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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, by Richard Hakluyt

Part 2 out of 7

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Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1395. Godekin Mighel, Clays Scheld,
Stertebeker, and other their accomplices of the Hans vnlawfully tooke vpon
the sea a certaine ship of one William Bets of Cleys called the Margaret
(wherein Robert Robines was master) and conueyed the ship it self vnto
Mawstrond in Norway, and there robbed the master and his partners of diuers
commodities, namely of artillerie, furniture, and salt fishes, to the value
of 400. nobles, and one of the said masters mates they maliciously drowned.

Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1395. about the feast of the natiuitie of S.
Iohn Baptist, the forenamed Godekin and Stertebeker, with others their
accomplices of the Hans, vnlawfully took vpon the sea a certain ship of
Nicholas Steyhard and Iohn Letis of Cley called the Nicholas (whereof Iohn
Prest was master) and conueyed the said ship vnto Mawstrond, and there
robbed the said master and his companie of diuers commodities, namely of
furniture and salt fishes, being in the said ship, to the value of 320.

Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1395. about the feast aforesaid, the said
Godekins and Stertebeker, and their companions of the Hans vniustly took
vpon the sea a certaine ship of Thomas Peirs of Cley called the Isabel
(whereof William Noie was master) and conueyed it vnto Mawstrond, and there
robbed the said master and his company of diuers commidities, as namely of
furniture, and salt fishes, being in the said ship, to the value of 406.

Item, in the yeere next aboue mentioned, vpon the Saterday, about the
foresaid feast, the forenamed Godekins and Stertebeker, and other their
accomplices of the Hans unlawfully took vpon the sea, a certain ship of one
Thomas Lyderpole of Cley, called the Helena, wherein Robert Alwey was
master, and also wickedly and vniustly drowned in the bottom of the sea
diuers commodities, as namely salt fishes, together with the ship it selfe.

Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1398. about the feast of S. Michael the
archangel, the foresaid Godekin and Stertebeker, with other their
confederats of the Hans, took at Langsound in Norway a certain crayer of
one Thomas Motte of Cley, called the Peter, (wherein Thomas Smith was
master) and the foresaid crayer they wickedly and vniustly caried away,
being worth 280. nobles.

[Sidenote: Wiueton.] Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1395. about the feast
of the natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist, the forenamed Godekins and
Stertebeker, and others of the Hans vniustly tooke a certain ship of Simon
Durham, called the Dogger-ship, and the Peter of Wiueton, laden with salt
fishes (whereof Iohn Austen was master) vpon the coast of Denmarke. And
they caried away the saide Dogger, with the furniture thereof, and the
foresaid salt fishes, to the value of 170. pound. Moreouer, the master, and
25. mariners in the same ship they maliciously slewe, and a certaine ladde
of the saide Dogger they caried with them vnto Wismer.

Item, in the foresaid yeere, and about the feast aforesaid, the forenamed
Godekins and Stertebeker, with other their complices, vniustly tooke vpon
the sea a certain ship of Thomas Lyderpole, and Iohn Coote of Wiueton: and
the master and mariners which were in the saide shippe, they villanously
slue, among whom they put to death one Simon Andrew, the godsonne, nephew,
and seruant of the foresaid Simon Durham. Which ship, with the goods and
furniture that were therein was worth 410. nobles.

Item, in the very same yeere, about the feast aforesaid, the forenamed
Godekins and Stertebeker and other their complices wickedly spoiled a
certaine ship of the foresaid Simon Durham called the Dogger, wherein
Geruase Cat was master, lying, at an anker, while the companie were
occupied about fishing, and likewise vniustly tooke away with them the salt
fishes, and furniture of the said ship. Moreouer, the master and his
company that were in the said Dogger they beate and wounded, so that they
vtterly lost their fishing for that yeere, the master and his said companie
being endamaged thereby, to the summe of 200. nobles.

Item, in the yere of our Lord 1396. the foresaid Godekins and Stertebeker,
and other their complices vniustly tooke vpon the sea a certain crayer,
called the Buss of Zeland, which one Iohn Ligate marchant, and seruant vnto
the forenamed Simon Durham had laden in Prussia, on the behalfe of the said
Simon, to saile for England, and spoiled the said craier, and also tooke
and caried away with them the goods and marchandises of the said Simon,
being in the foresaid ship, to the value of 66. pounds.

Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1397. certaine malefactors of Wismer and
Rostok, with certaine others of the Hans, tooke a crayer of one Peter Cole
of Zeland, called the Bussship, which Alan Barret the seruant and factor of
the foresaid Simon Durham had laden with mastes, sparres, and other
marchandize, for the behalfe of the said Simon, and vniustly tooke from
thence the goods of the said Simon, to the value of 24. pounds, and caried
the same away.

[Sidenote: Lenne.] Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1394. certaine
malefactors of Wismer and others of the Hans vniustly tooke vpon the sea,
and caried away with them a packe of woollen cloth of the foresaid Simon,
worth 42. pounds, out of a certain crayer of one Thomas Fowler of Lenne
being laden and bound for Dantzik in Prussia.

Item, pitifully complaining the marchants of Lenne doe auouch, verifie, and
affirme, that about the feast of S. George the martyr, in the yeere of our
Lord 1394. sundry malefactors and robbers of Wismer and Rostok, and others
of the Hans, with a great multitude of ships, arriued at the towne of
Norbern in Norway, and tooke the said town by strong assault, and also
wickedly and vniustly took al the marchants of Lenne there residing with
their goods and cattels, and burnt their houses and mansions in the same
place, and put their persons vnto great ransoms: [Sidenote: 21. houses of
English marchants burnt at Norben in Norway.] euen as by the letters of
safeconduct deliuered vnto the said marchants it may more euidently
appeare, to the great damage and impouerishment of the marchants of Lenne:
namely, Inprimis they burnt there 21. houses belonging vnto the said
marchants, to the value of 440. nobles. Item, they tooke from Edmund
Belyetere, Thomas Hunt, Iohn Brandon, and from other marchants of Lenne, to
the value of 1815. pounds.

[Concerning this surprise Albertus Krantzius in the sixt book of his
history of Norway, [Footnote: _Chronica regnorum Aquiloniorum Dania,
Suecia, Norwegia, Argentorati_, 1546. Folio.] and the 8. Chapter
writeth in maner following.

In the meane while Norway enioyed peace vnder the gouernment of a woman:
vntil Albertus king of Suecia, who had now seuen yeeres continued in
captiuity vnder Queen Margaret, was to be set at liberty. [Sidenote: The
Vitalians.] Which, when the common souldiers of Rostok and Wismer, called
the Vitalians perceiued, (who, whilest their king was holden captiue, in
the right of the forenamed cities, for the behalfe of their lord the king
being prince of Mekleburg by birth, vndertooke and waged warre al the time
of his captiuitie) banding their forces together, they resolued, at their
own costs and charges, but in the right of the said cities, to saile into
the 3. kingdoms, and to take such spoiles as they could lay hold on. These
common souldiers therfore, seeing an end of their tyrannical and violent
dealing to approach, sailed into Norway, vnto the towne of Norbern, being a
mart town for al the marchants of Germanie: who transporting fishes from
thence, doe bring thither marchandises of all kinds; especially corne, vnto
the scarcitie whereof, vnlesse it be brought out of other countreys, that
kingdome (as we haue said) is very much subiect. Departing out of their
ships and going on shore, they set vpon the towne, and by fire and sword
they easily compelled the inhabitants dwelling in weake wodden houses, to
giue place. Thus these Vitalians entring and surprising the towne conueyed
such spoiles vnto their ships as them pleased, and hauing laden their ships
with those booties, they returned home frolike vnto the ports of their own
cities. Without all respect, they robbed and rifled the goods, aswel of the
Germanes, as of the Noruagians: and like lewde companions, wasting and
making hauock of all things, prooued themselues neuer the wealthier. For it
is not the guise of such good fellowes to store vp or to preserue ought.
The citizens, at the first, seemed to be inriched: howbeit afterward, (no
man misdoubting any such calamitie) goods ill gotten were worse spent. Thus
farre Krantzius.]

Item, pitifully complaining, the foresaide marchants auouch, verifie, and
affirme, that vpon the 14. day after the feast of S. George, in the yeere
of our Lord next aboue written, as 4. ships of Lenne, laden with cloth,
wine, and other marchandises, were sailing vpon the maine sea, with all the
goods and wares conteined in them, for Prussia, sundry malefactors of
Wismer and Rostok, with others of the Hans, being in diuers ships, came
vpon them, and by force of armes and strong hand tooke the said ships, with
the goods and marchandises contained in them: and some of the people which
were in the saide foure ships, they slew, some they spoyled, and others
they put vnto extreame ransomes. And carying away with them those foure
ships with the commodities and marchandise therin, they parted stakes
therwith, as them listed, to the great impouerishment and losse of the said
marchants of Lenne, namely in cloth of William Silesden, Tho. Waterden,
Ioh. Brandon, Ioh. Wesenham, and other marchants of Lenne, to the value of
3623. li. 5. s. 11. d.

Item, pitifully complaining, the foresaid marchants doe affirme, that one
Henry Lambolt and other his adherents, in the yeere of our Lord 1396. tooke
vpon the maine sea betweene Norway and Scaw, one crayer laden with osmunds,
and with diuers other marchandises, perteining vnto Iohn Brandon of Lenne,
to the summe and value of 443. li. 4. s. 2. d. Moreouer, they tooke from
Iohn Lakingay 4. lasts and an halfe of osmunds, to the value Of 220. lib.
10. s.

Item, the foresaid marchants complaine, that certain malefactors of Wismer,
with other their complices of the Hans, in the yeere of our Lord 1396.
tooke from Thomas Ploket of Lenne, out of a certaine ship sailing vpon the
maine sea towards Sconeland (whereof Iames Snycop was master) cloth and
other marchandise, to the summe and value of 13. lib. 13. s. 4. d.

Item, the aboue-named marchants complaine saying, that certaine malefactors
of Wismer, with others of the Hans society, in the yere of our Lord 1397.
wickedly and vniustly took out of a certaine ship of Dantzik (whereof
Laurence van Russe was master) from Ralph Bedingam of Lenne, one fardel
[Footnote: _Fardel_, a burden. (French, _Fardeau_.)] of cloth
worth 52. li. 7. s. 6. d. Also, for the ransome of his seruant, 8. li. 6.
s. 8. d. Item, they tooke from Thomas Earle diuers goods, to the value of
24. pounds.

Item, the foresaid marchants complaine, that certaine malefactors of Wismer
of Rostok, with others of the Hans, in the yeere of our Lord 1399, wickedly
and vniustly tooke one crayer pertayning vnto Iohn Lakinglich of Lenne,
laden with diuers goods and marchandise pertaining vnto sundry marchants of
Lenne, namely from the forenamed Iohn one fardel of cloth, and one chest
full of harneis, and other things, to the value of 90. lib. Item, they took
out of the foresaid ship from Roger Hood, one fardel of cloth, and one
chest with diuers goods, to the value of 58. lib. Item, from Iohn Pikeron,
one fardell of cloth, and one chest with diuers goods, to the value of 440.
lib. Item, from Andrew Purser one fardell of cloth, and one chest with
diuers commodities therein, to the value of ten pounds.

Item, the aboue named marchants complaine saying, that certaine malefactors
of Wismer and Rostok, and others of the Hans, namely, Godekin Mighel,
Henrie van Hall de Stertebeker, with other of their confederates, in the
yeere of our Lord 1399. wickedly and vniustly took from Iohn Priour of
Lenne, out of the ship of Michael van Burgh, namely 160. nests of masers,
worth 100. lib. 13. s. 4. d. Item, 30. furres rigges of Kaleber woorth 13.
s. 4. d. a piece, the summe totall amounting to 20. li. Item, 20. furres
wombys of Kalebre worth &c. Item, one girdle of siluer, and one dagger
adorned with siluer worth 30. s. Item, two coates, and one long iacket, and
other goods, to the value of 30. s. Item, he paide for his ransome 4. lib.
13 s. 4. d.

[Sidenote: Note the secret treasons of the Hans.] Vnto all and singular the
articles aboue-written, the ambassadors of England aforesaid do further
adde, that the doers and authors of the damages, iniuries, and robberies
set down in the articles aboue written, (of whom some are named in
particular, and others in general) performed and committed all those
outrages, being hired thereunto at the expenses and charges of the common
societies, of the cities aforesaid. And that the inhabitants of euery
houshold in the foresaide cities (ech man according to his ability)
wittingly and purposely set foorth one, two, or more men, for the very same
expedition, wherein all and singular the foresaid trespasses were

The foresaid English ambassadors doe exhibite the articles aboue-written
vnto the procurators of the cities of Wismer and Rostok aforesaid: leaue
and libertie being alwayes reserued vnto the said ambassadors, to enlarge,
or to diminish or to expound all, or euery, or any of the said Articles
whatsoeuer, so often as it shall seeme expedient vnto them.

* * * * *

These be the grieuances and offences, whereat the marchants of the Hans of
Almaine, comming vnto, and residing in the Realme of England, doe finde
themselues aggrieued, contrarie to the Articles and priuileges of the
Charter graunted vnto them by the worthy Progenitors of the king of
England that now is, and also by the saide soueraigne Lord the King,
ratified, and confirmed.

Imprimis, whereas the foresaide marchants haue a priuilege graunted vnto
them by Charter, that they may, in cities, boroughs, and in other towns and
villages throughout the whole realme of England, exercise traffique in
grosse, as wel with the natural inhabitants of the kingdome, as with
strangers, and priuate persons: of late, those that are free denizens in
the cities, boroughs, and villages within the foresaid kingdome, do hinder
and restrain all others that be strangers, foreners, and aliens, that they
neither can, nor dare buy and sel with the marchants of the Hans aforesaid,
to their great hinderance and losse.

Item, the foresaid by vertue of their charter were wont to haue and to hold
Innes and mansions, for the reposing of themselues and of their goods,
wheresoeuer they pleased in any cities, boroughs, or villages, throughout
the whole kingdome; howbeit of late the foresaide marchants are not
suffered to take vp their mansions, contrary to the tenour of their

Item, the foresaid marchants are priuileged not to vndergoe any other
burthens or impositions, but onely to pay certaine customs, as it doeth by
their charter manifestly appeare. Notwithstanding at the same time when
Simon de Moreden was maior of London, the foresaid marchants were
constrained, in the ward of Doue-gate at London, to pay fifteenths,
tallages, and other subsidies contrary to the liberties of their charter.
Whereupon the saide marchants prosecuted the matter before the Councel of
our soueraign lord the king, insomuch that they were released from paying
afterward any such tallages, fifteenths, and subsidies. Which marchants, a
while after, of their owne accord and free will, gaue vnto the gild-hall of
London an hundreth markes sterling, conditionally, that they of the citie
aforesaid shoulde not at any time after exact or demaund of the said
marchants, or of their successors, any tallages, fifteenths, or subsidies,
contrary to the tenor of their charter, as by records in the foresaid
gild-hall, it doth more plainly appeare. Howbeit of late the officers of
our lord the king, in the foresaid ward of Doue-gate, constrained the
marchants aforesaid to pay tallages, fifteenths, and other subsidies. And
because the saide marchants murmured and refused to pay any such
contributions, alleaging their priuileges, the foresaid officers arrested
the goods of those said marchants (which are as yet detained vpon the
arrest) notwithstanding that they were released before the councel of our
soueraigne lord the king, and also that they gaue vnto the said gild-hall
one hundreth marks to be released, as it is aforesaid. And also the
foresaid marchants were constrained to pay 12. d. in the pound, and of late
6. d. and other subsidies, more then their ancient customes, to the great
damage of those marchants.

[Sidenote: The ancient customes of wools.] Item, the foresaid marchants are
priuileged as touching customs of wols by them bought within the realm of
England, that they are not bound to pay, ouer and besides their ancient
customs, but onely xl. d, more then the homeborn marchants of England were
wont to pay. [Sidenote: Pence for the towne of Cales.] But now the foresaid
marchants are compelled to pay for euery sack of wool (besides the ancient
custom and the 40. d. aforesaid) a certain imposition called Pence for the
town of Cales, namely for euery sack of wool 19. d more then the marchants
of England doe pay, to their great losse, and against the liberty of their

Item, the foresaid marchants are priuileged by their charter, that
concerning the quantity of their merchandize brought into the realme of
England (in regard whereof they are bound to pay 3. d. for the worth of
euery pound of siluer) credit is to be giuen vnto them for the letters of
their masters and of their companies, if they were able to shew them. And
if so be they had no letters in this behalfe to shew, that then credite
should bee giuen vnto themselues, and that their othe, or the othe of their
atturney should be taken, without any other proof, as touching the value of
their merchandize so brought in, and that thereupon they should be bound to
pay customs, namely the customes of 3. d. iustly for that cause to be paid.
But nowe the customers of our soueraigne lorde the king put their goods to
an higher rate then they ought or were woont to be: and heereupon they
compell them to pay custome for their goods, at their pleasure, scanning
about their fraight and expenses particularly disbursed in regard of the
said goods and marchandize, to the great hinderance of the said marchants,
and against the tenor of their charter.

[Sidenote: The great charter of marchants.] Item, the foresaid merchants by
way of pitiful complaint do alleage, that, whereas the worthy progenitors
of our Lord the king that now is, by vertue of the saide great charter,
graunted liberty vnto them to pay the customes of certain clothes, namely
of skarlet, and cloth died in grayne, and of other clothes of assise, which
were by them to be caried out of the realme of England, euen as by their
foresaid Charter it doeth more plainly appeare: and whereas our soueraigne
lord the king that now is (ratifying and confirming the saide charter, and
being willing that they shoulde haue more especiall fauour shewed vnto
them) granted vnto them by their Charter, that the said marchants should be
exempted and freed from all custome and imposition of small clothes, as in
pieces and in narrow clothes which were not of assise, and in such other
clothes of like qualitie: [Sidenote: A speciall charter.] yet of late the
Customers of our Lorde the King that nowe is, not allowing their saide
speciall Charter so graunted vnto the marchants aforesaid, do compel them
to pay for straight clothes and for pieces of clothes which are not of
assise, (together with other demands particularly and seuerally made) as
great custome as if the clothes were full out of assise. [Sidenote: The
customers of the pety custome.] Moreouer also of late, the customers of the
smal or pety custome and of the subsidie doe demand of them custome for
kersey-clothes equal vnto the custome of those clothes, that be of ful
assise, whereas the foresaid marchants were not wont to pay for those
kerseys by vertue of their Charter, but onely according to the worth of ech
pound of siluer, as namely for other goods which are of golde weight: to
the great hinderance of the foresaid parties, and against the manifest
graunt of our soueraigne Lord the king, as it appeareth in the said
speciall Charter.

Item, the said merchants alleage, that they are priuiledged by their
Charter, if they pay custome and subsidy for their goods in the behalfe of
our lord the king, at any port of England where those goods haue arriued
and afterward would transport the saide goods or any part of them vnto any
other port within the realme aforesaid: that then they should be quite
released from paying of any other custome for the same goods, if they bring
a warrant that they haue paide the saide custome, as is aforesaide.
[Sidenote: 1405.] Of late it fortuned, that a certaine man of their
societie named Nicholas Crossebaire, being a marchant of the lande of
Prussia, immediately after the concord was concluded betwene the English
and the Prussians, brought vnto the towne of Sandwich a shippe laden with
bowe-staues and other marchandize, and there well and truely paide the
custome of our lord the king for all his ware: and selling there part of
the same goods, he afterward transported parcel thereof in a small barke
vnto London, there to be solde, and caried a warrant also with him, that he
had at Sandwich paid the custome due vnto our lord the king: and yet (the
said warrant notwithstanding) the customers of the pety custome and subsidy
of London came and demanded custome of him at another time contrary to
reason, and against the tenor of their charter: and the said Nicholas
offred pledges vnto them, yea, euen ready money downe into their hands,
vntil the question were discussed and determined, whether he should pay new
custome or no: but this they would not doe. Then the said Nicholas brought
a brief from our lord the king, to get himselfe discharged from paying the
said custome: and for all that, the foresaid customers would not as yet
haue regard vnto him, but kept the said goods within shipboord, vpon the
riuer of Thames, for the space of 15. dayes, vntil he had paid another
custome, to the great losse of the said Nicholas, for that which he sold
first at Sandwich to be deliuered at London for seuen nobles, he could not
afterward haue for it aboue foure nobles, and yet so was it solde, by
reason of the harme which his wares had taken by lying so long vpon the
water, contrary to the tenor of their Charter.

Item, the said marchants do alleage, that another of their company called
Peter Hertson bought at Bristow certain clothes, and laded the same in a
ship, to be transported for Prussia, for the which he truely paide at
Bristowe, the customs and subsidies due vnto our soueraign lord the king:
which ship with the foresaid goods arriuing at London: the customers of the
pety-custome and of the subsidie there would not permit the said ship with
the goods to passe vnto the parts aforesaid, vntil the said Peter had paid
another custome for the same goods (the warrant, which he brought with him
notwithstanding) to his great hindrance, and contrary to the tenour of
their Charter.

Item, pitifully complaining the foresaid marchants alleage, that wheras
euery marchant, bringing wares into the realm, was wont to haue a schedule
wherein his name was written, for a specification and certificat of the
quantity of his goods in the said schedule to be found at the arriual of
the ship, without paying therfore ought at all, of late, the customers of
the pety custome do compel them to pay for ech mans name written a peny, at
the arriual of their goods out of euery ship wherin the said goods are
found, what commodities and marchandize soeuer they be: whereas
notwithstanding, if there be a chest or any other smal matter, there should
not therfore be any custome due vnto our lord the king, nor any receiued
vnto his Maiesties vse. [Sidenote: The customers of the subsidie.] In like
maner do the customers of the subsidy deale. Whereas also the foresaid
marchants were not wont to pay for a cocket for the conueyance and
transportation of their goods out of the realme (albeit many names were
written theirne) more then 4. d. of late the customers of the pety custom
do compel them to pay for euery name contained in the same cocket 4. d. and
in like sort do the customers of the saide subsidy deale. Which
contribution in a yere extendeth it self vnto a great summe, to the vnknown
preiudice of our lord the king, more then any man could suppose, (for the
customers enioy their fees and commodities from his Maiestie that they may
doe him faithfull seruice) and likewise to the great damage of the said

Item, pitifully complaining the said marchants do alleage that they are
constrained to pay for subsidy, sometime 12. d. and somtime 6. d. in the
pound, contrary to the tenor of their charter: and yet notwithstanding when
their marchandize commeth to the wharf, the customers prolong and delay the
time 3. or 4. weeks before they wil take custome for their goods, in the
which space other marchants sel their goods, the customers not regarding
whether the goods aforesaid take wet or no: to the great damage aswel of
our lord the king, as of the said marchants: because, if they had quicke
dispatch, they might pay custome vnto his Maiestie oftner then they doe.

Item, the said marchants doe farther alleage, that the customers of the
petie custome, and of the subsidie in the port of London haue appointed
among themselues certaine men to seale vp the goods of the saide marchants,
so soon as they are arriued at the port of safetie, vntil the said goods be
customed. By meanes of the which sealing, the foresaide parties doe compell
the marchants aboue-named, (vpon an vse and custome whereof themselues haue
bene the authors) to paye a certaine summe of money, to the great
hinderance of the sayde marchants, and contrarie to iustice and to their
charter. Moreouer, the saide customers haue ordained betweene themselues,
that the saide marchants shall put or make vp no cloth into fardels, to
transport out of the realme, vnlesse certaine men appointed by them for the
same purpose bee there present, to see what maner of clothes they bee,
vnder paine of the forfeiture of the saide goods. Also of late, when the
sayde marchants would haue made up such fardels, the foresayde parties
assigned to be ouerseers refused to come, vnlesse they might haue for their
comming some certain summe of money, delaying and procrastinating from day
to day, so long as themselues listed, to the great losse and vndoing of the
foresaide marchants, and contrarie to their liberties: because the
foresaide customers are bound by their office to doe this, without any
contribution therefore to bee paide vnto them by the saide marchants: for
that they doe enioy from our soueraigne Lord the King their fees and
commodities, to the ende that they may serue him and euery marchant iustly
and faithfully, without any contribution by them to be imposed anewe vpon
the sayde marchants, of custome.

Item, the said marchants doe alleage, that the customers and balifs of the
town of Southampton do compel them to pay for euery last of herrings,
pitch, and sope ashes brought thither by them 2. s. more then the kings
custome: and for ech hundreth of bowstaues and boords called Waghenscot, 2.
d. for euery hundreth of boords called Richolt, 4. d. and for al other
marchandize brought by the foresaid marchants vnto the same towne: which
contributions they neuer paid at any time heretofore, being greatly to
their hinderance, and contrary to the tenour of their Charter.

Item, the foresaid marchants do alleage, that one of their company; called
Albert Redewish of Prussia, bringing diuers goods and marchandizes vnto
Newcastle vpon Tine, and there laying the vsual custom of 3. d. in the
pound for al his wares, the bailifs of the saide towne, against all reason,
exacted 7. pound sterling at his hands more then the custome: whereupon the
foresaide marchant got a briefe from the kings maiesty, for the recouery of
the saide 7. li. according to equity and reason: howbeit, that at the
comming of the said briefe the foresaid balifes would do nothing on his
behalfe, but would haue slaine their foresaid associate, contrary to their
charter and priuiledges.

William Esturmy knight, and Iohn Kington canon of Lincolne, being by the
most mighty prince and lord, L. Henry by Gods grace K. of England and
France and lord of Ireland, sufficiently deputed and appointed to parle,
treate, and agree with the common society of the marchants of the Hans of
Dutchland or Almain, concerning and about the redressing and reformation of
vniust attempts happening between our said soueraign L. the king his liege
people and subiects on the one part, and between the common society
aforesaid, the cities, towns, And particular persons thereof on the other
part: do (for the behalf of our said soueraign L. the King, with a mind and
intention to haue al and singular the things vnderwritten to come to the
knowledge of the said common society) intimate, declare, and make known
vnto you (hono. sirs) Henr. Westhoff citizen and deputy of the city of
Lubec, Henry Fredelaw, Ioh. van Berk citizen of Colen, Mainard Buxtehude
citizen, and deputy of the city of Hamburgh, M. Simon Clawstern clerk, sir
Iohn de Aa knight deputie of the citie of Rostok, Herman Meyer deputy of
the citie of Wismar, being as the procurators, messengers, and
commissioners of the foresaid cities, assembled together at the town of
Hage in Holland, with the forenamed Will. and Iohn in regard of the
foresaid redres and reformation: that, euen as our said soueraign L. the
king his meaning is not to disturb or hinder such priuiledges as haue bin
heretofore granted and vouchsafed vnto the common society of the marchants
aforesaid, by the renoumed kings of England, and the worthy progenitors of
our L. the K. that now is, and by himself also vnder a certain form
confirmed: euen so he is determined (without the preiudice of forren lawes)
vpon iust mature, and sober deliberation, by his royall authorise to
withstand such priuiledges, as by reason of the abuse thereof, haue bene
infinitely preiudiciall vnto himselfe and his subiects.

Inprimis the said ambassadours doe affirme as afore, that whereas all and
euery the Marchants of the said company, as often as they would, were, both
in the Realme of England, and in other territories and dominions subiect
vnto our soueraigne lord the king, admitted and suffered (according to the
tenor of the forenamed priuiledges granted vnto them) freely, friendly and
securely to traffique and conuerse with any of his Maiesties liege people
and subiects whatsoeuer, or with other people of whatsoeuer nation liuing
in the realme of England, or in the dominions aforesaid: the said common
society of marchants by their publike and deliberate common counsel did
appoint and ordain, that no society in any cities, townes, or places,
neither yet any particular man of any such society (there being no lawfull
or reasonable cause why) shoulde in any wise admit any marchants of the
realm of England resorting vnto their cities or other places for
marchandise, to enioy intercourse of traffike: but that the saide English
marchants should bee altogether excluded from all traffike and mutuall
conuersation among them, by denouncing and inflicting grieuous penalties of
money as well vpon cities as other places, and vpon particular marchants
also of the foresaid societie practising the contrary.

Item, that immediately after, the foresaid parties enacting and ordaining
published their sayde statute and ordinance, in all kingdomes, prouinces,
partes, cities, and townes, wherin any marchants of the said societie were

Item, that after that publication, the statute and ordinance aforesaid by
euery of the marchants of the forenamed society were inuiolably obserued.

Item, that the said statute and ordinance hath bene so rigorously put in
execution, that whereas immediately after certaine English marchants with
their ships, mariners, and marchandize beeing in a certaine part of one of
the principall cities of the foresaide societie, vtterly destitute of
meate, drinke, and money, publikely offred to sell their wollen clothes of
England, onely to prouide themselues of necessary victuals: yet the
marchants of the saide citie, stoutely persisting in their statute and
ordinance aforesaid, straightly prohibited the buying of such clothes,
vnchristianly denying meate and drinke vnto the said English marchants.

Item, the foresaid society decreed and ordained, that no marchant of the
saide Company should in any place or countrey whatsoeuer, buy any woollen
clothes of the realme or dominion of England (albeit offered by others and
not by English men) or hauing bought any, should, after the terme prefixed,
sel them, imposing grieuous pecuniary mulcts, besides the forfeiture of the
clothes so bought or sold, vpon them that would attempt the contrary.

Item, that after the said statute and ordinance, the foresaide societie
decreed, that all marchants of the said companie, hauing among their wares
and marchandise any woollen clothes made in England, should either sell the
saide clothes, or within a short space then limited, should, vnder penaltie
of forfeiting the said clothes, utterly renounce the vse and commoditie
thereof: Notwithstanding a grieuous penaltie of money being imposed vpon
the violators of the same statute.

[Sidenote: The Hans societie determineth the ouerthrow of English
merchants.] Item, that the statutes and ordinances aforesaid might with
more speed and celerity be put in execution, the said authors and
publishers thereof imagining, according to their desire, that by this
meanes an vtter extirpation and ouerthrow of English marchants might, yea
and of necessity must ensue: upon their serious and long premeditated
deliberation, straitely commanded and inioyned, vnder pain of losing the
benefit of all priuileges, wheresoeuer, or by the princes of what lands, or
the Magistrates of what Cities or townes soeuer vouchsafed vnto the said
common societie, that not only the aldermen of that, society in al places
throughout the realme of England, but also al other marchants of the said
company, after the maner of marchants conuersing in the said Realme,
should, without exception of persons, vtterly abstein from all intercourse
of traffike with the marchants of the realme aforesaid: yea, and that they
shoulde depart out of the said kingdome within a very short space limited.
For the dispatching of al which premisses without delay, it was according
to their commandement effectually prouided.

[Sidenote: Statutes against the English marchants in Norway and Suedland.]
Item, that the society aforesaid hath approued diuers very vnreasonable
statutes and ordinances, made and published by the marchants of the same
society residing in the kingdoms of Norway and Swedland, to the great
preiudice of the kingdome of England, and the marchants thereof: and as yet
both couertly and expresly do approue the same, vniustly putting them in
daily execution.

Item, wheras in the priuileges and indulgences granted by the renouned
princes somtimes kings of England, the worthy progenitors of our souereign
lord the king that now is, vnto the society aforesaid, it is prouided, that
the said marchants shal not auow any man which is not of their company, nor
shal not colour his goods and marchandize vnder their company; whereas also
in the confirmation of the sayd priuiledges made up by our soueraigne lord
that nowe is, it is manifestly prouided, that the marchants of the Hans
towns, vnder the colour of their priuiledges in England, shall not vpon
paine of the perpetuall frustration and reuocation of the foresayd
priuiledges, receiue any stranger of any other towne in their liberties, by
whom the kings custome may in any sort be withholden or diminished: and yet
the contrary vnto al these prouisoes hath bin euery yere, for these 20.
yeres or thereabout notoriously practised and committed, as well ioyntly by
the generall counsell, and toleration of the foresayd society, as also
seuerally by the aduise and permission of diuers particular cities of the
foresayd Hans company to the great diminution of his maiesties custome, the
estimation whereof the foresayd ambassadors are not able at this present
fully to declare. [Sidenote: How many and which be the Hans townes.] But
that all occasions of the last aboue mentioned diminution may bee preuented
for the time to come, the sayd ambassadors doe demand to haue from the
foresayd societie a declaration in writing, what and what maner of
territories, cities, townes, villages or companies they be, for which the
sayd society challengeth and pretendeth, that they ought to enioy the
priuiledges granted vnto their marchants, as is aboue mentioned.

Moreouer, it is required by the foresaid ambassadors, if the societie
aforesayd hath not decreed nor ordayned the things aboue written, that the
names of the cities and places decreeing and ordaining such statutes and
ordinances, may by the sayd common society either now or at some other
times and places conuenient for the same purpose, be expressed and set
downe in writing.

* * * * *

A letter of Henry the fourth king of England &c. unto Frater Conradus de
Iungingen the Master generall of Prussia.

Henrie &c. to the most noble and mighty personage of sacred religion F:
Conradus de Iungingen Master general of the order of the Dutch knights of
S. Marie, our most deare friend, greeting, and continual perfection of

When as your messengers and ambassadors were of late personally present in
Holland, and there expected the arriual of our ambassadors vntill the first
day of the moneth of Nouember last expired, that there might bee by way of
friendly conference a remedie prouided in regard of certaine iniuries
pretended to be offered, by both our subiects one against another, for the
publique commoditie of both parts, we were determined to haue sent vnto
Dordract, at the foresaid daye, our welbeloued and faithfull knight William
Sturmy, and our welbeloued clerke Iohn Kington, vpon our
ambassage-affayres: hauing as yet in our desires, for a peaceable ending of
the matter, (which, our foresayd ambassadors, by reason of the shortnes of
time, or the finding out of some other remedie and happy conclusion of all
and singular the foresaid attempts concerning the principall busines, could
by no meanes at that instant attaine vnto) that vpon some other more
conuenient day (to the end your ambassadors might not returne home
altogether frustrate of their expectation) there might be, after the wonted
friendly maner, a conference and agreement with your foresaid ambassadors,
euen as by other letters of ours directed vnto your sayd ambassadors the
second day of the moneth of Nouember aforesayd wee haue deliuered our mind
vnto them. But it fortuned not long before the departure of your
ambassadors into their owne countrey, that no sufficient shipping could be
found wherein our sayd ambassadors might haue secure and safe passage vnto
Dordract, or Middleburgh, neither was it thought that they should get any
passage at all, till the ships at Middleborough were returned into our
kingdome, by the force whereof they might be the more strongly wafted ouer.
And so by reason of the departure of your ambassadours, all matters remaine
in suspense till such time as the sayd ambassadors shall againe meete with
ours to adde perfection vnto the busines as yet imperfect. Wherefore (our
friend unfainedly beloued) desiring from the bottome of our heart that the
integritie of loue, which hath from auncient times taken place betweene our
and your subiects, may in time to come also be kept inuiolable, we haue
thought good once again to send one of our foresaid ambassadors, namely
William Esturmy knight to Dordract, giuing him charge thither to make
haste, and there to stay, till some of your messengers, at your
commandement doe in time conuenient repayre vnto that place, there (by Gods
assistance) to bring the matter vnto an happy conclusion. May it please you
therefore of your vnfayned friendship, without all inconuenience of delay,
to returne, not vnto vs, but vnto our forenamed knight an answere in
writing, what your will and determination is. Neither let it seeme strange
vnto you, that we haue not at this present sent our forenamed Iohn Kington
clerke together with the sayd William; for the cause of his abode with vs
is, that he may in the meane season employ his care and diligence about
those matters which muust be preparitues for the finall conclusion of the
foresayd busines. Honorable sir, and most deare friend, we doe most
heartily wish increase of prosperity and ioy vnto your person. [Sidenote:
1407.] Giuen in our palace of Westminster the 14. day of Feb. in the yeare
of our Lord 1407.

* * * * *

To the right noble and valiant knight Sir William Sturmy sent at this
present by the most souereigne King of England &c, as his ambassadour
vnto Dordract, his most sincere friend.

Honorable sir, our most entier friend, wee receiued the royall letters of
the most mighty prince and lord, our lord the king of England and France
and lord of Ireland, sent vnto vs vnder the date of the 14. day of February
(which we receiued at our castle of Marienburgh the 11. of April)
containing, amongst other matters, that his Maiesties purpose was once
againe to sende one of his ambassadors, namely your selfe our very sincere
friend vnto Dordract, giuing you in charge that you would make haste
thither and there stay; vntill some of our subiects might at our
commandement, in conuenient time repaire vnto the same place, there (by
God's assistance) to bring our matters vnto a happy conclusion. And then he
requested that wee should without delay write our determination vnto you,
as the conclusion of the said letter importeth. Howbeit (our most deare
friend) the treaties and conferences about the redresse or reformation of
uniust attempts committed by the subiects of our sayd lord and king and our
subiects, one against another, are both on our behalfe, and on the behalfe
of the common societie of the Hans marchants, hitherto had, made, and
continued common. And so our commissioners vpon our full and absolute
commandement, shal, for the managing of these and of other affaires of the
foresaid societie, many waies vrgent and difficult, vpon the feast of our
Lords Ascension next to come, meet with the said societie at Lubec, there
to giue notice what they haue determined to conclude in this present
busines and in others for their owne behalfe. For we will giue our
ambassadours, which are there to appeare, streightly in charge that
according to the kings request aforesayde they doe without delay procure an
answere to be written vnto your honour concerning the determination of the
foresayd societie. Giuen at the place and vpon the day aboue named, in the
yeare of our Lord 1407.

Fr. Wemherus de Tettingen, commander in Elbing, general vice-master and
lieutenant in the roome of the master generall of the Dutch knights of
the Order of S. Marie &c. of late deceased.

* * * * *

The letters of Henry the 4. king of England &c vnto Vlricus de Iungingen
Master generall of Prussia, 1408. wherein he doth ratifie and accept the
last agreement made at Hage in Holland.

Henry &c. vnto the honourable and religious personage Fr. Vlricus de
Iungingen Master generall of the Dutch knights of S. Marie &c. our most
deare friend, greeting and dayly increase of our accustomed amity and
friendship. We doe by these presents giue your honour to vnderstand, that
our faithfull and welbeloued William Esturmy knight, and Master Iohn
Kington clerke, our ambassadours and messengers sent of late on our
behalfe, vnto the presence of your predecessour for the redressing of
certaine grieuances and damages being contrary to iustice offered against
vs and our liege subiects by the people and subiects of your predecessors,
and against them also by our subiects as it is aforesayd, in friendly maner
to be procured, of late returning out of the parts of Alemain made relation
vnto vs and to our counsell, that hauing conferred with your forenamed
predecessour about the foresayd affayres, the particulars following were at
length concluded: namely first of all, that at a certaine day and place
they should meete in Holland with his ambassadors and messengers, to hold a
friendly conference betweene them about the redressing and reformation of
the grieuances and damages aforesayd: and that they should by equall waight
of diligent elimination ponder, and in the balance of iustice discusse and
define al and singular the foresaid grieuances and damages inflicted on
both parts. [Sidenote: A meeting at Hage the 28. of August 1407.] Howbeit
at length after sundry prorogations then made and continued on this
behalfe, our ambassadors and messengers aforesaid vpon the 28. of August
last past, assembling themselues for our part at the towne of Hage in
Holland, the hon. and discreete personages Arnold Heket burgomaster of the
towne of Dantzik, and Iohn Crolowe, for the behalf of your subiects of
Prussia, and Tidman de Meule, and Iohn Epenscheid for the behalfe of
Liuonia, being assembled as messengers and commissioners about the redresse
and reformation aforesayd, did then and there demaund in certaine articles,
of our ambassadours and messengers aboue named 25034. nobles and half a
noble, for the grieuances and damages offered (as it was then said) to your
subiects of Prussia, and 24082. nobles 12. s. 8. d. in recompense of the
damages offered vnto those your subiects of Liuonia. And when the substance
of those articles about the grieuances and losses aforesayd was by the sayd
ambassadours and messengers aboue named 25034. nobles and half a noble, for
the grieuances and damages offered (as it was then said) to your subiects
of Prussia, and 24082. nobles, 12. s. 8. d. in recompence of the damages
offered vnto those your subiects of Liuonia. And when the substance of
those articles about the grieuances and losses aforesayd was by the sayd
ambassadours and messengers throughly examined and discussed, by their
generall consent it was finally agreed, that your subiects, in
consideration of all and singular the foresayd grieuances and damages
offered vnto them by our people, should within three yeares after the feast
of Easter next ensuing, at three equall payments receiue from vs, namely
they of Prussia, 8957. nobles, and they of Liuonia 22496. nobles, sixe
pence, halfepeny, farthing, and no more, so that we our selues thought good
to condescend thereunto. Howbeit, forasmuch as certaine other goods of your
subiects of Prussia, and also certaine articles in the behalfe of our
subiects containing grieuous complaints in them, being propounded before
the ambassadors and messengers aforesaid, for the attaining of reformation
in regard of the damages and grieuances offered on both parts, could not as
then, for the great obscurity of diuers of the sayd articles, and also for
want of sufficient proofe at the last meeting appointed and held by the
foresayd ambassadors at the towne of Hage in Holland, sufficiently to be
examined, discussed, and defined, it was agreed vpon by the ambassadors and
messengers of both partes, that from the 15. day of October then last
expired vnto the feast of Easter now next ensuing, and from thenceforth
within one whole yere immediately following, the plaintifes of both parts
should throughly declare before our chancelour of England for the time
being, the foresayd obscurities concerning the substance of their articles,
and that they should, for the obtaining of execution, and complement of
iustice at our sayd chancelours hands, peremtorily minister necessary
probations, vnder paine of perpetuall exclusion from the petition of those
things which are contayned in the articles aboue mentioned.

Prouided alwayes, that if at the last it shall be by lawfull proofes made
manifest concerning the summes aboue written or any part or parcell
thereof, that due satifaction hath beene made, to him or them vnto whom it
was due, or that those goods of and for the which complaint hath bene made
on the behalfe of your subiects haue pertained or doe appertaine vnto
others, or any other iust, true, and reasonable cause may lawfully bee
alleaged, why the payment of all the foresayd summes or any of them ought
not to be performed: that then so much only is to be cut off or deducted
from the sayd summes as shall be found to be already payd or to pertaine
vnto others, or else vpon some true, iust, and reasonable cause (as is
aforesayd) not to be due. We therefore considering that the sayd friendly
conference, and the finall agreement ensuing thereupon are agreeable vnto
reason and equitie, doe, for our part ratifie and willingly accept the very
same conference and agreement. And forasmuch as it hath bene alwayes our
desire, and is as yet our intention, that the league of amity and the
integritie of loue, which hath of olde time bene obserued betwene our and
your subiects; may in times to come perpetually remaine inuiolable, and
that your and our people may hereafter, not onely for the good of our
common weale but also for the commodity and peace of both parts, according
to their woonted maner, assemble themselues and enioy the faithfull and
mutuall conuersation one of another: we will cause in our citie of London,
with the Summe of 8957. nobles satisfaction to bee made vnto the Prussians,
and with the summe of 22496. nobles, sixe pence, halfe peny, farthing,
recompense to be performed vnto the Liuonians, in regard of the damages and
iniuries (which in very deede proceeded not of our consent) by our subiects
offered vnto them, as it is afore sayd, and within three yeares after the
feast of Easter next ensuing the sayd summes of money to bee payed at three
payments, and by three equal portions. Conditionally that vnto our subiects
which be endamaged correspondent satisfaction be likewise on your part
within the terme of the foresayd three yeres performed, with paying the
summes of 766. nobles and of 4535. nobles, demaunded on our bchalfe, and
also with the payment of such summes as within one yeere immediately
ensuing the feast of Easter aforesayd, shallbe found by sufficient
declarations and proofes to be made on the behalfe of our subiects (as is
aforesayd) to be due. Euen as we in like maner will make satisfaction vnto
your subiects within our citie aforesayd. Now as touching the request of
your ambassadors and of the Liuonians whereby we were required to procure
some holesome remedy for the soules of certaine drowned persons, as
conscience and religion seemeth to chalenge (in regard of whom we are moued
with compassion, and do for their sakes heartily condole their mishaps) you
are (our entier friend), of a certaintie to vnderstand, that after we shall
be by your letters aduertized of the number, state, and condition of the
sayd parties drowned, we will cause suffrages of prayers and diuers other
holesome remedies profitable for the soules of the deceased and acceptable
to God and men, religiously to be ordained and prouided: vpon condition,
that for the soules of our drowned countrey men there be the like remedie
prouided by you. The almighty grant vnto your selfe and vnto your whole
Order, that, you may prosperously triumph ouer the enemies of Christ his
crosse. Giuen vnder our priuie seale at our palace of Westminster the 26.
of March, in the yeere of our lord 1408. and in the ninth yere of our

* * * * *

The letters of Fr: Vlricus Master of Prussia directed vnto the king of
England, signifying that he is contented with the agreements concluded by
his messengers at Hage.

To the most renowmed prince and mighty lord L. Henrie king of England and
France, and lord of Ireland, our most gracious lord.

Vnto your highnes pleasure at all assaies humbly recommending my voluntarie
seruice &c. Most renowned king, mighty prince, and gracious Lord, we
receiued of late with great reuerence as it becommeth vs, by our
wellbeloued Arnold de Dassel the bearer of these presents, your Maiesties
letters of late directed vnto vs, making mention amongst other matters of
certaine appointments first made and concluded between the noble and worthy
personages William Esturmy knight, Iohn Kington clerke, and William
Brampton citizen of London your ambassadours and messengers on the one
parte, and our honorable and religious brethren, namely Conradus
Lichtensten great commander, Warnherus de Tettingen chiefe hospitalary and
commander in Elbing, and Arnold de Hacken treasurer, being the procuratours
and commissioners of Fra. Conradus de Iungingen our last predecessour of
famous memory on the other parte, concerning the redressing, reformation,
and amendement of vniust attempts committed on both sides, at our castle of
Marienburgh, and also very lately at the towne of Hage in Holland, namely
the twenty eight of the moneth August in the yeare immediately past,
betweene your foresayde ambassadours William Esturmy knight, and Iohn
Kington clerke, for your part, and our trusty and welbeloued commissioners
and procurators, namely Arnold Hecht burgomaster of our citie of Dantzik,
and Iohn Crolow citizen of the same citie, for our parte. And for our more
perfect knowledge in this behalfe, our sayd commissioners made relation
vnto vs and vnto our whole counsell, that associating vnto themselues our
messengers of Liuonia, namely, Tidman Myeul, and Iohn Epensheid, together
with your foresaid ambassadours and messengers, they there finally
appoynted and concluded, of and about the aboue mentioned summes of money
due on both partes, of the which mention is made in your letters aforesayd.
[Sidenote: Here relation is had unto the king of the Romans.] With this
special prouiso that in like manner satisfaction be made in all points,
both vnto other of our damnified subiects of Prussia, namely such whose
goods or the true value thereof haue bene finally adiudged by the iudges or
professors of our lawes, and vnto such who hauing brought their articles of
complaints vnto the audience of the most dread and mighty prince and lorde,
our lord Rupertus king of the Romans alwayes most soueraigne, were in
conclusion to haue the estimations of their goods to be adiudged by the
sentence of the sayd lord, with the aduise of two of his counsellors, and
also vnto other of our subiects who haue brought in sufficient proofe of
damages uniustly inflicted vpon them by your subiects, ouer and besides the
premisses. So that in like maner satisfaction be made vnto the common
societie of the Hans marchants: and by the arbitrament set downe in the
conferences had at Marienburgh, of the which it was aboue prouided and
enacted on their behalfe, namely if they will rest contented with our
subiects in the courses and meanes then concluded. If not, we intend not at
all to adhere vnto them in this behalfe. Afterward our messengers
aforesayd, both they of Prussia and of Liuonia demanded conuenient, iust,
and speedy satisfaction, with the payment of all and singular the summes
aboue mentioned due vnto both parts (so farre foorth as equity and reason
would yeeld vnto, for the recompense of the parties iniuried and endamaged
on both sides) to be made within one whole yere accompting from the feast
of Easter now last expired vnto the very same feast next to come in the
yere immediatly following, and that in three seueral termes of payment, by
three portions of the said summes equally to be diuided, at the towne of
Bruges in Flanders as being a place indifferent for all parties, in maner
and forme as it was before at Marienburgh required and stoode vpon: namely
that reformation, reparation, and amendement of all uniust attempts
committed on both parts ought to bee performed within one yere. Howbeit
contrariwise your ambassadors aforesayd decreed that the sayd satisfaction
should be performed vnto the parties iniuried of both parts within three
yeeres, beginning to accompt from the feast of Easter last past. And when
your ambassadours were not contented with the maner of satisfaction set
downe by our men, nor our commissioners were willing in any sort to consent
vnto that course which was thought conuenient by your ambassadors, the
honorable messengers of the sea-townes of the Hans being there at that time
present, made a motion that the foresayd satisfaction might be performed
within two yeeres and a halfe, accompting from the feast of Easter last
past, often before mentioned: yet vnder a certaine protestation, namely if
both parties should agree vnto that forme of satisfaction, and if they
should thinke good finally and conclusiuely to yeeld their consent vnto it.
Which kind of satisfaction also conceiued by the messengers, your sayd
ambassadours without giuing notice thereof vnto your royall Maiestie,
refused finally to approue; being rather desirous to make a true and
faithfull report of the sayd forme of satisfaction last aboue mentioned
vnto your kingly highnesse, and that in such sorte, that (as they hoped)
effectuall satisfaction and payment of all and singuler the summes due and
to bee due on both partes should more conueniently and speedily bee
performed. Whereupon we might be put in good hope, that more speedy and
conuenient appointments of termes, for the sayd satisfaction friendly on
both parts to to be performed in, would haue proceeded from your bountifull
and gracious clemencie. And in very deede (most mighty prince) albeit it
was neuer the meaning of our foresayd predecessor, so for foorth as these
affayres concerned him, to protract and delay the execution of the sayd
busines so many and such long distances of time, and that for diuers
respects, both because restitution vnto the parties robbed consisted
herein, and also because the sayd restitutions and satisfactions are to be
made vnto poore people, widowes, orphanes, and other miserable creatures,
diuersly and miserably slaine and oppressed: notwithstanding we being moued
with hearty and feruent zeale and speciall affection vnto your royall
crowne of England, and hauing due regard and consideration of your most
excellent Maiestie, upon the aduise of our honourable brethren our
counsellors, doe thankfully recieue, and by the tenour of these presents
totally ratifie and approue such satisfactions of the foresayd summes
howsoeuer due vnto our subiects both Prussians and Liuonians, in friendly
sorte to be performed at such times and occasons limited and prefixed by
your highnes as are expressed in your maiesties letters, and also of other
sammes which within one yeare immediately ensuing after the feast of Easter
last past, by sufficient proofes to be madee on their part before your
chancelour at your citie of London shall be found due vnto them.
Conditionally that without inconuenience of delay and impediment they be
performed as they ought to be, according to the premisses. In like maner
also we our selues within the termes of payment aboue mentioned will
procure satisfaction to be without fayle perfourmed vnto your subiects
endamaged, with the summe of 766. nobles being in regard of their losses,
of the which they haue giuen vp sufficient informations due vnto them: and
with other like summes also which are by sufficient proofes, within the
yeare aforesayd, and in maner and forme prescribed to be exhibited before
our treasurer at our citie of Dantzik. [Sidenote: Septem. 27. 1408.] The
almighty vouchsafe prosperously and longtime to preserue your maieisties
royal person. Giuen at our castle of Marienburgh the 27. of September, in
the yeare of our Lord 1408.

Fr. Vlricus de Tungingen master generall of the order of the Dutch-knights
of S. Maries hospital of Ierusalem.

* * * * *

The letters of king Henry the 4. sent vnto F. Vlricus master general of
Prussia, wherein he doth absolutely approue the foresaid conference
holden at Hage, and treateth about a perpetual league and amitie to be
concluded betweene England and Prussia.

Henry by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland,
vnto the noble and mighty personage of sacred religion Vlricus de Iungingen
master generall of the order of the Dutch knights of S. Maries hospitall of
Ierusalem, our entirely beloued friend, greeting and increase of vnfained
friendship. After diuers conferences had in sundry places beyond the seas
betweene the ambassadours and messengers of your late predecessor and of
your selfe also, on the one parte, and betweene our especiall ambassadors
and messengers on the other parte, concerning reformations, reparations,
and restitutions in certaine maner and forme to be performed vnto our
subiects of both parts, in regard of manifold iniuries practised against
them both, and after that, in the last conference holden by the
ambassadours of vs both at the towne of Hage at Holland, there was a motion
made concerning a certaine forme of satisfaction, by way of finall
conclusion in that behalfe: but not being as then by our ambassadours
condescended vnto, because they durst not proceede vnto the same conclusion
without our priuitie, relation thereof at length being by them made before
vs and our counsel; we returned vnto your honour an answere in writing by
our letters vnder our priuie seale, of our full purpose and intention (vnto
the which letters we doe at this present referre our selues, as if they
were here again expressly written) what we thought good to haue done in
this behalfe: so that we also might by your friendly letters be certaynly
informed of your will and express consent, being likewise conformable vnto
our foresayd intention. Nowe whereas since that time we haue of late
receiued the certaintie of the matter by your letters written vnto vs from
your castle of Marienburgh, bearing date the 27. of September last past,
contayning in effect amongst other matters, that you beeing mooued with a
feruent zeale and speciall affection (as you write) vnto the royall crowne
of our realme, and hauing due regard and consideration of our royall
maiestie, vpon the aduise of your honourable brethren your counsellers, doe
with a thankful mind accept, and by the tenour of the said letters of yours
totally approue the concord of a certaine satisfaction to be performed with
the payment of certaine summes of money howsoeuer due vnto your subiects as
well of Prussia as of Liuonia, expressed in our former letters, within the
termes prefixed by our consent and limited in our said letters, and also of
other summes which within one whole yeare immediately following the feast
of Easter last past, be sufficient proofes on their part to bee made before
our chauncelour at our citie of London, shall be found due vnto them:
conditionally, that without inconuenience of delay and impediments, the
premisses be performed as they ought to be. And that your selfe also will
without fayle, vpon the termes appointed for the said payments, procure
satisfaction to be made accordingly vnto our endamaged subiects with the
summes due vnto them by reason of their losses, whereof they haue
sufficient information. Wherefore in regard of those your friendly letters,
and your courteous answere returned by them vnto vs, as is aforesaid, wee
doe yeelde vnto you right vnfained thanks. [Sidenote: A motion for a
perpetuall league.] But because it will vndoubtedly be most acceptable and
pleasing both vnto vs and vnto our people, and vnto you and your subiects
that the zeale and feruencie of loue which hath from auncient times growen
and increased betweene our progenitours for them and their subiects, and
your predecessors and their subiects, and which by the insolencie of
certayne lewde persons, without any consent of the principall lords, hath
often bene violated betweene vs and you and mutually betweene the subiects
of vs both may be put in perpetuall vre and obtaine full strength in time
to come, sithens hereupon (by Gods assistance) it is to be hoped, that
uspeakable commodity and quiet will redound vnto both parts: may it seeme
good vnto your discretion, as it seemeth expedient vnto vs, that some
messengers of yours sufficiently authorised to parle, agree, and conclude
with our deputy, about the mutuall contraction of a perpetuall league and
confimation of friendship, may with all conuenient speede be sent vnto our
presence. At whose arriuall, not onely in this busines so profitable and
behoouefull, but also in certaine other affaires concerning the former
treaties and conclusions, they may, yea and of necessitie must greatly
auayle. Wherefore (our entirely beloued friend) euen as vpon confidence of
the premisses we haue thought good to grant vnto the marchants and subiects
of our realme full authority to resort vnto your dominions, so we doe in
like maner graunt vnto your marchants and subiects free licence and liberty
with their marchandises and goods securely to come into our realmes and
dominions, there to stay, and at their pleasures thence to returne home.
Moreouer, if Arnold Dassel, who last of all presented your foresayd letters
vnto vs, shal thinke good in the meane season to make his abode here in our
dominions (as in very deede it is expedient) he may both by serious
consideration and deliberate consulting with our commissioners more
conueniently and prosperously finde out wayes and meanes, for the more
speedy expedition of all the premisses. Fare ye well in Christ, Giuen vnder
our priuie seale at our palace of Westminster, the seuenth of March, in the
yere of our lord 1408. according to the computation of the church of
England, and in the tenth yere of our reigne.

* * * * *

A new concord concluded between king Henry the 4. and Vlricus de Iungingen
Master generall of Prussia in the yeare of our Lord 1409.

By this indenture or letters indented be it euidently knowen (for the
perpetual memory of the matter) vnto all faithfull Christians, that the
noble and honourable personages Richard Merlowe Maior and citizen of
London, Master Iohn Kington clerke, and William Askham citizen and Alderman
of the same citie, the commissioners of the most soueraigne prince and
lord, L. Henrie by the grace of God king of England and France, and lord of
Ireland, and Tidericus de Longenthorpe knight, Lefardus de Hereford
burgomaster of Elbing, and Iohn Crolowe citizen of the citie of Dantzik,
the procurators, commissioners, deputies, and messengers of the right noble
and religious personage Fr. Vlricus de Iungingen Master general of the
order of the Dutch knights of S. Maries hospital of Ierusalom, hauing in
the names of the sayd king and Master by vertue of the power on both parts
committed vnto them, sufficient authority, haue appointed and with one
consent agreed vpon all and singular the things vnder written.

1. Imprimis for the conseruation and mutuall loue and wonted amitie, and
for the tranquilitie of sweete amiable peace, it is decreed and ordained,
that all and singular the liege people and subiects of the Realme of
England and the marchants of the territories and dominions of the said
Realme and all other persons of what state or condition soeuer, shall and
may safely and securely, as well by land as by water enter into the parts
of Prussia, and there mutually conuers and freely after the Maner of
marchants exercise traffique aswell with the Prussians as with others, of
what nation or qualitie soeuer, there also make their abode, and thence
vnto their owne homes and dwelling places returne, and depart vnto any
place whither and so often as they shall thinke good, as well by land as by
water, with their goods merchandize, and wares whatsoeuer; faithfully
paying in the meane time all rights and customes due in regard of their
said wares and marchandize. Reserued alwaies unto the said Master and his
sucessours all right and remedie ordained, granted, and vouchsafed in
certaine obligations by our Lord the king, whereof mention shall be made in
the articles following.

2. It is ordained, that all and singular the subiects of the said Master
generall and of his order, of what state and condition soeuer, shall and
may, as well by water as by land enter into the kingdome of England and
into the territories, and dominions, thereof, and there mutually conuerse,
and freely after the maner of Marchants exercise traffique as well with all
English people as with others of what nation or qualitie soeuer, and there
also make their abode, and thence returne vnto their owne habitations and
dwelling places, and to deport whither they will and as oft as they shall
thinke good as well by land as by water, with their goods, marchandize and
wares whatsoeuer: truely paying in the meane time all rights and customes
due in regard of their said wares and Marchandize. Reserued alwayes vnto
the said soueraigne king, his heires and successours, all rights and
remedies ordained and graunted vnto them in certaine obligations, by the
commissioners and procurators of the said Master generall aboue-named, and
in the name of the said Master generall.

3. Item it is with one consent agreed upon, promised, and granted that for
all and singular damages, grieuances, and robberies howsoeuer done and
committed before the date of these presents against the foresaid soueraigne
Prince and his subiects whatsoeuer, and all others which at the time of the
grieuances, damages, and robberies aforesaid, were, or at this present are
the said soueraigne king his subiects; there are due to be payed vnto the
said king or his successours by the said Master generall or his
successours, in full satisfaction and recompence of the damages,
grieuances, and robberies aboue written, certaine summes of English money:
euen as in the letters obligatorie made by the said Master generall his
procurators and messengers aboue named in this behalfe, and sealed with
their seales, and deliuered vnto the forenamed procurators and
commissioners of our said Lord the king it is expressed more at large.

4. Item it is couenanted, graunted, and promised, that no subiect of the
said Master generall or of his successours, by reason or occasion of the
damages, grieuances, and robberies aforesaid, shall, by the said soueraigne
king or his successours or by their authoritie or commandement, or by
another person whatsoeuer who in regard of the foresaid losses, grieuances
and robberies hath bene molested and damnified, or at the procurement or
instant suite of any, be attached, arrested, imprisoned, or detained; nor
that the goods of the said Master generall, or of his successors, or of any
of them, shal be laid hold on, arrested, or detained.

5. Item it is couenanted and ordained, that if any of the liege people and
subiects of the sayde Master generall or of his successors shall, contrary
to the forme of the concord and graunt next aboue-written, chance to be
molested or endamaged: that then the foresaid soueraigne Lord the King and
his successors the kings of England are bound to make full satisfaction for
all such losses as the subiects of the said Master generall or of his
successours or any of them shall for that cause haue vniustly sustained,
vnto the parties endamaged. Which thing if the foresaid soueraigne Prince,
or his successours in the Realme of England, being conueniently requested
by the letters of the said Master generall or of his successours shall
refuse to doe, that then after the terme of sixe moneths immediately
following the said deniall or refusall, it shalbe right lawfull for the
Master generall that now is and for any of his successours in time to come
(hauing first made conuenient proofe that the foresaid request was by him
or them exhibited) to arrest so many goods of the foresaid king his
subiects found in the land of Prussia, as may suffice for the reasonable
satisfaction and recompense of any person or persons whatsoeuer vniustly
molested in this behalfe; and also to detaine the said goods under
arrestes, vntil condigne satisfaction and amends be made vnto the party or
parties molested.

6. Item by the commissioners and procuratours often aboue named it is
couenanted, promised, and graunted, that for all and singular the damages,
molestations and robberies by the foresayde soueraigne king his liege
people and subiects howsoeuer before the date of these presents committed
and offred against the said Master general or against any of his subiects
whether Prussians or Liuonians, and against all others who at the time of
the damages, grieuances and robberies aforesaid were, or at this present
are the subiects of the Master generall aforesaid (except notwithstanding
certaine damages and grieuances hereafter to be mentioned, whereof also
some prouisoes shalbe had in the articles following, which damages were
before the date of these presents by the said soueraigne king his liege
people and subiects inflicted vpon certaine subiects of the foresaid
general Master, especially them of Prussia which hereafter shalbe named)
there are certaine summes of money due to be payed vnto the said Master
generall or vnto his successours by the said soueraigne Prince or his
successours for the full satisfaction of the foresaid damages, molestations
and robberies inflicted vpon the Prussians and Liuonians, and the others
mentioned, euen as in the leters obligatorie of the said soueraigne Lord
the king made in this behalfe, being giuen and deliuered vnto the said
Master generall his procuratours and messengers, it is declared more at

7. Item, it is couenanted, granted and promised, that none of the liege
people or subiects of the foresaid soueraigne prince or of his heires
shall, by reason or occasion of the damages, grieuances and robberies
aforesaid, by the sayd Master generall or his successours or by their
authoritie and commandement, or by any other who in respect of the said
damages, grieuances and robberies aboue mentioned, hath beene molested or
damnified, or by any of their procurements or instant suites shalbe
attached, arrested, imprisoned or detained: nor that any goods of the
subiects of the said soueraigne king or his heires or any of them, shall
bee attached, arrested, or detained. Reserued always vnto the forenamed
Master generall and his subiects all right and remedie any way requisite or
competent vnto them by meanes of the obligations aforesaid.

8. Item it is couenanted and agreed that if any of the liege people or
subiects of the sayde soueraigne prince or of his heires and successours
shall (contrary to the forme of concord and graunt next aboue-written)
chaunce to bee molested or endamaged; that then the saide Master generall
and his successours, for all losses and hindrances which the liege people
and subiects of the foresayde soueraigne prince or of his heires or
successours, shall by that meanes haue vniustly sustained, are bound to
make full satisfaction vnto the partie endamage. Which if the Master
generall aforesaid or his successors being conueniently requested by the
letters of the sayde soueraigne prince or of his heires, shall refuse to
doe; that then, after the space of sixe moneths next ensuing the time of
the foresayde request, it may bee right lawfull for the forenamed
soueraigne prince that nowe is, or that then for that time shall be
(conuenient proofe being first brought, that the foresayd request had
conueniently beene exhibited) to arrest so many goods of the sayde Master
generall his subiects founde in the Realme of England, as may suffice for
the reasonable satisfaction and amends of any person or persons vniustly
molested in this behalfe; and also to detaine the sayde goods vnder safe
custodie, vntill condigne satisfaction and amends be made vnto the partie
or parties aggrieued.

9. Item it is couenanted that besides the summes due vnto the sayde Master
generall and his successours in the behalfe of his subiects both of Prussia
and of Liuonia (whereof mention is made in the former articles) there are
due to be payed vnto the sayde Master generall and his successours, for
sundry other damaged, grieuances, and robberies against himselfe and diuers
other of his subiects of Prussia, namely. Matthewe Ludekensson, Arnold
Ashen, Henri Culeman, Iohn Vnkeltop, Iohn Halewater, Egghard Scoffe of
Dantzik, and Nicolas Wolmerstene of Elbing, done and committed by the sayde
soueraigne king his liege people and subiects vnder-written, euen before
the date of these presents, for the full satisfaction of the sayde damages,
grieuances and robberies, certaine summes of nobles hereafter following.
Namely Imprimis by Tutburie, and Terry of Hull, 82. nobles, which are due
vnto the foresaid Matthew Ludekinson. Item by Nicholas Scot of Caleis the
sonne of Tutbury, and Hilg of Hull, 256. nobles, which are due vnto the
foresayd Arnold de Aschen. Item by the inhabitants of Scardeburgh,
Blakeney, and Crowmer (who had one Iohn Iolly of Blakeney for their
captaine) 156. nobles, which are due vnto Henrie Culeman aforesayd. Item by
the inhabitants of Bayon (Whose Capitaine was one Pideuille) 125. nobles
which are due vnto the said Iohn Vnkeltop. Item by the inhabitants of
Plymmouth and Dertmouth (whose Captaines were Henrie Pay, and William
Gadeling) 600. nobles which are due vnto the foresayde Iohn Halewater, in
respect of his goods by them violently taken away. [Sidenote: A ship of the
burthen of 300. tonnes.] Item 334. nobles to be payed by the selfe same
parties, being due vnto the sayde Iohn Halewater by reason that they
detained his ship from him three moneths and more, which ship was of the
burthen of three hundreth tonnes of wine, and had in it all the foresayde
time fiue and fourtie seruants maintained at the expenses of the sayde Iohn
Halewater. Item that Sir William de Ethingham knight, who was Vice-admirall
for the sea, must bee summoned to alleage a reasonable cause (for that the
sayd Sir William with his seruants expelled the said Iohn Halewater out of
his ship for the space of fifteene dayes together, and tooke of the goods
and victuals of the said Iohn to the summe of 114. nobles) why he ought not
to pay the said summe of 114. nobles vnto Iohn Halewater aforesaid: which
if hee shall not bee willing nor able to alleage before the first of April
next ensuing, that then by the kings authoritie hee must be compelled to
pay unto the foresaid Iohn the said 114 nobles. Item by the inhabitants of
Caleis (whose captaines were Michael Scot, Bishop, and William Horneby)
1900. nobles, which are due vnto the foresayde Eggard Scoff, because the
saide soueraigne king hath giuen them in charge by the said Michael Scot
and the rest concerning the payment of the summe aforesaid. Item by Iohn
Bilis neere vnto Crowmer, 68. nobles, which are due vnto Nicholas
Wolmersten of Elbing. Which summes of nobles must by the kings authority be
leuied at the hands of his subiects aboue-mentioned betweene the time that
nowe is and the feast of the Purification of the blessed virgine which
shall fall in the yeere of our Lord 1411. effectually to bee deliuered and
payed unto the sayd Master generall or his lawfull procurator, or vnto his
successours or their lawfull procuratours, at the Citie of London, vpon the
feast aforesaid.

Item it is couenanted that besides the summes specified in the foresayde
letters obligatorie, made in the behalfe of the said soueraigne prince,
there are due to be paied vnto one Iohn Marion of Wersingham lately
deceased being in his life-time the liege subiect of the foresaid
soueraigne prince 200. nobles of Knglish money in regard of certaine
iniuries and robberies done and committed before the date of these presents
against the foresayde Iohn, by one Eghard Scoff, subiect vnto the said
deceased Iohn, his wife, children, heires, or executors by the said
Egghard, his heires or by the administrators of his goods at the time and
place aboue mentioned.

10 Item, it is couenanted, confirmed, and promised, that for all the
iniuries and robberies done and committed against one Iohn Dordewant of
Elbing, being in his life time subiect vnto the sayd Master generall, by
the liege people and subiects of the said soueraigne king the inhabitants
of the Scardeburgh before the date of these presents; for the full
recompense of all such iniuries and robberies, there must bee payed vnto
one Iohn Gruk of Dantzik eight hundred nobles of English money, vpon the
feast of Easter next following in the Citie of London by them of
Scardeburgh being guilty and culpable in this behalfe; who are by
definitiue sentence condemned vnto the said Iohn in the summe of 800.
nobles by reason of the iniuries and robberies aforesaid, except the
lawfull expenses in this behalfe layed out: they are also taxed in due time
for the issue. And therefore the foresayde condemned parties (whose names
are in the sentence against them pronounced in this behalfe more expresly
conteined) must in the meane season by the kings authority be compelled and
constrained really and actually to obey the foresayd sentence, namely by
deliuering and paying vnto Iohn Gruk the summe of 800. nobles at the time
and place aboue mentioned, with reasonable expences, wherein also the said
parties stand condemned, their lawfull taxation being reserued.

Item it is couenanted and granted, that the heires of Lord Henrie du Percy
the younger after they shall come vnto lawfull age, and shall haue attained
vnto the possession and goods of their inheritance, must be compelled by
the kings authoritie (iustice going before) to make satisfaction vnto the
great procurator of Marienburgh with the summe of 838. nobles in lieu of
certaine corne and graine which the foresaid Lord Henrie, in the yeere
1403, bought and receiued of the said great procuratour, for the vse of the
castle of Zutberwik. In testimonie and confirmation of all the which
premisses, the said Tedericus Lefardus, and Iohn Crolow, of their certaine
knowledges haue put their seales vnto these present letters indented, in
the presence of the aboue-named Richard Merlow, Iohn Kington, and William
Askam, commissioners for the behalfe of England giuen at the Citie of
London in England the fourth day of December, in the yeere of our Lord

* * * * *

That the Brittons were in Italie and Greece with the Cimbrians and Gaules,
before the incarnation of Christ. M. Wil. Camden, pag. 33.

[Sidenote: Triadum Liber.] Britannos autem cum Cimbris et Gallis permistos
fuisse in expeditionibus illis in Italiam et Graciam videtur. Nam prater
nomen commune in Britannico Triadum libro vetustissimo, vbi tres maximi
exercitus, qui e Britannis conscripti erant, memorantur, proditum est,
exterum quendam ducem longe maximum exercitum hinc contraxisse, qui,
populata magna Europa parte tandem ad Gracum mare (forsitan Galatiam
innuit) consederit.

Britomarum item ducem inter illos militarem, cuius meminit Florus et
Appianus, Britonem fuisse nomem euincit, quod Britonem magnum significat.
Nec torquebo illud Strabonis, qui Brennum natione Prausum fuisse scribit vt
natione Britonem faciam.

The same in English.

It is not vnlike that the Britons accompanied the Cimbrians and Gaules in
those expeditions to Italy and Greece. For besides the common name, it is
recorded in that most ancient British booke called Liber Triadum, (wherein
also mention is made of three huge armies that were leuied out of Britaine)
that a certaine outlandish captaine gathered from hence a mightie armie;
who hauing wasted a great part of Europe, at length tooke vp his abode
(perhaps the Author meaneth in Gallatia) neere vnto the sea of Greece.

Likewise that the warrelike captaine Britomarus (of whom Floras and Appian
doe make report) was himselfe a Briton, his very name doeth testifie, which
signifieth A great Briton. Neither will I wrest that testimony of Strabo
(who reporteth Brennus to haue bene a Prause by birth) that I may prooue
him also to haue bene a Briton borne.

* * * * *

The trauaile of Helena.

Helena Flauia Augusta serenissimi Coeli Britannici Regis Hares, et vnica
filia, Magni Constantini Casaris mater, incomparabili decore, fide,
religione, bonitate, ac magnificentia pia, Eusebio etiam teste, per totum
resplenduit orbem: Inter omnes atatis sua foeminas, nulla inueniebatur ea
in liberalibus artibus doctior, nulla in instrumentis musicis peritior, aut
in linguis nationum copiosior. Innatam habebat ingenij claritudinem, oris
facundiam, ac morum ornatissimam compositionem: Hebraice, Grace et Latine
erudita. Caruerat pater alia sobole (inquit Virumnius) qua Regni solio
potiretur. Illam proprerea his instrui fecit per optimos praceptores, vt eo
commodius Regni tractaret negotia. Vnde ob incredibilem eius
pulchritudinem, atque alias eximias animi et corporis dotes, Constantius
Chlorus Casar illam duxit in vxorem, atque ex ea filium in Britannia genuit
Constantinum Magnum. Sed eo tandem Eboraci defuncto, cum Anna illa
Euangelica, in sancta viduitate perdurauit ad vltimum vita diem, tota
Christiana religione dedita. Sunt enim authores, qui narrent per instam,
cessante persecutione, pacem Ecclesijs datam: Ad tantam coelestis
Philosophia; cognitionem cam ferunt post agnitum Euangelium peruenisse, vt
olim multos ediderit libros, et carmina quaadam Graca, qua hucusque a
Pontico superesse perhibentur. Visionibus admonita Hierosolymam petijt, et
onmia saluatoris loca perlustrauit. Roma tandem octogenaria foeliciter in
Christo quieuit 15. Kalendas Septembris, filio adhuc superstite, anno
salutis humana 337. Regnante apud Britannos Octauio. Huius corpus non
minima nunc cura Venetijs seruatur.

The same in English.

Helena. Flauia Augusta, the heire and onely daughter of Coelus sometime the
most excellent King of Britaine, the mother of the Emperour Constantine the
great, by reason of her singular beautie, faith, religion, goodnesse and
godly Maiestie (according to the testimonie of Eusebius) was famous in all
the world. Amongst all the women of her time, there was none either in the
liberall arts more learned, or in instruments of musike more skilfull, or
in the diuers languages of nations more abundant than herselfe. She had a
naturall quicknesse or excellency of wit, eloquence of speech, and a most
notable grace in all her behauiour. She was seene in the Hebrew, Greeke and
Latine tongues.

Her father (as Virumnius reporteth) had no other childe to succeed in the
kingdome after him but her, and therefore caused her to be instructed in
these things by the best teachers, that thereby she might the better in
time gouerne the Realme: so that by reason of her passing beautie, and
other her excellent giftes of body and minde, Constantius Chlorus the
Emperour married her, and had by her a sonne called Constantine the great,
while hee remained in Britaine. Who at length deceasing at Yorke, this
Helena (no otherwise then Anna of whom mention is made in the new
Testament) continued a vertuous and holy widow to the end of her life.

There are some writers which doe affirme, that persecution ceased, and
peace was granted to the Christian Churches by her good meanes.

After the light and knowledge of the Gospel, she grewe so skilfull in
diuinitie, that shee wrote and composed diuers bookes and certaine Greeke
verses also, which (as Ponticus reporteth) are yet extant. Being warned by
some visions she went to Ierusalem, and visited all the places there, which
Christ had frequented. She liued to the age of fourescore yeeres, and then
died at Rome the 15 day of August in the yeere of oure redemption 337.
Octauius being then king of Britaine, and her sonne Constantine the
Emperour then also liuing, and her body is to this day very carefully
preserued at Venice.

* * * * *

The life and trauels of Constantine the great, Emperour and king of

Flauius Constantinus cognomento Magnus post Genitorum Constantium
Britannorum Rex, ac Romanorum Casar Augustus, ex Britannica matre in
Britannia natus, et in Britannia creatus Imperator, patriam natalem
magnifice sua gloria; participem fecit, Profligatis Alemanis, Hispanis, et
Francis, eorumque Regibus pro spectaculo bestijs obiectis, Galliam
subiectam tenuit: Tres Helena matris auunculos Brittanos, Leolinum,
Traherum, et Marium, quos cateris semper fidentiores habuerat in suis
fortunis, Italis a Maxentij tyrannide foeliciter liberatis, in Senatorum
ordinem Roma promouit. Innumera in eo (vt Eutropius habet) claruere tam
animi, quam corporis virtutes, dum appetentissnnus esset gloria militaris,
successu semper in bellis prospero. Inter literas tam Gracas quam Latinas,
a Christianissima matre Helena Christi fidem edoctus, eos honorabat
pracipue [Transcriber's note: 'pracique' in original] qui in Philosophia
Christiana vitam reclinassent. Vnde ab oceani finibus nempe Britannis
incipiens, ope fretus diuina, religionis curam in medijs superstitionum
tenebris cepit, ab Occiduis ad Indos, innumeras ad aterna spem vita erigens
gentes. Animum diuinis exercendo studijs, noctes trahebat insomnes, et
quasita scribendi diuerticula per otium frequentabat: Imperium oratione, ac
Sanctis operationibus continendum ratus, Egregius Christiana disciplina
praco, filios ac proceres docuit, pietatem diuitijs omnibus, atque adeo
ipsi anteferre totius mundi Monarchia. Falsorum deorum euersor. Imaginum
cultus per Graciam, Agyptum, Persiam, Asiam, et vniuersam ditionem Romanam,
repetitis abrogat legibus, iubens per edicta Christum coli, Euangelium
pradicari sacrum, Ministris honores, et alimenta dari, atque idolorum
vbique destrui templa. Et vt fidei forma cunctis videretur, Euangelium Iesu
Christi ante se semper ferri fecit, et Biblia sacra ad omnes prouincias
destinari, diademaque Monarchicum primus Britannis regibus dedit: Ecclesijs
infinita prastitit, agros, annonam, stipem egenis, agris, viduis, ac
orphanis, pro quibusque vt pater sollicitus. Eusebium, Lactantium, et
similes, familiarissimos habuit, et hanc ad Deum orationem indies ipsis in
eius vita testibus fudit. Vnum et Deum esse nouimus, vnum te Regem
intelligimus, appellamus adiutorem, nobis abs te victoria cecidit, ex te
Aduersarium fudimus, &c. Pro delicijs habuit, vt Sextus Aurelianus tradit,
literarum studia colere, bonos artes fouere, legere, scribere, meditari:
composuit Grace et Latine multos libros et Epistolas. E vita Nicomedia
discessit Senex, atatis sua Anno 66. et Imperij 32. a Christi vero
incarnatione 339. Constantinopoli sepultus, Octauio in Britannijs regnante.
Eius vitam in quatuor libris Eusebius Casariensis Grace scripsit, et
Ioannes Portesius Gallus in Latinum transtulit sermonem.

The same in English.

Flauius Constantine, surnamed the great, king of the Britaines after his
father, and Emperor of the Romanes, borne in Britanie of Helena his mother,
and there created Emperour, made his natiue countrey partaker of his
singular glory and renoume.

Hauing conquered and put to flight the Almanes, Spaniards, Frenchmen, and
their Kings for a spectacle throwen out to wild beasts, he held France it
selfe as subiect vnto him: and hauing happily deliuered the Italians from
the tyrannie of Maxentius, he preferred three of his mothers vncles, all
Britaines, namely, Leoline, Trahere, and Marius, whom in all his actions he
had found more faithfull vnto him then any others, to be of the order of
the Romane Senators.

Eutropius reporteth, that he infinitely excelled in the vertues both of the
mind and body also, and that hauing a pleasure in the practise of warre,
and in the iust commendation, of Martiall prowesse, he neuer pitched his
field but his successe in the battel was alwayes victorious. His mother
Helena hauing instructed him in the faith of Christ, although hee made much
of all men that were learned in the Greeke and Latine tongues, yet he
yeelded speciall honor to those that spent their time in the studie of
Diuinitie, which he called Christian Philosophie: so that beginning at the
furthest part of the Ocean sea, which then was taken to be his owne natiue
soyle of Britaine, and trusting in the assistance of God, when the darkenes
of superstition was most thicke, then hee vndertooke a care of Religion,
stirring vp innumerable nations from the West as farre as India it selfe,
to the hope of eternall life.

Hee passed many nightes without sleepe, hauing his minde occupied in diuine
studies: and whensoeuer his laisure from greater affaires did permit him,
his vacant times should be spent in the vse of writing and other good
exercises, assuring himselfe that his kingdomes and Empire were to be
continued and strengthened to him by prayer and holy workes: and oftentimes
taking vpon him as it were the person of a notable preacher of Christian
discipline, he would teach his children and nobilitie, that godlinesse was
to be preferred before riches, yea, before the Monarchie of all the world.

He ouerthrew the false gods of the heathens, and by many lawes often
reuiued, he abrogated the worshipping of Images in all the countries of
Greece, Egypt, Persia, Asia, and the whole Romane Empire, commanding Christ
onely by his Edicts to be worshipped, the sacred Gospell to be preached,
the Ministers thereof to be honored and relieued, and the temples of Idoles
euery where to be destroyed.

Whithersoeuer he went hee caused the booke of the Gospell of Christ to be
still caried before him, that thereby it might appeare to be a forme of
faith to all men, and to appertaine generally to all nations.

He was the first that appointed an Imperiall Diademe, or Crowne to the
Kings of Britaine.

He was most beneficiall to all Churches, bestowing vpon them lands and
fields, and vpoh the poore, sicke persons, widowes and orphanes, corne and
wood, being as carefull of them as if he had beene their naturall father.

He vsed learned men most familiarly, as Eusebius, Lactantius and others,
and they are witnesses that this was his usuall prayer to God. O Lord we
know thee to be the onely God, we are sure that thou art the onely King,
and wee call vpon thee as our helper: through thee we haue gotten the
victorie, and by thee we haue ouerthrowen the enemie.

Sextus Aurelius reporteth, that it was his greatest delight to imbrace the
studie of learning, to fauour good Arts, to read, write and meditate, and
that he composed many bookes and Epistles both in the Greeke and Latine

He died at Nicomedia, being then 66. yeres of age, in the 32. yere of his
reigne, and in the 339. yeere after the Incarnation of Christ, and was
buried at Constantinople, Octauius being then King of Britaine: whose life
Eusebius bishop of Casarea hath written in Greeke in 4 bookes, which
afterwards, were translated into the Latine tongue by Iohn Portes a

* * * * *

Certaine Englishmen sent to Constantinople by the French King to Iustinian
the Emperour, about the yeere of Christ, 500. out of the fourth booke of
Procopius de Bello Gothico.

Britanniam insulam tres numerosissima gentes incolunt: Quorum vnicuique
suus Rex imperat. Nominantur ha gentes Angili, Frisones, et qui eiusdem
sunt cum insula cognominis Britones. Tanta vero hominum multitudo esse
videtur, vt singulis annis inde magno numero cum vxoribus et liberis ad
Francos emigrent. Illi autem in eorum terram, qua maxime deserta videtur,
excipiunt. Vnde insulam sibi vendicare ferunt. Vtique non ita pridem, cum
Francorum Rex quosdam e suis Constantinopolim ad Iustinianum legaret,
Anglos etiam misit, ambitiosius vendicans, quasi hac insula suo subesset

The same in English.

The Isle of Britaine is inhabited by three most populous nations, euery of
which is gouerned by a seuerall king. The sayd nations are named Angili,
Frisones, and Britones which last are called after the name of the Island.
In this Isle there are such swarmes of people, that euery yeare they goe
foorth in great numbers with their wiues and children into France. And the
Frenchmen right willingly receiue them into their lande, which seemeth very
desolate for want of inhabitants. Whereupon it is sayd that the French doe
challenge the foresayde Island vnto themselues. For not long since, when
the king of the Frankes sent certaine of his subiects ambassadours to
Constantinople vnto Iustinian the Emperour, he sent English men also,
ambitiously boasting, as though the sayd Isle had bene vnder his

* * * * *

The life and trauailes of Iohn Erigena.

Ioannes Erigena Britannus natione, in Meneuia vrbe, seu ad fanum Dauidis;
et patricio genitore natus, dum Anglos Daci crudeles bellis ac rapinis
molestarent, ac omnia illic essent tumultibus plena, longam ipse
peregrinationem Athenas vsque suscepit, annosque quamplures literis Gracis,
Chaldaicis, et Arabicis insudauit: omnia illic inuisit Philosophorum loca,
ac studia, imo et ipsum oraculum Solis, quod Asculapius sibi construxerat.
Inueniens tandem quod longo quasierat labore, in Italiam et Galliam est
reuersus vbi ob insignem eruditionem, Carolo Caluo, et postea Ludouico
Balbo acceptus, Dionysij Areopagita libros de coelesti Hierarchia, ex
Constantinopoli tunc missos Latinos fecit, Anno Dom. 858. Profectus postea
in Britanniam, Alphredi Anglorum Regis, et suorum liberorum factus est
praceptor, atque ipso mox adhortante, inter ocia literaria e Graco
transtulit in tres linguas, scilicet Chaldaicam, Arabicam, et Latinam,
Aristotelis moralia, de secretis secretorum, seu recto regimine Principum,
opus certe exquisitum. In Malmsburiensi canobio tandem, quo recreationis
gratia se contulerat, inter legendum a quibusdam discipulis maleuolis
interimebatur, Anno Christi, 884.

The same in English.

Iohn Erigene a Britane, descended of honourable parents, and borne in the
Towne of S. Dauid in Wales, seeing the Englishmen to be oppressed with the
warres and rapines of the cruell Danes, and all the land in a hurlie
burlie, he in the meane time vndertooke a long iourney, euen as farre as
Athens, and there spent many yeres in the studie of the Greeke, Chaldie,
and Arabian tongues: he there frequented all the places and schooles of the
Philosophers, and the oracle also of the Sunne, which Asculapius had built
vnto himselfe. And hauing found at length that which he had with long
trauell searched, he returned againe into Italie, and France, where for his
singular learning, he was much fauoured of the two Kings Charles and Lewes,
and in his being there, he translated into Latine the bookes of Dionysius
Areopagita concerning the Heauenly Hierarchie, which were sent from
Constantinople in the yeere 858. After this hee came backe againe into his
owne Countrey, and was schoolemaster vnto Alphred then King of England, and
his sonnes: and vpon his request, at his times of leasure, he translated
Aristotles Morals, of the Secrets of Secrets, or of the right gouernement
of Princes, out of Greeke into these three tongues, Chaldie, Arabian, and
Latine, which he did very exquisitely. At the last, being in the Abbie of
Malmesburie, whither he went for his recreation, and there according to his
manner disputing, and reading to the Students, some of them misliking and
hating him, rose against him, and slue him in the yeere of Christ, 884.

* * * * *

English men were the guard of the Emperours of Constantinople in the reigne
of Iohn the sonne of Alexius Comnenus. Malmesburiensis, Curopolata and
Camden, pag. 96.

Iam inde Anglia non minus belli gloria, quam humanitatis cultu inter
Florentissimas orbis Christiani gentes imprimis floruit. Adeo vt ad
custodiam corporis Constantinopolitanorum Imperatorum euocati fuerint
Angli. Ioannes enim Alexij Comneni filius vt refert noster Malmesburiensis,
eorum fidem suspiciens pracipue familiaritati sua applicabat amorem eorum
filio transcribens: Adeo vt iam inde longo tempore fuerint imperatorum
illorum satellites, Inglini Bipenniferi Niceta Choniata, Barangi Curopoata
dicti. Qui vbique Imperatorem prosequebantur ferentes humeris secures, quas
tollebant, cum Imperator ex oratorio spectandum se exhibebat Anglice vitam
diuturnam secures suas collidentes vt sonitum ederent comprecabantur.

The same in English.

From this time forward the kingdome of England was reputed among the most
nourishing estates of Christendome, no less in chiualrie then humanitie. So
farforth that the English men were sent for to be the guarders of the
persons of the Emperours of Constantinople. For Iohn the sonne of Alexius
Comnenus, as our countreyman William of Matmesburie reporteth, highly
esteeming their fidelity, vsed them very nere about him, recommending them
ouer to his sonne: so that long time afterwards the guard of those
Emperours were English halberdiers, called by Nicetas Choniata, Inglini
Bipeniferi, and by Curopolata, Barangi, which alwayes accompanied the
Emperour with their halberds on their shoulders, which they held vp when
the Emperour comming from his Oratorie shewed himselfe to the people; and
clashing their halberds together to make a terrible sound, they in the
English tongue wished vnto him long life.

* * * * *

The woorthy voiage of Richard the first, K. of England into Asia, for the
recouerie of Ierusalem out of the hands of the Saracens, drawen out of
the booke of Acts and Monuments of the Church of England, written by M.
Iohn Foxe.

King Richard the first of that name, for his great valure surnamed Ceur de
Lion, the sonne of Henry the second, after the death of his father
remembring the rebellions that he had vndutifully raised against him,
sought for absolution of his trespasse, and in part of satisfaction for the
same, agreed with Philip the French king to take his voiage with him for
the recouerie of Christes patrimonie, which they called the Holy land,
whereupon the sayd King Richard immediately after his Coronation, to
prepare himselfe the better towards his iourney, vsed diuers meanes to take
vp summes of money, and exacted a tenth of the whole Realme, the Christians
to make three score and ten thousand pounds, and the Iewes which then dwelt
in the Realme threescore thousand.

Hauing thus gotten sufficient money for the exploite, he sent certaine
Earles and Barons to Philip the French king in the time of his Parliament
at S. Denis, to put him in mind of his promise made for the recouerie of
Christs holy patrimonie out of the Saracens hands: To whom he sent againe
in the moneth of December, that he had bound himselfe by solemne othe,
deposing vpon the Euangelists, that he the yeere next following, about the
time of Easter, had certainly prefixed to addresse himselfe toward that
iourney, requiring him likewise not to faile, but to bee ready at the terme
aboue limited, appointing also the place where both the Kings should meete

In the yere therfore 1190. King Richard hauing committed the gouernment of
this realme in his absence to the bishop of Ely then Chancellor of England,
aduanced forward his iourney, and came to Turon to meet with Philip the
French king, and after that went to Vizeliac, where the French king and he
ioyning together, for the more continuance of their iourney, assured
themselues by solemne othe, swearing fidelitie one to the other: the forme
of whose oth was this.

[Sidenote: The oth of fidelity betwixt King Richard and the French King.]
That either of them should defend and maintaine the honour of the other,
and beare true, fidelitie vnto him, of life, members and worldly honor,
and that neither of them should faile one the other in their affaires:
but the French King should aide the King of England in defending his land
and dominions, as he would himselfe defend his owne Citie of Paris if it
were besieged: and that Richard King of England likewise should aide the
French King in defending his land and Dominions, no otherwise then he
would defend his own Citie of Roan if it were besieged, &c.

Concerning the lawes and ordinances appointed by K. Richard for his Nauie,
the forme thereof was this.

[Sidenote: The discipline and orders of the King.] 1. That who so killed
any person on shipboord, should be tied with him that was slaine, and
throwen into the sea.

2. And if he killed him on the land, he should in like manner be tied with
the partie slaine, and be buried with him in the earth.

3. He that shalbe conuicted by lawfull witnes to draw out his knife or
weapon to the intent to strike any man, or that hath striken any to the
drawing of blood, shall loose his hand.

4. Also he that striketh any person with his hand without effusion of
blood, shall be plunged three times in the sea.

5. Item, who so speaketh any opprobrious or contumelious wordes in reuiling
or cursing one another, for so oftentimes as he hath reuiled, shall pay so
many ounces of siluer.

6. Item, a thiefe or felon that hath stollen being lawfully conuicted,
shall haue his head shorne, and boyling pitch powred vpon his head, and
feathers or downe strawed vpon the same, whereby he may be knowen, and so
at the first landing place they shall come to, there to be cast vp.

These things thus ordered, king Richard sending his Nauie by the Spanish
seas, and by the streights of Gibraltar, betweene Spaine and Africa, to
meete him at Marsilia, hee himselfe went as is said to Vizeliac to the
French king. Which two kings from thence went to Lions, where the bridge
ouer the flood Rhodanus with preasse of people brake, and many both men and
women were drowned: by occasion whereof the two kings for the combrance of
their traines, were constrained to disseuer themselues for time of their
iourney, appointing both to meet together in Sicily: and so Philip the
French king tooke his way to Genua, and king Richard to Marsila, where be
remained 8. dayes, appointing there his Nauie to meete him. From thence
crossing ouer to Genua where the French king was, he passed forward by the
coasts of Italy, and entred into Tiber not farre from Rome.

King Richard staying in Marsilia 8. dayes for his Nauie which came not, he
there hired 20. Gallies, and ten great barkes to ship ouer his men, and so
came to Naples, and so partly by horse and wagon, and partly by the sea,
passing to Falernum, came to Calabria, where after that he had heard that
his ships were arriued at Messana in Sicilie, he made the more speed, and
so the 23. of September entred Messana with such a noyse of Trumpets and
Shalmes, with such a rout and shew, that it was to the great wonderment and
terror both of the Frenchmen, and of all other that did heare and behold
the sight.

To the said towne of Messana the French king was come before the 16. of the
same moneth of September, and had taken vp the pallace of Tancredus king of
Sicily for his lodging: to whom king Richard after his arriuall eftsoones
resorted, and when the two kings had communed together, immediately the
French king tooke shipping and entred the seas, thinking to saile towards
the land of Ierusalem: but after he was out of the hauen, the winde rising
contrary against him, returned him backe againe to Messana. Then king
Richard (whose lodging was prepared in the suburbs without the Citie) after
he had resorted againe and talked with the French king, and also had sent
to Tancredus king of Sicily, for deliuerance of Ioane his sister (who had
beene somtimes Queene of Sicily) and had obtained her to be sent vnto him,
the last day of September passed ouer the streight del Fare, and there
getting a strong hold called de la Baguare, or le Bamare, and there placing
his sister with a sufficient garrison, he returned againe to Messana.

The 2. of October king Richard wan another strong hold, called Monasterium
Griffonum, situated in the midst of the streight del Fare, betweene Messana
and Calabria, from whence the Monks being expulsed, he reposed there all
his store and prouision of victuals, which came from England or other

The Citizens of Messana seeing that the king of England had wonne the
castle and Island de la Baguare, and also the Monasterie of the Griffons,
and doubting least the king would extend his power further to inuade their
Citie, and get if he could the whole Isle of Sicilie, began to stirre
against the Kings armie, and to shut the Englishmen out of the gates, and
kept their walles against them. The Englishmen seeing that, made to the
gates, and by force would haue broken them open, insomuch that the King
riding amongst them with his staffe, and breaking diuers of their heads,
could not asswage their fierceness, such was the rage of the Englishmen
agaynst the citizens of Messana. The King seeing the furie of his people to
be such that hee could not stay them, tooke boate, and went to the pallace
of king Tancred, to talke of the matter with the French king, in which
meane time the matter was so taken vp by the wise handling of the ancients
of the citie, that both parts laying downe their armour, went home in

The fourth day of the sayd moneth of October, came to king Richard the
Archbishop of Messana with two other Archbishops also with the French king,
and sundry other Earles, Barons, and Bishops, to intreat of peace, who as
they were together consulting, and had almost concluded vpon the peace, the
Citizens of Messana issuing out of the towne, some went vp vpon the
mountains, some with open force inuaded the mansion or lodging of Hugh
Brune, an English captaine. The noyse whereof comming to the eares of the
King, hee suddenly breaking off talke with the French king and the rest,
departed from them, and comming to his men, commanded them forthwith to
arme themselues. Who then with certaine of his souldiours making vp to the
top of the mountaine (which seemed to passe their power to climbe) there
put the Citizens to flight, chasing them downe the mountaines, vnto the
very gates of the citie, whom also certaine of the kings seruants pursued
into the citie, of whom fiue valiant souldiers and twentie of the kings
seruants were slaine, the French King looking vpon, and not once willing to
rescue them, contrary to his othe, and league before made with the king of
England: for the French king with his men being there present, rode in the
midst of them safely, and without any harme too and fro, and might well
haue eased the Kings partie, more then he, if it had so liked him.

[Sidenote: Messana won by the English.] This being knowen to the English
hoste how their fellowes were slaine, and the Frenchmen permitted in the
citie, and that they were excluded and the gates barred against them, being
also stopped from buying of victuall, and other things, they vpon great
indignation gathered themselues in armes, brast open the the gates, and
scaled the wals, and so winning the citie, set up their flags with the
English armes vpon the wals which when the French King did see, he was
mightily offended, requiring the King of England that the Armes of France
might also be set vp, and ioyned with his: but King Richard to that would
in no case agree, notwithstanding to satisfie his minde, he was contented
to take downe his Armes, and to commit the custodie of the citie to the
Hospitaleries and Templaries of Ierusalem, till the time that Tancred king
of Sicily and he should agree together vpon conditions.

These things being done the fift and sixt day of October, it followed then
vpon the eight day of the same, that peace was concluded among the kings.
In which peace, first King Richard, and Philip the French king renewed
againe their oth and league before made, concerning their mutual aide and
societie, during the time of that peregrination.

Secondly, peace also was concluded betweene king Richard and Tancred king
of Sicily aforesaide, with conditions, that the daughter of Tancrede in
case king Richard should die without issue, should be married to Arthur
Duke of Britaine the kings Nephew and next heire to his crowne, whereof a
formall charte was drawen, and letters sent thereof to Pope Clement being
dated the ninth of Nouember.

From this time vntill Februarie the next yeere these two kings kept still
at Messana, either for lacke of winde and weather, or for the repairing of
their shippes. And in the aforesayde Februarie, in the yeere 1191. King
Richard sent ouer his gallies to Naples, there to meete his mother Elinore,
and Berengaria the daughter of Zanctius king of Nauarre, whom he was
purposed to marry, who by that time were come to Brundusium, vnder the
conduct of Philip Earle of Flanders, and so proceeding vnto Naples, they
found the kings shippes wherein they sayled to Messana.

In this meane space, king Richard shewed himselfe exceeding bounteous and
liberall to all men: to the French king first he gaue diuers shippes, vpon
others likewise he bestowed riche rewardes, and of his treasure and goods
he distributed largely to his souldiers and seruants about him, of whom it
was reported, that he distributed more in one moneth, than any of his
predecessors did in a whole yeere: by reason, whereof he purchased great
loue and fauour, which not onely redounded to the aduancements of his fame,
but also to his singular vse and profite, as the sequele afterwards

The first day of March following, he left the citie of Messana, where the
French King was, and went to Cathneia, a citie where Tancredus king of
Sicily then lay, where he was honorably receiued, and there remained with
king Tancredus three dayes and three nights. On the fourth day when he
should depart, the aforesaid Tancredus offred him many rich presents in
gold and siluer, and precious silkes, whereof king Richard would receiue
nothing, but one little ring for a token of his good will: for the which
king Richard gaue againe vnto him a riche sworde. At length when king
Richard should take his leaue, king Tancred would not let him so depart,
but needes would giue 4. great shippes, and 15. gallies, and furthermore
hee himselfe would needes accompanie him the space of two dayes iourney, to
a place called Tauernium.

Then the next morning when they should take their leaue, Tancredus declared
vnto him the message, which the French King a little before had sent vnto
him by the Duke of Burgundie, the contents whereof were these: That the
King of England was a false Traytour, and would neuer keepe the peace that
was betweene them: and if the sayd Tancredus would warre against him, or
secretly by night would inuade him, he with all his power would assist him,
to the destruction of him and all his armie. To whom Richard the King
protested againe, that he was no traytour, nor neuer had bene: and as
touching the peace, begun betwixt them, the same should neuer be broken
through him; neither could he beleeue that the French King being his good
lord, and his sworn Compartner in that voyage, would utter any such wordes
by him. Which when Tancredus heard, he bringeth foorth the letters of the
French King, sent to him by the Duke of Burgundie, affirming moreouer, that
if the Duke of Burgundie would denie the bringing of the said letters, he
was readie to trie it with him by any of his Dukes. King Richard receiuing
the letters, and musing not a little vpon the same, returneth againe to
Messana. The same day that King Richard departed, the French king came to
Tauernium to speake with Tancred, and there abode with him that night, and
on the morrowe returned to Messana againe.

From that time, King Richard mooued in stomacke against King Philip, neuer
shewed any gentle countenance of peace and amitie, as he before was woont:
whereat the French king greatly marueiling, and enquiring earnestly what
should be the cause thereof, word was sent him againe by Philip earle of
Flanders from king Richard, what words he had sent to the King of Sicily,
and for testimony thereof the letters were shewed, which he wrote by the
duke of Burgundie to the king of Sicily: which when the French king
vnderstood, first he held his peace as guilty in his conscience, not
knowing well what to answere. At length turning his tale to another matter,
he began to quarrell with king Richard, pretending as though he sought
causes to breake with him, and to maligne him: and therefore he forged
(sayd he) these lies vpon him, and all because he by that meanes would
auoid to marry with Alise his sister, according as he had promised. Adding
moreouer that if he would so do, and would not marry the said Alise his
sister according to his oth, he would be an enemy to him, and to his, while
he liued.

To this king Richard sayd againe that he could by no meanes marry that
woman, forsomuch as his father had carnal copulation with her, and also had
by her a sonne: for proofe whereof he had there presently to bring forth
diuers and sundry witnesses to the kings face, to testifie with him.

In conclusion, through counsell and perswasion of diuers about the French
king, agreement at last was made, so that king Philip did acquite king
Richard from this bond of marrying his sister, and king Richard againe
should be bound to pay to him euery yeere for the space of fiue yeeres, two
thousand markes, with certaine other conditions besides, not greatly
materiall for this place. And thus peace being betweene them concluded the
28 day of the sayd moneth of March, the French king launching out of the
hauen of Messana, the 22 day after in the Easter weeke, came with his armie
to the siege of Achon.

After the departure of the French king from Messana, king Richard with his
armie yet remaining behinde, arriued Queene Alinor the kings mother,
bringing with her Berengaria the king of Nauars daughter, to be espoused to
king Richard: [Sidenote: The Nauie of King Richard.] which being done, king
Richard in April following, about the 20 day of the sayd moneth, departed
from the hauen Messana with 150 great ships, and 53 great gallies well
manned and appointed, and tooke his iourney toward Achon: who being vpon
the Seas on Good friday about the ninth houre, rose a mighty South winde,
with a tempest, which disseuered and scattered all his Nauie, some to one
place and some to another. The king with a few ships was driuen to the Ile
of Creta, and there before the hauen of Rhodes cast anker. The ships that
caried the kings sister, queene of Sicily, and Berengaria the king of
Nauars daughter, with two ships were driuen to the Ile of Cyprus.

The king making great mone for the ships of his sister, and Berengaria his
wife that should be, not knowing where they were become, after the tempest
was ouerblowen, sent forth his gallies diligently to seeke the rest of his
Nauie dispersed, but especially the shippe wherein his sister was, and the
maiden whom he should marry, who at length were found safe and merry at the
port of Lymszem [Footnote: Lymasol.] in the Ile of Cyprus, notwithstanding
the two other ships, which were in their company before in the same hauen,
were drowned with diuers of the kings seruants and men of worship, among
whom was M. Roger, called Malus Catulus, the kings Vicechancellour, who was
found with the kings seale hanging about his necke.

The king of Cyprus was then Isakius [Footnote: Isaac Comnenus who became
King in 1184.] (called also the Emperour of the Gryffons) who tooke and
imprisoned all Englishmen, which by shipwracke were cast vpon his land,
also inuegled into his hands the goods and prises of them which were found
drowned about his coastes, neither would suffer the ships wherein the two
ladies were to enter within the port.

The tidings of this being brought to king Richard, he in great wrath
gathering his gallies and ships together, boordeth the land of Cyprus,
where he first in gentle wise signifieth to king Isakius, how he with his
English men, comming as strangers to the supportation of the holy land,
were by distresse of weather driuen vpon his bounds, and therefore with all
humble petition besought him in Gods behalfe, and for reuerence of the holy
crosse, to let go such prisoners of his as he had in captiuitie, and to
restore againe the goods of them that were drowned, which he deteined in
his hands, to be employed for the behoofe of their soules. And this the
king once, twise, and thrise desired of the Emperour: but he proudly
answering againe, sent the king word, that he neither would let the
captiues go, nor render the goods of them which were drowned.

When king Richard heard this, how light the emperour Isakius made of his so
humble and honest petition, and how that nothing could be gotten without
violent force, eftsoones [Footnote: The Saxon _Eft_ properly means _after_.
It was beginning to be obsolete in 1400 but Spencer frequently uses it. It
occurs rarely after his time.] giueth commandement thorowout all his hoste
to put themselues in armour and follow him, to reuenge the iniuries
receiued of that proud and cruell king of Cyprus, willling them to put
their trust in God, and not to misdoubt but that the Lord would stand with
them, and giue them the victory. The Emperour in the meane time with his
people stood warding the Sea coasts, where the English men should arriue,
with swords, billes, and lances, and such other weapons as they had,
setting boordes, stooles, and chestes, before them as a wall: few of them
were harnessed, [Footnote: Clad in armour.
This apish and unmannerly approach,
This _harness'd_ masque, and unadvised revel.
KING JOHN v. 2.]
and for the most part all vnexpert and vnskilfull in the feates of warre.

Then king Richard with his souldiers issuing out of ships, first set his
bowemen before, who with their shot made a way for others to folowe. The
Englishmen thus winning the land vpon them, so fiercely pressed upon the
Gryffons, that after long fighting and many blowes, at last the Emperour
was put to flight, whom king Richard valiantly pursued, and slue many, and
diuers he tooke aliue, and had gone neere also to take the Emperour, had
not the night come on and parted the battell. And thus king Richard with
much spoyle, and great victory, returning to the port Towne of Lymszem,
which the Townesmen had left for feare, found there great abundance of
corne, wine, oyle, and victuals.

The day after the victory gotten, Ioanna the Kings sister, and Berengaria
the mayden, entred the Porte and Towne of Lymszem, with 50. great ships,
and 14. galliots: so that all the whole Nauie there meeting together, were
254. tall shippes, and aboue threescore galliots. Then Isakius the
Emperour, seeing no way for him to escape by Sea, the same night pitched
his tentes fiue miles off from the English army, swearing that the third
day after, he would surely giue battell to king Richard: but he preuenting
him before, suddenly the same morning before the day of battell should be,
setteth vpon the tentes of the Gryffons early in the morning, they being
vnawares and asleepe, and made of them a great slaughter, insomuch that the
Emperour was faine to runne away naked, leauing his tentes and pauilions to
the Englishmen, full of horses and rich treasure, also with the Imperial
standerd, the lower part whereof with a costly streamer was couered, and
wrought all with golde.

King Richard returning with victorie and triumph to his sister and
Berengaria, shortly after in the moneth of May next following, and the 12.
day of the said moneth, married the said Berengaria daughter of Zanctius,
king of Nauarre, in the yle of Cyprus at Lymszem.

The king of Cyprus seeing himselfe ouermatched, was driuen at length to
yeelde himselfe with conditions to giue king Richard 20000. markes in golde
for amends of such spoyles as he had gotten of them that were drowned, also
to restore all the captiues againe to the king: and furthermore, he in his
owne person, to attend vpon the king to the lande of Ierusalem, in Gods
seruice and his, with 400. horsemen, and 500. footemen: in pledge whereof
he would giue to his hands his castles, and his onely daughter, and would
hold his kingdome of him.

This done, and the Emperour swearing fidelitie to king Richard before Guido
king of Ierusalem, and the prince of Antioche (who were come thither to
king Richard a little before) peace was taken, and Isakius committed to the
warde of certaine keepers. Notwithstanding shortly after he breaking from
his keepers, was againe at defiance with the King: whereupon king Richard
besetting the Iland of Cyprus round about with shippes and gallies, did in
sucn sort preuaile, that the subiects of the land, were constrained to
yeelde themselues to the King, and at last the daughter of the Emperour,
and the Emperour himselfe, whom king Richard caused to be kept in fetters
of gold and siluer, and to be sent to the citie of Tripolis.

[Sidenote: The Lord Chamberlaine of King Richard left gouernour of Cyprus.]
These things thus done, and all set in order touching the possession of the
Ile of Cyprus, the keeping whereof he committed to Radulphe sonne of
Godfrey Lord Chamberlaine, being then the first day of Iune upon the fift
of the saide moneth, king Richard departed from the Ile of Cyprus,
[Footnote: Cyprus, the third largest island of the Mediterranean, situated
in the N.E. angle, equidistant about 60 miles from the coasts of Syria and
Asia Minor. Its form was compared in ancient times to the skin of a deer.
Its length, from Cape Andrea to Cape Epiphanias, the ancient Acamas, is 140
miles. Its greatest breadth, from Cape Gatto on the south coast to Cape
Kormakiti on the north, is about 50 miles, but it gradually narrows towards
the east, being no more than 5 miles wide near Cape Andrea.

The coast of the island consists of a succession of gulfs and bays, many of
which, though not sufficiently land-locked to form natural harbours, would
be capable, with the addition of some artificial works, such as
breakwaters, &c., of affording safe anchorage in all the preuailing winds.
On the north-west and north the principal harbours or roadsteads affording
shelter from certain winds are the Bay of Chrysochon and the roads of Pyros
and Morpha, the harbour of Kyrenia, and the Bay of Exarkos; on the east and
south, the bays and harbours of Salamis and Famagusta, the bay and roads of
Larnaka, the roads of Limasol, which latter were greatly improved by the
opening of an iron pier in 1882, and the small harbour of Paphos (Kuklia).
The great disadvantage of all these harbours and roadsteads is the
shallowness of the water for some distance from the land; this has the
effect of raising a great deal of surf when the wind blows on shore, and

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