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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, by Richard Hakluyt

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** Transcriber's Notes **

The printed edition from which this e-text has been produced retains the
spelling and abbreviations of Hakluyt's 16th-century original. In this
version, the spelling has been retained, but the following manuscript
abbreviations have been silently expanded:

- vowels with macrons = vowel + 'n' or 'm'
- q; = -que (in the Latin)
- y[e] = the; y[t] = that; w[t] = with

This edition contains footnotes and two types of sidenotes. Most footnotes
are added by the editor. They follow modern (19th-century) spelling
conventions. Those that don't are Hakluyt's (and are not always
systematically marked as such by the editor). The sidenotes are Hakluyt's
own. Summarizing sidenotes are labelled [Sidenote: ] and placed before the
sentence to which they apply. Sidenotes that are keyed with a symbol are
labeled [Marginal note: ] and placed at the point of the symbol, except in
poetry, where they are placed at a convenient point.

** End Transcriber's Notes **


Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques





Collected by



Edited by




Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries



A Catalogue of the great Masters of the Order of the Dutch knights,
commonly called the Hospitalaries of Ierusalem: and what great exploites
euery of the saide Masters hath atchieued either in conquering the land
of Prussia, or in taming and subduing the Infidels, or els in keeping
them vnder their obedience and subiection, taken out of Munster.

The order of the Dutch knights had their first original at Ierusalem in the
yere of our Lorde 1190. within the Hospitall of the blessed Virgine: and
the first Master of the saide order was called Henrie of Walpot, vnder
whome many good things, and much wealth and riches were throughout all
Germanie and Italie procured vnto the order: and the saide Hospitall was
remoued from Ierusalem vnto Ptolemais, otherwise called Acon, and the
foresaid Order grew and mightily increased, whereof I will hereafter
discourse more at large in my Treatise of Syria. Henrie of Walpot deceased
in the yeere of Christ 1200. The 2. Master was Otto of Kerpen, and he
continued Master of the Order for the space of sixe yeeres. The 3. was
Hermannus Bart a godly and deuout person, who deceased in the yeere 1210.
being interred at Acon, as his predecessors were. The 4. was Hermannus de
Saltza, who thirtie yeeres together gouerned the saide Order, and managed
the first expedition of warre against the Infidels of Prussia, and ordained
another Master also in Prussia to bee his Deputie in the same region.
[Sidenote: Ensiferi fratres.] In the yeere 1239. the knights of the sword,
who trauailed into Liuonia to conuert the inhabitants thereof vnto Christ,
seeing they were not of sufficient force to performe that enterprise, and
that their enemies increased on all sides, they vnited themselues vnto the
famous Order of the Dutch knights in Prussia, that their worthie attempt
might bee defended and promoted by the aide and assistance of the saide
Dutch knights. [Sidenote: The first war moued against the Prussian
infidels, anno dom. 1239.] At the very same time the ensigne of the crosse
was exalted throughout all Germanie against the Prussians, and a great
armie of souldiers was gathered together, the Burgraue of Meidenburg being
generall of the armie, who combining themselues vnto the Dutch knights,
ioyned battell with the Infidels, and slew about fiue hundred Gentiles, who
beforetime had made horrible inuasions and in-roades into the dominions of
Christians wasting all with fire and sword, but especially the land of
Colm, and Lubonia, which were the Prouinces of Conradus Duke of Massouia.
Nowe, the foresaide knights hauing made so huge a slaughter, built the
castle of Reden, betweene Pomerania and the land of Colm, and so by degrees
they gotte footing in the lande, and daylie erected more castles, as
namely, Crutzburg, Wissenburg, Resil, Bartenstein, Brunsburg, and
Heilsburg, and furnished them all with garrisons. The fift Master of the
Order was Conradus Landgrauius, the brother of Lodouick, which was husband
vnto Ladie Elizabeth. This, Conradus, by his fathers inheritance, gaue
great riches and possessions vnto the Order, and caused Ladie Elizabeth to
be interred at Marpurg, within the religious house of his saide Order.
Vnder the gouernment of this Master, Acon in the lande of Palestina was
subdued vnto the Saracens. Moreouer, in the yeere 1254. there was another
great armie of Souldiers prepared against Prussia, by the Princes of
Germanie. For Octacer, alias Odoacer king of Bohemia, Otto Marques of
Brandeburg, the Duke of Austria, the Marques of Morauia, the Bishops of
Colen and of Olmutz came marching on with great strength of their Nobles
and common Souldiers, and inuading the lande of Prussia in the Winter
season, they constrained the inhabitants thereof to receiue the Christian
faith, and to become obedient vnto the knights. After which exploite, by
the aduise and assistance of king Odoacer, there was a castle built vpon a
certaine hill of Samogitia, which immediately after grewe to be a great
citie, being at this day the seate of the Prince of Prussia: and it was
called by Odoacer Kunigsburg, that is to say, Kings Mount, or Mount royall,
being finished in the yeere 1255. Out of this fort, the knights did bridle
and restraine the furie of the Infidels on all sides, and compelled them to
obedience. The sixt Master was called Boppo ab Osterna, vnder whom the
citie of Kunigsberg was built. [Sidenote: The Prussians abandon
Christianitie.] At the very same instant the knights beeing occupied about
the warre of Curland, the Prussians conspiring together, and abandoning the
Christian faith, in furious maner armed themselues against the Christian,
defaced and burnt down Churches, slew Priests, and to the vtmost of their
abilitie, banished all faithful people. The report of which misdemeanour
being published throughout all Germanie, an huge armie was leuied and sent
for the defence and succour of the knights, which marching into the land of
Natan, made many slaughters, and through the inconstancie of fortune
sometimes woonne, and sometimes lost the victorie. Also the Infidels
besieged these three castles, namely, Barstenstein, Crutzberg and
Kunigsberg, and brought extreame famine vpon the Christians contained
within the saide fortes. Againe, in the yeere of our Lord 1262. the Earle
of Iuliers, with other Princes and great chiualrie came downe, and giuing
charge vpon the Prussians, put three thousand of them to the edge of the
sworde. Afterward the Prussians banding themselues together, were
determined to spoile the castle of Kunigsberg, but their confederacie being
disclosed, they had the repulse. And when the knightes had preuailed
against them, they laide in pledges, and yet for all that were not afraid
to breake their fidelitie. For vpon a certaine time, after they had giuen
diuers pledges, they slewe two noble knights of the Order, and so by that
meanes incensed the principall of the saide order, insomuch that they
caused two paire of gallons to be set vp besides the castle, and thirtie of
the Prussians pledges to be hanged therupon. Which seueritie so vexed and
prouoked the Prussians, that in reuenge of the said iniury, they renewed
bloody and cruel warres, slew many Christians, yea, and put 40. knights
with the master of the Order, and the Marshal, vnto the edge of the sword.
There was at the same instant in Pomerania a Duke called Suandepolcus,
professing the Christian faith, but being ioyned in league with the
Prussians, he indeuoured for many yeeres, not onely to expell the knights,
but all Christians whatsoeuer out of the lande of Prussia, in which warre
the foresaide knights of the Order suffered many abuses. For they lost
almost all their castles, and a great number of themselues also were
slaine. This Suandepolcus put in practise many lewde attempts against
religion. For albeit he was baptised, he did more mischiefe then the very
Infidels themselues, vntill such time as the knights being assisted by the
Princes of Germanie, brought the saide Duke and the Prussians also into
such straights, that (maugre their heads) they were constrained to sue for
peace. Afterward Swandepolcus lying at the point of death, admonished his
sonnes that they should not doe any iniurie vnto the knights of the order,
affirming that himselfe neuer prospered so long as he vrged warre against
them. Howbeit his sonnes for a certaine time obserued not their fathers
counsel, vntill at length one of them named Warteslaus, was created one the
Order, and the other called Samborus bestowed by legacie his goods and
possessions vpon the saide Order, receiuing maintenance and exhibition from
the saide Order, during the terme of his life. It fortuned also vnder the
gouernment of the foresayde Master Boppo, that one Syr Martine a Golin
beeing accompanied with another knight, went into the countrey to see howe
the Prussians were imployed. And meeting with three Prussians, they slew
two, and the thirde they reserued to guide them the directest way. But this
guide betrayed them into their enemies handes. Which when they perceiued,
they slewe the Traytour. Then fiue Prussian horsemen came riding and tooke
them, deliuering them bounde to the custodie of two. And the other three
pursued the horses of the two, which broke loose in the time of the fraye.
And they tarying somewhat long, the other two woulde haue beheaded the two
Knightes in the meane season. [Sidenote: A memorable stratageme.] And as
one of them was striking with his drawen sworde, at the neck of Sir
Martine, hee said vnto them: Sirs, you doe vnwisely in that you take not
off my garment before it bee defiled with blood. They therefore loosing the
Cordes wherewith hee was bounde, to take off his garment, set his armes
more at libertie. Which Syr Martine well perceiuing reached his keeper such
a boxe, that his sworde fell to the grounde. Which hee with all speede
taking vp, slewe both the keepers and vnbounde his fellowe Knight.
Moreouer, seeing the other three Prussians comming furiously vpon them with
stoute couragious hearts they made towarde the saide Prussians, and slew
them, and so escaped the danger of death. The seuenth great Master was
Hanno de Sangershusen, who deceased in the yeere one thousand two hundreth
seuentie fiue. The eight was Hartmannus ab Heldringen who deceased in the
yeere 1282. The ninth was Burckardus a Schuuenden beeing afterwarde made
knight of the order of Saint Iohns. The tenth was Conradus a Feuchtuuang:
vnder this man the Citie of Acon in Palestina was sacked by the Soldan, and
manie people were slayne. The Templars which were therein returned home out
of Fraunce, where they had great reuenewes. The Knightes of Saint Iohn, who
also had an Hospitall at Acon, changed their place, and went into the Isle
of Cyprus, and from thence departing vnto Rhodes, they subdued that Islande
vnto themselues. Nowe the Dutch Knights abounded with wealth and
possessions throughout all Germanie, beeing Lordes of a good port of
Prussia, Liuonia, and Curland, whose chiefe house was then at Marpurg, til
such time as it was remooued vnto Marieburg, a Towne of Prussia. The
eleuenth great Master was Godfrey Earle of Hohenloe. Vnder this man the
knights sustained a great ouerthrow in Liuonia: but hauing strengthned
their armie, they slewe neere vnto Rye foure thousande of their enemies.
The twelfth Master was Sifridus a Feuchtuuang. Vnder this man, the
principall house of the Order was translated from Marpurg to Marieburg,
which in the beginning was established at Acon, and from thence was
remooued vnto Venice, and from Venice vnto Marpurg. This Sifridus deceased
in the yeere 1341. The thirteenth Master was called Charles Beffart of
Triers. This man built a fort vpon the riuer of Mimmel, and it was named
Christmimmel. The foureteenth was Warnerus ab Orsele, whome a certaine
knight of the Order slewe with his sworde. The 15. was Ludolphus Duke of
Brunswick, who built the Towne of Ylgenburg, and deceased 1352. The
sixteenth was Theodoricus Earle of Aldenborg, and hee built the Towne of
Bartenstein. The seuenteenth was Ludolphus sirnamed King. The eighteenth
was Henrie a Tusimer. The nineteenth Winricus a Knoppenrodt In this mans
time the knights took the king of the Lithuanians named Kinstut captiue,
and kept him prisoner in Marieburg halfe a yeere, but by the helpe of a
seruaunt, hauing broken out of the Castle, hee escaped away by night. But
fearing that hee was layde waite for in all places, hee left his horse, and
went on foote through vnknowen pathes. In the day time hee hidde himselfe
in secrete places, and in the night hee continued his iourney vntil hee
came vnto Massouia. But all the Knightes ioye was turned into sorrowe,
after they had lost so great an enemie. The twentieth grand Master was
Conradus Zolnerof Rotenstein. The one and twentieth Conradus Walenrod.
[Sidenote: This man sent an ambassage to Richard the Second.] The two and
twentieth Conradus a Iungingen, who deceased in the yeere one thousand
foure hundreth and seuen. The three and twentieth Vlricus a Iungingen. This
man dyed in battell in the yeere one thousand foure hundreth and tenne:
which battell was fought against Vladislaus Father of Casimire. Both partes
had leuied mightie and huge forces: vnto the Polonians the Lithuanians and
the Tartars had ioyned themselues, ouer whome one Vitoldas was captaine:
the Dutch Knights had taken vp Souldiers out of all Germanie. And when
eache armie had encamped themselues one within twentie furlongs of another,
(hoping for victorie and impatient of delay) the great Master of the
Prussians sent an Herault to denounce warre vnto the King, and immediately
(alarme beeing giuen) it is reported that there were in both armies,
fourtie thousand horsemen in a readinesse. Vladislaus commaunded the
Lithuanians and the Tartars to giue the first onsette, and placed the
Polonians in the rerewarde of the battell: on the contrarie side, the
Prussians regarded least of all to reserue any strong troupes behinde,
which might rescue such as were wearie, and renewe the fight, if neede
shoulde require, but set forwarde the flower and chiualrie of all his
Souldiers in the verie forefront of the battell. The charge beeing giuen
certaine vnarmed Tartars and Lithuanians were slaine handsmooth: howbeit
the multitude pressed on, neither durst the fearefull Polonians turne their
backes, and so a cruell battell was fought vpon the heapes of dead
carkases. The combate continued a long time, terrible slaughters were
committed, and the Lithuanians and Tartars were slaine like sheepe. But
when newe and fresh enemies continually issued foorth, the Dutch knights
being wearied, began to fight more faintly. Which Vladislaus no sooner
perceiued, but in all haste hee sends forwarde his mightie and well armed
bande of Polonians, who suddenly breaking in renewed the skirmish. The
Dutch were not able to withstand the furie of the fresh troupes (great
oddes there is betweene the wearied Souldier and him that comes in a fresh)
insomuch that the knights with their people were constrained to flee. The
master of the Order seeing his souldiers giue way vnto the enemie, gathered
a companie together, and withstoode him in the face, howbeit himselfe was
slaine for his labour, the flight of his people proued greater and more
dishonourable, neither did the Dutch cease to flee, so long as the Polonian
continued the chase. There fell on the Knights partie manie thousands of
men, and the Polonians gotte not the victorie without great spoile and
damage. This battell was foughten in regard of the bounds of regions in the
yeere 1410. All Prussia following the happie successe of the Polonian king
(except Marieburg onely) yeelded themselues vnto him being Conquerour.
Howbeit the Emperour Sigismund taking vp the quarell, peace was ordained
between the knights and Polonia, and a league concluded, certaine summes of
money also were paide vnto the Polonian, Prussia was restored vnto the
knights, neither was the saide order disturbed in the possession of their
lands vntill the time of Friderick. The 24. Master was Henrie Earle of
Plaen. This man being deposed by the Chapter, was 7. yeres holden prisoner
at Dantzik. The 25. Master was Michael Kuchenmeister, that is, master of
the Cookes of Sternberg. The 26. was Paulus a Russdorff. The 27. Conradus
ab Ellerichshausen. This man, after diuers and sundry conflicts betweene
the Dutch knights, and the king of Polonia, concluded a perpetuall league
with the saide king. Howbeit the citizens of Dantzig secretely going about
to obteyne their freedome, that the foresaide Order might haue no dominion
ouer them, made sute vnto the Polonian king to be their Protector. This
Conradus died in the yeere 1450. The 28. was Lewis ab Ellerichshausen.
Vnder this man there arose a dangerous sedition in Prussia betweene the
chiefe cities and the knights of the Order. The citizens demanded libertie,
complaining that they were oppressed with diuers molestations. Whereupon
they primly made sute vnto Casimir then king of Polonia. The Master of the
Order seeing what would come to passe began to expostulate with the king,
that he kept not the peace which had bene concluded betweene them to last
for euer. Also Frederick the Emperour commaunded the Prussians to returne
vnto the obedience of the knights, who by the dint of their swordes had
released that prouince out of the hands of Infidels, and had bought it with
the shedding of much blood. Notwithstanding the popular sort persisting
stil in their stubborne determination, proceeded at length to open warre.
The cities adhearing vnto the king vsurped diuers Castles belonging to the
Master, tooke certain Commanders and knights, yea, and some they slewe
also. Fiftie and fiue townes conspired together in that rebellion: but
thinking their estate and strength not sure enough against their own
gouernors without forrein aide, they chose king Casimir to be their lord.
Heereupon the Polonian king marched into Prussia with a great armie, taking
possession of such cities as yeelded themselues vnto him, and proceeding
forward against Marieburg, besieged the castle and the towne. [Sidenote:
The great master ouercommeth the king of Polonia.] In the meane season the
Master hauing hired an armie of Germane souldiers, suddenly surprised the
king at vnawares in his tents, and slewe about 300. Polonians, tooke
prisoners 136. noblemen, spoiled their tents, tooke away their horses,
victuals, and armour, insomuch that the king himselfe hardly escaped vpon
one horse. These things came to passe in the yeere 1455. The Master hauing
thus obtained the victorie, sent his armie into the countrey, and recouered
the castles and cities which he had lost, to the number of 80. putting many
of his enemies also vnto the sword. Moreouer, he recouered Kunigsberg being
one of the foure principall cities, which are by name Thorne, Elburg,
Kunigsberg, and Gdanum, that is to say, Dantzig. [Sidenote: The king by
treason ouerthroweth the Master.] And when the warre was longer protracted
then the Master could well beare, and a whole yeres wages was vnpaid vnto
his captains, those captaines which were in the garrison of Marieburg
conspired against the Master, and for a great summe of money betrayed the
castle of Marieburg vnto the king. Which practise beeing knowen, the Master
fled to Kunigsberg, and newe warre was begunne, and great spoile and
desolation was wrought on both sides: vntill at length, after composition
made, the king retayned Pomerella, and all the castles and townes therein,
together with Marieburg and Elburg: and the master inioyed Samaitia,
Kunigsberg, &c. This composition was concluded in the yere 1466. The 29.
Master was Henrie Reuss, first being deputie, and afterwarde Master of
Prussia. The 30. was Henrie a Richtenberg, who deceased in the yeere 1477.
The 31. called Martine Truchses died in the yeere 1489. The 32. Iohn a
Tieflen died in the yeere 1500. The 33. being Duke of Saxonie, and marques
of Misn, deceased in the yeere 1510. This man began to call in question,
whether the foresaid composition concluded betweene the king of Polonia,
and the Order, were to bee obserued or no? especially sithence [Footnote:
Since, from _siththan_, SAX.
But, fair Fidessa, _sithens_ fortune's guile,
Or enimies power hath now captiv'd thee.
SPENS. _Faerie Queene_, I., IV., 57.]
it conteined certaine articles against equitie and reason. Whereupon he
appealed vnto the Bishop of Rome, vnto the Emperor, vnto the princes and
electors of Germany, and preuailed with them so farre forth, that there was
a day of hearing appointed at Posna in Polonia. And the Legates of both
parts meeting heard complaints and excuses, and dispatched no other
businesse. In the meane time Prince Frederick deceased in the tenth yeere
of his gouernment. The 34. Master was Albertus marques of Brandenburg,
[Footnote: Albrecht of Anspach and Baireuth, a scion of the Hohenzollerns.
He was a man of will and capacity, who reinvigorated the order of the
Teuton knights by renouncing Roman Catholicism and embracing Lutheranism,
while he consolidated its influence by erecting Prussia into a Duchy, whose
crown he placed on his own brow in 1525. After a prosperous reign he died
in 1550, and his son, having lost his reason, the elector John Sigismund of
Hohenzollern obtained the ducal crown in right of his wife Anna, daughter
of Duke Albert.] whom the King of Polonia did so grieuously molest with
war, and oppressed all Prussia with such extreme rigour, that the Prince of
the countrey was constrained to make a league of foure yeeres with him, and
to yeeld vnto such conditions, as turned to the vtter ouerthrowe of the
whole Order. And amongst other conditions are these which follow. Sithence
that the originall of all discorde betweene Polonia and the order doeth
from hence arise, for that hitherto in Prussia, no lawfull heyre and
successor hath borne rule and authority, but diuers and sundry haue had the
gouernment thereof, by whose meanes the nations haue bene prouoked one
against another, much Christian blood hath bin shed, the lands and
inhabitants grieuously spoiled, and many widowes and Orphans made: the
Popes, Emperors, and Princes being often solicited for the establishing of
that perpetual league, which Casimir hath heretofore concluded &c. Sithence
also that the truce which hath bene agreed vpon of both parties is in short
time to be expired; and that it is to bee feared, that bloody warres will
then be renewed, and that all things will proue worse and worse, vnlesse
some lawfull composition be made, and some good and wholesome deuise be put
in practise, as well for the benefit of the King and of his posteritie, as
for the commoditie of the whole common weale of Prussia, especially
considering that Albertus the Marques refuseth not to submitte himselfe to
the Councell of the King, &c.

* * * * *

The Oration or speech of the Ambassadours sent from Conradus de Zolner
Master generall of the land of Prussia, vnto Richard the second, King of
England, and France, &c.

The messengers which are sent from the Master generall of the land of
Prussia, doe propound and declare the affaires and negotiations

[Sidenote: The ancient assistance of the kings of England against
infidels.] Whereas it is apparant, that diuers and sundrie times
heeretofore, your famous progenitours and predecessours the kings of
England haue alwaies bene gratious promoters and speciall friends vnto the
generall Masters of the land of Prussia, and of the whole order: whereas
also they haue vouchsafed, by their Barons, Knights, and other their nobles
of the kingdome of England, vnto the Masters and order aforesaide, sundry
and manifolde fauourable assistance in the conquest of the Infidels (in
whose steppes your excellent Maiestie insisting, haue, in these your dayes
shewed your selfe in like sort right graciously affected vnto the Master
generall which nowe is, and vnto his famous Predecessour) in due
consideration of the premisses, and in regard also of diuers other
affaires, which are at this present to be propounded vnto your Highnes, the
foresaid Master general which now is hath caused vs his messengers to be
sent with letters of credence vnto your Maiestie: humbly praying, and
earnestly beseeching your roial clemency, that in times to come, the said
Master general, his successors, and our whole Order may of your bounty most
graciously obtaine the same fauour, beneuolence, and stedfast amity and
friendship, which hath bin continued from the times of your foresaid
predecessors: in regard whereof, we do offer the said Master of ours, and
our whole company, vnto your highnes, as your perpetual and deuote friends.
Notwithstanding (most souereigne Prince) certaine other things we haue to
propound vnto your Grace, in the name and behalfe of our saide Master and
Order, by way of complaint, namely, that at certaine times past, and
especially within the space of x. yeeres last expired, his subiects and
marchants haue sustained sundry damages and ablations of their goods, by
diuers subiects and inhabitants of your realme of England, and that very
often both by sea and land: the which, for the behalf, and by the
appointment of the Master general aforesaid, and of his predecessor, are
put downe in registers, and recorded in the writings of his cities in the
land of Prussia. [Sidenote: Edward the 3.] Of which parties damnified, some
haue obtained letters from the Master general that now is, and also from
his predecessor, vnto your renoumed grandfather K. Edward of famous memory,
and sundry times vnto your highnes also, to haue restitution made for their
goods taken from them: whereby they haue nothing at al preuailed, but
heaping losse vpon losse haue misspent their time and their charges: both
because they were not permitted to propound and exhibit their complaints
and letters before your maiesty, and also for diuers other impediments.
Certain of them also considering how others of their countriemen had
laboured in vain, and fearing the like successe, haue troubled the Master
general very often with grieuous and sundry complaints, crauing and humbly
beseeching at his hands, that he would vouchsafe graciously to prouide for
them as his faithful and loial subiects, as touching the restitution of
their losses: especially seeing that so much wealth of the English
marchants was euery yeere to be found in Prussia, as being arrested, they
might obtaine some reasonable satisfaction for their losses. Which thing
the Master general aforesaid and his predecessor also haue deferred vnto
this present (albeit to the great losse of their subiects) therby hauing
meere and principal respect vnto those special curtesies and fauours which
your excellent Maiesty and your worthy progenitors haue right gratiously
vouchsafed vpon our Masters and Order: neither yet for the iniuries
aforesaid, was there euer any maner of offence, or molestation offered vnto
any of your subiects noble or ignoble whatsoeuer. Moreouer, in the name and
behalfe of our foresad Master general we do propound vnto your excellency
by way of complaint, that in the yere last past, 6 dayes after the feast of
the Ascension, certain persons of your realm of England, with their ships
and captains comming vnto the port of Flanders, named Swen, and finding
there, amongst sundry other, 6 ships of Prussia resident, which had there
arriued with diuers goods and marchandises: and being informed that they
were of Prussia, and their friends, they caused them and their ships to
remain next vnto their owne ships, protesting vnto them, that they should
in no sort be molested of damnified by themselues or by any other of their
company, and that they would faithfully defend them, as if they were their
own people, from the hands of their aduersaries: and for their farther
security and trust, they deliuered some of their own men and their
standerds into our mens ships: howbeit a while after being stirred vp, and
bent far otherwise, they took out of the foresaid ships al kind of armors,
wherwith they were to gard and defend themselues from pirats, and they
deteined the masters of those ships, not suffring them to return vnto their
own ships and companies, one also of the said ships (hauing taken al the
goods out of her) they consumed with fire. And within 3. daies after they
came with one accord vnto the abouenamed ships, and tooke away from them
all goods and marchandises which they could find, and all the armour and
weapons of the said ships, the chestes also of the marchants, of the
ship-masters, and of other persons they brake open, taking out money,
iewels, garments, and diuers other commodities: and so they inflicted vpon
them irrecouerable losses and vnkind grieuances. And departing out of the
foresaid hauen, they caried 2. of the Prussian ship-masters with them, as
their captiues vnto an hauen of England called Sandwich. Who, being
afterward released were compelled to sweare, that they should not declare
the iniuries offred vnto them, either before your roiall maiesty, or your
hon. Councell, or your chancelor: neither, were they permitted to come on
shore. And being offred such hard measure, when they made pitiful mones and
complaints vnto your foresaide subiects, amongst other matters they spake
on this wise vnto them: Do you complain of iniuries and losses offered vnto
you? Loe, in your own countrey of Prussia there are English marchants, and
goods sufficient, go your waies home therfore, and recouer your losses,
taking two for one: and in this maner they were left, and so departed.
Afterward returning vnto the land of Prussia, they and their friends
repaired vnto the Master general, iointly and with one consent making their
complaint vnto him of the losses which had bin inflicted vpon them by your
subiects. And prostrating themselues at his feet, they all and euery of
them made their humble sutes, yet he would haue compassion on them, as vpon
his poore subiects, regarding themselues, their wiues, and children, and
pitying their distres, and penury, and that he would graciously procure
some redresse for them. And when he offred his letters vnto them, wishing
them to prosecute their cause before your highnes, they answered that they
were no way able to defray the expenses, and that others, who were in like
sort damnified, had laboured that way altogether in vain and to no purpose:
beseeching him again and again, that he would by another kind of means,
namely by arresting of your marchants and their goods procure them
restitution of their losses. [Sidenote: The arresting of the English goods
and marchants.] At length the Master general being moued by so many and so
great complaints, and by the molestation of his subiects, caused (albeeit
full sore against his will) a certaine portion of English marchants goods
to be laid hold on, and to be arrested, in his cities of Elburg and
Dantzik, and to be bestowed in sure places, vntil such time as he might
conueniently by his messengers propound and exhibit all and singular the
premisses vnto your highnes. And forasmuch as the foresaid Master general
and our Order do know no iust occasion, wherby they haue deserued your
maiesties indignation, but are firmely and most vndoubtedly perswaded, to
finde all curtesie, fauour, and friendship at your Highnesse, according to
your wonted clemencie: the said Master generall therefore maketh no doubt,
that al the aboue written damages and molestations, being in such sort,
against God and iustice, offred vnto his subiects by yours, be altogether
vnknown vnto your magnificence, and committed against your mind: wherfore
presently vpon the foresaid arrest of your marchants goods, he dispatched
his messengers vnto your roial maiesty. Wherof one deceased by the way,
namely, in the territory of Holland: and the other remained sick in those
parts, for a long season: and so that ambassage took none effect. Wherefore
the said master general was desirous to send vs now the second time also
vnto your Highnes. We do make our humble sute therfore, in the name and
behalf of our master and Order aforesaid, vnto your kingly supremacy, that,
hauing God and iustice before your eies, and also the dutifull and
obsequious demeanor of the said master, and order towards you, you would
vouchsafe to extend your gracious clemency, for the redresse of the
premisses: wherby the foresaid losses may be restored and repaied vnto our
subiects. All which notwithstanding, that it would please you of your
wisedome and prouidence to procure so absolute a remedy, by meanes whereof,
in time to come, such dealings and inconueniences may be auoided on both
parts, and finally that your marchants may quietly be possessed of their
goods arrested in Prussia, and our marchants may be admitted vnto the
possession of their commodities attached in England, to conuert and apply
them vnto such vses, as to themselues shal seem most conuenient. Howbeit
(most gracious prince and lord) we are to sollicite your Highnesse, not
onely about the articles to be propounded concerning the losses aforesaide,
but more principally, for certain sinister reports and superstituous
slanders, wherwith certaine of your subiects, not seeking for peace, haue
falsly informed your maiesty, and your most honorable and discreete
Councel: affirming that at the time of the aforesaid arrest your marchants
were barbarously intreated, that they were cast into lothsom prisons,
drenched in myre and water vp to the neck, restrained from al conference
and company of men, and also that their meat was thrown vnto them, as a
bone to a dog, with many other enormities, which they haue most
slanderously deuised concerning the master general aforesaid, and his
people, and haue published them in these dominions: vpon the occasion of
which falshoods certain marchants of our parts, and of other regions of
Alemain (who, of your special beneuolence, were indued with certaine
priuileges and fauours in your citie of London, and in other places) were,
as malefactors, apprehended and caried to prison, vntil such time as the
trueth was more apparant. Whereupon, the foresaide master generall
propoundeth his humble sute vnto your maiestie, that such enemies of trueth
and concord, your Maiesty woulde vouchsafe in such sort to chastise, that
they may be an example vnto others presuming to doe the like.

Moreouer, (high and mighty Prince and lord) it was reported vnto our Master
general, that his former Legats required of your maiesty safe conduct
freely to come into your highnesse Realme. Which when hee heard, he was
exceedingly offended therat, sithence vndoubtedly they did not this at his
commaundement or direction. We therefore humbly beseech your Grace, as
touching this ouersight, to holde the Master generall excused, because
there is no need of safeconduct, between so speciall friends.

Furthermore, sundry damages and complaints of the foresaid general Master,
and his subiects are briefly exhibited, and put downe in the billes
following. Also all and singular damnified persons, besides other proofes,
were compelled to verifie their losses by their formall othes, taken vpon
the holy Bible.

Lastly, we doe make our humble suite and petition vnto the prouidence and
discretion of your Highnes, and of your honorable Councell, that concerning
the premisses, and all other matters propounded, or to be propounded vnto
your Maiesty, we may obtaine a speedy answere, and an effectuall end. For
it would redound vnto our great charges and losse to make any long delayes.

* * * * *

An agreement made by the Ambassadors of England and Prussia, confirmed by
king Richard the second.

Richard by the grace of God, king of England, and France, and lorde of
Ireland. To all, vnto whom these present letters shall come, greeting. We
haue seene and considered the composition, ordination, concord, and
treatie, betweene our welbeloued clearke, master Nicholas Stocket,
licentiat in both lawes, Walter Sibel, and Thomas Graa, citizens of our
cities of London and York, our messengers and ambassadors on the one part:
and the honourable and religious personages, Conradus de Walrode, great
commander, Sifridus Walpode de Bassenheim, chiefe hospitalary commander in
Elburg, and Vlricus Hachenberg Treasurer, the messengers and ambassadors of
the right reuerend and religious lord, lord Conradus Zolner de Rothenstein,
master generail of the knightly order of the Dutch hospital of Saint Mary
at Ierusalem on the other part, lately concluded and agreed vpon in these
words. In the name of the supreame and indiuisible Trinitie, the Father,
the Sonne, and holy Ghost, Amen. Forasmuch as the author of peace will haue
peacemakers to be the sons of blessednes, and the execrable enemie of peace
to be expelled out of the dominions of Christians: therefore for the
perpetuall memorie of the thing, be it knowen vnto all men who shall see or
heare the tenour of these presents: that there being matter of dissension
and discord bred betweene the most renowmed prince and king, Richard by the
grace of God king of England and France, and lord of Ireland, and his
subiects on the one part: and the right reuerend and religious lord, lord
Conradus Zolner de Rothinstein, Master generall of the knightly order of
the Dutch hospitall of S. Marie at Ierusalem, and his land of Prussia, and
his subiects also, on the other part: the foresaid lord and generall
master, vpon mature counsell and deliberation had, sent his honourable
ambassadours towards England vnto the forenamed most soueraigne prince and
king, to propound and make their complaint vnto him of violence and
iniuries offered (as it is sayd) by the English vnto the Prussians: in
consideration whereof certaine goods of the marchants of England were
arrested in the land of Prussia. Whose complaint the foresayd most gracious
prince did courteously and friendly admit, receiue, and accept, and after
many speeches vttered in this treaty, louingly dismissed them vnto their
owne countrey againe, promising by his letters vnto the foresayd reuerend
Master generall, that hee would dispatch his ambassadours vnto the land of
Prussia. [Sidenote: 1388.] Whereupon, in the yeere 1388. he sent the hono:
and reuerend personages Master Nicholas Stocket licentiate of both lawes,
Thomas Graa, and Walter Sibill, citizens of London and Yorke, with
sufficient authority and full commandement, to handle, discusse, and
finally to determine the foresaid busines, and with letters of credence
vnto the right reuerend lord and master generall aforesayd. Which
ambassadours, together with Iohn Beuis of London their informer, and the
letters aforesaid, and their ambassage, the said right reuerend lord and
Master generall, at his castle of Marienburgh, the 28. of Iuly, in the
yeare aforesaid, reuerently and honourably receiued and enterteined; and in
his minde esteemed them worthy to treate and decide the causes aforesayd;
and so vnto the sayd ambassadours he ioyned in commission on his behalfe,
three of his owne counsellors, namely the honourable and religious
personages Conradus de Walrode great commander, Seiffridus Walpode de
Bassenheim chiefe hospitalary and commander in Elburg, Wolricus
Hachenberger treasurer, being all of the order aforesaid. Which ambassadors
so entreating about the premisses, and sundry conferences and consultations
hauing passed between them, friendly and with one consent, concluded an
agreement and concord in manner following: That is to say:

[Sidenote: 1.] First, that all arrestments, reprisals, and impignorations
of whatsoeuer goods and marchandises in England and Prussia, made before
the date of these presents, are from henceforth quiet, free, and released,
without all fraud and dissimulation: insomuch that the damages, charges and
expenses occasioned on both parts by reason of the foresayd goods arrested,
are in no case hereafter to be required or chalenged by any man: but the
demaunds of any man whatsoeuer propounded in this regard, are and ought to
be altogether frustrate and voide, and all actions which may or shall be
commenced by occasion of the sayd goods arrested, are to be extinct and of
none effect.

[Sidenote: 2.] Moreouer, it is secondly concluded and agreed, that all and
singuler Prussians pretending themselues to be iniuried by the English at
the Porte of Swen, or elsewhere, howsoeuer, and whensoeuer, before the date
of these presents, hauing receiued the letters of the foresaide right
reuerende lord and Master generall, and of the cities of their abode, are
to repayre towards England, vnto the sayd hon: embassadours, who are to
assist them, and to propound and exhibite their complaintes, into the
forenamed lord and king. The most gracious prince is bounde to doe his
indeuor, that the parties damnified may haue restitution of their goods
made vnto them, or at least complete iustice and iudgement without delay.
Also in like manner all English men affirming themselues to haue bene
endamaged by Prussians, wheresoeuer, howsoeuer, and whensoeuer, are to haue
recourse vnto the often forenamed right reuerend lorde the Master generall,
with the letters of their king and of the cities of their aboad,
propounding their complaints and causes vnto him. Who likewise is bound to
doe his indeuour that the sayd losses and damages may be restored, or at
the least that speedie iudgement may be, without all delayes, executed.
This caueat being premised in each clause, that it may and shall be freely
granted and permitted vnto euery man that will ciuilly make his suite and
complaint, to doe it either by himselfe, or by his procurator or

[Sidenote: 3.] Also thirdly it is agreed, that whosoeuer of Prussia is
determined criminally to propound his criminal complaints in England:
namely that his brother or kinseman hath beene slaine, wounded, or maimed,
by English men, the same partie is to repayre vnto the citie of London in
England, and into the sayd ambassadors, bringing with him the letters of
the said right reuerend lord and master generall, and of the cities of
their abode: which ambassadors are to haue free and full authority,
according to the complaints of the men of Prussia, and the answers of the
English men, to make and ordaine a friendly reconciliation; or honest
recompence betweene such parties: which reconciliation the sayd parties
reconciled are bound vndoubtedly and without delay to obserue. But if there
be any English man found, who shall rashly contradict or contemne the
composition of the foresaid ambassadors: then the sayd ambassadours are to
bring the forenamed Prussian plaintifes before the presence of the kings
Maiestie: and also to make supplication on the behalfe of such plaintifes,
that complete iustice and iudgment may without delayes bee administred,
according as those suites are commenced. Moreouer whatsoeuer English man,
against whom anie one of Prussia would enter his action, shall absent
himselfe at the terme, the said ambassadours are to summon and ascite the
foresayd English man to appeare at the terme next insuing, that the
plaintifes of Prussia may in no wise seeme to depart or to returne home,
without iudgement or the assistance of lawe. Nowe if the sayd English man
being summoned shall be found stubborne or disobedient, the forenamed
ambassadours are to make their appeale and supplication in manner
aforesayd. And in like sorte in all respects shall the English plaintifes
be dealt withall in Prussia, namely in the citie of Dantzik, where the
deputies of the sayd citie and of the citie of Elburg shal take vnto
themselues two other head boroughs, one of Dantzik, and the other of
Elburg: which foure commissioners are to haue in al respects, the very like
authority of deciding, discussing, and determining all criminall complaints
propounded criminally, by English men against any Prussian or Prussians, by
friendly reconciliation, or honest recompense, if it be possible. But if it
cannot friendly be determined, or if anie Prussian shall not yeeld
obedience vnto any such order or composition, but shalbe found to
contradict and to contemne the same: from thenceforth the said foure
deputies and head-boroughs are to make their appeale and supplication into
the Master generall of the land aforesayd, that vnto the sayd English
plaintifes speedy iudgement and complete iustice may be administred. But if
it shall so fall out that any of the principall offenders shall decease, or
already are deceased in either of the sayd countries, that then it shall
bee free and lawfull for the plaintife to prosecute his right against the
goods or heires of the party deceased. Also, for the executing of the
premisses the termes vnder written are appointed: namely the first, from
the Sunday whereupon Quasi modo geniti is to be sung next ensuing, vntill
the seuenth day following: The second vpon the feast of the holy Trinitie
next to come, and for seuen dayes following: The third vpon the eight day
after Saint Iohn Baptist next to come, and for seuen daies following: The
fourth, last, and peremptory terme shall be vpon the feast of S. Michael
next to come, and vpon seuen dayes next following. And from thenceforth all
causes which concerne death, or the mayming of a member, with all actions
proceeding from them, are to remaine altogether voide and extinct. And if
peraduenture any one of the foresayd ambassadours, shall in the meane
season dye, then the other two shall haue authoritie to chuse a third vnto
them. [Sidenote: An ancient custome.] And if after the date of these
presents any cause great or small doth rise or spring forth, it must bee
decided in England and in Prussia, as it hath beene accustomed in times
past and from ancient times.

[Sidenote: 4. The priuileges of the English marchants in Prussia.] Also, it
is farther concluded and agreed vpon, that all lawfull marchants of England
whosoeuer shall haue free licence and authority, with all kindes of
shippes, goods, and marchandises, to resorte vnto euery port of the land of
Prussia, and also to transport all such goods and marchandises vp farther
vnto any other place in the sayde land of Prussia, and there with all
kindes of persons freely to bargaine and make sale, as heretofore it hath
from auncient times bene accustomed. Which priuiledge is granted in all
things and by all circumstances vnto the Prussians in England. And if after
the date of these presents betweene the sayd kingdome of England, and land
of Prussia any dissension or discorde (which God forefend) should arise:
then the foresayd souereigne prince and king of England, and the sayd right
reuerend lord the Master generall are mutually by their letters and
messengers to giue certificate and intimation one vnto another, concerning
the matter and cause of such dissension and discord: which intimation, on
the behalfe of the foresaid souereigne prince and king of England, shall be
deliuered in the forenamed castle of Marienburg: but on the behalfe of the
sayd right reuerend lord the Master generall, such intimation shall be
giuen in the citie of London aforesayd, vnto the Maior of the said city:
that then such a denuntiation or intimation being made, the marchants of
England and the subiects of the land of Prussia may, within the space of
one yeere next following, freely and safely returne home with al their
goods and marchandises: if at the least, in the mean while, some
composition, and friendly league betweene the two foresayd countreis be not
in some sorte concluded. And that all the premisses may more firmely and
faithfully be put in due practise and execution on both partes, for the
strong and inuiolable keeping peace and tranquillity: and also for the full
confirmation and strengthening of all the sayde premisses, the three
foresayd honourable and religious personages being by the said right
reuerend lord the Master general appointed as commissioners to deale in the
aboue written ordination and composition, haue caused their seales vnto
these presents to be put: and the sayd ordination also, and letter in the
same tenour word for word, and in all points euen as it is inserted into
these presents, they haue mutually receiued from the abouenamed three
ambassadours of the right soueraigne king of England vnder their seales.
Giuen at the castle of Marienburg in the yeare of our lord aforesayd, vpon
the twentieth day of the moneth of August. And we therefore doe accept,
approue, ratifie, and by the tenour of these presents doe confirme, the
composition, ordination, concorde, and treaty aforesayd. In testimony
whereof we haue caused these our letters to be made patents. Witnesse our
selues at Westminster the 22. of October, in the thirteenth yeare of our

By the king and his counsell.


* * * * *

The letters of Conradas de Iungingen, Master generall of Prussia, written
vnto Richard the second, king of England, in the yeere 1398, for the
renouncing of a league and composition concluded betweene England and
Prussia, in regard of manifold iniuries, offered vnto the Prussians.

Our humble commendations, with our earnest prayers vnto God for your
Maiestie, premised. Most renowned prince and mighty lord, it is not (we
hope) out of your Maiesties remembrance, how our famous predecessour going
immediately before vs sent certaine letters of his vnto your highnesse,
effectually contayning sundry complaints of grieuances, iniuries and
losses, wherewith the marchants of his lande and Order, being woont in
times past to visite your kingdome with their goods and marchandises, haue
bene contrary to their liberties and priuiledges annoyed with manifold
iniuries and wrongs. Especially sithens they haue beene molested in your
realme, being contrary to the friendly composition made and celebrated by
the hono: personages, master Nicholas Stocket, Thomas Graa and Walter
Sibil, in the yeare 1388, with the assistance of their coarbiters on our
part and contrary to God and all iustice, oppressed with manifold damages,
losses, and grieuances: as in certaine articles exhibited vnto our
predecessors aforesayd it doeth more manifestly appeare. In consideration
whereof being vehemently moued by the damnified parties, he humbly besought
your highnesse by his messengers and letters, for complement and execution
of iustice. About the which affayres your Maiestie returned your letters of
answere vnto our sayd predecessor, signifying that the sayd businesse of
articles concerned al the communalty of your realme, and that your
highnesse purposed, after consultation had in your parliament, to send a
more deliberate, answere concerning the premisses, vnto our predecessour
aforesayd. Howbeit he being by death translated out of this present world,
and our selues by the prouidence of God succeeding in his roome, and also
long time expecting an effectuall answere from your highnesse, are not yet
informed as we looked for: albeit the complaints of iniuries and losses
offered vnto our subiects doe continually increase. But from hencefoorth,
to prouide a remedie and a caueat for the time to come, the sayd complaynt
doeth vpon great reasons mooue and inuite me. Sithens therefore in regard
of the sayd composition, neither you nor your subiects may be iudged in the
empire: and sithens plaine reason requireth that the one be not inriched by
the others losse: as vndoubtedly our subiects should sustaine great damage
by the composition aforesayd, by vertue whereof your subiects doe enioy all
commodities in our lande, and contrariwise our subiects in your realme haue
suffered, and as yet sundrie wayes do suffer manifold discommodities,
losses and iniuries. Wherefore (most soueraigne prince and mighty lord)
being reasonably mooued vpon the causes aforesayd, we doe, by the aduise of
our counsellors, reuoke and repeale the sayd composition concluded as is
aboue written, together with the effect thereof, purely and simply
renouncing the same by these presents: refusing hereafter to haue either
our selues or our subiects in any respect to stand bound by the vertue of
the sayd composition: but from henceforth, and for the times heretofore
also, bee it altogether voide and of none effect.

Prouided notwithstanding, that from the time of the notice of this
denunciation giuen vnto the hono: Maior of your citie of London, for the
space of a yeare next ensuing, it shall be lawfull for all marchants of
your kingdome whatsoeuer, with their goods and marchandises to returne
home, according to the forme in the foresayd composition expressed:
conditionaly that our subiects may euen so in all respects be permitted to
depart, with the safety of their goods and liues out of your dominions:
this present renuntiation, reuocation, and retractation of the order and
composition aforesayd, notwithstanding. Howbeit in any other affayres
whatsoeuer, deuoutly to submit our selues vnto your highnesse pleasure and
command, both our selues, and our whole order are right willing and
desirous: and also to benefite and promote your subiects we wil indeuour to
the vtmost of our ability, Giuen in our castle of Marienburgh in the yeare
of our Lord 1398, and vpon the 22. day of February.

Frater Conradus de Iungingen, master generall
of the Order of the Dutch knights of S.
Maries hospital at Ierusalem.

* * * * *

A briefe relation of William Esturmy, and Iohn Kington concerning their
ambassages into Prussia, and the Hans-townes.

[Sidenote: 1403.] Inprimis, that in the moneth of Iuly, and in the yeare
of our Lord 1403, and the fift yeare of the reigne of our souereigne Lord
the king that nowe is, there came into England the ambassadours of the
mighty lord Fr: Conradus de Iungingen, being then Master general of
Prussia, with his letters directed vnto our foresayd souereigne lord the
king, requiring amends and recompense for certaine iniuries vniustly
offered by English men vnto the subiects of the sayd Master generall,
written in 20. articles, which amounted vnto the summe of 19120. nobles and
a halfe &c.

Item, that the third day of the moneth of October, in the yeare of our Lord
abouewritten, and in the fift yere of the reigne of our soueraigne lord the
king, between the reuerend father in God, Henrie then bishop of Lincolne
lord chancelor, and William lord de Roos high treasurer of England, on the
one party and the sayd ambassadours on the other party, it was (according
to their petition) amongst other things ordayned: namely that the liege
people of our soueraigne lord the king should freely be permitted, vntill
the feast of Easter then next after ensuing to remaine in the land of
Prussia, and from thence with their goods and marchandises to returne vnto
their own homes, and also, that the subiects of the sayd Master generall in
the kingdome of England should haue licence and liberty to doe the like.
Prouided alwayes, that after the time aboue limitted, neither the English
marchants in the land of Prussia, nor the Prussian marchants in the realme
of England should vse any traffique of marchandise at all, vnlesse in the
meane space it were otherwise agreed and concluded by the sayd king and the
sayd Master general.

Item, immediately after our sayd soueraigne lord the king sent his letters
by Iohn Browne marchant of Lin vnto the aforesayd Master generall, for to
haue mutuall conuersation and intercourse of dealing to continue some
certain space, betweene the marchants of England and of Prussia: promising
in the same letters, that he would in the meane season send vnto the
foresayd Master his ambassadors to intreat about the pretended iniuries
aforesaide: which letters the foresayd Master, for diuers causes, refused
to yeelde vnto, as in his letters sent vnto our lord the king, bearing date
the 16. day of the moneth of Iuly, in the yeare of our lord 1404. more
plainely appeareth.

Item, that after the receit of the letters of the Master aforesaid, which
are next aboue mentioned, our sayd king, according to his promise, sent
William Esturmy knight, M. Iohn Kington clerke, and William Brampton
citizen of London, from his court of parliament holden at Couentrie, very
slightly informed, as his ambassadours into Prussia.

Item, before the arriuall of the sayd ambassadours in Prussia, all
intercourse of traffique betweene the English and the Prussians, in the
realme of England, and in the land of Prussia was altogether restrained and
prohibited: and in the same land it was ordayned and put in practise, that
in whatsoeuer porte of the land of Prussia any English marchant had arriued
with his goods, he was not permitted to conueigh the sayd goods, out of
that porte, vnto any other place of the land of Prussia, either by water,
or by lande, vnder the payne of the forfeiting of the same: but was
enioyned to sell them in the very same porte, vnto the Prussians onely and
to none other, to the great preiudice of our English marchants.

[Sidenote: 1405.] Item, that after the arriuall of the sayd English
ambassadours in the land of Prussia, it was ordayned, that from the eight
day of the moneth of October, in the yeare of our lord 1405, all English
marchants whatsoeuer should haue free liberty to arriue with all kindes of
their marchandise in whatsoeuer port of the land of Prussia, and to make
sale of them in the said land, as hath heretofore from auncient times bene
accustomed. Also sundry other commodious priuiledges vnto the realme of
England were then ordayned and established: as in the indentures made for
this purpose it doth more manifestly appeare.

Item, the said English ambassadours being arriued in the land of Prussia,
demanded of the said Master generall, a reformation and amends, for the
damages and iniuries offered by the Prussians vnto the liege people of our
souereigne lord and king, written in fifteene articles, which losses
amounted vnto summe of 4535. nobles.

Item, the said Master generall, besides the articles exhibited vnto our
soueraigne lord the king (as it is aboue mentioned) deliuered vnto the sayd
ambassadours diuers other articles of certaine iniuries offered (as he
sayth) vniustly by English men, vnto his subiects, which amounted vnto the
summe of 5200. nobles.

[Sidenote: 1406.] Item, it was afterward concluded, that vpon the first of
May next then insuing, namely in the yeere of our Lord 1406, or within the
space of one yeare immediately following there should bee made a
conuenient, iust, and reasonable satisfaction, for all molestations
vniustly offered on both partes, as well on the behalfe, of our soueraigne
lord the king, as of the foresayd Master general. Which satisfaction not
being performed, the Prussians with their goods and merchandises, within
three moneths after the end of the sayd yere next following, were without
molestation or impediment, enioined to depart out of the realme of England
with their ships and goods, and the English men likewise, out of the
territories and dominions of the said Master general, and both of them,
without any further admonition, to abstaine and separate themselues, from
both the countreis aforesayd. For the performance of which premisses, the
ambassadors on both parts being sufficiently instructed, were appointed to
meete the first day of May, at the towne of Dordract in Holland.

Item, that the sayd William Esturmy and Iohn Kington in their returne
homewards from Prussia towards England passed through the chiefe cities of
the Hans, and treated in such sorte with the Burgomasters of them, that
there were sent messengers and agents, in the behalfe of the common society
of the Hans marchants, vnto the towne of Dordract, to conferre with the
ambassadors of England, about the redressing of iniuries attempted on both
parts: where diuers agreements were set downe betweene the sayd
ambassadors, and messengers, as in the indentures made for the same purpose
it doth more manifestly appeare.

Item, that the meeting appointed at the towne of Dordract, vpon the first
of May, was by the letters of the foresayd ambassadors, proroged vnto the
first of August then next ensuing, and afterward by vertue of the kings
letters vnto the first day of March next following: and there was another
day of prorogation also.

Item, that after the prorogations aforesayd, the ambassadors of England,
and the messengers and commissioners of Prussia met together at the towne
of Hage in Holland, the 28. day of August, in the yere of our lord 1407.
And there was a treaty between them concerning the summe 25934. nobles and
an halfe, demanded on the behalfe of the sayd Master generall for amends
and recompence in consideration of wrongs offered vnto himselfe and vnto
his subiects of Prussia, as is aforesayd. Also the sayd Master and his
Prussians, besides the summe not yet declared in the articles, which is
very small, are to rest contented and satisfied with the summe of 8957.
nobles, in lieu of al the damages aforesaid: no times of paiment being then
assigned or limited, but afterward to be reasonably limited and assigned,
by our sayd soueraigne lord the king. Insomuch, that our said soueraigne
lord the king is to write his ful intention and determination concerning
this matter, in his letters to be deliuered the 16. day of March, vnto the
aldermen of the marchants of the Hans residing at Bruges. Otherwise, that
from thenceforth all league of friendship shall bee dissolued betweene the
realme of England and the land of Prussia.

Also it is farther to be noted, that in the appointment of the summe next
before written to be disbursed out of England, this condition was added in
writing, namely, that if by lawful testimonies it may sufficiently and
effectually be prooued, concerning the chiefe articles aboue written, or
any part of them, that satisfaction was made vnto any of those parties, to
whom it was due: or that the goods, of and for the which complaint was made
on the behalfe of Prussia, in the sayd articles, did or doe pertayne vnto
others, or that any other iust, true, or reasonable cause may lawfully be
proued and alledged, why the foresaid sums or any of them ought not to be
payed: that then in the summes contained in the articles aboue mentioned,
so much only must be cut off, or stopped, as shal be found, either to haue
bene payd already, or to appertaine vnto others, or by any true, iust, and
reasonable cause alledged, not to be due. Neither is it to be doubted, but
for the greater part of the summe due vnto the Prussians, that not our lord
the king, but others (which will in time be nominated) are, by all equity
and iustice, to be compelled to make satisfaction.

Also, at the day and place aboue mentioned it was appointed and agreed
vpon, that our lord the king and his liege subiects, for the said 4535.
nobles demanded of the English in consideration of recompence to be made
for iniuries offered vnto the Prussians, are to discharge and pay the summe
of 764. nobles, which are not as yet disbursed: but they haue reserued a
petition to them, vnto whom the sayd summe is due, or if they please, there
shalbe made satisfaction: which will be very hard and extreme dealing.

Item, that in the last assembly of the sayd ambassadors of England and
messengers of Prussia, holden at Hage, made as is aforesayd, for the
behalfe of England, there were exhibited anew certaine articles of iniuries
against the Prussians. The value of which losses amounted vnto the summe of
1825. nobles and three shillings.

Item, on the contrary part for the behalfe of the Prussians the summe of
1355. nobles, eight shillings and sixe pence.

Item, forasmuch as diuers articles propounded, as well on the behalfe of
England, as of Prussia, and of the cities of the Hans, both heretofore and
also at the last conuention holden at Hage, were so obscure, that in regard
of their obscurity, there could no resolute answere bee made vnto them: and
other of the sayd articles exhibited, for want of sufficient proofes, could
not clearely be determined vpon: it was appointed and concluded, that all
obscure articles giuen vp by any of the foresayd parties whatsoeuer, ought
before the end of Easter then next ensuing, and within one whole yeare
after, to be declared before the Chancelour of England, for the time being;
and other articles euidently exhibited, but not sufficiently proued, to be
proued, vnder paine of perpetuall exclusion. Which being done accordingly,
complete iustice shall be administred on both parts.

Item, as concerning the eleuenth article, for the behalfe of the Prussians,
first exhibited, which conteined losses amounting vnto the summe of 2445.
nobles: as touching the first article on the behalfe of England exhibited
in the land of Prussia, containing losses which amounted to the summe of
900. nobles: after many things alleadged on both parts, relation thereof
shall be made in the audience of the king and of the master generall: so
that they shall set downe, ordaine, and determine such an ende and
conclusion of those matters, as shall seeme most expedient vnto them.

Now concerning the Liuonians who are subiect vnto the great Master of

Inprimis, that the Master of Prussia demaunded of the sayd English
ambassadours, at their being in Prussia, on the behalfe of them of Liuonia,
who are the sayd Master his liege people, to haue restitution of their
losses, vniustly (as he sayth) offered vnto them by the English, namely,
for the robbing and rifling of three ships. [Sidenote: These ships were
taken by the English the 20. Iuly 1404.] The value of which ships and of
the goods contained in them, according, to the computation of the Liuonian
marchants, doeth amount vnto the summe of 8037. pound, 12. shillings 7.

Howbeit afterward the trueth being inquired by the sayd ambassadors of
England, the losse of the Liuonians exceedeth not the summe of 7498. pound,
13. shillings, 10. pence halfepeny farthing.

Item, forasmuch as in the sayd ships, on the behalfe of the sayd Master,
and of certaine cities of the Hans, there are alleadged aboue 250. men very
barbarously to be drowned, of whome some were noble, and others honourable
personages, and the rest common marchants and mariners, there was
demaunded, in the first dyet or conuention holden at Dordract, a recompense
at the handes of the sayd English ambassadors: albeit this complaint was
exhibited in the very latter end of al the negotiations, in forme of a
scedule, the tenor whereof is in writing at this present, and beginneth in
maner following: Cum vita hominum &c. Howbeit in the last conuention holden
at Hage, as is aforesaid, it was concluded betweene the ambassadours of
England, and the messengers and commissioners of the land of Prussia, and
of the cities of the Hans; that our sayd soueraigne lord the king, should,
of his great pietie, vouchsafe effectually to deuise some conuenient and
wholesome remedie for the soules of such persons as were drowned.

Item, that our sayd soueraigne lord the king will signifie in writing his
full purpose and intention as touching this matter, vnto the aldermen of
the Hans marchants residing at Bruges, vpon the sixtenth day of March next
following. Otherwise, that from hencefoorth all amity and friendship,
betweene the realme of England and the land of Prussia shall be dissolued.

Neither is it to be doubted, but that a great part of the sayd goods, for
the which they of Liuonia doe demaund restitution, namely waxe and furres,
redounded vnto the vse and commoditie of our soueraigne lord the king. And
also our said soueraigne lord the king gaue commandement by his letters,
that some of the sayd goods should be deliuered vnto others. And a great
part of them is as yet reserued in the towne of Newcastle. One Benteld also
hath the best of the sayd three ships in possession. Also it is reported
and thought to be true, that certaine Furriers of London, which will be
detected in the end, haue had a great part of the sayd goods, namely of the

Now as concerning the cities of the Hans.

[Sidenote: Hamburgh.] Inprimis the Hamburgers exhibited nine articles,
wherein they demaunded restitution for certaine damages offered, as they
sayd, by the English men, the value of which losses amounted vnto the summe
of 9117. nobles, 20 pence. For the which, after due examination, there was
promised restitution to the summe of 416. nobles, 5. shillings. Besides the
two articles propounded against them of Scardeburg, the summe whereof was
231. pounds, 15s. 8d. concerning the which there was sentence giuen in
England by the commissioners of our lord the king, the execution whereof
was promised vnto the said Hamburgers by the ambassadors of England: leaue
and licence being reserued vnto the sayd Hamburgers, of declaring or
explaining certaine obscure articles by them exhibited, which declaration
was to be made at the feast of Easter then next to come, or within one
yeare next ensuing the said feast, vnto the chancelor of England for the
time being, and of proouing the sayd articles and others also, which haue
not as yet sufficiently bene proued. Which being done they are to haue full
complement and execution of iustice.

Also by the Hamburgers there are demaunded 445. nobles from certaine of the
inhabitants of Linne in England. Which summe, if it shalbe prooued to be
due vnto any English men, the Hamburgers are to rest contented with those
goods, which they haue already in their possessions.

[Sidenote: Breme.] Item, they of Breme propounded sixe articles, wherein
the summe conteined amounteth vnto 4414. nobles. And there was no
satisfaction promised vnto them. But the same libertie and licence was
reserued vnto them, in like maner as before vnto the Hamburgers.

[Sidenote: Stralessund] Item, they of Stralessund propounded 23. articles,
whereof the summe amounted vnto 7415. nobles, 20. d for the which there was
promised satisfaction of 253. nobles, 3. d. Also here is a caueat to be
obserued: that they of Stralessund had of English mens goods a great summe
particularly to be declared, which will peraduenture suffice for a
recompense. And some of their articles are concerning iniuries offered
before 20, 22, 23, 24. yeres past. Also their articles are so obscure that
they will neuer, or very hardly be able to declare or proue them. Howbeit
there is reserued the very same liberty vnto them, that was before vnto the

[Sidenote: Lubec] Item, they of Lubec propounded 23. articles, the summe
whereof extended vnto 8690. nobles and an halfe: whereupon it was agreed,
that they should haue paied vnto them 550. nobles. There was reserued the
same libertie vnto them, which, was vnto the men of Stralessund.

[Sidenote: Gripeswold] Item, they of Gripeswold exhibited 5. articles, the
summe whereof amounted vnto 2092. nobles and an halfe. For the which there
was promised satisfaction of 153. nobles and an half. And the said men of
Gripeswold haue of the goods of English men in possession, to the value of
22015. nobles, 18. s. as it is reported by them of Linne. And the same
libertie is reserued vnto them that was vnto the Hamburgers.

[Sidenote: Campen.] Item, they of Campen propounded ten articles, the summe
whereof extended vnto 1405. nobles. There is no satisfaction promised vnto
them: but the same liberty is reserued vnto them, which was vnto the other
aboue mentioned.

Item, the ambassadors of England demanded of the citizens of Rostok and
Wismer, for damages and iniuries by them committed against the subiects of
the foresayd souereigne king 32407. nobles. 2. s. 10. d. And albeit euery
of the foresayd cities sent one of their burgomasters vnto the towne of
Hage in Holland, to treat with the English ambassadours, it was in the end
found out, that they had not any authority of negociating or concluding
ought at al. And therefore they made their faithfull promises, that euery
of the said cities should send vnto our soueraigne Lord the king one or two
procurator or procurators sufficiently instructed to treat and conclude
with our said souereigne lord the king about the damages and iniuries
aforesaid at the feast of the natiuitie of Saint Iohn the Baptist.

* * * * *

Compositions and ordinances concluded between the messengers of Frater
Conradus de Iungingen master generall of Prussia: and the chancelor and
treasurer of the realme of England 1403.

In the yere of our Lord 1403, vpon the feast of S. Michael the Archangel,
the right hono: Henrie bishop of Lincoln, chancelor of England, and the
lord de Roos high treasurer of England, and the ambassadors of Prussia,
Iohn Godek of Dantzik, and Henry Monek of Elbing, masters of the same
cities haue at Westminster treated in maner of composition about the
articles vnderwritten: between the most souereigne lord the king of
England, and the right reuerend and honorable Conradus de Iungingen Master
general of Prussia as concerning the iniuries offered vnto the people of
Prussia and Liuonia vpon the sea by the English.

First, that all ships with their appurtenances, and the commodities of the
mariners, according vnto the condition of the things, and all other goods
taken away by the English, which are actually vndiuided and whole, are
incontinently and with al speed to bee restored. And if there bee any
defect in ought, the value of the said defect is to be accounted, and with
other losses of goods to be restored, at the terme of the restitution to be
made and deliuered.

Item, that all ships, damages, and goods (as they are conteined in our bill
of accusation) which are not now immediately restored, are to be restored
and payd in the land of Prussia, between this and the terme appointed, with
full execution and complement of iustice.

Item, concerning the persons throwen ouer boord or slaine in the sea: it
shall remayne to bee determined at the will and pleasure of the most mighty
prince, the king of England, and of the right reuerend the Master of

Item, betweene this and the terme appointed for the restoring of the goods
taken away, and vntill there be due payment and restitution of the said
goods performed, the marchants of England and of Prussia are in no wise to
exercise any traffique of merchandise at all in the foresaid lands.

[Sidenote: 1403.] Memorandum, that the third day of the moneth of October,
in the yere of our Lord. 1403. and in the fift yere of the reigne of the
most mighty prince and lord, king Henrie the fourth, by the grace of God
king of England and France &c. betweene the reuerend father Henrie bishop
of Lincoln, chancelor, and the right honorable William lord de Roos, high
treasurer of England, both of their counsellers vnto the sayd soueraigne
king on the one party, and the right worshipfull Iohn Godeke, and Henrie
Moneke, sent as messengers by the right reuerend and religious personage,
Frater Gonradus de Iungingen Master generall of the Dutch knights of the
Order of S. Mary on the other party: it was, at the request and instancie
of the sayd messengers, appoynted, and mutually agreed vpon, that all the
liege people and subiects of the sayd soueraigne lord and king shall haue
free licence and liberty vntill the feast of Easter next ensuing, safety to
trauel vnto the land of Prussia aforesayd, there to remaine, and thence,
with their ships, marchandises, and other their goods whatsoeuer, to
returne vnto their owne home: which on the other side, all the subiects of
the sayd Master general may, within the terme prefixed, likewise doe, in
the foresaid realme of England. Prouided alwaies, that after the time aboue
limited, neither the sayd marchants of the realme of England may in the
land of Prussia, nor the marchants of that land, in the realme of England,
exercise any traffique at al: vnles it be otherwise ordained by some
composition, betweene the foresaid king of England, and the said Master
general in the meane time concluded. In witnesse wherof, one part of this
present Indenture is to remaine in the custodie of the foresaid messengers.
Giuen in the Chapter-house of the Church of S. Paul at London, the day and
yere aboue written.

* * * * *

The letters of the chancelor and treasurer of England, vnto Frater Conradus
de Iungingen, master generall of Prussia 1403.

Right reuerend and mighty lord, your honorable messengers Iobn Godeke, and
Henry Moneke, the bearers hereof comming of late before the presence of our
most souereigne lord the king of England and of France, and being welcomed
by our said lord with a chearefull and fauourable countenance, they
presented certaine letters on your behalfe vnto the kings Maiestie, with
that reuerence which beseemed them: expounding vnto his highnes, sundry
piracies and molestations offered of late vpon the sea, by his liege people
and subiects vnto yours, contrary to the leagues of peace and amitie, which
hitherto (by Gods grace) haue bene maintained and continued on both parts.
In consideration of which piracies and molestations, your messengers
demanded full restitution and recompense to be made, either vnto the
damnified parties, or vnto their procurators. We therefore at that time,
especially being in the presence of our soueraigne (who with, his puissant
army tooke his progresse towards the remote part of Wales being subiect
vnto his dominion, to see iustice executed vpon his people of those parts,
who very rashly haue presumed to rebell against him their souereigne,
contrary to their allegeance) right well perceiued that it was his
highnesse intention, that euery one should haue due iustice faithfully
administred unto him, especially your subiects, and that with all fauour,
whom he hath alwayes in times past right graciously intreated, as if they
had bene his owne liege subiects and natiue countrey men, whome also hee
purposeth hereafter friendly to protect: insomuch that betweene him and his
subiects on the one party, and betweene you and yours on the other party,
great abundance and perfection of mutuall amity may increase. And therefore
we offered vnto your foresayd messengers, after they had particularly
declared vnto vs such piracies and wrongs, to sende the kings letters vnto
them of whom complaint was made, firmely inioyning them, vnder grieuous
penalties, that without delay they restore or cause to bee restored vnto
the parties damnified, or vnto their procuratours, all ships, marchandises,
wares, and goods, by them taken or violently stolne from your subiects. And
that your said messengers may partly attaine their desire, we haue
commaunded certaine [Marginal note: Namely the ship of Edward Scof at
Caleis, The ship of Tidman Dordewant and Tidman Warowen, at Orwel and
Zepiswich.] ships, marchandises, wares and goods, found in certaine hauens,
to be deliuered vnto them. Howbeit, as touching other goods, which are
perhaps perished or wanting by infortunate dissipation or destruction, and
for the which the said messengers of yours demand satisfaction to be made
vnto them within a certain time by vs limited: may it please your honor to
vnderstand that in the absence of our sayd souereigne lord the king, being
as yet farre distant from vs, wee can in no wise limit or set downe any
such terme of time. Notwithstanding, at the prosperous returne of our
soueraigne, we are determined to commune with him about this matter. Of
whose answere so soone as we be certified, we purpose to signifie his
intention vnto you by our letters. Sithens also (right reuerend and mighty
lord) your sayd messengers are contented, for the present, to accept of our
offer aforesayde, as indeede by all reason they ought thereat to rest
content, especially whereas by this meanes they shall the more speedily
attaine vnto the effect of their purposes (to the shorte and wished
execution and performance of which offer, we will, by Gods helpe, endeuour,
to the vtmost of our ability) may it be your will and pleasure, that as in
the kingdome of England, your marchants and subiects are courteously
intreated: euen so the marchants and liege people of our soueraigne lord
the king and of his kingdomes peaceably frequenting your parts, either in
regard of traffique or of any other iust occasion, may there in like manner
friendly bee vsed, and with your marchants and subiects suffered to
communicate, and to haue intercourse of traffique, inioying the commodities
of the ancient league. By this also the feruent zeale and affection which
you beare vnto the royall crowne of England shall vndoubtedly appeare:
albeit betweene the famous houses of England and of Prussia, the bandes of
vnfained loue and friendship haue bin successiuely confirmed and kept
inuiolable in times past And thus (right reuerend and mighty lord) wishing
vnto you increase of honour and prosperity, wee take our leaues. [Sidenote:
Note well. 1403.] Written at London the fift of October, in the yeare of
our lord 1403.

By the chancelor, the treasurer, and other lords of the hono: counsell of
the king of England and France, being personally present at London.

* * * * *

The letters of king Henry the 4. vnto Conradus de Iungingen the master
general of Prussia, for mutual conuersation and intercourse of traffique
to continue between the marchants of England and of Prussia, for a
certaine terme of time.

Henry by the grace of God king of England and France, and lord of Ireland,
to the noble and mighty personage of sacred religion, Frater Conradus de
Iungingen Master generall of the Order of the Dutch knights of S. Marie &c.
our most deare and welbeloued friend, greeting, and continuall increase of
our auncient and sincere amity. By the grieuous complaynts of our liege
subiects concerning traffique, as it were circularwise too and fro both our
dominions, we haue often bene aduertised that in regard of diuers iniuries
and damages, which as well our as your marchants (who by their dealings in
merchandise were woont peaceably to vse mutual conuersation together,
whereupon very many commodities are knowen to haue proceeded) haue, by
occasion of pirates, rouing vp and down the sea, sometimes heretofore
sustayned: both the sayd marchants of our and of your dominions do abstaine
themselues from their wonted mutual conuersation and traffique, as they
haue likewise carefully abstained at sometimes heretofore, and especially
from that time, wherein, at the instant request of your messengers, being
of late before our presence, the free accesse of our marchants vnto your
territories and dominions, and of your marchants vnto our realmes hath bene
forbidden. Sithens therefore (our most deare friend) such iniuries (if any)
as haue bene attempted against your subiects, were neuer committed by our
will and consent, as we thinke that your selfe on the other side haue done
the like: [Sidenote The auncient friendship betweene England and Prussia.]
sithens also, so much as in vs lieth, wee are ready to exhibit full iustice
with fauour vnto any of your people being desirous to make complaint, so
that accordingly iustice may equally be done vnto our marchants by you and
your subiects, which marchants haue in like sort bene iniuried, wishing
with all our heart, that the ancient friendship and loue, which hath
continued a long time between our realme and your territories and
dominions, may perseuere in time to come, and that sweet and acceptable
peace, which is to be embraced of al Christians, may according to the good
pleasure of the author of peace, be nourished and mayntained: we do most
heartily require the sayd friendship, exhorting you in the Lord that you
would on your behalf consent and ordain (euen as, if you shall so do, we
for our part wil consent likewise) that from this present vntil the feast
of Easter next insuing (al molestations and iniuries which may be offred
ceasing on both parts) our subiects by your territories and dominions, and
your subiects by our realms, may peaceably and securely trauel, and that
according to their wonted maner, they may friendly conuerse and exercise
mutual traffick together: because we are determined to send vnto you and
your counsel in the mean time some of our ambassadors, friendly to intreat
about, the foresaid pretended iniuries, so far forth as they shal concerne
our subiects. At whose arriual we stand in good hope that by the due
administration of iustice on both parts, such order (by Gods assistance)
shalbe taken, that mutual peace and tranquility may be established between
vs in times to come. Also our desire is in particular, that our marchants
and liege subiects may haue more free passage granted them vnto the parts
of Sconia, for the prouiding of herrings and of other fishes there, that
they may there remayne, and from thence also may more securely returne vnto
their owne home: and we beseech you in consideration of our owne selues,
that you would haue our marchants and liege subiects especially recommended
vnto you, safely protecting them (if need shall require) vnder the shadow
of your defence: euen as you would haue vs to deale in the like case with
your own subiects. Moreouer, whatsoeuer you shall thinke good to put in
practise in this behalfe, may it please you of your friendship, by our
faythfull subiect Iohn Browne the bearer hereof to giue vs to vnderstand.
In the sonne of the glorious virgine fare ye well, with continuall
prosperity and felicity according to your owne hearts desire. Giuen vnder
our priuie seale, at our palace of Westminster, the fift day of Iune, and
in the fift yere of our reigne.


Right reuerend and our most deare friend: albeit our welbeloued Arnold de
Dassele the procurator of your foresaid messengers, being desirous at this
time to make his final returne vnto your parts, by reason of the affayres,
for which he hath remained in our realme of England, cannot as yet obtaine
his wished expedition: notwithstanding you of your sincere affection ought
not to maruel or any whit to be grieued thereat: because troubles of wars
arising, which in some sort concerned our selues, and especially in regard
of the continuall assaults of the French men and Britons against vs and our
kingdome, for the offence of whom, and our owne defence, our liege subiects
(especially they, of whom your subiects damnified haue made their
complaints) haue armed themselues to combate vpon the sea: we could not
grant vnto the foresayd Arnold such and so speedy an expedition, as he
earnestly desired to haue. Vnto the which Arnold your procurator we haue
offered in as short time as may be, to administer complete iustice with
fauour, to the end that for this cause he might dispose himselfe to remaine
in our realme of England: and yet notwithstanding wee would do the very
same euen in the absence of the sayd procurator. Giuen as aboue.

* * * * *

To the most renowned prince and mighty Lord, Henrie king of England &c. our
gracious Lord.

Our humble recommendations, with our most instant and continuall prayers
for you being graciously by your Maiestie taken in good part &c. Most
soueraigne king, mighty prince, gratious lord, and vnto vs most vnfaynedly
beloued, we receiued of late your gracious letters by your Maiesties liege
subiect Iohn Brown, the contents wherof seemed to be these following: first
that of long time heretofore, there haue bene between the marchants of your
realm and of our lands, not only quiet and peaceable accesse one vnto
another, but also mutual participation, and common traffique of their
wares, being right commodious and auaileable for them both: howbeit, that
now the focesaid profitable conuersation, by reason of certain notorious
robberies, committed vpon the sea by pyrates against both parts, and the
wonted accesse also of your subiects vnto our dominions, were altogether
forbidden. Moreouer, you call to remembrance the ancient amity and
friendship betweene both our lands, with the inualuable commodity of sweet
amiable peace, which are by al faithful Christians, to the vtmost of their
endeuour to be imbraced. Wherupon you of your exceeding clemency, do offer
your Maiesties ful consent, that the foresaid prohibition being released
vntil the feast of Easter next ensuing, the said marchants of your
dominions may in our territories, and our marchants likewise may in your
realms (al molestations ceasing) exercise their woonted traffique:
especially sithens in the mean season your royall wisdome hath determined
to direct vnto vs your hono: ambassadors in friendly sort to treat and
parle with vs as touching the pretended iniuries, so far forth as they may
concerne your subiects. Adding moreouer in particular that when your people
shall repayre vnto the parts of Sconia to fish for herrings, hauing
consideration and regard vnto your maiestie, we would haue them especially
recommended vnto our protection &c. Most soueraigne lord and king, and
gracious prince, wee doe with vnfained and hearty affection embrace the
oracles of your maiesties most courteous and acceptable offer: wherein you
haue vsed most diligent and effectuall perswasions, that complement of
iustice should be done vnto the parties iniuried, and that peace and
friendship should take place, making no doubt of your own royall person,
nor of our selues or of any appertayning vnto vs, but that our inclinations
and desires in this regarde are all one and the same: neither would we
lightly transgresse the limits of your perswasions without some iust,
weighty, and reasonable cause, forasmuch as the matters perswaded are in
very deede most happy preseruatiues of a common weale, yea, and of nature,
it selfe. Moreouer whereas your highnes hath farther requested vs, that the
prohibition of your subiects accesse vnto our dominions might, vntill the
feast of Easter next ensuing, be released: we answere (vnder correction of
your maiesties more deliberate counsell) that it is farre more expedient
for both parts to haue the sayd prohibition continued then released, vntil
such time as satisfaction be performed on both sides vnto the parties
endamaged, not in words only, but actually and really in deeds, or by some
course of law or friendly composition. For there is no equall nor
indifferent kinde of consort or trade between the impouerished party and
him that is inriched, betweene the partie which hath obtayned iustice and
him that hath obtayned none between the offender and the party offended:
because they are not mooued with like affections. For the remembrance of
iniuries easily stirreth vp inconsiderate motions of anger. Also, such a
kind of temperature or permixtion, as it were, by way of contrariety
breedeth more bitternes then sweetnes, more hate then loue: whereupon more
grieuous complaints aswel vnto your highnes as vnto our selues, might be
occasioned. The lord knoweth, that euen now we are too much wearied and
disquieted with the importunate and instant complaints of our subiects,
insomuch that wee cannot at this present by any conuenient meanes release
or dissolue the sayd prohibition, before wee be sufficiently informed by
your maiesties ambassadors, of the satisfaction of our endamaged subiects.
[Sidenote: Margaret queen of Denmarke.] Furthermore, whereas your maiesties
request, concerning your subiects that shal come vnto the parts of Sconia,
is that we would defend them vnder our protection: be it knowen vnto your
highnes, that for diuers considerations vs reasonably mouing, being
prouoked by the queene of Denmarke and her people, being also vrged
thereunto full sore against our wils, for the repelling and auoiding of
iniuries, we haue sent forth our armie against them. Howbeit for a certaine
time a truce is concluded on both parts, so that our people are actually
returned home. Farre be it from vs also, that our subiects being occupied
in warres, should in any sort willingly molest or reproach any strangers,
of what landes or nations soeuer, not being our professed enemies. For this
should be to oppresse the innocent in stead of the guilty, to condemne the
iust for the uniust: then which nothing can be more cruel, nor a reuenge of
greater impietie. In very deede (most gracious prince and lorde) we are
moued with right hearty sympathy and compassion for any inconuenience which
might happen in your regiment: wishing from the bottome of our hearts, that
all affayres may right prosperously and happily succeede, about the royall
person and regiment of your most excellent Maiestie, and that continually.
The like whereof wee hope from you: most humbly commending our selues, and
our whole Order vnto your highnes. Giuen at our castle of Marienburgh, the
16. day, the moneth of iuly, in the yere of our Lord 1404.

* * * * *

An agreement made betweene king Henry the fourth and Conradus de Iungingen
Master generall of the land of Prussia.

This Indenture made between Sir William Esturmy knight, Iohn Kington
clerke, and William Brampton citizen of London the ambassadors,
commissioners, and messengers of the most mighty prince and lord, our
souereigne lord Henrie by the grace of God king of England and France, and
lorde of Ireland, for the repayring, reformation, and amends of whatsoeuer
damages, grieuances, excesses, violences, and iniuries in any sort vniustly
attempted, done, or offered, by our sayd soueraigne lord the king and his
liege people and subiects, vnto the great and mighty lord Conradus de
Iungingen Master general of the order of the Dutch knights of S. Maries
hospitall of Ierusalem, or his subiects: and for the requiring, demanding,
and receiuing of such like reparations, reformations and amends, by the
foresayd lord the Master generall, for the behalfe of himselfe or any of
his subiects whatsoeuer, from and in the name of our soueraign lord the
king and his subiects, vnto the sayd Master general, into his land of
Prussia, by our souereigne lord the king, and appointed as ambassadors on
the one party: And betweene the hono: Lords and religious personages
Conradus de Lichtenstein great commander, Warnberus de Tettingen chiefe
hospitalary and commander in Elbing, and Arnold de Hacken treasurer, the
procurators and commissioners of the great and mighty lord the Master
general, being in like and equal sort and in all respects, as the
ambassadours of England are, authorised on the contrary side by the
authoritie and power of the sayd Master general on the other part,
witnesseth: That diuers treaties and conferences being holden between the
said ambassadors, messengers, and procurators or commissioners, of and
concerning the reparations, reformations and amends of certaine damages,
grieuances, excesses, violences, and iniuries offered and attempted, as wel
by the Prussians against the English as by the English against the
Prussians, and of other actes vniustly committed on both parts: in
conclusion, after the sayd treatise, the foresayd ambassadours, procurators
and commissioners by vertue of the authority committed vnto them appoynted,
and with one consent agreed vnto the articles vnder written.

Inprimis, that for the consideration of mutuall loue and woonted
friendship, and of peace and tranquillity hereafter to be continued and
maintained, and also that the articles vnder written may more prosperously
be brought vnto a wished effect, between our said soueraign lord the king
and his liege people and subiects, and the subiects, people, and
inhabitants of the territories and dominions of the foresayd lord the
Master generall, it is agreed and concluded, that all liege marchants of
England whatsoeuer, shall haue free licence and libertie to arriue with
their shippes, goods and marchandises whatsoeuer, at any porte of the land
of Prussia, and also the sayd goods and marchandises farther vnto any place
of the sayd land of Prussia to transport, and these with any person or
persons freely to contract and bargaine, euen as heretofore, and from
auncient times it hath bene accustomed. Which liberty in all respects is
granted vnto the Prussians in England.

[Sidenote: 1403.] Item it is further agreed betweene the sayd ambassadours,
procurators, and commissioners, that whereas of late, namely in the yeare
of our lord 1403, the sayd Master general by his discreet subiects Iohn
Godek of Dantzik, and Henry Monek of Elbing, his ambassadors and
messengers, for this purpose hath caused certain articles, (namely 20, in
number) containing in them matters of damages, molestations, violences, and
iniuries committed and offered against the said Master generall and his
subiects, by our sayd soueraigne lord the king his subiects and liege
people, to be exhibited, giuen vp and deliuered vnto our lord the king
aforesaid in his kingdome of England: it is concluded and agreed about the
sayd 20, articles, by the aforesaid ambassadors, commissioners, and
procurators, as in the acts and pleas had and made before the sayd
ambassadors, commissioners and procurators, and in the records made and
written of and about, the examination of such articles, it is more at large
contayned (vnto the which the sayd ambassadors, commissioners, and
messengers doe here in this place referre themselues) of the which articles
also some are receiued by the commissioners aforesayd, and others are
proroged vnto a certaine time vnder written, euen as in the foresayd
registers it is more fully contayned and put downe in writing.

As touching certaine other articles also exhibited a newe vnto the sayd
English ambassadors, in the land of Prussia being 16 in number (whereof one
is admitted, and the rest are proroged vntil A terme vnder written) the
same course is to be taken and obserued, which was before appoynted and
agreed vpon, about the articles deliuered and exhibited vnto our foresayd
souraigne lorde the king, as is aforesayd.

Moreouer, as touching the articles exhibited by the English ambassadours in
the name and behalfe of their sayd soueraigne lord the king of England,
vnto the procuratours and commissioners of the foresayd lord the Master
generall (of the which some are declared already, and the declaration of
the rest is proroged vntill a certayne terme vndernamed, euen as in the
registers made of and vpon the examination of the sayd articles, it is more
manifestly prouided) the same course is to be taken, which must be obserued
about the articles of the sayd lord the Master general), exhibited, as well
vnto the foresayd soueraigne prince in England, as vnto his ambassadors in
the land of Prussia, euen as about the sayd articles it is before

[Sidenote: The complaints of Liuonians.] And whereas on the behalfe of the
citizens and marchants of the cities of Rij and Dorp [Footnote: These
cities seem to haue been large commercial centres.], and of other townes in
the land of Liuonia, many and great complaints haue bene by way of articles
exhibited and deliuered vnto the sayd English ambassadours in the land of
Prussia, which for diuers causes, could not as then be ended: therefere it
is concluded and agreed vpon betweene the ambassadours, and the
commissioners aforesayd, that the saide citizens and marchants may in the
towne of Dordract in Holland, vpon the first day of the moneth of May next
ensuing (at the which time and place, the continuation and prorogation of
all other articles not fully declared in the partes of Prussia, shall be
put in vre [Footnote: _Ure_ i.e., use. Norman or law French (See Kelham's
Norman Dict.)
This vickering will but keep our arms in _ure_,
The holy battles better to endure.
--_Four Prentices of London_, VI., 493.
In Chaucer's time it also meant fortune, like the French Neure. (NARES'
_Glossary_).] by themselues or their lawfull procurators, make their
appearance, for the obtayning of a conuenient, iust, and reasonable
reformation of all iniuries attempted against them, then, or at some other
times within one whole yere next following, and not afterward, being
effectually set downe and limited, at the place aforesaid, by the consent
of the ambassadours and commissioners of either parte, all lawfull
impediments ceasing.

Prouided alwayes, that the value and price of all wares, goods, and
marchandises, whereof the said citizens and marchants of Liuonia, in their
articles receiued by the sayde English ambassadours, as is aforesayd, doe
make mention, shall be iustly esteemed, prized, and approoued, not by any
of England, or of Prussia, or of Liuonia, but by some other indifferent
marchants of good credite, valuing them at the true rate of marchants,
which such like marchandise wonld haue amounted vnto, if, at the time when
they were taken, they had bene to be solde at the town of Bruges in

Forasmuch also, as diuers and sundry Prussians (who exhibited manifolde
Articles of complaints, being receiued by the said English Ambassadonrs, at
their abode in Prussia) made not their personall appearance, before the
saide English Ambassadours, in the lande of Prussia aforesaide: The
prorogation aboue-mentioned was made vnto the first day of the moneth of
May: and also it was agreed vpon by the saide Ambassadours, Procurators,
and Commissioners, that the saide parties which had not appeared before
shall haue libertie graunted them, lawfully to make their appearance, vpon
the first of May aforesaide, at the towne of Dordract, either by themselues
or by their Procurators, and also to bring with them the letters
testimonial, and patents, sealed with the seale of the saide Lord the
master generall, (he hauing first of all receiued sound and sufficient
information from the cities whereof the parties plaintife are citizens, of
the damages and grieuances any way vniustly inflicted vpon them or any of
them by the English) to the end that they may there by articles
conueniently declare and proue, before the Ambassadours, Procurators,
messengers, and Commissioners of both partes, the rate and value of their
said goods: and that in so doing they may obtaine conuenient, iust, and
reasonable restitution, for all acts vniustly attempted against them, then,
or at some other times effectually to bee set downe and limited at the
foresaid place by the consent of the Ambassadors and Commissioners of both
parts, euen as it was aboue promised vnto the marchants of Liuonia.

But if they of Prussia last aboue-mentioned, shall not vpon the first of
May, and at the place appointed, for some cause, make their appearance,
that then it shalbe lawfull for them, at any time within one whole yeere
next following, to repaire vnto the lord Chancelor of England, at the citie
of London, and to insinuate and declare vnto him their complaints before
exhibited vnto the saide English Ambassadours in the land of Prussia, or
which complaints should haue bene deliuered at the foresaid terme and
place, or els, the which were not then and there fully finished and
dispatched: and also by articles as is aforesaide, to declare and proue the
true worth and estimation of all damages and grieuances any wayes vniustly
offered by the English vnto them or any of them: to the ende that they may
(as it is aboue mentioned) effectually receiue, and also speedily and
easily obtaine conuenient, iust, and reasonable reformation and
satisfaction, for al acts vniustly attempted against them, which are
contained in the complaints not as yet fully declared and finished.

Moreouer, it is appointed and agreed vpon betweene the foresaide
Ambassadours and Commissioners: that the forenamed souereign Lord and the
said lord the Master general are to send and set forward their
Ambassadours, messengers, and Commissioners, vpon the first of May vnto the
place appointed, to treate, parle, agree, and conclude about those
affaires, which shal then and there happen to be treated of and handled
among them.

Furthermore, betweene the often mentioned Ambassadours, Procurators, and
Commissioners, it is enacted and concluded: [Sidenote: Note well.] that
vnto all and singular lawfull statutes, ordinations, and prohibitions
framed, made, and ordained, by the saide lorde the Master generall, in his
land of Prussia, or by his Proconsuls and Consuls, and his gouernours of
cities, townes, villages, and of other places in the land of Prussia, vnto
the obseruation whereof, aswell the subiectes of the said Master general,
as foreners and strangers, are tyed and bound: vnto the very same statutes,
ordinations, and prohibitions, al English marchants whatsoeuer resorting
vnto the land of Prussia, must be firmely bounden and subiect.

Also it is ordained, that whatsoeuer sale-clothes are already transported,
or at any time hereafter to bee transported out of England into Prussia by
the English marchants, and shall there be offered to bee solde, whether
they be whole cloathes or halfe cloathes, they must containe both their

Lastly, that the matters aboue-mentioned fall not short and voyde of their
wished effect; the treaty and conference about all and singular damages and
grieuances (whereof there is not as yet done, but there must be, by the
vertue of these presents, performed, a reformation and amendment) must be
continued and proroged vntill the first of May next ensuing: as by these
presents they are continued and proroged with the continuation of the dayes
then immediately following, at the towne of Dordract aforesaide: at the
which time and place, or at other times and places, in the meane space, as
occasion shall serue, by both parties to be limited and assigned, or else
within one yeere after the said first day of the moneth of May next ensuing
bee expired: the hurt and damaged parties generally before-mentioned, shall
haue performed vnto them a conuenient, iust, and reasonable reformation on
both partes. Prouided alwayes, if within the terme of the saide yeere, some
conuenient, iust, and reasonable reformation bee not performed vnto the
parties iniuried, and endamaged, which are generally aboue mentioned: that
then, within three whole moneths after the foresaid yere shall haue
expired, the Prussians shall depart out of the realmes and dominions of the
saide Soueraigne Lord the king of England, together with their marchandize,
and with other goods which they shal haue gotten or bought, within the
space of the foresaid three moneths: and that the English men also are
likewise, in all respects bounden to auoid and (no lawfull impediment
hindering them) to withdrawe themselues and to depart out of the
territories and dominions of the saide Master generall, without all
molestation, perturbation, and impediment whatsoeuer, none other intimation
or admonition being necessarie in this regard.

Howbeit least that by the robberies and piracies of some insolent and
peruerse people, matter should be ministred vnto the said lord the Master
generall, of swaruing from the faithfull obseruation of the foresaid
agreements, or (which God forbid) any occasion bee giuen him of not
obseruing them: it is also decreed by the often aboue mentioned
Ambassadours and messengers, that if the goods and marchandize of any of
the saide lorde Master generall his subiectes whatsoeuer shall be from
henceforth vniustly taken vpon the Sea, by any English Pirates, and shalbe
caried into the realme of England, and there receiued, that the Gouernours
and keepers of portes, and of other places (with whatsoeuer names they be
called) at the which portes and places such merchandises and goods shall
chaunce to arriue, beeing onely informed of the saide goods and
marchandises, by sole report, or (other proofes wanting) by probable
suspition are bound to arrest and to keep them in safe custodie, fauourably
to be restored vnto the owners thereof, whensoeuer they shall be lawfully
demaunded: which if they shall omit or deny to performe, from thenceforth
the saide gouernours and keepers are bound to make vnto the parties
endamaged, a recompense of their losses.

And for fault of iustice to be executed, by the said gouernours and
keepers, our soueraign lord the king aboue named, after he shall
conueniently be requested by the parties damnified, is bound within three
moneths next ensuing (all lawfull impediments being excepted) to make
correspondent, iust, and reasonable satisfaction, vnto the saide partes
endamaged. Otherwise, that it shal be right lawfull for the saide lorde the
Master generall, to arrest, and after the arrest to keepe in safe custodie
the goods of the English marchants being in the land of Prussia, to the
condigne satisfaction of such iniuries, as haue bene offered vnto his
subiects, vntill his said subiects be iustly and reasonably contented.

Likewise also in all respects, the same iustice is to be done vnto the
English by the said Lord the Master generall and his subiects in Prussia,
euen as it hath bene enacted and decreed in the aboue written clause,
beginning, Caterum ne per &c. In English: Howbeit least that &c. for the
said Master general, and his subiects by the foresaide ambassadors of
England, and the commissioners of the said lord the Master generall, that
in like cases iustice ought to be administred on the behalfe of himselfe,
and of his subiects in the realme of England.

And that all and singular the couenants aboue written, may in time to come,
by the parties whom they concern, firmly and inuiolably be obserued; the
forenamed ambassadors, messengers, and commissioners, all and euery of
them, for the full credite, probation, and testimonie of all the premisses,
haue vnto these present Indentures, made for the same purpose, caused
euerie one of their seales with their owne hands to be put. One part of the
which indentures remaineth in the custodie of the English ambassadors, and
the other part in the hands of the commissioners of Prussia. Giuen at the
castle of Marienburgh in Prussia, in the yeere of our Lorde 1405. vpon the
8. day of the moneth of October.

* * * * *

An agreement made betweene King Henrie the fourth and the common societie
of the Marchants of the Hans.

This Indenture made betweene the honourable Sir William Esturmy knight, and
Iohn Kington clearke, procurators, messengers, and commissioners
sufficiently deputed and authorized by the most mighty Prince, Lord Henry,
by the grace of God king of England, and France, and lord of Ireland, for
the performation of the things vnderwritten, on the one part: and the hon.
personages M. Henry Vredeland, M. Riman Salum chief notaries, Thederic
Knesuolt secretary, M. Simon Clouesten chief notary, and Iohn Zotebotter
citizen, being sufficiently made and ordained procurators and messengers,
on the behalfe of the cities of Lubec, Bremen, Hamburg, Sund, and
Gripeswold, for the demanding and obtaining seuerally, of due reformation,
and recompense at the hands of our saide souereigne lord the king, and of
his messengers and commissioners aforesayde, for all iniuries, damages,
grieuances, and manslaughters, any wayes vniustly done, and offred
seuerally by the liege people and subiects of our soueraigne lord the king,
vnto the common societie of the marchants of the Hans, and vnto any of the
Citizens, people and inhabitants of the cities aforesaide whatsoeuer on the
other part, Witnesseth: That betweene all and euery of the saide
Procurators, messengers, and Commissioners, by vertue of the authoritie
committed vnto them, it hath bene and is appointed, concluded, and decreed:
that the liege marchants and subiects of our said soueraigne lord the king,
and the marchants of the common societie of the Dutch Hans aforesaide, from
hencefoorth for one whole yeere and seuen moneths immediately next ensuing
and following, shalbe permitted and licenced friendly, freely, and
securely, to exercise mutual traffike, and like marchants to buy and sell
together, one of, and vnto another, euen as in times past, [Sidenote:
1400.] namely, in the yeere 1400. and before that time also, they haue bin
accustomed to exercise mutuall traffike and marchandise, and to buy and

Also the saide William and Iohn agreed and consented, that they themselues,
or some other perhaps to be appointed in this behalfe by their saide lord
the king in their stead, shall vpon the first day of the moneth of May next
to come, with the continuation of the dayes following, at the towne of
Dordract in Holland, or vpon any other terme or termes, then perhaps to bee
limited, competently satisfie, and performe conuenient recompence vnto the
saide common societie, citizens, people, and inhabitants of the cities
aforesaide, and also of other cities, townes and villages of the Hans, of
and for all iniuries, damages, grieuances, and drownings, or manslaughters
done and committed, as they alleage, against them, deliuered and exhibited
in written articles, vnto the aboue named William and Iohn, or els
heereafter to bee deliuered and exhibited, either by the same procurators
or by some others, which shall perhaps be authorized in their stead, of by
the messengers procurators and commissioners of other cities, townes, and
places of the Hans, in equall and like maner and forme, euen as at the
saide terme limited, or then perhaps to be proroged, there is appointed by
the said William and Iohn, reparation, reformation, and recompence vnto the
inhabitants of Prussia, and Liuonia, for the iniuries, damages, and
grieuances vniustly done and committed against them by the liege people and
subiects of the saide soueraigne lord the king, in the presence of the
mightie lord the Master general of Prussia, in his land of Prussia, as in
certain letters indented, bearing date in the castle of Marienburgh in
Prussia the eight day of the moneth of October, in the yeere of our lord
1405. and being made and written about the reparation, reformation, and
recompence of such like iniuries &c. (the tenour whereof ought here to be
vnderstood as if it were inserted) it is more manifestly contained.

It was furthermore promised by the said William and Iohn, that they should
uot inforce nor compell the citizens, people, or inhabitants of the common
society of the Hans, or of the aboue named cities, or of any other cities
of the Hans aforesaid (hauing receiued sufficient information of their
dwelling and place of abode) to more difficult or district proofes of their
Articles of complaints alreadie exhibited, and in the foresaide termes to
come, to bee exhibited, then vnto the inhabitants of the lands of Prussia
and Liuonia, according to the forme of the Indentures aboue mentioned.

Moreouer the saide William and Iohn doe promise, that so soone as they
shall come into the kingdome of England, and before the presence of their
king, they shal prouide, that all and singular the priuiledges graunted
vnto the marchants of the saide Hans by the renowmed kings of England, and
confirmed by the said Soueraigne lord the king that now is, must, according
to al their contents, be inuiolably obserued by the said soueraigne king
and his subiects: and also, that from henceforth nothing is vniustly to be
attempted, vpon any occasion, pretense, or colour, by the saide Soueraigne
Prince, and the inhabitants, of the realme of England, to the preiudice of
the sayde priuiledges. They shall prouide also, that all things heretofore
attempted and practised against the saide priuiledges, shall, by
reasonable, amendement and iust reformation, vtterly be abolished.

But if after the date of these presents (which God forfend) within the
space of the said one yere and seuen moneths prescribed any damages,
iniuries or grieuances, in ships, goods, or persons, should, either by the
English and the inhabitants of England be vniustly inflicted vpon the
cities, and marchants of the cities, townes, and places of the Hans
aforesaid, or by any merchants or others of the cities or townes of the
saide Hans, either vnto the English, or vnto any of the inhabitants of that
Realme, vpon any fained pretense whatsoeuer, all and singular the foresaid
messengers, commissioners, ambassadours, and procurators haue promised,
that all such damages, iniuries and molestations so inflicted by them who
shall offer and commit them, must bee reformed and amended, after the very
same forme and manner, that in the like case reformation, reparation and
amends of iniuries, damages, and molestations committed by the English
against them of Prussia is to be performed, according vnto a certaine
clause contained in the letters aboue mentioned, which beginneth: Caterum
ne per &c. In English: Howbeit least that &c. continuing vnto that clause:
Et vt prascripta omnia &c. In English: And that all the couenants aboue
written &c.

It was also concluded betweene the foresaide messengers, commissioners, and
procurators, and with one generall consent agreed vpon, that if from the
first day of the moneth of May next to come, within one whole yeere
following, some conuenient, iust, and reasonable reformation be not
performed vnto the parties iniured and damnified generally aboue mentioned,
in regard of their damages, molestations, and iniuries: then, within three
moneths after the saide yeere bee expired, the marchants of the Hans cities
aforesaid are bound, without any molestation, perturbation, and impediment
whatsoeuer (none other intimation or admonition being necessarie in this
behalfe) to auoyde (and if no lawfull impediment shall hinder them) to
abstaine and depart from the Realmes and Dominions of the said Soueraigne
king of England, with their marchandize and other goods bought or gotten
within the space of the saide three moneths: and also the English likewise
in all respects shall auoide, abstaine, and depart from the territories and
dominions of the Hans cities aforesaide.

Also it was promised by the saide William and Iohn, that at the terme
appointed, namely upon the first of May next following, or at some other
terme or termes then limited or to bee limited, there must be made a due
recompense, and a proportionall satisfaction, for all those persons of the
land of Prussia, Liuonia, and of the cities, townes, and other places of
the Hans who haue uniustly bene drowned, and slaine by the English: and
that according to the tenour of a certain schedule written concerning a
recompense to be had in regarde of the saide persons drowned and slaine,
and presented unto them by Albertus Rode consul of the citie of Thoren, and
by the forenamed procurators and messengers of the cities aforesaid, they
must faithfully and effectually, to the vtmost of their abilitie indeuour,
for the obtaining of the saide recompense and amends. In witnesse whereof
(these letters of indenture remaining in the possession of the saide
William and Iohn the messengers, procurators, and commissioners of England
aforesaid, and left in their custodie, by the aboue named procurotors and
messengers Henrie Rimarus, Thedericus, Simon, and Iohn Sotebotter, of their
certaine knowledge and assurance) and for the full confirmation and
testimonie of al the premisses, the foresaid procurators and messengers
haue put to their seales. Giuen in the towne of Dordract the 15. day of
December in the yere of our Lord 1405.

William Esturmy knight, and Iohn Kington canon of Lincolne (being in this
behalfe sufficiently authorized and deputed as Ambassadours, procurators,
messengers and commissioners, by our said soueraigne lord the king, namely
in regard of the molestations, iniuries and damages uniustly done and
committed against the liege people and subiects of the foresaide most
excellent Prince and lord, Lord Henry by the grace of God king of England
and France, and Lord of Ireland, by the communalties of the cities of
Wismer and Rostok vnderwritten, their common counsel being assembled for
the same purpose, and authorized also, and as well closely as expresly
maintained and ratified, by the whole companie of the common society of the
marchants of the Dutch Hans) doe, in this present diet at the towne of Hage
situate in the countrey of Holland, being appointed for the very same
occasion, demaund of you Syr Iohn de Aa knight, and Hermannus Meyer
deputies for the cities of Wismer and Rostok, and sufficiently ordeined by
authority requisite in this behalfe, to be the procurators and messengers
of the said cities, that conuenient, iust, and reasonable satisfaction and
recompense may certainely and effectually be done vnto the iniured and
endamaged parties, who are specified in the articles vnder written.

[Sidenote: Newcastle. An English ship of 200 tunnes.] Imprimis, that about
the feast of Easter, in the yeere of our Lord 1394. Henry van Pomeren,
Godekin Michael, Clays Sheld, Hans Howfoote, Peter Hawfoote, Clays
Boniface, Rainbek, and many others, with them of Wismer and of Rostok,
being of the societie of the Hans, tooke, by maine force, a ship of
Newcastle vpon Tine, called Godezere sailing vpon the sea towards Prussia,
being of the burthen of two hundred tunnes, and belonging vnto Roger de
Thorneton, Robert Gabiford, Iohn Paulin, and Thomas de Chester: which ship,
together with the furniture thereof amounteth vnto the value of foure
hundred, pounds: also the woollen cloth, the red wine, the golde, and the
summes of money contained in the said ship amounted vnto the value of 200.
marks of English money: moreouer they vniustly slew Iohn Patanson and Iohn
Russell in the surprising of the shippe and goods aforesaide, and there
they imprisoned the sayde parties taken, and, to their vtter vndoing,
detayned them in prison for the space of three whole yeeres.

[Sidenote: Hull.] Item, that in the yeere of our Lord 1394 certaine persons
of Wismer and Rostok, with others of the Hans their confederates robbed one
Richard Horuse of Hull of diuers goods and marchandizes in a ship called
the Shipper Berline of Prussia, beeing then valued at 160. nobles.

Item, that in the yeere of our Lorde 1395. Hans van Wethemonkule, Clays
Scheld, Godekin Mighel, and one called Strotbeker, by force of armes, and
by the assistance of the men of Wismer and Rostok, and others of the Hans,
did vpon the Sea neere vnto Norway, wickedly and vniustly take from Iohn
Tutteburie, fiue pieces of waxe, foure hundred of werke, and halfe a last
of osmundes, and other goods, to the value of foure hundred seuentie sixe

Item, in the yeere of our Lorde 1396. one Iohn van Derlowe, Hans van
Gelder, and other their complices of the Hans villainously and vniustly
tooke a shippe of William Terry of Hul called the Cogge, with thirtie
wollen broad clothes, and a thousand narrow clothes, to the value of 200.

Item, in the yeere of our Lorde 1398. one Iohn van Derlowe, Wilmer, Hans
van Gelder, Clays Scheld, Euerade Pilgrimson, and diuers others of the
Hans, did vpon the Sea neere vnto Norway villainously and vniustly take a
shippe of Iohn Wisedome of Hull called the Trinitie, with diuers goods and
marchandizes, namely oyle, waxe, and werke, to the value of 300. pounds.

Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1399. one Clays Scheld, and others aboue
written of Wismer and Rostok, with certaine others of the Hans, their
confederates, wickedly and vniustly tooke from one William Pound marchant
of Hull, two cakes of waxe, to the value of 18. poundes, out of the ship
called the Hawkin Derlin of Dantzik.

[Sidenote: Yorke.] Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1394. one Goddekin
Mighel, Clays Scheld, Storbiker, and diuers others of Wismer and Rostok,
and of the Hans, wickedly and vniustly tooke out of a ship of Elbing (the
master whereof was called Henry Puys) of the goods and marchandizes of
Henrie Wyman, Iohn Topcliffe, and Henry Lakenswither of Yorke, namely in
werke, waxe, osmunds, and bowstaues, to the value of 1060. nobles.

Item, in the yeere of our Lorde 1394. certaine malefactors of Wismer and
Rostok, with others of the Hans, their confederats wickedly and vniustly
took out of a ship of Holland (the master whereof was called Hinkensman)
140. woollen clothes (the price of one of the which clothes was eight
nobles) from Thomas Thester of Yorke, and a chest, with armour, siluer and
Golde of the foresaid Thomas, to the value of 9. pounds.

[Sidenote: London.] Item, in the yere of our Lord 1393. certaine
malefactors of Wismer and Rostok, and others their complices of the Hans,
wickedly and vniustly tooke from one Richard Abel of London woollen cloth,
greene cloth, meale and fishes, to the value of 133. li. 6. s.

Item, in the yeere of our Lorde 1405. about the feast of S. Michael, one
Nicholas Femeer of Wismer marchant of the Hans, with the assistance of
other his complices of the Hans aforesaide, wickedly and vniustly tooke
from one Richard Morley citizen of London fiue lasts of herrings, besides
32. pounds, in the sea called Northsound.

[Sidenote: Colchester.] Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1398; about the
moneth of September, one Godekin Wisle, and Gerard Sleyre of Wismer and
Rostok, with others of the Hans, their confederats wickedly and vniustly
took out of a ship of Prussia (wherof the master was named Rorebek) from
Iohn Seburgh marchant of Colchester two packs of woollen cloth, to the
value of 100. markes: from Stephan Flispe, and Iohn Plumer marchants of the
same town two packs of woollen cloth, to the value of 60. pounds: from
Robert Wight marchant of the same towne, two packs of woollen cloth to the
value of an 100. marks: from William Munde marchant of the same town, two
fardels of woollen cloth, worth 40. li. and from Iohn Dawe, and Thomas
Cornwaile marchants of the same towne, three packs of woollen cloth, worth
200. marks. Moreouer they tooke and imprisoned certain English men, which
were in the said ship, namely William Fubborne seruant vnto Iohn Diere,
Thomas Mersh seruant vnto Robert Wight, which Thomas paid for his ransome
20. nobles of English money, William Munde marchant of the towne
aforesaide, which William, by reason of the extremity of that imprisonment,
lost the sight of his eyes, and Thomas Cornwaile, marchant of the foresaide
Towne, which Thomas paide for his raunsome twentie nobles.

[Sidenote: Yermouth. Norwich] Item, in the yeere of our Lorde 1394 certaine
malefactors of Wismer and Rostok, vpon the coastes of Denmark and Norway,
beneath Scawe, and at Anold, tooke Thomas Adams and Iohn Walters marchants
of Yermouth: and Robert Caumbrigge and Reginald Leman marchants of Norwich,
in a certaine shippe of Elbing in Prussia (whereof one Clays Goldesmith was
master) with diuers woollen clothes of the saide Thomas, Iohn, Robert, and
Reginald, to the value of one thousande marks English, and carried the
persons and goods aforesaide, away with them: and the said Thomas, Iohn,
Robert, and Reginald they imprisoned at Courtbuttressow, and there detained
them, vntill they paide an hundred markes for their redemption.

[Sidenote: Yermouth.] Item in the yeere of our Lorde 1401. some of the
inhabitants of Wismer and of Rostok wickedly tooke at Longsound in Norway,
a certaine shippe of West-Stowe in Zealand (the Master whereof was one
Gerard Dedissen) laden with diuerse goods and marchandises of Iohn Hughson
of Yermouth, namely with the hides of oxen and of sheepe, with butter,
masts, sparres, boordes, questingstones and wilde werke, to the value of an
hundred marks, and do as yet detaine the said things in their possession,
some of the Hans being their assistants in the premisses.

Item, in the yeere of our Lorde 1402. certaine of the Hans, of Rostok, and
of Wismer, tooke vpon the coast of England, neere vnto Plimmouth a certaine
barge called the Michael of Yarmouth (whereof Hugh ap Fen was the owner,
and Robert Rigweys the master) laden with bay salt, to the quantitie of
130. wayes, and with a thousand canuasse clothes of Britaine, and doe as
yet detaine the saide goods in their possession, the said Hugh being
endamaged, by the losse of his ship, and of his goods aforesaid 800. nobles
and the foresaid Master and the mariners loosing, in regard of their wages,
canuas, and armour, 200. nobles.

Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1405. certain malefactors of Wismer wickedly
and vniustly tooke, in a certaine port of Norway called Selaw, a ship of
Yarmouth (the owner whereof was William Oxney and the master Thomas Smith)
laden with salt, cloth, and salmon, to the value of 40. pound, and doe as
yet detaine the said ship and goods in their possession, some of the Hans
their confederates ayding and assisting them at the same time.

[Sidenote: Cleye.] Item, in the yeere of our Lord 1395. one Godekin Mighel,
Clays Scheld, Stertebeker, and other their accomplices of the Hans,
vnlawfully tooke vpon the sea a certaine ship of one Iohn Dulwer of Cley,
called the Friday (whereof Laurence Tuk of Cley was master) and conueyed
the ship it self vnto Maustrond in Norway, and the saide Master and
mariners they robbed of diuers commodities, namely of artillery, furniture,
and salt fishes being in the same ship, to the value of 500. nobles.

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