serenita, e con quelli che seguitano dretamente la via di Dio.
Scritta al primi dell luna di Rabie Liuol, anno del profeta 1002, et di
Iesu 1594.

The same in English.

Let the beginning of our discourse be a perfect writing in the foure parts
of the world, in the name of him which hath indifferently created such
infinite numbers of creatures, which had neither soule nor body, and of him
which mooueth the nine heauens, and stablisheth the earth seuen times one
aboue another, which is Lord and king without any deputy, who hath no
comparison to his creation and worke, and is one inestimable, worshipped
without all comparison, the most high God, the creator, which hath nothing
like vnto him, according as he is described by the Prophets, to whose power
no man can attaine, and whose absolute perfection no man may controll; and
that omnipotent creatour and fellow-worker, to whose Maiesty all the
Prophets submit themselues, among whom the greatest, and which hath
obtained greatest fauour, the garden of Paradise, the beame of the Sunne,
the beloued of the most high God is Mahomet Mustafa, to whom and to his
adherents and followers be perpetuall peace, to whose fragrant sepulture
all honour is performed. He which is emperour of the seuen climats and of
the foure parts of the world, the inuincible king of Graecia, Agiamia,
Hungaria, Tartaria, Valachia, Rossia, Turchia, Arabia, Bagdet, Caramania,
Abessis, Giouasir, Siruan, Barbaria, Alger, Franchia, Coruacia, Belgrade,
&c. alwayes most happy, and possessour of the crowne from twelue of his
ancestours; and of the seed of Adam, at this present emperour, the sonne of
an emperour, preserued by the diuine prouidence, a king woorthy of all
glory and honour, Sultan Murad, whose forces the Lord God alwayes increase,
and father of him to whom the imperiall crowne is to descend, the paradise
and woonderfull tall cypresse, worthy of the royall throne, and true heire
of the imperiall authority, most woorthy Mehemet Can, the sonne of Sultan
Murad Can, whose enterprise God vouchsafe to accomplish, and to prolong his
happy dayes: on the behalfe of whose mother [Marginal note: This Sultana is
mother to Mahumet which now reigneth a Emperour.] this present letter is
written to the most gracious and most glorious, the wisest among women, and
chosen among those which triumph vnder the standard of Iesus Christ, the
most mighty and most rich gouernour, and most rare among womankinde in the
world, the most gracious Queene of England, which follow the steps of the
virgine Mary, whose end be prosperous and perfect, according to your hearts
desire. I send your Maiesty so honorable and sweet a salutation of peace,
that al the flocke of Nightingales with their melody cannot attaine to the
like, much lesse this simple letter of mine. The singular loue which we
haue conceiued one toward the other is like to a garden of pleasant birds:
and the Lord God vouchsafe to saue and keepe you, and send your Maiesty an
happy end both in this world and in the world to come. After the arriuall
of your honourable presents, from the Court of your Maiesty, your Highnesse
shall vnderstand that they came in such a season, that euery minute
ministred occasion of long consolation by reason of the comming of your
Maiesties Ambassadour to the triumphant Court of the Emperour, to our so
great contentment as we could possibly wish, who brought a letter from your
Maiestie, which with great honour was presented vnto vs by our eunuks, the
paper whereof did smell most fragrantly of camfor and ambargriese, and the
incke of perfect muske; the contents whereof we haue heard very attentiuely
from point to point. I thinke it therefore expedient, that, according to
our mutuall affection, in any thing whatsoeuer may concerne the countreys
which are subiect to your Maiesty, I neuer faile, hauing information giuen
vnto me, in whatsoeuer occasion shall be ministred, to gratifie your
Maiesty to my power in any reesonable and conuenient matter, that all your
subiects businesses and affaires may haue a wished and happy end. For I
will alwayes be a sollicitour to the most mighty Emperour for your
Maiesties affaires, that your Maiesty at all times may be fully satisfied.
Peace be to your Maiesty, and to all such as follow rightly the way of God.
[Sidenote: Ann. Dom. 1594] Written the first day of the Moone of Rabie
Liuol in the yere of the Prophet, 1002.


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