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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, by Richard Hakluyt

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also of compelling vessels of any size to anchor at a considerable distance
out, thus making the operations of landing and embarking cargo both tedious
and expensiue. It would not, however, be a matter of great expense to
construct breakwaters and deepen the old harbours, especially that of
Famagusta, which, at the end of the sixteenth century, was sufficiently
deep and large to afford safe anchorage to the whole fleet of the Venetian
Republic, and when in the outer harbour there is now shelter for about
twelve ironclads. Larnaka is the port at present most frequented by trading

The ancient Olympus, how called Santa Croce, rises in the centre of the
island, and two principal ranges of mountains runs in the direction of its
length, keeping closer to the north than to the south coast. The highest
summit of the range of Santa Croce is mount Troodos, with an elevation of
6590 feet above the sea-level. Here, on the south-east slopes, are the
summer quarters of the troops and the summer residence of the high
commissioner. The most extensive plain, called Messarea, is in the
south-east part of the island, and is watcred by the river Pedaus. The
south of the island is watered by several streams, the principal of which
is the river Kuris, or Lico, which falls into the sea at Episkopi, the
ancient _Curium_. But these streams, which were once rivers of some
importance, had very much decreased, owing to the almost complete
denudation, in the plains and lower slopes of the mountains, of the forests
which anciently covered them. Since the British occupation greater
attention has been paid to the forests, and the beneficial results are
already apparent. The Pedaus is the chief river. This and the other streams
generally overflow their banks in the rainy season, and flood the land; as
the waters subside, they leave behind a fertilizing mud, in the same manner
as the Nile, but during the rest of the year they give but little if any
help in the way of irrigation. The rainy season, although generally
occurring from October to February, is not, however, to be absolutely
depended upon; thus it is recorded that in 1330, during the reign of Hugo
of Lusignan, the rainfall was so heavy and the rivers flooded to such an
extent as to spread desolation far and near; and under Constantine there
was no rain for thirty-six years, so that most of the inhabitants left the
island. Again, in modern times, there was a disastrously small rainfall in

The soil is naturally fertile, and formerly maintained a population of
nearly 1,000,000 but the number of inhabitants in 1881 was only 185,906, of
whom the bulk were Greek Christians. Cotton of the finest quality has been
raised from American seed; excellent wine and all kinds of fruit are
produced, but agriculture is in a most backward state. Besides the
productions already named, madder, opium, oranges, lemons, pomegranates,
&c., are grown. The carob-tree abounds in some districts; its succulent
pods are exported to Egypt and Syria, while the fruit called St. John's
Bread is used as an article of food. Of all the agricultural products,
cereals hold the most important place. Wheat was largely grown until
recently, but of late years, it has been in great measure replaced by
barley and oats, which ripen earlier; and are not subject to the attacks of
locusts.] with his shippes and gallies toward the seige of Achon, and on
the next morrowe came to Tyrus, where by procurement of the French king he
was restrained by the Citizens to enter. The next day after, which was the
first day of Iune, crossing the seas, he met with a great carak, fraught
with souldiers and men of warre to the number of a thousand and fiue
hundred, which pretended to be Frenchmen, and setting foorth their flagge
with the French armes, were indeede Saracens, [Sidenote: A great ship of
Saracens taken by king Richard.] secretly sent with wilde fire [Footnote:
Greek Fire was the name given to a composition which was largely used by
the Greeks of the Byzantine Empire in their wars with the Mohammedans. Its
nature was kept a profound secret for centuries, but the material is now
believed to have been a mixture of nitre, sulphur, and naphtha. It burned
with terrible fury wherever it fell, and it possessed the property of being
inextinguishable by water. Even when poured upon the sea it would float
upon the surface and still burn. It was used in warfare for a considerable
time after the discovery of gunpowder, but gradually fell into the disuse
as artillery became more effective. The name is still sometimes used to
designate the inflammable compounds known to modern chemists which have
been designed for use in incendiary shells, and for a composition which has
been used by the Fenians to set fire to public buildings.] and certaine
barrels of unknowen serpents to the defence of the towne of Achon, which
king Richard at length perceiuing eftsoones set upon them and so vanquished
them, of whom the most were drowned and some taken aliue: which being once
knowen in the citie of Achon, as it was a great discomfort to them, so it
was a great helpe to the Christians for winning the citie.

[Sidenote: King Richard arriued at Achon.] The next day after which was the
seuenth of Iune, king Richard came to Achon, which at that time had bene
long besieged by the Christians. After whose comming it was not long, but
the Pagans within the citie, seeing their wals to be undermined and towers
ouerthrowen, were driuen by composition to escape with life and limme, to
surrender the citie to the two kings.

Another great helpe to the Christians in winning the citie, was this. In
the said city of Achon there was a secret Christian among the Saracens, who
in time of the siege thereof vsed at sundry times to cast ouer the wals
into the campe of the Christians, certaine bils written in Hebrue, Greeke,
and Latine, wherein he disclosed to the Christians from time to time, the
doings and counsels of the enemies, aduertising them how and what way they
should worke, and what to beware, and alwayes his letters began thus. In
nomine Patris, et Filij, et Spiritus sancti Amen. By reason whereof the
Christians were much, aduantaged in their proceedings: but this was a great
heauines unto them, that neither he would utter his name, nor when the
citie was got did they euer understand who he was.

To make of a long siege a short narration. Vpon the twelfth day of Iuly the
yeere aforesaid, the Princes and Captaines of the Pagans, vpon agreement
resorted to the tent of the Templaries to commune with the two kings
touching peace, and giuing vp of their citie: the forme of which peace was

[Sidenote: The forme of peace concluded between the Kings and Princes of
Achon.] 1 That the Kings should haue the citie of Achon freely and fully
deliuered vnto them, with all which was therein.

2 That 500. captiues of the Christians should be restored to them, which
were in Achon.

3 That the holy crosse should be to them rendred, and a thousand Christian
captiues with two hundreth horsemen, whosoeuer they themselues would chose
out of all them which were in the power of the Saladine.

4 That they would giue vnto the Kings two hundreth thousand Bysants, so
that they themselues should remaine as pledges in the Kings hands, for the
performance hereof, that if in fortie daies, the aforesayd couenants were
not accomplished, they should abide the Kings mercie touching life and

These couenants being agreed vpon, the Kings sent their souldiers and
seruants into the citie, to take a hundreth of the richest and best of the
citie, to close them vp in towers vnder strong keeping, and the residue,
they committed to be kept in houses and in streetes, ministring vnto them
according to their necessities: to whom notwithstanding this they
permitted, that so many of them as would be baptized and receiue the faith
of Christ, should be free to goe whither they would: wherupon many there
were of the Pagans, which for feare of death pretended to be baptized, but
afterward so soone as they could, reuolted againe to the Saladine: for the
which it was afterward commanded by the Kings that none of them should be
baptized against their wils.

The thirteenth day of the said moneth of Iuly, King Philip of France, and
King Richard, after they had obteined the possession of Achon, [Footnote:
Acre, acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was taken by the Saracens in
638; by the Crusaders under Baldwin I. in 1104; by Saladin in 1187; and
again by Richard I. and other Crusaders 12 July 1191, after a siege of 2
years, with a loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500 barons,
300,000 soldiers. It was then named _St. Jean d'Acre_. It was retaken by
the Saracens in 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished, and the nuns, who
had mangled their faces to preserue their chastity, were put to death.]
deuided betweene them all things therein conteined as well the people as
golde and siluer, with all other furniture whatsoeuer was remaining in the
citie: who in diuiding the spoyle, were so good caruers to themselues that
the Knights and Barons had but litle to their share, whereupon they began
to shew themselues somewhat discontented, which being knowen of the kings,
they sent them answere that their wils should be satisfied.

The twentieth day of Iuly, king Richard speaking with the French king,
desired him that they two with their armies, would binde themselues by othe
to remaine there stil in the land of Ierusalem the space of 3 yeeres, for
the winning and recouering againe of those countreys: but he sayd he would
sweare no such othe, and so the next day after king Richard, with his wife
and sister entred into the citie of Achon, and there placed himselfe in the
kings pallace: The French king remayning in the houses of the Templaries,
where he continued till the end of the moneth.

[Sidenote: The French kings shamefull returne home.] About the beginning of
the moneth of August, Philip the French king after that he and King Richard
had made agreement betweene Guido and Conradus the Marques, about the
kingdome of Ierusalem, went from Achon to Tyrus, notwithstanding king
Richard and all the Princes of the Christian armie with great intreatie
desired him to tary, shewing what a shame it were for him to come so farre,
and now to leaue vndone that for which he came, and on the 3. day of August
departed from Tyrus, leauing the halfe part of the Citie of Achon in the
hands of the aforesayd Conradus Marques.

After his departure the Pagans refused to keepe their couenants made, who
neither would restore the holy Crosse nor the money, nor their captiues,
sending word to king Richard, that if he beheaded the pledges left with him
at Achon, they would choppe off the heads of such captiues of the
Christians, as were in their hands.

[Sidenote: The captiues of the Saladine slaine by king Richard.] Shortly
after this the Saladine sending great gifts to king Richard, requested the
time limited for beheading of the captiues to be proroged, but the king
refused to take his gifts, and to graunt his request, whereupon the
Saladine caused all the Christian captiues within his possession forthwith
to be beheaded, which was the 28. of August: which albeit king Richard
vnderstood, yet would not he preuent the time before limitted for the
execution of his prisoners, being the 20. day of August: vpon which day he
caused the prisoners of the Saracens openly in the sight of the Saladines
armie to loose their heads: the number of whom came to two thousand and
fiue hundreth, saue onely that certaine of the principal of them he
reserued for purposes and considerations, especially to make exchange for
the holy Crosse, and certaine other of the Christian captiues.

[Sidenote: A notable victorie against the Saladine.] After this king
Richard purposed to besiege the Citie of Ioppe, where by the way beweene
Achon and Ioppe, neere to a towne called Assur, Saladine with a great
multitude of his Saracens came fiercely against the kings rereward, but
through Gods mercifull grace in the same battell, the kings warriers
acquited themselues so well, that the Saladine was put to flight, whom the
Christians pursued the space of 3 miles, and he lost that same day many of
his Nobles and Captaines, in such sort (as it was thought) that the
Saladine was not put to such confusion 40 yeres before, and but one
Christian Captaine called James Auernus in that conflict was ouerthrowen.

[Sidenote: King Richard in possession of Syria.] From thence king Richard
proceeding further went to Ioppe, and then to Ascalon, where he found first
the citie of Ioppe forsaken of the Saracens, who durst not abide the kings
comming: Ascalon the Saladine threw downe to the ground, and likewise
forsooke the whole land of Syria, through all which land the king had free
passage without resistance: neither durst the Saracene Prince encounter
after that with K. Richard. Of all which his atcheuances the sayd K.
Richard sent his letters of certificate as well into England, as also to
the Abbot of Clara valle [Footnote: Clairvaux, a famous Cistercian abbey,
founded in 1114 by the celebrated Bernard. It increased so rapidly that
before his death, in 1153, it contained 700 monks, and had connected with
it seventy-six monasteries in various parts of Europe, partly founded by
Bernard and partly induced to join the brotherhood. All sorts of handicraft
and agricultural operations were carried on by the brethren. After
supplying the wants of their community the surplus was disposed of in the
nearest markets. It was suppressed at the Revolution.] in France, well
hoping that he God willing should be able to make his repaire againe to
them by Easter next.

Many other famous acts were done in this voyage by these two Kings, and moe
should haue bene, had not they falling into discorde disseuered themselues,
by reason whereof Philip the French king returned home againe within short
space: who being returned againe eftsoones inuaded the countrey of
Normandy, exciting also Iohn the brother of king Richard, to take on him
the kingdome of Englande in his brothers absence: [Sidenote: 1193.] who
then made league vpon the same with the French king, and did homage vnto
him, which was about the fourth yeere of king Richard. [Sidenote: King
Richard returneth from Palaestina.] Who then being in Syria, and hearing
thereof, made peace with the Turkes for three yeeres: and not long after,
king Richard the next Spring following returned also, who in his returne
driuen by distresse of weather about the parts of Histria, in a towne
called Synaca, was there taken by Lympold, Duke of the same countrey, and
so solde to the Emperour for sixtie thousand Markes: who for no small ioy
thereof, writeth to Philip the French king, these letters here following.

* * * * *

The letter of the Emperour to Philip the French king, concerning the taking
of King Richard.

Henricus Dei gratia Romanorum Imperator, et semper Augustus, Dilecto et
speciali amico suo, Philippo illustri Francorum Regi salutem, et sincera
dilectionis affectum. Quoniam Imperatoria Celsitudo non dubitat Regalem
Magnificentiam tuam Iatiorem effici, de vniuersis quibus omnipotentia
creatoris nostri nos ipsos, et Romanum Imperium honorauerit et exaltauerit,
nobilitati tua tenore prasentium declarare duximus, quod inimicus Imperij
nostri, et turbator Regni tui Rex Anglia, quum esset in transeundo mare ad
partes suas reuersurus, accidit vt ventus rupta naui sua, in qua ipse erat,
induceret eum in partes Histria ad locum qui est inter Aquileiam, et
Venetias. Vbi Rex, Dei permissione passus naufragium cum paucis euasit.

Quidam itaque fidelis noster Comes, Maynardus de Grooxce, et populus
regionis illius, audito quod in terra erat, et considerato diligentius,
qualem nominatus Rex in terra promissionis proditionem et traditionem, et
perditionis sua cumulum exercuerat, insecuti sunt, intendentes eum
captiuare. Ipso autem Rege in fugam conuerso, ceperunt de suis octo
milites: Postmodum processit Rex ad Burgum in Archiepiscopatu
Salseburgensi, qui vocatur Frisorum, vbi Fridericus de Betesow, Rege cum
tribus tantum versus Austriam properante, noctu sex milites de suis coepit:
Dilectus autem Consanguineus noster Lympoldus Dux Austria, obseruata strata
sape dictum Regem iuxta Denam in villa viciniori in domo despecta

Cum itaque in nostra nunc habeatur Potestate, et ipse semper tua
molestauit, et turbationis operam prastiterit, ea qua pramissimus,
nobilitati tua insinuare curauimus: scientes ea dilectioni tua bene placita
existere, animo tuo vberrimam importare latitiam. Datum apud Ritheontum 5.
Kalendas Ianua.

King Richard being thus traitorously taken, and solde to the Emperour by
the Duke of Austridge for 60000. markes, was there kept in custodie a yeere
and 3. moneths.

In some stories it is affirmed, that King Richard returning out of Asia,
came to Italy with prosperous winde, where he desired of the Pope to be
absolued of an othe made against his will and could not obteine it: and so
setting out from thence towards England, passing by the Countrey of
Conradus the Marques, whose death (he being, slaine a litle before) was
falsly imputed by the French king to the king of England, there
traiterously was taken (as is aforesayde) by Limpoldus duke of Austridge.

Albeit in another storie I finde the matter more credibly set forth: which
saith thus. That king Richard slewe the brother of this Limpoldus, playing
with him at Chesse in the French Kings Court: and Limpoldus taking his
vantage, was more cruel against him and deliuered him (as is sayde) to the
Emperour. In whose custodie he was deteined during the time aboue
mentioned, a yeere and 3. moneths. During which time of the kings
endurance, the French king in the meane season stirred warre in Normandie:
and Earle Iohn the Kings brother, made stirre and inuaded England, but the
Barons and Bishops of the land mightily withstood him.

At length it was agreed and concluded with the Emperour, that king Richard
should be released for a hundreth and foure thousand pound: of which money
part should remaine to the Duke of Austridge, the rest should be the
Emperours. The summe of which money was here gathered and made in England
of chalices, crosses, shrines, candlestickes and other Church place, also
with publike contribution of Friers, Abbots, and other subiects of the
Realme: whereof part was presently paid, and for the residue remaining,
hostages and pledges were taken, which was about the fift yeere of his
reigne: and then it was obteined of the Pope that Priestes might celebrate
with Chalices of latten and tinne.

[Sidenote: The iust iudgment of God vpon the Duke of Austria.] At what time
this aforesaide money was payde, and the hostages giuen for the ransome of
the King, I haue an olde historie which saith, that the aforesaid Duke of
Austridge was shortly after plagued by God; with 5. sundry plagues.

First, with the burning of his chiefe Townes.

2. With drowning of tenne thousand of his men in a flood happening no man
can tell how.

3. By turning all the eares of his corne fieldes into wormes.

4. By taking away almost all the Nobles of his land by death.

5. By breaking his owne leg falling from his horse, which leg he was
compelled to cut off with his owne hands, and afterwards died of the same:
who then at his death is reported to forgiue K. Richard 50000. marks, and
sent home the hostages that were with him. And further a certaine booke
intituled Eulogium declareth, that the sayd Limpoldus duke of Austrich fell
in displeasure with the bishop of Rome and died excommunicate the next
yeere after, Anno 1196.

But thus, as you haue heard, Richard the King was ransomed and deliuered
from the couetuous captiuitie of the Emperor, and returning home made an
ende of his voyage for Asia, which was both honourable to himselfe and to
all Christian states, but to the Saracens the enemies of Christianitie,
terrible and dishonourable.

[This historie of King Richards voiage to Ierusalem is very excellently and
largely written in Latine by Guilielmus Neobrigensis, [Footnote: William
Little, died between 1208 and 1220. The best edition of his history is Mr
Howlett's, 1884, published in the Rolls Series. It extends from the
Conquest to 1197.] and Roger Houeden.] [Footnote: Roger of Hoveden, a fine
old English chronicler attached to the household of Henry II. in some
capacity of treasurer connected with minor abbeys and their royal dues, was
also professor of theology at Oxford. His chronicle was chiefly written
under Richard of the Lion Heart, and breaks off at the third year of John,
1201. It is in Latin, and is easily accessible--the _Chronica Rogeri de
Hovedene_ forming part of the magnificent Rolls Series. It is in four vols.
8vo, edited, by Professor Stubbs (London, 1871) The first part of Roger's
chronicle, beginning with the year 732, is really due to Benedict of
Peterborough, under which name the king's treasurer, Bishop Richard Fitz
Neal, wrote. It professes to continue and complete Bede's History. Roger of
Hoveden is of high value for Henry II.'s time, but for that of Richard and
the first year of John he is really admirable. No circumstance is too
trivial for his pen, and in this garrulous diffuseness many touches are
preserved of priceless worth to us, with which better authors would have
disdained to cumber their work.]

* * * * *

Epitaphium Richardi primi regis Anglorum apud fontem Ebraldi.

Scribitur hoc auro, rex auree, laus tua tota
aurea, materia conueniente nota.
Laus tua prima fuit Siculi, Cyprus altera, Dromo
tertia, Caruanna quarta, suprema Iope. [Marginal note: Ciuitas Ioppe.]
Retrusi Siculi, Cyprus pessundata, Dromo
mersus, Caruanna capta, retenta Iope.

Epitaphium eiusdem vbi viscera eius requiescunt.

Viscera Kareolum, corpus fons seruat Ebraldi,
et cor Rothomagus, magne Richarde, tuum.

* * * * *

The trauailes of Gulielmus Peregrinus.

Gulielmus Peregrinus, Poeta quidem per eam atatem excellens, genere Anglus
florebat, literarum, vt multi tunc erant, amator maximus, et qui bona
tempora melioribus impenderat studijs. Hic cum accepisset, expeditionem in
Saracenos per Regem Richardum parari, accinxit se ad iter illud, non tantum
vt miles, sed etiam in peregrinus. Vidit ea qua in Mari Hispanico fiebant,
vidit qua in Syria et Palastina commissa fuerunt, in Sultanum Babylonia
Regem, ac perfidos Sarracenos. Omnia hac scripsit, et viuis depinxit
coloribus, ita vt quasi pra oculis, totum poneret negotium, idemque
Argumentum cum Richardo Canonico non infoeliciter, Heroico pertractauit
carmine, opusque iam absolutum Huberto Cantuariorum Archiepiscopo, et
Stephano Turnhamo Capitaneo rerum bellicarum expertissimo dedicauit, addito
hoc titulo, Odeporicon Richardi Regis. Multaque alia edidisse Poetam talem
non dubito, sed num extent illa eius scripta, mihi non constat. Hoc tamen
satis constat, eum fuisse in pretio, Anno a saluitfero virginis partu 1200.
sub Anglorum Rege Ioanne.

The same in English.

William the Pilgrime, a very excellent Poet in those dayes and an
Englishman borne, was of great fame, being much giuen to good letters, (as
many then were) and bestowed his good time in the best kinde of studies.
Hee vnderstanding of the preparation of king Richard against the Saracens,
prepared himselfe also for the same voyage, not onely as a Souldiour, but
as a Pilgrime also. He sawe those things which happened in the Spanish
Seas, and which were done in Syria and Palestina, against the Sultan the
King of Babylon, and the trecherous Saracens. All which things he wrote and
expressed them as it were in liuely colours, as if they had bene still in
doing before his eyes, and handled the same Argument in Heroicall verse
which the forenamed Richard Canonicus did. And hauing finished his worke he
dedicated it to Hubert Archbishop of Canterburie, and to Stephen Turneham a
most expert Captaine of warres, giuing it this Title, The expedition of
King Richard. And I doubt not but that so good a Poet as hee has published
many other things, but whether they be extant yea or no, I know not: but
this I know, that he was a man well accounted of, and flourished in the
yeere after the birth of Christ 1200. vnder king Iohn.

* * * * *

The comming of the Emperour of Constantinople called Baldwine into England
in the yere 1247, out of Matth. Paris, and Holensh. page 239. vol. 2.

About the same time, Baldwine naming himselfe emperour of Constantinople,
came againe into England, to procure sone new ayd of the king towards the
recouery of his empire, out of the which he was expelled by the Greeks.

* * * * *

Confirmatio treugarum inter Regem Anglia Eduardum quartum, et Ioannem
secundum Regem Portugallia, datarum in oppido montis Maioris 8.
Februarij, et apud Westmonasterium 13, Septembris, 1482. anno regni 22.
Regis Eduardi quarti, lingua Lusitanica ex opere sequenti excerpta.

Libro das obras de Garcia de Resende, que tracta da vida e feitos del Rey
dom Ioham secundo. Embaxada que el Rey mandou a el Rey D'Inglaterra. Cap.

Edaqui de Monte Mor mandou el Rey por embaixadores, a el rey dom Duarte de
Inglaterra Ruy de Sousa-pessoa principal e de muyto bon saber e credito; de
que el Rey muyto confiua: e ho doutor Ioam d'Eluas, e fernam de Pina por
secretario. E foram por mar muy honradamente cum muy boa companhia: hos
quaes foram en nome del rey confirmar as ligas antiquas com Inglaterra, que
polla-condican deltas ho nouo Rey de hum zeyno e do outro era obrigado a
mandar confirmar: e tambien pera monstrarem ho titolo que el rey tinha no
senhorio de Guinee, pera que depois de visto el rey D'Inglaterra defendesse
em todos seus reynos, que ninguen armasse nem podesse mandar a Guinee: e
assi mandasse desfazer huna armada que pera laa faziam, per mandado do
Duque de Medina Sidonia, hum Ioam Tintam e hum Guilherme fabiam Ingleses.
Com ha qual embaixada e, rey D'Inglaterra mostrou receber grande
contentamento: e foy delle commuyta honra recebida, e em tudo fez
inteiramente ho que pellos embaixadores lhe foy requerido: de que elles
trouxeran autenticas escrituras das diligencias que con pubricos pregones
fizeram: [Sidenote: These writings are in the Towre.] e assi as prouisones
das aprouacones que eran neccssarias: e com tudo muyto ben acabado, e ha
vontade del rey se vieram.

* * * * *

The voyage of Matthew Gourney, a most, valiant English Knight against the
Moores of Algier in Barbarie and Spaine. M. Camden pag. 159.

Nec tacendum Matthaum Gourney in oppido quodam, vulgari lingua Stoke vnder
Hamden in comitatu Somersetensi appellato, sepultum esse, virum
bellicosissimum regnante Edwardo tertio: qui 96. atatis anno diem obiuit,
cum (vt ex inscriptione videre licuit) obsidioni d'Algizer contra
Saracenos, pralijs Benamazin, Sclusensi, Cressiaco, Ingenos, Pictauiensi,
et Nazarano in Hispania dimicasset.

The same in English.

[Sidenote: In the reigne of Edward the third.] It is by no means to be
passed ouer in silence, that Matthew Gourney, being a most valiant warriour
in the reigne of Edward the third, lyeth buried at a certaine towne, in the
countie of Somerset, commonly called Stoke vnder Hamden: who deceased in
the 96. yeare of his age: and that (as it is manifest by the inscription of
his monument) after he had valiantly behaued himselfe at the siege of
Algizer against the Sarazens, and at the battailes of Benamazin, of Sluce,
of Cressie, of Ingenos, of Poictou, and of Nazaran in Spaine.

* * * * *

The comming of Lyon King of Armenia into England, in the yeere 1386, and in
the ninth yeere of Richard the second, in trust to finde some meanes of
peace or good agreement betweene the King of England and the French king.
Iohn Froyssart lib. 3. cap. 56.

Thus in abiding for the Duke of Berrie, and for the Constable, who were
behind, then king Lyon of Armenia, who was in France, and had assigned him
by the king, sixe thousande frankes by the yeare to maintaine his estate,
tooke vpon him for a good intent to goe into England to speake with the
king there and his Councell, to see if he might finde any matter of peace
to be had, betweene the two Realmes, England and France: And so he departed
from his lodging of Saint Albeyne beside Saint Denice, alonely [Footnote:
"Merely" "only." (Nare's _Glossary_.) "I speak not this _alonly_ for mine
owne." MIR. FOR MAGIST., p. 367.] with his owne company, and with no great
apparell. So he rode to Boloine, and there he tooke a shippe, and so sayled
foorth till he came, to Douer; and there he found the Earle of Cambridge,
and the Earle of Buckingham, and moe then a hundreth men of armes, and a
two thousand Archers, who lay there to keepe that passage, for the brute
[Footenote: Report, _French_ BRUIT. (Nare's _Glossary_). Compare 3 Ilen,
vi., iv., 7.] ran, that the Frenchmen should lande there or at Sandwich,
and the king lay at London, and part of his Councell with him, and daily
heard tydings from all the Portes of England. When the king of Armenia was
arriued at Douer, he had there good cheere, because he was a stranger, and
so he came to the kings vncles there, who sweetly receiued him, and at a
time conuenient, they demaunded of him from whence he came and whither he
would. The king answered and sayd, that in trust of goodnesse he was come
thither to see the king of England, and his Councell, to treate of peace
betweene England and France, for he saide that he thought the warre was not
meete: for he sayd, by reason of warre betweene these two Realmes, which
hath indured so long, the Saracens, Iewes and Turkes are waxed proude, for
there is none that make them any warre, and by occasion thereof I haue lost
my land and Realme, and am not like to recouer them againe without there
were firme peace in all Christendome: and I would gladly shew the matter
that toucheth all Christendome to the king of England, and to his Councell,
as I haue done to the French king. Then the kings Vncles demaunded of him
if the French king sent him thither or no; he answered and sayd, no: there
is no man that sent mee, but I am come hither by mine owne motion to see if
the king of England and his Councel would any thing leane to any treaty of
peace, then was he demaunded where the French king was, he answered I
beleeue he be at Sluce, I sawe not him sithence I tooke my leaue of him at
Senlize. Then he was demaunded, howe he could make any treatie of peace,
and had no charge so to doe, and Sir, if yee be conueyed to the King our
Nephew and to his Counsell, and the French king in the meane season enter
with his puissance into England; yee may happe thereby to receiue great
blame, and your person to be in great ieoperdy with them of the Countrey.
Then the King answered and said, I am in suretie of the French king, for I
haue sent to him, desiring him till I returne againe, not to remoue from
Sluce, and I repute him so noble and so well aduised, that he will graunt
my desire, and that hee will not enter into the sea, till I come againe to
him. Wherefore, sirs, I pray you in the instance of loue and peace, to
conuey me to speake with the King, for I desire greatly to see him: or else
yee that be his Vncles, if ye haue authoritie, to giue me answere to all my
demaunds. Then the Earle of Buckingham sayd, syr king of Armenia, we be
ordayned here to keepe and defend this passage, and the frontiers of
England, by the King and his Counsell, and wee haue no charge to meddle any
further with the businesse of the Realme, without we be otherwise commanded
by the King. But sith ye be come for a good intent into this Countrey, ye
be right welcome; but sir, as for any firme answere ye can haue none of vs,
for as now we be not of the Councell, but we shall conuey you to the king
without perill or danger. The king thanked them, and said: I desire nothing
else but to see the king and to speake with him.

How the King of Armenia returned out of England, and of the answere that
was made to him.

When the king of Armenia was refreshed at Douer a day, and had spoken with
the kings Vncles at good leasure, then he departed towards London, with a
good conduct that, the Lords appointed to him, for feare of any recounters:
so long he rode that he came to London, and in his ryding through London he
was well regarded, because he was a stranger, and he had good cheare made
him, and so was brought to the king, who lay at the Royall at the Queenes
wardrobe, and his Councell were in London at their lodgings: The Londoners
were sore fortefying of their citie. When the comming of the king of
Armenia was knowen, the kings Councell drew to the King to heare what
tydings the King brought in that troublous season: When the king of Armenia
was come into the kings presence, he made his salutation and then beganne
his processe to the states, how he was come out of France principally to
see the king of England whom he had neuer seene before, and said, how he
was right ioyous to be in his presence, trusting that some goodnesse might
come thereby. And there he shewed by his words, that to withstande the
great pestilence that was likely to be in England; therefore he was come of
his owne good will to doe good therein if he might, not sent from the
French king, willing to set some accorde and peace betweene the two Realmes
England and France. Many faire pleasant words the king of Armenia spake to
the king of England, and to his Counsell, then he was shortly answered
thus: Syr king, ye be welcome into this Realme, for the king our soueraigne
lord, and all we are glad to see you here, but sir, we say that the king
hath not here all his Councell, but shortly they shall be here, and then ye
shall be answered. The king of Armenia was content therewith, and so
returned to his lodging. Within foure dayes after the king was counselled
(and I thinke he had sent to his Vncles to know their intents, but they
were not present at the answere giuing) to goe to the pallace at
Westminster and his Councell with him, such as were about him, and to send
for the king of Armenia to come thither. And when he was come into the
presence of the king of England and his Councell, the king sate downe, and
the king of Armenia by him, and then the Prelates and other of his
Councell. There the king of Armenia rehearsed againe his requestes that he
made, and also shewed wisely how all Christendome was sore decayed and
feeblished by occasion of the warres betweene England and France. And how
that all the knights and Squires of both Realmes entended [Footnote: Attend
to. It is used in the same sense in the Alleyn papers. "Loe that I will now
after Monday, intend your busines carefully." And in _Timon of Athens_
ii., 2.] nothing else, but alwayes to be on the one part or of the other:
whereby the Empire of Constantinople leeseth, [Footnote: Diminisheth,
dwindleth. Nares does not give this meaning, not have I ever come across a
precisely similar instance of its use.] and is like to leese; for before
this warre the Knights and Squires were wont to aduenture themselues. And
also the king of Armenia shewed that by occasion of this warre he had lost
his Realme of Armenia, therefore he desired for Gods sake that there might
be some treaty of peace had betweene the two Realmes England and France. To
these wordes answered the Archbishop of Canterburie, for he had charge so
to doe; And he sayd, Sir king of Armenia, it is not the manner nor neuer
was seene betweene two such enemies as the king of England and the French
king, that the King my Souereigne lorde should be required of peace, and he
to enter his land with a puissant army, wherefore sir, we say to you, that
if it please you, ye may returne to the French king, and cause him and all
his puissance to returne backe into their owne countreys. And when euery
man be at home, then if it please you ye may returne againe hither, and
then we shall gladly intende to your treatie.

This was all the answere the king of Armenia could get there, and so he
dined with the king of England, and had as great honour as could bee
deuised, and the king offered him many great gifts of golde and siluer, but
he would take none though he had neede thereof, but alonely a ring to the
value of a hundreth Frankes. After dinner he tooke his leaue and returned
vnto his lodging, and the next day departed, and was two days at Douer, and
there he tooke his leaue of such lords as were there, and so tooke the sea
in a passager, [Footnote: Generally spelt _passenger_, as in the
letter of the Earl of Leicester 1585. Quoted by Nares.] and arriued at
Calais and from thence went to Sluce, and there he spake with the French
king and with his Vncles, and shewed them how he had bene in England, and
what answere he had: the French king and his Vncles tooke no regard of his
saying, but sent him backe againe into France, for their full intention was
to enter into England as soone as they might haue winde and weather, and
the Duke of Berrie and the Constable came to them: The winde was sore
contrary to them, for therewith they could neuer enter into England but the
winde was good to goe into Scotland. [Footnote: The King of Armenia here
referred to was Leon VI., the last of the Cilicio Armenian dynasty founded
by Rupen, a relative of Gagik, the last of the Bagratide Kings: He was
taken prisoner by the Mamelukes of Egypt in 1375, and after a long
captivity wandered as an exile through Europe, dying at Paris in 1393.]

* * * * *

The memorable victories in diuers parts of Italie of Iohn Hawkwood English
man in the reigne of Richard the second, briefly recorded by M. Camden,
pag. 339.

Ad alteram ripam fluuij Colne oppositus est Sibble Heningham, locus
natalis, vt accepi, Ioannis Hawkwoodi (Itali Aucuthum corrupte vocant) quem
illi tantopere ob virtutem militarem suspexerunt, vt Senatus Florentinus
propter insignia merita equestri statua et tumuli honore in eximia
fortitudinis, fideique testimonium ornauit. Res eius gestas Itali pleno ore
praedicant; Et Paulus Iouius in elogijs celebrat: sat mihi sit Iulij
Feroldi tetrastichon adijcere.

Hawkwoode Anglorum decus, et decus addite genti
Italica presidiumque solo,
Vt tumuli quondam Florentia, sic simulachri
Virtutem Iouius donat honore tuam.

William Thomas in his Historie of the common wealthes of Italy, maketh
honorable mention of him twise, to wit, in the commonwealth of Florentia
and Ferrara.

* * * * *

The comming of the Emperour of Constantinople into England, to desire the
aide of Henry the 4. against the Turkes, 1400.

[Sidenote: Thomas Walsingham.] Sub eodem tempore Imperator
Constantinopolitanus venit in Angliam, postulaturus subsidium contra
Turcas. Cui occurit rex cum apparatu nobili ad le Blackheath, die sancti
Thomae Apostilo, susceptique, prout decuit, tantum Heroem, duxitque
Londonias, et per multos dies exhibuit gloriose, pro expensis hospitij sui
soluens, et eum respiciens tanto fastigio donatiuis. Et paulo post: His
auditis rumoribus, Imperator laetior recessit ab Anglis, honoratus a rege
donarijs preciosis.

The same in English.

About the same time the Emperour of Constantinople came into England, to
seek ayde against the Turkes: whom the king accompanied with his nobilitie,
met withall vpon Blackheath vpon the day of saint Thomas the Apostle, and
receiued him as beseemed so great a prince, and brought him to London, and
roially entertained him for a long season, defraying the charges of his
diet, and giuing him many honorable presents. And a litle afterward: Vpon
the hearing of these newes, the emperor departed with great ioy out of
England, whom the king honoured with many precious gifts.

* * * * *

A briefe relation of the siege and taking of the Citie of Rhodes, by Sultan
Soliman the great Turke, translated out of French into English at the
motion of the Reuerend Lord Thomas Dockwray, great Prior of the order of
Ierusalem in England, in the yeere, 1524.

Willingly faithfully to write and reduce in veritie Historiall, the great
siege, cruel oppugnation, and piteous taking of the noble and renowmed
citie of Rhodes, the key of Christendome, the hope of many poore Christian
men, withholden in Turkie to saue and keepe them in their faith: the rest
and yeerely solace of noble pilgrimes of the holy sepulchre of Iesu Christ
and other holy places: the refuge and refreshing of all Christian people:
hauing course of marchandise in the parties of Leuant, I promise, to all
estates that shall see this present booke, that I haue left nothing for
feare of any person, nor preferred it for fauour. And first I shall shewe
the occasions that moued this cruell bloodshedder, enemie of our holy
Christian faith, Sultan Soliman, now being great Turke, to come with a
great hoste by sea and by lande, to besiege and assayle the space of sixe
moneths, night and day, the noble and mightie citie of Rhodes, the yere of
the incarnation of our Lord Iesu Christ, 1522.

The occasions why the great Turke came to besiege the Citie of Rhodes.

The first and principall cause was that he did consider and sawe by
experience, that there was none other Towne nor place in Leuant that warred
against him nor kept him in doubt, but this poore rocke of Rhodes. And
hearing that continuall complaintes of his subiectes as well of Syria, as
of Turkie, for the domages and prises dayly done of their bodies and goods
by Christian men of warre receiued into Rhodes: And also of the shippes and
gallies of the religion, he tooke conclusion in himselfe, that if he might
put the sayde Towne in his power and subiection, that then he should be
peaceable lord of all the parties of Leuant, and that his subiects should
complaine no more to him.

The second, that he might followe the doings of his noble predecessours,
and shewe himselfe very heire of the mightie and victorious lord Sultan
Selim his father, willing to put in execution the enterprise by him left
the yeere one thousand fiue hundred twentie and one. The which Selim the
great Turke put in all redinesse his armie to the number of three hundreth
sayles purposing for to send them against Rhodes, if mortalitie had not
happened in his host, and he afterwarde by the will of our lorde was
surprised and taken with death: wherefore he being in the latter ende of
his dayes, (as some Turkes and false christian men that were at this siege
shewed me) did charge by his testament, or caused to charge his sonne now
being great Turke, that after this death hee should make his two first
enterprises, the one against Bellegrado in Hungarie, and the other against
Rhodes, for to get him honour, and to set his Countries and subiectes in
rest and suretie. The which fatherly motion easilie entered into him and
was imprinted in the heart and yoong will of the sayde Solyman, his sonne,
the which soone after the death of his father put in effect the first
enterprise, and raised an huge hoste both by water and by land, and went
himselfe in person against Bellegrado, a right strong place in Hungarie.
[Sidenote: The taking of Belgrade.] And after that hee had besieged it the
space of two moneths or thereabout, for fault of ordinance and vitailes, it
was yeelded to him by composition the eight day of September, in the yeere
of our lord, one thousand fiue hundred twentie and one. The sayd Solyman
hauing this victory, being swollen and raised in pride and vaineglory,
turned his heart agaynst Rhodes. Neuertheless, he not ignorant of the
strength of it, and considering the qualities of the people that were
within it, of whom he should be well receiued as his predecessours had bene
aforetimes, doubted much, and knew not how to furnish his enterprise. For
his capitaines and Bashas turned him from it as much as they might by many
reasons, they knowing the force of it, saue onely Mustofa Basha his brother
in lawe, the which councelled and put him in minde to goe thither. Finally,
hee purposed entirely to haue it by treason or by force. [Sidenote: Forren
physicians become spies oftentimes.] And also, for the same cause and
purpose, his father in his dayes had sent a Iewe physician into Rhode as a
spie, to haue the better knowledge of it: the sayd Solyman was informed
that he was there yet, wherefore he sent him worde that he should abide
there still for the same cause. And gaue in charge to one of the chiefe men
in Sio, to send vnto the sayd Iewe all things needefull to maintaine him.
And the same Iewe wrote to him of Sio, vnder priuie wordes, all that was
done in Rhodes to giue knowledge thereof to the great Turke: and the better
to hide his treason, the sayde Iewe made himselfe to bee baptised. And to
bee the more named to be expert in Physike, he did some faire cures to such
such as were diseased, whereby he began to bee well trusted, and came in
fauour with many substantiall folkes of the towne. Among all other things
whereof hee aduertised the great Turke, one was of a wall that was taken
downe for to be new builded at the bulwarke of Auuergne, certifying him
that if hee came hastely with his hoste, hee might easilie and at vnawares
surprise the towne in such estate as it was at that time. Many other
aduertisements and warnings hee shewed the Turke, which shall bee declared
hereafter. [Sidenote: A Portingale traitor.] But beside his aduertisement,
the sayd great Turke stirred and prouoked by a false traitour, a Portingale
knight of ours, that time Chanceller of the sayd holy Religion, a man of
great authoritie, dignitie, and vnderstanding, and one of the principall
lordes of the counsell of the same, named Sir Andrew de Merall, by little
and little was mooued and kindled to the sayd enterprise of treason,
whereof was no maruell, for it was a great hope and comfort to haue such a
person for him, that knew all the estate and rule of the religion and of
the towne. And for to declare the occasions of the cursed and vnhappy will
of the said traitor that had bene occasion of so great losse and damage,
and shall be more at the length, if the diuine power set not to his hand.

[Sidenote: Philip de Villiers great master.] And here it is manifestly to
bee vnderstood of all men, that after the death of the noble and right
prudent lord, Fabrice of Cacetto, great master of Rhodes, the sayd Sir
Andrew enflamed with ambition and couetousnesse to bee great master, and
seeing himselfe deceiued of his hope, by the election made the two and
twentieth day of Ianuary, of the right reuerend and illustrate lord, Philip
de Villiers Lisleadam, before him: from that time hee tooke so great enuie
and desperation, enmitie and euil will, not onely against the sayde lord;
but against all the holy religion, that hee set all his studie and purpose,
to betray and sell his religion and the citie of Rhodes to the cursed
misbeleeuers, forgetting the great honours and goodnesse that hee hath had
of the religion, and hoped to receiue, with many other particuler pleasures
that the sayd lord master had done to him. But the deuill, vnkindnesse, and
wickednesse had so blinded the eyes of his thought, that hee in no wise
could refraine him, but at euery purpose that was spoken afore him, hee was
short and might not dissemble. And one day among other hee sayde before
many knights, that hee would that his soule were at the deuill, and that
Rhodes and the religion were lost. And many other foolish and dishonest
purposes and wordes hee vttered, whereat none tooke heed, nor thought that
hee had the courage to doe that thing that hee hath done. Howbeit,
obstinate as Iudas, hee put in execution his cursed will: for soone after
that the tidings of the election was sent Westward to the sayde noble lord,
the sayd de Merall did send a Turke prisoner of his to Constantinople,
vnder shadowe to fetch his ransome. By whom he aduertised the great Turke
and his counsell, of the maner and degree of Rhodes, and in what state and
condicion the towne was in of all maner of things at that time, and what
might happen of it, prouoking and stirring him to come with a great hoste
to besiege the towne. And after the comming of the sayd reuerend lord great
master, he gaue other aduise to the great Turke, shewing him that hee could
neuer haue better time to come, seeing that the great master was new come,
and part of the wall taken downe, and that all Rhodes was in trouble by
occasion of some Italian knights, rebels agaynst the lord great master: of
the which rebellion he was causer, the better to bring his cursed mind to
passe: and also gaue the sayde great Turke knowledge that all Christian
princes were busie, warring each vpon other, and that he should not doubt
but if the rebellion lasted among them, the towne should be his without
faile, as it is seene by experience. And for lacke of succours of euery
part, and especially of such as might easily haue holpen vs beyng our
neighbours, with their gallies and men of warre, wherefore it is now in the
handes of the enemies of the christian faith. The which monitions and
reasons of the false traitor being vnderstood and pondered by the great
Turke and his counsell, it was considered of them not to loose so good
occasion and time. Wherefore hee made most extreme diligence to rigge and
apparell many ships and vessels of diuers sorts, as galliasses, gallies,
pallandres, fustes, and brigantines, to the number of 350. sailes and moe.
[Footnote: A Galliasse was a 3 masted galley; Pallandres were manned by 20
men and Fustes by 12 to 15.] When the prisoner that the sayd de Merall did
send into Turkie had done his commission, hee returned into Rhodes, whereof
euery man had maruell. And many folkes deemed euil of his comming againe,
as of a thing vnaccustomed, but none durst say any thing, seeing the sayd
de Merall of so great authoritie and dignitie, and he cherished the sayd
prisoner, more than he was woont to doe. Therefore belike hee had well done
his message, and had brought good tidings to the damnable and shamefull
mind of the sayd traitor de Merall.

How the great Turke caused the passages to be kept, that none should beare
tidings of his hoste to Rhodes.

The great Turke intending with great diligence to make readie his hoste
both by sea and by land, the better to come to his purpose, and to take the
towne vnwarily as hee was aduertised, thought to keepe his doings as secret
as hee might, and commaunded that none of his subiects should goe to Rhodes
for any maner of thing. And likewise he tooke all the barkes and
brigantines out of the hauens and portes in those coastes, because they
should giue no knowledge of his armie. And also hee made the passages by
land to bee kept, that none should passe. Howbeit, so great apparell of an
armie could not bee long kept close: for the spies which the lord great
master had sent into Turkie, brought tidings to the castle of saint Peter,
and to Rhodes, of all that was said and done in Turkie. Neuerthelesse, the
sayd lord gaue no great credence to all that was brought and told, because
that many yeeres before, the predecessours of the great Turke had made
great armies: and alway it was sayd that they went to Rhodes, the which
came to none effect. And it was holden for a mocke and a by-word in many
places, that the Turke would goe to besiege Rhodes. And for this reason
doubt was had of this last armie, and some thought that it should haue gone
into Cyprus or to Cataro, a land of the lordship of Venice. Howbeit the
great master not willing to bee taken vnwarily, but the meane while as
carefull and diligent for the wealth of his towne, and his people,
vnderstanding these tidings of the Turkes armie, did all his diligence to
repaire and strengthen the towne. Amongst all other things to build vp, and
raise the bulwarke of Auuergne, and to cleanse and make deeper the ditches.
And the more to cause the workemen to haste them in their businesse, the
sayd lord ouersawe them twise or thrise euery day.

How the lord great master counselled with the lordes for prouision of the

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Bourgh the English Turcoplier.] Then the sayd reuerend
lord thought to furnish and store the towne with more vitailes for the
sustenance thereof, and for the same many times hee spake with the lordes
that had the handling and rule of the treasurie, and of the expenses
thereof in his absence, and since his comming: That is to wit, with the
great Commander Gabriel de pommerolles, lieutenant of the sayd lord: The
Turcoplier Sir Iohn Bourgh of the English nation: and the Chancellor Sir
Andrew de Meral, of whom is spoken afore and of his vntruth agaynst his
religion. The which three lordes sayd, that hee should take no thought for
it, for the towne was well stored with vitailes for a great while, and that
there was wheate ynough till new came in: Notwithstanding it were good to
haue more, or the siege were laied afore the towne, and therefore it were
behoouefull to send for wheate and other necessaries into the West for
succours of the towne, and at that time to puruey for euery thing.

Of the prouision for vitailes and ordinance of warre.

As touching the store and ordinance of warre, the sayd lordes affirmed that
there was ynough for a yeere and more, whereof the contrary was found, for
it failed a moneth or the citie was yeelded. It is of trueth that there was
great store, and to haue lasted longer then it did. But it was needful to
spend largely at the first comming of the enemies to keepe them from
comming neere, and from bringing earth to the ditches sides as they did.
And moreouer you are to consider the great number of them, and their power
that was spred round about the towne, giuing vs so many assaults and
skirmishes in so many places as they did, and by the space of sixe whole
moneths day and night assailing vs, that much ordinance and store was
wasted to withstand them in all points. And if it failed, it was no
maruell. Howbeit the noble lord great master, prouided speedily for it, and
sent Brigantines to Lango, to the castle of saint Peter, and to the castels
of his isle Feraclous and Lyndo, for to bring powder and saltpeter to
strength the towne, but it suffised not.

And for to speake of the purueiance of vitailes, it was aduised by the lord
great master and his three lords, that it was time to send some ships for
wheat to places thereabout, before the Turks hoste were come thither. And
for this purpose was appointed a ship named the Gallienge, whose captaine
hight [Footnote: The participle of the Anglo-Saxon verb _Hatan_, to
"Full carefully he kept them day and night;
In fairest fields, and Astrophel he _hight_."
SPENSER Astrophel i., 6.]
Brambois, otherwise called Wolfe, of the Almaine nation, an expert man of
the sea, the which made so good diligence, that within a moneth he
performed his voiage, and brought good store of wheat from Naples and
Romania, [Footnote: The territory around Rome, _not_ Roumania.] which did
vs great comfort.

How a Brigantine was sent to Candie for wine, and of diuers ships that came
to helpe the towne.

After this, a motion was made to make prouision of wine for the towne, for
the men of Candie durst not saile for to bring wine to Rhodes as they were
woont to doe for feare of the Turkes hoste: and also they of the towne
would send no ship into Candie, fearing to be taken and enclosed with the
sayd hoste by the way. Howbeit some merchants of the towne, were willing to
haue aduentured themselues in a good ship of the religion, named the Mary,
for to haue laden her with wine in Candie. But they could not agree with
the three lordes of the treasure, and their let was but for a little thing:
and all the cause came of the sayd traitour de Merall, faining the wealth
of the treasure: for he intended another thing, and brake this good and
profitable enterprise and will of the sayd merchants, seeing that it was
hurtfull to the Turke, whose part the said traitour held in his diuelish
heart: that notwithstanding, the reuerend lord great master, that in all
things from the beginning to the ende, hath alway shewed his good will, and
with all diligence and right that might bee requisite to a soueraigne
captaine and head of warre, found other expedience, and sent a Brigantine
into Candie, in the which he sent a brother sergeant named Anthonie of
Bosus, a well sprighted [Footnote: Loyal.] man and wise, that by his
wisedome wrought so well, that, within a small time he brought fifteene
vessels called Gripes, laden with wine, and with them men of warre the
which came vnder shadow of those wines, because the gouernours of Candie
durst let none of their men goe to the succour of Rhodes for feare of the
Turke. And beside those fifteene Gripes came a good ship whose capitaine
and owner was a rich yong gentleman Venetian, Messire Iohn Antonio de
Bonaldi, which of his good will came with his ship laden with 700. buts of
wine to succour the towne with his person and folkes, whose good and
lowable will I leaue to the consideration of the readers of this present
booke. For hee being purposed to haue had his wines to Constantinople, or
he was enformed of the busines of Rhodes, and was in the porte du Castell
in Candie, would not beare his vitailes to the enemies of the faith, but
came out and returned his way toward Rhodes, forgetting all particular
profite and aduantage. He being arriued at Rhodes, dispatched and sold his
wine, which was a great encrease and comfort for the towne. And when he had
so done, he presented his person, his ship, and his folke, to the reuerend
great master, the which retained him, and set him in wages of the Religion.
And during the siege, the sayd capitaine behaued him woorthily in his
person, and put himselfe in such places as woorthy men ought to be,
spending his goods largely without demanding any paiment or recompense for
his doing, of the Religion.

How the corne was shorne downe halfe ripe and brought into the towne for
feare of the Turkes hoste.

During these things, the reuerend lord great master carefull and busie to
haue euerything necessary, as men and other strengths, sent vessels called
brigantines, for to cause the wafters of the sea to come vnto Rhodes for
the keeping and fortifying of the towne, the which at the first sending
came and presented their persons and ships to the seruice of the religion.

[Sidenote: Haruest in April and May.] After that the sayd lord caused to
shere downe the Rie of his isle, and caused it to bee brought into the
towne, which was done in Aprill: and then in May in some places, he made to
shere the wheate halfe ripe, howbeit the most part was left in the fields,
because the Turkes hoste was come out of the streights of Constantinople.
And doubting that any number of ships should come before to take the people
of the sayd Isle vnawares, the sayd lord made them to leaue shering of
wheate, and caused the people of the furthest part of the Isle to come into
the towne.

While that the great master prouided for all things after the course of
time and tidings that hee had, there arriued a Carak of Genoa laden with
spicerie from Alexandria, the which passed before the port of Rhodes the
eight day of Aprill, and rid at anker at the Fosse, 7. or 8. miles from the
towne, for to know and heare tidings of the Turkish hoste. Then the lord
willing to furnish him with people as most behoouefull for the towne, sent
a knight of Prouence named sir Anastase de sancta Camilla, commander de la
Tronquiere to the captaine of the Carak, praying him to come into the hauen
with his ship for the defence of the towne, profering him what he would,
assuring him ship. The captaine excused him, saying, that the merchandise
was not his owne, but belonged to diuers merchants to whom he must yeeld
account. Howbeit at the last after many words and promises to him made hee
came into the hauen, the which captaine was named messire Domingo de
Fournati, and hee in his person behaued him valiauntly in the time of the
sayd siege.

How the great master caused generall musters to be made, and sent a vessell
to the Turkes nauie, of whom he receiued a letter.

After the moneth of April the lord master seeing that the Turkes hoste drew
neere, and that he had the most part of the wafters within the towne, he
caused generall musters of men of armes to be made. And began at the
knights, the which vpon holy Rood day in May made their musters, before the
Commissioners ordained by the sayd lord in places deputed to each of them
called Aalberge. The which Commissioners made report to the lordes that
they had found the knights in good order of harnesse and other things
necessary for warre, and their araie faire and proper, with crosses on
them. When the muster of the knights was done, the lord master thought to
make the musters of them of the towne, and strangers together: but his
wisedome perceiued that harme should come thereby, rather then good,
doubting, that the number of people should not bee so great as he would, or
needed to haue, whereof the great Turke might haue knowledge by goers and
commers into Rhodes, and therefore he caused them of the towne to make
their musters seuerall by bandes and companies, and the strangers also by
themselues, to the end that the number should not bee knowen,
notwithstanding that there was good quantitie of good men and well willing
to defend themselues. And the more to hearten and giue them courage and
good will, some knights of the Crosse, decked their men with colours and
deuises, and tooke with them men of the towne and strangers, and with great
noyse of trumpets and timbrels, they made many musters, as enuying each
other which should keepe best aray and order, and haue the fairest company.
It was a great pleasure to see them all so well agree, and so well willing.

The number of the men of the towne amounted and were esteemed, three, or
foure thousand, beside men of the villages that might be 1500. or 2000.

The eight day of the same moneth, the Turkes hearing of those tidings, made
a fire for a token in a place called le Fisco, in the maine land right
against Rhodes. And certaine dayes afore they had made another, that is to
weet, when the ship of a knight named Menetow went thither, and had with
him the clarke of the gallies named Iaques truchman, the which vnder shadow
to speake with him, was withholden of the Turkes. For the great Turke had
commanded to take him or some other man of the Rhodes to haue perfect
knowledge in what estate the towne was then in euery thing. And they of the
towne weening that the second fire was for to deliuer Iaques, the reuerend
lord great master sent one of his galliasses, whose patron was called
messire Boniface of Prouence, to know the cause thereof. And when hee
arriued at the sayd place of le Fisco, he demaunded of the Turkes wherefore
they had made the token of fire. And they said that it was because their
lord had sent a letter to the great master, but as yet it was not come, and
desired him to tary till it were brought. The patron as warie and wise in
the businesse of the sea, thought in himselfe that the Turkes made such
prolonging to some euill intent, or to surprise his vessell being alone,
wherefore hee bade them giue him the letter speedily, or els he would goe
his way, and neither tary for letter nor other thing: and told them of the
euill and dishonest deed that they had done the dayes afore, to withhold
the clarke vnder their words and safeconduct: and therewith he turned his
galliasse to haue gone away. The Turkes seeing that, gaue him the letter,
the which he tooke, and when he was arriued at Rhodes, he presented it to
the lord great master, which assembled the lordes of his counsell, and made
it to be red. The tenor whereof was such as foloweth.

The copie of the letter that the great Turke sent to the Iord great master,
and to the people of the Rhodes.

Sultan Solyman Basha by the grace of God, right mightie emperor of
Constantinople, and of himselfe holding both the lands of Persia, Arabia,
Syria, Mecha, and Ierusalem; of Asia, Europe, Aegypt, and of all the Sea,
lord and possessor: To the reuerend father lord Philip, great master of
Rhodes, to his counsailors, and to all the other citizens great and small,
greeting. Sending conuenient and worthy salutations to your reuerances, wee
giue you to weet, that we haue receiued your letters sent vnto our
imperiall maiestie by George your seruant, the tenor whereof we doe well
vnderstand: and for this occasion we send vnto you this our present
commaundement, to the end that we will that ye know surely how by our
sentence we will haue that Isle of Rhodes for many damages and euill deeds
which we haue, and heare from day to day of the sayd place done to vs and
our subiects, and ye with your good will shall hold it of vs and doe vs
obeisance, and giue the citie to mine imperiall maiestie. And we sweare by
God that made heauen and earth, and by 26000. of our prophets, and by the
4. Misafi that fell from the skies, and by our first prophet Mahomet, that
if ye doe vs homage, and yeeld you with good will vpon these othes, all you
that will abide in the sayd place, great and small, shall not need to feare
perill nor damage of mine imperiall maiestie, neither you, your goods, nor
your men: and who so will goe to any other place with his goods and
houshold, may so doe, and who so will dwell and inhabits in any other
places vnder mine Imperiall maiestie, may remaine where they like best,
without feare of any person. And if there bee any of the principals and
woorthy men among you that is so disposed, wee shall giue him wages and
prouision greater then hee hath had. And if any of you will abide in the
sayd isle, yee may so doe after your auncient vsages and customes, and much
better. And therefore if that Imperiall maiestie, or els know yee that wee
will come vpon you with all prouisions of warre, and thereof shall come as
it pleaseth God. And this wee doe, to the end that ye may know, and that ye
may not say, but we haue giuen you warning. And if ye doe not thus with
your good will, wee shall vault and vndermine your foundations in such
maner, that they shalbe torne vpside downe, and shal make you slaues, and
cause you to die, by the grace of God, as we haue done many, and hereof
haue ye no doubt. Written in our court at Constantinople the first day of
the moneth of Iune.

How the Turkes came to land in the Isle of Lango, and were driuen to their
ships againe by the Prior of S. Giles.

When the lord great master and his counsell had heard the tenor of the
letter, they would giue none answere to the great Turke, but that he should
be receiued with good strokes of artillerie. So that to a foolish demaund
behooued none answere. And it was very like that he would haue nothing. For
sixe dayes after, that was the 14. day of the said moneth of Iune, the
Brigantines that went toward Sio to know of the said armie, came againe and
sayd, that of a trueth the said armie was comming; and that nigh to Lango
an Isle of the religion, and 100. mile from Rhodes, they had seene and told
30. sailes that were most part gallies and fustes: the which vessels set
men on land in the isle of Lango. Then the prior of S. Giles, Messire pre
Iohn de Bidoux commander of the said place, taried not long from horsebacke
with his knights and people of the isle, and he met so well with the
Turkes, that he droue them to their ships, and slew a certaine number of
them: and of the side of Pre Iohn some were hurt, and his horse was slaine.
When the enemies were entered into their gallies, they went to a place
called castle Iudeo on the maine land, betweene the sayd isle of Lango and
the castle of S. Peter.

How part of the nauie and armie of the great Turke came before the citie of

The 18. day of the said moneth of Iune, these 30. gallies went from the
sayd place, and passed, by the Cape of Crion, entering the gulfe of Epimes
beside Rhodes, and were discouered from the shade of the hill of Salaco, a
castle in the isle of Rhodes. On the morrow they came out of the gulfe by
plaine day, and sailing along by the coasts, they entered into a hauen on
maine land called Malfata, where they abode three dayes. Then they went
from thence, and returned to the gulfe of Epimes, where they abode two
dayes and two nights.

The 24 day of the same moneth they issued out of Epimes, and trauersing the
chanell, they came to the yle of Rhodes in a place before a castle called
Faues, and they went to land, and burnt a great field of corne the same
day, which was the feast of S. Iohn Baptist our patron. The guard of a
castle named Absito in the yle of Rhodes discouered and spied the great
hoste, and in great haste brought word to the lord master, and sayd that
the sayd hoste, that was in so great number of sailes that they might not
be numbred, was entered into the gulfe of Epimes. The 30 sailes that lay in
the yle arose in the night, and went to the sayd hoste in the gulfe.

The 26 day of Iune the sayd great hoste arose and went out of Epimes an
houre after the sun rising, and trauersing the chanell, they came to a
place called the Fosse, eight miles from the towne. And the 30 first sailes
turned backe toward the cape of S. Martin and other places to watch for
ships of Christian men, if any passed by to Rhodes. The great hoste abode
still till noone or one of the clocke, and then arose, not all, but about
80 or 100 ships, as gallies, galliasses, and fusts: and passed one after
another before the towne and hauen of Rhodes three miles off, and came to
shore in a place nigh to land, called Perambolin, sixe miles from the
towne. In the which place the sayd hoste abode from that time to the end of
that vnhappy siege.

The number and names of the vessels that came to besiege Rhodes.

The number of the ships were these: 30 galliasses, 103 gallies, aswell
bastards as subtill mahonnets, 15 taffours, 20 fusts, 64 great ships, sixe
or seuen gallions, and 30 galleres, besides the nauy that waited for
Christain men, if any came to succour vs. These were the vessels that came
at the first to lay the siege. And sith that sayd host came out of
Perambolin, there came from Syria 20 other sailes, aswell gallies as fusts.
And many other ships came sith, and ioyned with the sayd army in the time
of the sayd siege. And it was sayd that there were 400 sailes and moe.

The same day that part of the host came to the sayd place, the reuerend
lord great master ordeined a great brigandine to send into the West, to
certifie our holy father the pope, and the Christian princes how the Turks
army was afore Rhodes. And in the sayd vessel he sent two knights, one a
French man named Sir Claude Dansoyuille called Villiers, and Sir Loys de
Sidonia a Spaniard: and they went to the pope and to the emperour.

After the comming of the Turks nauy into the sayd place, if was 14 or 15
dayes or they set any ordinance on land, great or small, or any quantity of
men came on shore, whereof we marueiled. And it was tolde vs by some that
came out of the campe, and also by the spies that the lord great master had
sent abroad arayed as Turks that they, abode the commandement of their
great lord, vntill the hoste by land were come into the campe. Howbeit
there came some number for to view the towne, but they went priuity, for
the ordinance of the towne shot without cease.

All this while the gallies and galliasses went and came to land, bringing
vitaile and people. At the which ships passing nigh the town, were shot
many strokes with bombards, which made some slaughter of our enemies: and
when the most part of them was past, they began to set ordinance on the
land with great diligence. Then the lord great master departed from his
palace, and lodged him nigh a church called The victory, because that place
was most to be doubted: and also that at the other siege [Footnote: This
refers to the siege of Rhodes in 1480, by Mohammed II., the conqueror of
Constantinople.] the great businesse and assault was there.

How the lord great master made his petition before the image of S. Iohn,
and offered him the keyes of the towne.

The day before were made many predications and sermons, and the last was in
the church of S. Iohn Baptist. When the sermon was done, a pontificall
Masse was celebrate with all solemnities, and all the reliques taken downe,
and the lord great master and all his knights with great deuotions and
reuerence heard it. And when the Masse was ended, the lord great master
made a pitious oration or prayer before Saint Iohn Baptist his protectour:
and aboue all other words, which were too long to tell, he besought him
meekly that it would please him to take the keyes of that miserable city.
The which keyes he presented and layed vpon the altar before the image,
beseeching S. Iohn to take the keeping and protection thereof, and of all
the religion, as by his grace he had giuen to him vnworthy, the gouerning
vnto that day: and by his, holy grace to defend them from the great power
of the enemies that had besieged them.

How the women slaues would haue set fire in the towne.

The eight day of Iuly it was knowen that the Turkish women being slaues and
seruaunts in many houses of the towne, had appointed to set fire in their
masters houses at the first assault that should be made, to the end that
the men should leaue their posterns and defenses to go and saue their
houses and goods. And it was found that a woman of Marchopota being a
slaue, was first moouer thereof, the which was taken and put to execution.

The same day some of our men went out for to skirmish with the Turkes, and
many of them were slaine with shot of our artillerie, and of our men but

How the Turkes layd their artillerie about the towne, and of the maner and
quantitie of their pieces and gunshot.

The 18. day of Iuly, for the beginning and first day they set vp a
mantellet, vnder the which they put three or foure meane pieces, as sacres,
wherewith they shot against the posterns of England and Prouence. But the
mantellet was soone broken and cast downe, and their pieces destroyed with
the shot of the wall, and they that shot them were most part slaine. As
this first mantellet was broken, by the great and innumerable people that
they had they set all their ordinance on land, and caried it to the places
where it should be bent, or nigh thereby.

And the 29. day of the same moneth, they set vp two other mantellets. One
beside a church of saint Cosme and Damian, and another toward the West. And
from these mantellets they shot great pieces, as Culuerings, double gunnes,
and great bombards [Footnote: For particulars of the artillery used from
the 14th to the 16th Centuries, see Vol. iii, page 207. note.] agaynst the
wals of England and Spaine, to the which mantellets the ordinance of the
towne gaue many great strokes, and often brake them. And the more to grieue
the towne and to feare vs, they set vp many other mantellets in diuers
places, almost round about the towne, and they were reckoned foure score:
the which number was well lessened by the great quantitie of strokes of
artillerie shot out of the towne from many places.

The artillerie of the Turkes was such as followeth.

First there were sixe great gunnes, cannons perriers of brasse, that shot a
stone of three foote and a halfe: also there were 15. pieces of iron that
shot stones of fiue or sixe spannes about. Also there were 14. great
bombards that shot stones of eleuen spans about. Also there were twelue
basiliskes, whereof they shot but with 8. that is to weet, foure shot
agaynst the posterns of England and Spaine, and two against the gate of
Italy: the other two shot sometime against Saint Nicholas tower. Also there
were 15. double gunnes casting bullets as basiliskes. The meane shot, as
sacres and pasuolans, were in great number. The handgunshot was innumerable
and incredible. Also there were twelue potgunnes of brasse that shot
vpward, whereof eight were set behind the church of S. Cosme and Damian,
and two at saint Iohn de la Fontaine toward the port of Italy, and the
other two afore the gate of Auuergne, the which were shot night and day:
and there were three sorts of them, whereof the greatest were of sixe or
seuen spannes about. And the sayd stones were cast into the towne to make
murder of people, which is a thing very inhumane and fearefull, which maner
of shooting is little vsed amongst christian men. Howbeit by euident
myracle, thanked be God, the sayd pieces did no great harme, and slew not
past 24. or 25. persons, and the most part women and children, and they
began to shoot with, the said pieces from the 19. day of the same moneth,
vnto the end of August, and it was accounted that they shot 2000. times
more or lesse.

Then the enemies were warned by the Iewe that wrote letters to them of all
that was done and sayd in the towne, that the sayd potgunnes did no harme:
wherefore they were angry, for they thought that they had slaine the third
part of our people: and they were counselled by him to leaue that shooting,
for it was but time lost, and pouder wasted, and then they shot no more
with them. It is of a trueth that they shot with the sayd potgunnes 12. or
15. times with bullets of brasse or copper, full of wild fire, and when
they were in the ayre, they flamed foorth, and in falling on the ground,
they brake, and the fire came out and did some harme: But at the last wee
knew the malice thereof, and the people was warie from comming neere to
them, and therefore they did hurt no more folke.

How the captaine Gabriel Martiningo camee to the succor of Rhodes, and all
the slaues were in danger to be slaine.

The 24. day of the same moneth a brigantine arriued that was sent afore
into Candie, wherein came a worthy captaine named Gabriel Martiningo with
two other captains. And there went to receiue him messieur prou Iohn prior
of S. Giles, and the prior of Nauarre. Then after his honourable receiuing
as to him well apperteined, they brought him before the lord great master
that louingly receiued him, and he was gladly seene and welcommed of the
people, as a man that was named very wise and ingenious in feats of warre.
Then came a Spaniard renegado from the host, that gaue vs warning of all
that was done in the field, and of the approaching by the trenches that our
enemies made.

And in likewise there arose a great noise in the towne, that the slaues
Turks that wrought for vs in the diches had slaine their keepers, and would
haue fled, which was not so. Neuerthelesse, the rumour was great, and they
rang alarme: wherefore the sayd slaues comming to prison, as it was
ordeined in al the alarmes, were met of the people, which in great anger
put them to death: so that there were slaine an hundred and moe the same
day. And if the lord great master had not commanded, that none should hurt
them, they had bene all slaine, and there were fifteene hundredth of them:
which slaues did great seruice in time of the siege: for they laboured
dayly to make our defences, and to cast earth out of the ditches, and in
all works they were necessary at our needs.

How the great Turke arriued in person before Rhodes.

The 25 day of the sayd moneth many of our men went out for to skirmish in
the field and made great murder of Turks, and in likewise did our
artillery. And it is to be noted that the 28 day of the same moneth the
great Turke in person passed le Fisco a hauen in the maine land with a
galley and a fust, and arriued about noone, where his army lay, the which
day may be called unhappie for Rhodes. For his comming, his presence and
continuall abiding in the fielde is and hath beene cause of the victorie
that he hath had. When the gallie that he came in was arriued, all the
other shippes of the hoste hanged banners aloft in their toppes and on
their sayle yerdes.

Soone after that the Turke was arriued, he went to land, and mounted on his
horse, and rode to his pauilion which was in a high place called
Megalandra, foure or fiue miles fro the towne but of the danger of the
gunne shot. And on the morrow, as it was reported to vs, hee came to a
Church nigh the towne called Saint Steuen, for to viewe the Towne and
fortresses, whereas they had set vp mantellets for to lay their ordinance.

The last day of Iuly, one of our briganidines went out with a good company
of men arrayed as Turkes, and some of them could speake Turkish, and went
by night to lande through the Turkes hoste, and demaunded if there were any
that would passe ouer into Turkie, that they should haste them to come. The
Turkes weening that they had beene of Turkie, there entred a 12. persons,
the which were carried to Rhodes, by whom we knew what they did in the

The first day of August the Captaine Gabriel Martiningo was made knight of
the order of the religion by the lord great Master, and was made the first
auncient of the Italian nation, of the first baliage or priorie that should
be vacant. And in the meane season the religion should giue him twelue
hundred ducates for pension euery yeere, and the same day he was receiued
to the Councell in the roome of a baylife.

The fift day of the sayd moneth our master gunner was slaine with a gunne,
which was great losse for vs at that time.

The 15. day of the sayd moneth was knowen and taken for a traitor, Messire
Iohn Baptista, the physicion aforesayd, which confessed his euill and
diuelish doings, and had his head striken of.

Of the marueiloous mounts that the Turks made afore the towne, and how the
capitaines were ordered in the trenches.

After the comming of the great Turke, the enemies began to shoote with
ordinance of another sort then they did before, and specially with
harquebushes and handguns, and also to make their trenches and approches.
And also they did more diligence then afore, to bring the earth nigh the
towne with spades and pickaxes. And it is to weet, that they mooued the
earth from halfe a mile off, and there were shot out of the towne
innumerable strokes with ordinance against the sayd earth, and innumerable
quantitie of people hid behind the sayd earth, were slaine. Neuerthelesse
they neuer left working till they had brought it to the brimmes of the
ditches: and when it was there, they raised it higher and higher in
strengthning it behind. And in conclusion the sayd earth was higher then
the wals of the towne by 10. or 12. foote, and it seemed a hill. And it was
agaynst the gate of Auuergne and Spaine, and beat our men that were at the
gates and bulwarks, in such wise, that none durst be seene till certaine
defences and repaires were made of plankes and boards to couer our people
and keepe them from the shot. And at the gate of Italy was made such
another heape, and in none other part.

When the trenches were thus made to the ditches, the enemies made holes in
the wals of the ditch outward: wherethorow they shot infinitely with
handgunnes at our men aswell on the walles as on the bulwarks, and slew
many of them. Then the bashas and captaines entred into the trenches, ech
to his place after their order and dignity: that is to wit, Mustafa Basha
as chiefe captaine entred the trench direct to the bulwarke of England with
his people and captaines vnder him. Pery Bassha went to the trenches
against the gate of Italy with his folkes and captaines vnder him. Acmek
Bassha was in the trenches of Auuergne and Spaine with the Aga of the
Ianizaires and the Beglarby of Romany with him. The Beglarby of Natolia was
in the trenches of Prouence. Allibey was with his company against the
gardins of saint Anthony on the North side, and diuers other captaines with
him, and set his ordinance against the wall of the gate of Almaine, which
was but weake, and set vp seuen mantellets by the milles toward the West:
and by the space of eight or nine dayes they beat vpon the same wall; which
put vs in great feare, if they had continued. Howbeit the noble lord great
master forthwith caused repairs to be made within, and planks and tables to
be set to fortifie the sayde weake wall: and abode there from the morning
til night, to cause it to be the more hasted. The artillery of the gate of
Almaine, and the Massif of the gate of the campe and of the palais beat so
sore and so often vpon the sayd mantellets that it wearied the enemies to
make and repaire them so often: and they tooke vp the pieces, and bare them
away. And also they could not well beat the sayd wall because the brimmes
of the ditch without were almost as hie as the wall that they beat. But or
they bare the artillery away, they beat the steeple of S. Iohns church so,
that the most part was broken and cast downe. The foresayd mantellets were
appointed to beat S. Nicholas tower, and by the space of ten or twelue
dayes they shot sore against it: but they had so sharpe and vigorous
answere, that there was not one mantellet that abode whole an houre. The
captaine of the sayd tower and his folke did such diligence and businesse
in shooting off their pieces, that the enemies durst set up no more
mantellets by day, nor shoot no more but onely by night, while the Moone
did shine, which is a thing worthy of memory, of maruaile, and of praise.
At the last when they had beaten against the sayd tower a certaine time,
seeing that it furthered nothing, they tooke their ordinance from thence,
and bare it where they thought best.

During the shot in the sayd place, the other captaines were not idle nor in
a sleepe, but without cease night and day they beat the wall of England and
Spaine, and set foureteene mantellets against it, shooting great bombards,
whereof some of the stones were fiue or sixe spannes about, and some other
of nine or ten: and within a moneth and lesse they cast downe the wall
almost euen smooth with the Barbican. And when the sayd wall was so beaten,
they set to beat the bulwarke of Spaine for to raise the defences: and in
their trenches they set three great bombards, which shot stones of eleuen
spannes in compasse, and with the sayd pieces they beat the sayd bulwarke
and wall in such wise, that they made great bracks, and the stones and
earth that fell, serued the enemies for ladders, so that they might come
upon the plaine ground. In like sort they raised the defences from the
height of the bulwarke at the posterne of Prouence, and set three great
pieces on the brimme of the ditch, which shot stones of eleuen spannes
against the wall, and within a while they made a breach as at the posterne
of Spaine. The artillery of the towne did shoot without cease against the
mantellets, and brake many of them, but they made other as it is said in
the nights. For they had all things that belonged to them, and needed. And
out of the posterne of England was shot a gunne that brake downe one of the
sayde mantellets, and hit upon one of the pieces, and slew foure or fiue
men, and bare away both the legs of the master of the ordinance, which died
soone after: whereof the great Turke was very ill content, and sayd that he
had rather haue lost one of his basshas or captaines then the sayd master.
Also it is to be knowen that there were three or foure mantellets addressed
against the plain ground of Italy, and by continuall beating of shot that
they made, there was also a breach, and by the earth and stones that were
fallen, they might come vp to it.

Of the politike repaires and defences that the ingenious captaine Gabriel
Martiningo, made within the towne against the breaches in the walles.

The captaine Gabriel Martiningo, prompt, diligent, and expert to giue
remedies to the needful places, foorthwith caused to make the trauerses
vpon the wall whereas the breach was, with good repaires, and gunnes small
and great which were set in the sayd trauerses, the which shot not onely at
the breaches but to the trenches, and made great murder of enemies aswell
at the assaults that they made as otherwhiles. And beside the trauerses,
the sayd captaine planted small artillery, as harquebushes, and handgunnes
vpon certaine houses within the towne, that stood open against the breach,
with good repaires: and from that place great slaughter of Turks was made
at the assaults. Also it is of trueth that beside the sayd mantellets that
shot against the wall of England and Spaine with great bombards, were two
mantellets in an hie place toward the way to the gardin of Maunas, in the
which were certaine double gunnes, as basilisks with holow stones and wild
fire in them, which shot against the wall into the towne at all auentures
for to make murder of people: howbeit, thanked be God, they did no great
harme but to the houses.

After these great and terrible beatings, and that the enemies had way to
mount vpon the towne walles, and come to hand with vs by trauersing of
their trenches to the fallen earth within the breach more surely, and
without hurt of our gunshot, shooting, thorow holes that they made in the
walles of the ditch without, they cast vp much stone and earth, because it
should couer them from the shot of the bulwarke of Auuergne. And also they
shot feruently against the bulwarke of Spaine, for to raise the defences,
of the which at the last they raised the most part, reseruing only a few
gunners below in the mine of the sayd bulwarke, which litle or nothing
damaged them. And this is touching the gunshot, whereof I say not the third
part, because it is a thing incredible to them that haue not seene it. For
some dayes they shot with those great bombards that were on the brimme of
the ditch, and from the mantellets bent against the wall of England and
Spaine 20 or 30 times and more. And I beleeue verily that since the
creation of the world such artillery, and so great quantity was neuer bent
and layed before any towne as hath bene against Rhodes at this siege.
Wherefore it is no maruell if the walles be and haue bene beaten downe, and
if there be breaches and clifts in many places.

Of the mines that the Turks made: and how they ouerthrew part of the
bulwarke of England.

And because as it is sayd before, that the greatest hope that the enemies
had to get the towne of Rhodes, was by mining, therefore now after that I
haue spoken of the gunshot and beatings, I shall shew of the mines that the
Turks made, the which were in so great quantity, and in so many places,
that I beleeue the third part of the towne was mined: and it is found by
account made, that there were about 60 mines, howbeit, thanked be God, many
of them came not to effect, by occasion of the countermines that they
within made, and also trenches that the right prudent lord the great master
caused to be made deepe within the ditches, vnto two or three foot of
water. The which trenches and certaine pits that he had caused in the sayd
ditches to be wrought, or the host arriued, serued right well since: for
night and day there were men in them to watch and hearken when the enemies
mined, for to meet them and cut their way, as was done many times.

And for to speake of the mines that had effect, and damaged vs, it is to
wit, that the fourth day of September, about foure houres after noone, the
enemies put fire in two mines, one was betweene the posterne of Spaine and
Auuergne, which did no hurt but to the Barbican. The other was at the
bulwarke of England, which was so fell and strong, that it caused most part
of the town to shake, and cast down a great part of the sayd bulwarke at
the spring of the day: and by the earth and stones that fell into the
ditches, the enemies came vpon the bulwarke with their banners, and fought
sore and mightily with our men, not with hands, but with shot handgunnes.
The lord great master that was come 15 dayes or more with his succours to
the sayd bulwarke, went with his company to helpe them that fought After
that they had fought the space of two or three houres, the enemies repelled
and driuen backe by our men from the sayd bulwarke, and beaten with
ordinance on euery side, withdrew them with their losse, shame, and damage.
[A thousand and more Turkes slaine before the English bulwarke.] And this
was the first victory that our lord gaue vs, and there abode of our enemies
a thousand and more.

When this assault was done, they, made another at the breach in the wall of
Spaine, and mounted vpon it, but the ordinance of the trauerses of the
walles and of the houses made so faire a riddance, that they were very
willing to withdraw themselues: for at the retreat, and also at their
comming the sayd ordinance of the bulwarke did them great damage, albeit
that they had made some repaire of earth. Of our men died that day 25 or
there about, as well knights as other. And the same day in the morning
departed out of this world Gabriel de Pomerolles lieutenant to the lord
master, which on a certaine day before fell from the wall as he went to see
the trenches in the ditches, and hurt his breast, and for fault of good
attendance he fell into a feuer, whereof he died.

How the Turks assailed the bulwarke of England, and how they were driuen

The ninth day of the sayd moneth, at seuen in the morning the enemies put
fire in two mines; one at the posterne of Prouence, which had none effect:
the other was at the bulwarke of England, which felled another piece nigh
to that that was cast downe afore. And the sayd mine, was as fierce as the
other, or more, for it seemed that all the bulwarke went downe, and almost
all they that were in it ranne away. And when the standard of the religion
came into the sayd bulwarke, the enemies were at the breach ready to haue
entered: but when they saw the sayd standard, as people lost and ouercome,
they went downe againe. Then the artillery of the bulwarke of Quosquino,
and of other places, found them well enough, and slew many of them.
Howbeit, their captaines made them to returne with great strokes of swordes
and other weapons, and to remount vpon the earth fallen from the sayd
bulwarke, and pight seuen banners nigh to our repaire. Then our men fought
with morispikes and fixed speares against them the space of three whole
houres, till at the last they being well beaten with great ordinance and
small on euery side withdrew themselues. And of their banners our men gate
one, for it was not possible to get any more: for assoone as any of our men
went vp on our repaires, he was slaine with small gunnes of the trenches,
and holes made in the walles of our ditches. [Sidenote: Two thousand Turks
slaine at the Englis bulwarke.] And there was slaine of our enemies that
day at the assault 2000 of meane men, and three persons of estate, which
lay dead along in the ditch, with faire and rich harnesse. And it was
reported to us from the campe, they were three saniacbeis, that is to say,
great seneshalles or stuards. And of Christian men of our part abode about
thirty persons. And this was the second victory giuen to us by the grace

How Sir Iohn Bourgh Turcoplier of England was slaine at an assault of the
English bulwarke.

The 17 day of the same moneth, about midday, the enemy came againe to giue
another assault to the sayd bulwarke, at the same place aforesayd, without
setting of fire in mines, and brought fiue banners with them, nigh to the
repaires. Then was there strong fighting on both parts, and there were
gotten two of their banners, of the which sir Christopher Valdenare, that
time Castelaine of Rhodes, gate one: the other was in the hands of Sir Iohn
Bourgh Turcoplier of England, chiefe captaine of the succours of the sayd
posterne of England, a valiant man and hardy: and in holding of it he was
slaine with the stroke of a hand-gunne, which was great damage. The sayd
banner was recouered by one of our men. And after long fighting on both
sides, the enemies seeing that they got nothing but stripes, returned into
their trenches. At the sayd fray the lord prior of S. Giles pre Iohn was
hurt thorow the necke with a handgun, and was in great danger of death, but
he escaped and was made whole. The same day, and the same houre of the sayd
assault, the enemies mounted to the breach in the wall of Spaine, and came
to the repaires to the handes of our men, and fought a great while: but the
great quantity of artillery that was shot so busily and so sharply from our
trauerses on ech side, and out of the bulwarks of Auuergne and Spaine,
skirmished them so well, that there abode as many at that assault as at the
other of England, well neere to the number of 5000. And they withdrew
themselues with their great losse and confusion, which was the third time
that they were chased and ouercome; thanked be our Lord, which gaue vs the
force and power so to doe, for they were by estimation a hundred against

Also the 22 day of the same moneth of September they fired a mine betweene
Italy and Prouence, which did no harme.

Of the terrible mine at the posterne of Auuergne.

And the 23 day of the same moneth they fired two mines, one at the posterne
of Spaine, and the other by the bulwarke of Auuergne, the which mine by
Auuergne was so terrible, that it made all the towne to shake, and made the
wall to open from aboue to beneath vnto the plaine ground; howbeit, it fell
not, for the mine had vent or breath in two places, by one of the
countermines, and by a rocke vnder the Barbican, the which did cleaue, and
by that cleft the fury and might of the mine had issue. And if the sayd two
vents had not bene, the wall had bene turned vpside downe. And for truth,
as it was reported to vs out of the campe, the enemies had great hope in
the sayd mine, thinking that the wall should haue bene ouerthrowen, and
then they might haue entered into the towne at their pleasures: but when
they saw the contrary, they were very ill pleased. And the captaines
determined to giue assault at foure places at once, to make vs the more
adoo, and to haue an entrance into the towne by one of the foure. And the
sayd day and night they ceased not to shoot artillery: and there came in
hope of the mine threescore thousand men and moe into the trenches.

How the bulwarke of Spaine was lost, and woone againe.

The 24 day of the same moneth, a little before day, they gaue assault at
the breach of Spaine, to the bulwarke of England, to the posterne of
Prouence, and at the plaine ground of Italy, all at one houre and one time.
The first that mounted to the breach of Spaine, was the Aga of the
Ianissaries, a valiant man, and of great courage with his company, and bare
three score or three score and tenne banners and signes, and pight them in
the earth of the breach, and then fought with our men, and mounted on our
repaires, making other maner of fray and more rigorous then the other that
were passed, and the sayd skirmish lasted about sixe houres. And forthwith,
as the assault was giuen, a great sort of Turks entred into the bulwarke of
Spaine, and set vp eight or nine signes or banners vpon it, and droue our
men out, I can not tell how, vnwares or otherwise. And they were lords of
it three houres and more. Howbeit there were of our men beneath in the mine
of the sayd bulwarke, the which bulwarke so lost, gaue vs euill hope. But
incontinently the lord great master being at the defence of the posterne of
England, hauing knowledge of the sayd losse, and that there was great
fighting and resistance on both sides at the breach of Spaine, marched
thither with the banner of the crucifix, leauing the charge of the sayd
bulwarke in the hands of the bailife de la Moree messieur Mery Combant. And
the lord mounted on the wall of Spaine, whereas then began a great
skirmish, and euery man layed his handes to worke, as well to put the
enemies out of the breach, as to recouer the bulwarke that was lost. And
the sayde lord sent a company of men into the bulwarke by the gate of the
mine, or by the Barbican, the which entred at the sayd gate, and went vp,
where they found but few Turkes. For the artillery of the posterne of
England, right against the bulwarke of Spaine, had so well met and
scattered them, that within a while our men had slaine all them that were
left. And thus the sayde bulwarke was gotten and recouered againe, and with
all diligence were made new repaires and strengths to the sayd place. And
in like sort, the enemies were put from the breach, and few of them
escaped, and all their banners and signes were left with vs. Surely it may
be sayd, that after the grace of God (the trauerses of Spaine and Auuergne,
and the small artillery set on the houses right against the sayd breaches,
as it is sayd, with the comming and presence of the lord great master) hath
giuen vs this dayes victory.

As touching the murder of the people, done by the artillery of the
bulwarkes of England and Spaine, the quantity was such that a man could not
perceiue nor see any ground of the ditches. And the stench of the mastifs
carions was so grieuous, that we might not suffer it seuen or eight dayes
after. And at the last, they that might saue themselues did so, and
withdrew themselues to the trenches: and the reuerend lord great master
abode victorious of the sayd place, and in like sort of the other three
assaults, the which were but little lesse then that of Spaine, for they
fought long. But in conclusion, the enemies beaten on all sides, and in so
many sorts, with artillery were put backe, and vanquished, that there died
that day at all the foure places fifteene or sixteene thousand. And the
slaughter was so great at the plaine Italy, of the cursed enemies, that the
sea was made redde with their blood. And on our side also died to the
number of an hundred men or more. And of men of dignity in the towne,
hauing charge, died Sir Francis de Fernolz, commander of Romania, which Sir
Francis was chiefe captaine of the great ship of Rhodes, and he was slaine
at the plaine of Italy, wounded with two strokes of harquebushes: it was
great dammage of his death, for he was a worthy man, perfect, and full of
vertues. There died also messieur Nastasy de Sancta Camilla aforenamed,
hauing two hundred men vnder him of the lord great masters succours. There
died also diuers other worthy men that day, and many were maimed. Among all
other that lost any member, messier Iohn de le Touz called Pradines, being
at the sayd bulwarke, with a stroke of artillery had his arme smitten away,
in great danger to haue lost his life; howbeit by the helpe of God he died
not. [Sidenote: Sir Will. Weston captaine of the English posterne hurt.] In
like sort the same day was hurt Sir William Weston abouesayd, captaine of
the posterne of England, and had one of his fingers stricken away with an
harquebush: which knight behaued himselfe right woorthily at all the

Of the Turkes part, of great men, were two principall captaines slaine
vnder the Aga of the Ianissaries, and another captaine that was come out of
Surey to the campe certeine dayes before, with sixe hundred Mamelukes, and
two or three thousand Moores. And of them that were hurt of great men the
Beglarby of Natolia had a stroke with an arrow as he was in the trench of
Prouence. And many other were wounded, whose names be not rehearsed here,
because of shortnesse.

How the great Turke for anger that he could not get the towne, would haue
put his chiefe captaine to death, and how they made 11 mines vnder the
bulwarke of England.

During this assault, the great Turke was by his pauillion in a place that
he had caused to be made, and saw all the businesse, and how his people
were so sharpely put backe, and the victory lost on his side, and was very
sore displeased, and halfe in despaire: and he sent for Mustafa Basha with
whom he was angry, and chid him bitterly, saying that he had caused him to
come thither, and had made him to beleeue that he should take the towne in
fifteene dayes, or a moneth at the furthest and he had beene there already
three moneths with his army, and yet they had done nothing. And after these
wordes he was purposed to put him to death in the campe: but the other
Bashas shewed him that he ought not to do iustice in the land of his
enemies, for it would comfort them and giue them courage. Whereby he did
moderate his anger, and left him for that time, and thought to send him to
Cairo, least the people there would rebell, by occasion of the captain of
Cairo which died a few dayes before. Howbeit he departed not so suddenly,
and or he went he thought to assay it he might do some thing for to please
the Turke, aswell for his honour as to saue his person, and was marueuous
diligent to make mines at the bulwarke of England for to ouerthrow it. And
by account were made 11 mines aswell to the sayd bulwarke as elsewhere,
beside them spoken of before, and that they had fired. But the most part of
the sayd mines came to no proofe though they put fire in them, and many
were met with countermines, and broken by our men by the good diligence and
sollicitude of sir Gabriel Du-chef, steward of the house of the lord great
master, which had the charge of the sayd countermines at the same bulwarke.
In the which businesse he behaued himselfe well and worthily, and spared
not his goods to cause the people to worke and trauell, but spent thereof

How the Turks were minded to haue gone their way, and of the traitours
within the towne, and of many great assaults.

The Turks seeing that by mining they were nothing furthered, nor might not
come to their intentions, and hauing but small store of gunpowder, were in
deliberation and minde to haue raised the siege, and gone their way. And in
deed some of them bare their cariages toward the shippes: and also certaine
number of people went out of the trenches with their standards straight to
the ships. And it was written vnto vs from the campe how the Ianissaries
and other of the host would fight no more: and that they were almost all of
one opinion for to go away, saue some of the captaines of the foresayd
Mustafa Bassha or Acmek Bassha. And in the meane season the false traitours
that were in the towne wrote letters to the campe, giuing them knowledge of
all that was sayd and done among vs. And also an Albanese fled to the
enemies campe, and warned them not to go, for the gunshot was nigh wasted,
and that the most part of the knights and people should be theirs shortly.

In like sort then wrote the abouesayd Chanceller Sir Andrew de Merall,
whose treason as then was not knowen: but when it commeth to the effect of
his treason, I shall shew the knowledge that he gaue to the enemies at
diuers times.

When the bashas and captaines of the hoste vnderstood the sayd warnings,
they all purposed for to tary, and caused those tidings of the towne to be
knowen ouer all the army. And beganne againe to shoot artillery faster then
euer they did, for new shot was come into the campe. Then Mustafa Bassha
being in despaire that he could do nothing by mines, by gunshot, nor by
assaults, he being ready to depart for to goe into Surey by the great
Turkes commandement, before his departing hee thought once againe to assay
his aduenture, and made three assaults three dayes together. The first was
on a Saturday the fourth day of October an houre before night. The other on
Sunday in the morning. And the third on Munday after dinner. And the sayd
three assaults were made to the bulwarke of England. And it was assailed
but with stones and bagges full of artificiall fire. And at these three
assaults many of our men were hurt with the sayd fire, and with the stones
that came as thicke as raine or haile. But in the end the enemies got
nothing but strokes, and returned into their trenches euill contented, and
murmuring, and sware by their Mahomet that Mustafa Bassha shoulde not make
them to mount any more to the sayd bulwarke. And that it was great folly
for them to cause them to be slaine at the will and fantasie of one man.
These wordes sayd in Greeke by some of the enemies were heard of our men as
they went downe from the bulwarke. And because (as it is sayd) that the
enemies at the assaults that were made, came vp by the earth and stones
that fell from the breaches, some of our men aduised to clense the
barbican, and take the earth out of the ditch, to the end that the enemies
should not easily come vpon the wall. And in effect weening that it were
well and behoouefull to be done, by great diligence night and day by mines
they voided the barbican, and the most part of the earth that lay in the
ditch was brought into the towne, the which was hurtfull afterward, and was
cause that the enemies got the foot of the wall. Notwithstanding, they had
it but scarsely. But this cleansing furthered the time, and caused them to
get it sooner then they should haue done if the earth had lien still: but
their finall intent was to raise the defence of the bulwarks, and then
passe at their pleasure, and enter into the barbican, as they haue done:
for the enemies seeing that the barbican was clensed, thought to get into
it by the trenches, and so they did, howbeit they were certaine dayes
letted by our handgun shot The enemies seeing, that they might not come
neere it, couered their trenches with tables to saue themselues: and then
they made a mine whereby they might goe to the barbican. So by these two
meanes, afterward they were repaired with earth and with a certaine wall
that they made for to eschew the shot of the bulwarks of Auuergne and
Spain: and in the mine they found but two gunners, which they slew by force
of men. By this manor they being couered on all parts and without any
danger, passed thorow and lept into the barbican, and got the foot of the
wall; which was the 17 day of October, an vnhappy day for the poore towne,
and occasion of the ruine thereof, and winning of the same.

At this point they slept not, but lightly and with great delight they began
to picke and hew the wall. And weening to make remedy therefore, and to
finde meanes to driue them from the sayde barbican with engines of fire and
barrels of gunpowder, wee slew many of them, but it auailed nothing: for
the quantitie and multitude of people that trauelled there was so great,
that they cared not for losse of them. And if we had had men enow within
the towne, there might haue bene remedy to haue raised them from thence:
but considering that our force and totall hope was in people, wee left to
doe many things that might haue beene done, and that should haue bene good
then and other times also, for fault of men of warre. At the last it was
pondred by Sir Gabriel Martiningo, that there was no remedy but to hew the
wall for to meet them; and beat them with ordinance and with engins of fire
to burne and vndoe them. Then our men began to hew the wall, and made some
holes to shoot at the enemies that slept not, but did as wee did, and shot
at vs, and indeed they slew and hurt many of our men. Then Sir Gabriel
Martiningo ordeined to make repaires within the towne at the front where
they did cut the wall, to the end that after the walles were cut, the
enemies should know with whom to meet. The trauerses were made on ech side
with good artillery great and small: and the sayd trauerses and repaires
were of the length that the enemies had cut the wall, and beganne at the
massife of Spaine made by the reuerend lord great master Mery d'Amboise,
and ended at the church of Saint Saluador. The which trauerses and repaires
the vulgar people call the Mandra, that is to say, the field.

The meane time that the repaires and trauerses were made with all
diligence, Sir Gabriel Martiningo neuer ceased going to euery place to
puruey for all things: and he being on the bulwarke of Spaine to ordeine
all things that were needfull, there came a stroke of a handgun from the
trenches that smote out his eye, and put him in danger of his life, but
thanked be God, he recouered his health within a moneth and a halfe. His
hurt came ill to passe, for the need that we had of him that time in all
things, and specially to the repaires of the breaches. Neuertheles the lord
priour of S. Giles (not ignorant in all such things) with other men expert
in warre, attended to the sayd repaires and trauerses, there and elswhere.
The enemies on the other side night and day without rest (for the great
number of labourers that they had hourely and newly ready) hewed and
vndermined the sayd wall.

And the 20 day of October they put fire in the vndermines, weening to haue
cast downe the wall, but they could not: then they would haue pulled it
downe with great ropes and ancres, but the artillery of the bulwarke of
Auuergne brake their ropes, and sent them away lightly.

At the last they made a mine vnder the sayd wall and breach; and the 26 day
of the same moneth they did put fire to the same mine, weening to haue
ouerthrowen the wall, which it did not, but raised it, and made it to fall
almost straight vpright, which was more disaduantage to the enemies then
profit. Then they shot artillery at it, which in fewe dayes beat it downe,
and they had opening and way to come into the Towne. Neuerthelesse it was
not necessary for them as then to enter: for the artillery of our repaires
beat them in the forepart, and the artillery lying at the two milles at the
posterne of Quosquino, and in that of England, whereas was a basiliske that
beat right vpon the breach with other pieces: and therefore the enemies
sought other meanes, and beganne to raise the earth betweene our two
walles, drawing toward the bulwarke of England on the one side, and toward
Auuergne on the other side, and would haue cut the wall further then, our
trauerses were for to come in vnbeaten of our artillery. Then were the
repaires inlarged and made greater with the wall that was cut, of the
height of twelue, and 16 foot in bredth: and so the enemies might goe no
further forward, but shot great artillery against our repaires, for to
breake and cast them downe, and also they made trenches for to come right
to the breach, and vnto the repaires: and certeinly we looked day by day,
and houre by houre for to haue some assault. The reuerend lord great
master, the which, as it is sayd, had left the bulwarke of England the day
that the great assault was made, and since that time he moued not from
thence while they hewed the wall, and where as the breach was, because that
they were most dangerous and most vnquiet places. And continually the sayd
lord kept him behinde the sayd repaires with his knights and men of
succours, intentiuely ready and prepared to liue and die, and to receiue
his enemies as they ought to bee receiued. And he abode three or foure
dayes at the sayd breach, continuing since it was made, vnto the end,
fighting with his enemies euery day in great perill of his body: for
oftentimes hee put himselfe further in the prease then needed for the
danger of his person, but he did it for to hearten and strengthen the
courage of his people, being so well willing to defend and die for the

How the enemies assailed the posternes of Prouence and Italy, and how they
were driuen away.

By the will of our Lord, the enemies alway in feare and dread, would giue
none assault, but continually shot against our repaires, and made trenches
for to passe forward into the towne: by the which trenches they shot
infinitely with harquebushes and handgunnes, and slew many of our folke,
and specially of them that wrought and made the repaires that were broken
and crased. And they put vs in such extremity, that we had almost no more
slaues nor other labouring people for to repaire that which they brake
night and day, which was a great hindrance for us, and the beginning of our
perdition. And if we had much to doe in that place, there was not lesse at
the gate of Prouence, and at the plaine of Italy: for dayly they were doing
either with assault or skirmish, and most at the plaine of Italy. Howbeit
by the helpe of our Lorde with the good conducting of the captaine of
succours of the same place, the priour of Nauarre, that was prompt and
intentiue, and could well incourage his men, the enemies had alway the
woorst, and were driuen from the sayde plaine, and from the breach of

How the treason of Sir Andrew de Merall was knowen, and of the maraellous
assaults that the Turks made.

Vpon these termes and assaults, the treason of the chancellour Sir Andrew
de Merall, of whom I spake before, was perceiued: for a seruaunt of his,
named Blasie, was found shooting a quarrell of a crossebow with a letter,
whereof he was accused to the lord great master, which commanded to take
him and examine him by iustice, and he confessed the shot of that letter
and of other before, at the commandement of his master: and sayd that he
had great acquaintance with the Turks bashas, and that it was not long
since he had written a letter, to them, warning them that they should not
go, for gunshot began to faile, and the men were wasted by slaying and
hurting at the assaults in great quantity: and if they abode still and gaue
no more assaults, at the last the towne should be theirs. And diuers other
things the seruant sayd of his master, of the which I haue spoken part
before at the beginning, and of the warning that he gaue to the great Turke
for to come.

But to returne to the plaine of Italy. After many battels and assaults done
in the said place, by continuall shot of seuenteene great gunnes that beat
the sayde plaine, the repaires and trauerses were almost broken and lost.
And by trenches the enemies were come ioining to the breach, and neuer
ceased to grate the earth and scrape the earth to cause the repaires and
trauerses to fall: and at the last the most part fell downe, and our men
were constrained to leaue the sayd plaine, saue a camell that was toward
the sea, as it were the third part thereof. Certaine dayes afore the
enemies, came to the foot of the plaine, and did cut it and rased the
earth, and at the last they passed thorow vnto the towne wall: and anon
began to hew and cut as they did at that of Spaine. The lord great master
seeing that, anon cast down a part of the church of our Lady de la
Victoria, and of an other church of S. Panthalion. And within they began to
make the repaires and trauerses as at the place of Spaine, whereto was made
extreme diligence, but not such as the lord would, and as was needfull,
because there were no labourers for to helpe. After that the enemies had
woon the most part of the bulwarke of England and the plaine of Italy, they
purposed to make assault to the sayde plaine, and to the breach of Spaine,
and to enter into our repaires to winne them for to make an end of vs. And
for euer to affeeble the repaires and for to abash vs, the 28 day of
Nouember all along the day and night they ceased not to shoot great
artillery both from the brimmes of the ditches with those great pieces,
casting stones of nine and eleuen foot about, and from the mantellets
without. And as it was reckoned, they shot the same day and night 150 times
or more against our repaires and trauerses of the wall.

And in the morning the 29 day of the same moneth, the vigill of S. Andrew
at the spring of the day, the enemies went thorow the breach with their
banners, and entred into the repaires with greater number of people then
they did at the great battell in September, hardily and furiously for to
fight with vs. But at their comming in, the artillery of the trauerses, and
the handgunnes, and the gunshot of the milles found them so well and so
sharply, that he that came in, was anon dispatched and ouerthrowen, and
there abode aboue 2000 of the Turks slaine. The other that came after
seeing their fellowes so euill welcomed, as people that were astonied and
lost, they turned againe to their trenches: at whome the artillery of the
milles shot victoriously, and hasted them to go apace: and by report from
the campe there died sixe thousand or mo that day: the which day might be
called very happy, and well fortunate for vs, thanked be God, for there was
none that thought to escape that day, but to haue died all, and lost the
towne: howbeit, the pleasure of our Lord was by euident miracle to haue it
otherwise, and the enemies were chased and ouercome. And it is to be noted
that the same day the raine was so great and so strong, that it made the
earth to sincke a great deal that they had cast into the ditches, for to
couer them from the shot of Auuergne. And the sayd earth being so suncken,
the artillery of the sayde bulwarke (vnwares to them) smote them going and
comming, and made great murder of the sayd dogges. The sayd day also the
enemies came to the plaine of Italy for to assault it; but when they
vnderstood that their fellowes had bene put backe so rudely, and with so
great slaughter, they were afrayd, and so they returned againe to their

How the Turks got the plaine ground of Spaine.

And that done, Acmek Basha seeing their businesse euery day goe from woorse
to woorse, and that at the assaults were but losse of people, without doing
of any good, and that there was no man that willingly would go to it any
more, he intended to giue no more assaults but to follow his trenches, and
by them enter couertly without losse of a man from the breach to the other
end of the towne. Semblably he intended for to winne the plaine earth
beside Spaine: the which to get, he came at pleasure to the foot of the
wall, and began to beat downe the plaine ground, and to giue many
skirmishes and conflicts to our folke that kept it. And there were slaine
many good men. And at the last, for default of more helpe and of gunshot,
it was left and giuen vp of our men, and so lost. That done, the enemies
came thither as in other places. And this is the third place where they
came nere to the foot of the wall. And whoso wel considereth in what estate
the poore towne was at that time, seeing their enemies haue so great
aduantage, might well say, and iudge, that at length it should be taken,
and a lost towne.

How a Genouois came to the gate of the towne for to speake for a treaty and
deliuerance of the same.

A Few dayes after the saide iourney a Christian man that was in the campe,
the which by his speech was a Genouois or Siotis, came to the gate of
Auuergne, and demanded to parle, and after that he was demanded what he
would haue, he sayd that he had maruell of vs why we would not yeeld our
selues, seeing the pitious estate the towne was in: and he as a Christian
man counselled vs to yeeld our selues with some agreement; and that if we
would looke thereto, that some should be found expedient to do somewhat for
our safeguard. And it is very like that he sayd not such words, nor spake
so farforth in the matter, without commission from some of the chiefe of
the campe, or of the great Turke himselfe. To the which Siotis was
answered, that he should go away with an euill hap, and that it needed not
to speake of appointment: and that though the enemies had great aduantage,
there was yet enough wherewith to receiue and feast them, if they made any
assault. These words heard, he went away: and two days after he came again,
and demanded to speak with a marchant Genouois of the towne named Mathew de
Vra, and he was answered that he which he demanded was sicke, and might not
come, but that he should deliuer the letter, and it should be giuen to him.
The sayd Siotis sayd nay, and that he would giue it himselfe, and speake
with him: and sayd that he had also a letter of the Grand signior, for the
lord master. Vpon this he was bidden to go his way: and to set him packing,
they shot after him a piece of artillery. The next day after Ballantis
Albanese that was fled thorow the breach of Spaine to the campe, came from
the sayd Genouois proposing such words, or like as the other had sayd,
saying likewise that the Grand signior had sent a letter to the lord
master. To whom no words were spoken nor answere made, for the lord great
master as wise and prudent considering that a towne that will heare
intreatings is halfe lost, defended vpon the paine of death sith that
Siotis had spoken these two times, that none should be so hardy to speak
nor answere them of the campe, without his knowledge and commandement: but
seeing they were such ambassadors, they reported the words of the sayd
Albanese, or euer the sayd lord had knowledge of the words of the Siotis.
The which words spread thorow the towne put many folke in thought, and
would haue vndone that that the Siotis said the which is no maruell whereas
is much people, for with good will and most often they regard sooner to
saue the liues of them and their children, then they doe to the honour of
the residue. Howbeit not one durst speake a word openly of that businesse,
but all secretly: and some came and spake to certaine lords of the great
crosse for to speake to the lord great master. And in effect some lords
spake thereof to him, persuading him that it should be good to thinke
thereon, seeing that the towne went to losse. To whom the sayd lord shewed
many things for his honour and the Religion: and that no such things ought

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