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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation v. 4 by Richard Hakluyt

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signifieth a Shepheard or one that followeth a vagrant and wilde kinde of
life. By which name these Scythian Tartars haue euer beene noted, being
called by the Greekes [Greek: skythai nomades] or the Scythian shepheards.
[Sidenote: 2.] His second reason because the Turkes (in his time) that
dwelt in Asia the lesse, to wit, in Lydia, Caria, Phrygia and Cappadocia,
spake the very same language that these Tartars did, that dwelt betwixt the
riuer Tanais or Don, and the countrey of Sarmatia, which (as is knowen) are
these Tartars called Crims. At this time also the whole nation of the
Turkes differ not much in their common speech from the Tartar language.
[Sidenote: 3.] Thirdly because the Turke and the Crim Tartar agree so well
together, as well in religion, as in matter of Traffique neuer inuading, or
iniurying one another: saue that the Turke (since Laonicus his time) hath
encroached vpon some Townes vpon the Euxin Sea, that before perteined to
the Crim Tartar. [Sidenote: 4.] Fourthly, because Ortogules sonne to
Oguzalpes, and father to Ottoman the first of name of the Turkish nation
made his first roads out of those pans of Asia, vpon the next borderers,
till hee came towardes the countreys about the hill Taurus where he
ouercame the Greekes that inhabited there: and so enlarged the name and
territorie of the Turkish nation, till hee came to Eubaea and Attica and
other partes of Greece. [Sidenote: 1400.] This is the opinion of Laonicus,
who liued among the Turkes in the time of Amurat the sixt Turkish Emperour,
about the yeere 1400. when the memorie of their originall was more fresh:
and therefore the likelier hee was to hit the trueth.

[Sidenote: The Nagay Tartar the cruellest, The Chircase the ciuillest
Tartar.] There are diuers other Tartars that border vpon Russia, as the
Nayages, the Cheremissens, the Mordwites, the Chircasses, and the Shalcans,
which all differ in name more then in regiment, or other condition, from
the Crim Tartar, except the Chircasses that border Southwest, towardes
Lituania, and are farre more ciuill than the rest of the Tartars, of a
comely person, and of a stately behauiour, as applying themselues to the
fashion of the Polonian. Some of them haue subiected themselues to the
Kings of Poland, and professe Christianitie. The Nagay lieth Eastwarde, and
is reckoned for the best man of warre among all the Tartars, but verie
sauage, and cruell aboue all the rest. [Sidenote: The Cheremissen Tartar of
two sorts: the Lugauoy and the Nagornay.] The Cheremessen Tartar, that
lieth betwixt the Russe and the Nagay, are of two sorts, the Lugauoy (that
is of the valley) and the Nagornay, or of the hilly countrey. These haue
much troubled the Emperours of Russia. And therefore they are content now
to buy peace of them, vnder pretence of giuing a yeerely pension of Russe
commodities to their Morseys, or Diuoymorseis, that are chiefe of their
tribes. For which also they are bound to serue them in their wars, vnder
certaine conditions. They are said to be iust and true in their dealings:
and for that cause they hate the Russe people, whom they account to be
double, and false in al their dealing. And therefore the common sort are
very vnwilling to keepe agreement with them, but that they are kept in by
their pensions sake.

[Sidenote: The Mordwit Tartar the most barbarous of the rest.] The most
rude and barbarous is counted the Mordwit Tartar, that hath many selfe-
fashions and strange kinds of behauiour, differing from the rest. For his
religion, though he acknowledge one God, yet his manor is to worship for
God, that liuing thing that he first meeteth in the morning; and to sweare
by, it all that whole day, whether it be horse, dog, cat, or whatsoeuer els
it bee. When his friend dieth, he killeth his best horse, and hauing flayed
off the skinne hee carieth it on high vpon a long pole before the corpes to
the place of buriall. This hee doeth (as the Russe saieth) that his friend
may haue a good horse to carie him to heauen: but it is likelier to declare
his loue towards his dead friend, in that he will haue to die with him the
best thing that he hath.

Next to the kingdome of Astracan, that is the farthest part Southeastward
of the Russe dominion, lyeth the Shulcan, and the countrey of Media:
whither the Russe marchants trade for rawe silkes, syndon, saphion,
skinnes, and other commodities. The chiefe Townes of Media where the Russe
tradeth, are Derbent (built by Alexander the great, as the inhabitants say)
and Zamachi where the staple is kept for rawe silkes. [Sidenote: The
reuiuing of silkwormes.] Their maner is in the Spring time to reuiue the
silke-wormes (that lie dead all the Winter) by laying them in the warme
sunne, and (to hasten their quickening that they may the sooner goe to
worke) to put them into bags, and so to hang them vnder their childrens
armes. [Sidenote: Chrinisin a kind of silkworme.] As for the woorme called
Chrinisin (as wee call it Chrymson) that maketh coloured silke, it is bred
not in Media, but in Assyria. [Sidenote: Liberty to trade downe the Caspian
Sea.] This trade to Derbent and Samachi for rawe silkes, and other
commodities of that Countrey, as also into Persia, and Bougharia downe the
riuer of Volga, and through the Caspian sea, is permitted aswell to the
English as to the Russe merchants, by the Emperours last grant at my being
there. Which he accounteth for a very speciall fauour, and might proue
indeede very beneficiall to our English merchants, if the trade were wel
and orderly vsed.

The whole nation of the Tartars are vtterly voide of all learning, and
without written Law: yet certaine rules they haue which they hold by
tradition, common to all the Hoords for the practise of their life. Which
are of this sort. First, To obey their Emperour and other Magistrates,
whatsoeuer they commaund about the publike seruice. 2 Except for the
publike behoofe, euery man to be free and out of controlment. 3 No priuate
man to possesse any lands, but the whole countrey to be as common. 4 To
neglect all daintinesse and varietie of meates, and to content themselues
with that which commeth next to hand, for more hardnesse, and readines in
the executing of their affaires. 5 To weare any base attire, and to patch
their clothes whether there be any neede or not: that when there is neede,
it be no shame to weare a patcht coate. 6 To take or steale from any
stranger whatsoeuer they can get, as beeing enemies of all men, saue to
such as will subiect themselues to them. 7 Towards their owne hoorde and
nation to be true in worde and deede. 8 To suffer no stranger to come
within the Realme. [Sidenote: No stranger without pasport admitted.] If any
doe, the same to be bondslaue to him that first taketh him, except such
merchants and other as haue the Tartar Bull, or passport about them.

Of the Permians, Samoites, and Lappes.

The Permians and Samoites that lye from Russia, North and. Northeast, are
thought likewise to haue taken their beginning from the Tartar kinde. And
it may partly bee gessed by the fashion of their countenance, as hauing all
broade and flat faces as the Tartars haue, except the Chircasses.
[Sidenote: The Permians.] The Permians are accounted for a very ancient
people. They are nowe subiect to the Russe. They liue by hunting, and
trading with their furres, as also doeth the Samoit, that dwelleth more
towardes the North Sea. [Sidenote: The Samoits.] The Samoit hath his name
(as the Russe saith) of eating himselfe: as if in times past, they liued as
the Cannibals, eating one another. [Footnote: _Samoyed_ means "self-eater",
while _Samodin_ denotes "an individual". Nordenskioeld considers it
probable, however, that the old tradition of man-eaters _androphagi_,
living in the north, which originated with Herodotus, reappears in a
Russianised form in the name "Samoyed".] Which they make more probable,
because at this time they eate all kind of raw flesh, whatsoeuer it be,
euen the very carion that lieth in the ditch. But as the Samoits themselues
will say, they were called Samoie, that is, of themselues, as though they
were Indigenae, or people bred vpon that very soyle, that neuer changed
their seate from one place to another, as most nations haue done. They are
subiect at this time to the Emperour of Russia.

[Sidenote: The Samoits religion.] I talked with certaine of them, and finde
that they acknowledge one God: but represent him by such things as they
haue most vse and good by. And therefore they worship the Sunne, the Ollen,
the Losh, and such like. [Sidenote: Slata Baba or the golden Hag.] As for
the story of Slata Baba, or the Golden hagge, which I haue read in some
mappes, and descriptions of these countries, to be an idole after the forme
of an old woman that being demanded by the Priest, giueth them certaine
Oracles, concerning the successe, and euent of things, I found it to be a
very fable. [Sidenotes: A fable. The Sea.] Onely in the Prouince of Obdoria
vpon the sea side, neare to the mouth of the great riuer Obba, there is a
rocke, which naturally (being somewhat helped by imagination) may seeme to
beare the shape of a ragged woman, with a child in her armes (as the rocke
by the North Cape the shape of a Frier) where the Obdorian Samoites vse
much to resort, by reason of the commoditie of the place for fishing:
[Sidenote: Fishing or sea.] and there, sometime (as their manner is)
conceiue, and practise their sorceries, and ominous coniecturings about the
good or bad speede of their iourneies, fishings, huntings and such like.

[Sidenote: The Samoits habit and behauiour.] They are clad in Seale skins,
with the hairie side outwards downe as low as the knees, with their
breeches and netherstockes of the same, both men and women. They are all
blacke haired, naturally beardlesse. And therefore the men are hardly
discerned from the women by their lookes: saue that the women weare a locke
of haire downe along both their eares. [Sidenote: The people of Meta
Incognota such.] They liue in a manner a wilde and sauage life, rouing
still from one place of the countrey to another, without any property of
house or land more to one then to another. Their leader or directer in
euery companie, is their Papa or Priest.

[Sidenote: The Lappes.] On the North side of Russia next to Corelia, lieth
the countrey of Lappia, which reacheth in length from the farthest point
Northward, (towards the Northcape) to the farthest part Southeast (which,
the Russe calleth Sweetnesse or Holy nose, the English men Capegrace) about
345. verst or miles. From Sweetnesse to Candelox by the way of Versega
(which measureth the breadth of that countrey) is 90. miles or thereabouts.
The whole countrey in a maner is either lakes, or mountaines, which
towardes the Sea side are called Tondro, because they are all of harde and
craggy rocke, but the inland partes are well furnished with woods that
growe on the hilles sides, the lakes lying betweene. Their diet is very
bare and simple. Bread they haue none, but feede onely vpon fish and foule.
They are subiect to the Emperor of Russia, and the two kings of Sweden and
Denmarke: which all exact tribute and custome of them (as was saide before)
but the Emperor of Russia beareth the greatest hand ouer them, and exacteth
of them farre more then the rest. The opinion is that they were first
termed Lappes of their briefe and short speech. The Russe diuideth the
whole nation of the Lappes into two series. The one they call Nowremanskoy
Lapary, that is, the Norwegian Lappes because they be of the Danish
religion. For the Danes and Noruegians they account for one people. The
other that haue no religion at all but liue as bruite and heathenish
people, without God in the worlde, they cal Dikoy Lapary, or the wilde

The whole nation is vtterly vnlearned, hauing not so much as the vse of any
Alphabet, or letter among them. For practise of witchcraft and sorcerie
they passe all nations in the worlde. Though for enchanting of ships that
saile along their coast, (as I haue heard it reported) and their giuing of
winds good to their friends, and contrary to other, whom they meane to hurt
by tying of certaine knots vpon a rope (somewhat like to the tale of Aeolus
his windbag) is a very fable, deuised (as may seeme) by themselues, to
terrifie sailers for comming neere their coast. Their weapons are the long
bow, and handgunne, wherein they excell, as well for quicknesse to charge
and discharge, as for neerenesse at the marke by reason of their continuall
practise (whereto they are forced) of shooting at wild fowle. Their maner
is in Sommer time to come downe in great companies to the sea side, to
Wardhuyse, Cola, Kegor, and the bay of Vedagoba, and there to fish for
Codde, Salmon, and But-fish, which they sel to the Russes, Danes, and
Noruegians, and nowe of late to the English men that trade thither with
cloth, which they exchange with the Laps and Corelians for their fish,
oyle, and furres, whereof also they haue some store. [Sidenote: The mart at
Cola.] They hold their mart at Cola on S. Peter's day: what time the
captaine of Wardhuyse (that is residant there for the king of Denmark) must
be present, or at least send his deputie to set prices vpon their
stockfish, train oile, furres, and other commodities: as also the Russe
Emperors customer, or tribute taker, to receiue his custome, which is euer
paide before any thing can bee bought or solde. When their fishing is done,
their manner is to drawe their carbasses Or boates on shore, and there to
leaue them with the keele turned vpwardes, till the next spring tide.
[Sidenote: Sleds drawen with Deere.] Their trauaile to and fro is vpon
sleddes drawen by the Olen Deere: which they vse to turne a grasing all the
Sommer time in an Island called Kildyn, (of a verie good soyle compared
with other partes of that Countrey) and towards the Winter time, when the
snowe beginneth to fall they fetch them home againe for the vse of their

The description of the regions, people, and riuers lying North and East
from Moscouia: as the way from Moscouia to the riuer Petzora, and the
Prouince Iugaria or Iuhra, and from thence to the riuer Obi. Likewise the
description of other countreys and regions, euen vnto the Empire of the
great Can of Cathay, taken out of Sigismundus ab Herberstein.

[Sidenote: The dominion of the Duke of Moscouia.] The dominion of the
Prince of Moscouia, reacheth farre toward the East and North, vnto the
places which we will now describe. As concerning which thing, I translated
a book that was presented vnto me in the Moscouites tongue, and haue here
made a briefe rehearsall of the same. I will first therefore describe the
iourney from Moscouia to Petzora, and so to Iugaria and Obi. From Moscouia
to the citie of Vologda, are numbered fiue hundred versts, one verst,
conteyning almost the space of an Italian myle. From Vologda to Vsting
toward the right hand, descending with the course of the riuer of Vologda
and Suchana with whom it ioyneth, are counted fiue hundred verstes, where
within two versts of the towne called Strelze, and hard by the citie of
Vsting, Suchana ioyneth vnto Iug which runneth from the South: from whose
mouth vnto the springs of the same, are numbred fiue hundred versts.

[Sidenote: Iug. So called of his swift and pleasant streame.] But Suchana
and Iug, after they ioyne together, lose their first names, and make but
one riuer named Dwina, by the which the passage to the citie of Colmogro
conteineth fiue hundred versts, from whence, in the space of sixe dayes
iourney, Dwina entreth into the North Ocean at sixe mouthes. And the
greatest part of this iourney consisteth by Nauigation. For by lande from
Vologda vnto Colmogro, passing ouer the riuer Vuaga, are a thousand
verstes. Not farre from Colmogro, the riuer Pinega running from the East on
the right hand for the space of seuen hundred versts, falleth into Dwina.
From Dwina by the riuer Pienega, by the space of two hundred versts, they
come to a place called Nicholai, from whence within halfe a verst ships
haue passage into the riuer Kuluio, which hath his originall from a lake of
the same name towarde the North, from whose springs is eight daies viage to
the mouth of the same, where it entreth into the Ocean.

[Sidenote: The regions by the North sea.] Sayling by the coasts of the
right hand of the sea, they passe by the regions of Stanuwische,
Calunczcho, and Apnu: And sayling about the promontorie or cape of
Chorogoski Nose, Stanuwische, Camenckh, and Tolstickh, they come at length
into the riuer Mezen, and from thence in the space of sixe dayes, to a
village of the same name, standing in the mouth of the riuer Pieza, by the
which againe ascending toward the left hand and sommer East, they come to
the riuer Piescoia: from whence sayling for the space of fiue versts, they
come into two lakes, in the which are seene two wayes: whereof one on the
right side, goeth to the riner Rubicho, by the which they passe to the
riuer Czircho. Other, by an other and shorter way, bring their ships from
the lake directly into Czirchor: from whence, except they be hindered by
tempest, they come in the space of three weekes to the riuer and mouth of
Czilma, flowing into the great riuer Petzora, which in that place is two
versts in breadth. Sayling from thence, they come in the space of sixe
dayes to the Towne and castle of Pustosero, neare vnto the which Petzora
entreth into the North Ocean at sixe monthes. The inhabitants of this
place, are men of simple wit: they receiued the faith of Christ, and were
baptised in the yeare M. D. xviii.

From the mouth of Czilma vnto the mouth of the riuer Vssa, going by
Petzora, is one moneths viage. Vssa hath his springs in the mountaine
[Marginal Note: Cingulus mundi.] Poyas Semnoi, being on the left hand
toward the sommer East, and springeth out of a great stone of the same
mountaine, called Camen Bolschoi. From the springs of Vssa to the mouthes
of the same, are numbered more then a thousand versts. Furthermore, Petzora
runneth from this south winter part, from whence ascending from the mouthes
of Vssa, vnto the mouthes of the riuer Stzuchogora, is three weekes viage.
They that described this vyage sayd that they rested betweene the mouthes
of the riuers Stzuchogora and Potzscheriema, and left their victuals there
which they brought with them from Russia. Beyond the riuers of Petzora and
Stzuchogora toward the mountaine Camenipoias, and the sea with the Ilands
thereabout, and the Castle of Pustosero, are diuers and innumerable
nations, which by one common name are called Samoged (that is) such as eate
themselues. They haue great increase of foules, birdes, and diuers kindes
of beastes: as Sables. Marternes, Beuers, Otters, Hermelines, Squirrels:
and in the Ocean the beast called a Morse: Also Vesse, white Beares,
Wolues, Hares, Equiwoduani, great Whales, and a fish called Semfi, with
diuers other. [Sidenote: Wilde people.] The people of these nations come
not to Moscouia: For they are wilde, and flee the company and society of
other men.

From the mouthes of Stzuchogora, sayling vp the riuer vnto Poiassa,
Artawische, Cameni, and Poiassa the greater, is three weekes vyage.
Furthermore, the ascending to the mount Camen, is three dayes iourney: from
the which descending they come to the riuer Artawischa, and from thence to
the riuer Sibut, from whence they passe to the Castle of Lepin, and from
Lepin to the riuer Sossa. The people that inhabite the region by this
riuer, are called Vuogolici. Leauing Sossa on the right hande, they come to
the great riuer Obi, that springeth out of the lake Kitaisko, the which,
with all the haste they could make, they could scarcely passe ouer in one
day, the riuer being of such breadth that it reacheth fourescore versts.
The people also that dwell about the riuer, are called Vuogolici and
Vgritzschi. From the Castle of Obea, ascending by the riuer of Oby, vnto
the riuer Irtische, into the which Sossa entereth, is three moneths
iourney. In these places are two Castles named Ierom and Tumen, kept by
certaine Lords called Knesi Iuhorski, being tributaries to the great Duke
of Moscouia, as they say. Here are diuers kinds of beasts and furres.

From the mouth of the riuer Irtische to the Castle of Grustina, is two
moneths iourney: from whence to the lake Kitai, by the riuer Oby (which I
said to haue his springs in this lake) is more then three moneths iourney.
[Sidenote: Blacke men without speech.] From this lake come many blacke men;
lacking the vse of common speech. They bring with them diuers wares, and
especially pearles and precious stones, which they sell to the people
called Grustintzi and Serponowtzi. These haue their name of the Castle
Serponow, situate in the mountaines of Lucomoria, beyond the riuer Obi.
[Sidenote: Men that yeerely die and reuiue.] They say that to the men of
Lucomoria chauncheth a marueilous thing and incredible: For they affirme,
that they die yeerely at the xxvii. day of Nouember, being the feast of S.
George among the Moscouites: and that the next spring about the xxiii. day
of Aprill, they reuiue as doe Frogges.

[Sidenote: A strange trade of merchandise.] With these also, the people of
Grustintzi and Serponowtzi exercise a new and strange kinde of trade. For
when the accustomed time of their dying, or rather of sleeping, approcheth,
they leaue their wares in certaine places appointed, which the Grustintzi
and Serponowtzi carry away, leauing other wares of equall value in their
places: which if the dead men at the time of their reuiuing perceiue to be
of vnequal price, they require their owne againe: by reason whereof, much
strife and righting is betweene them.

From the riuer of Obi descending toward the left hand, are the people
called Calami, which came thither from Obiowa and Pogosa. Beneath Obi,
about Aurea Anus (that is the golden old wife) are the riuers Sossa,
Berezuua, and Danadim, all which spring out of the mountaines Camen,
Bolschega, Poiassa, and the rockes ioyning to the same. All the nations
that inhabite from these riuers to Aurea Anus, are subiect to the prince of

Aurea Anus, called in the Moscouites tongue, Slata Baba, is an Idol at the
mouthe of Obi in the prouince of Obdora, standing on the furthest banke
toward the sea. Along by the bankes of Obi, and the riuers neare there
about, are here and there many castles and fortresses: all the lordes
whereof are subiect to the prince of Moscouia, as they say. They say also,
or rather fable, that the idol called Aurea anus, is an image like vnto an
old wife, hauing a child in her lap, and that there is now seene another
infant, which they say to be her nephew: Also that there are certaine
instruments that make a continuall sound like the noyse of Trumpets, the
which, if it so be, I thinke it to be by reason of the winde, blowing
continually into the holow places of those instruments.

The riuer Cossin falleth out of the mountaines of Lucomoria: In the mouth
of this is a castle, whither from the springs of the great riuer Cossin, is
two moneths viage. [Sidenote: Tachnin a great riuer. People of monstrous
shape. A fish like a man. Plinie writeth of the like fish.] Furthermore,
from the springs of the same riuer, the riuer Cassima hath his originall,
which running through Lucomoria, falleth into the great riuer Tachnin,
beyond the which (as is said) dwell men of prodigious shape, of whom some
are ouergrowen with haire like wilde beastes, other haue heads like dogges,
and their faces in their breasts, without neckes, and with long hands also,
and without feete. There is likewise in the riuer Tachnin a certaine fish,
with head, eyes, nose, mouth, hands, feete, and other members vtterly of
humane shape, and yet, without any voyce, and pleasant to be eaten, as are
other fishes.

[Sidenote: The end of the iournall.] All that I haue hitherto rehearsed, I
haue translated out of the saide iourney which was deliuered me in the
Moscouites tongue: In the which, perhaps some things may seeme fabulous,
and in maner incredible, as of the double men, and the dead reuiuing, the
Aurea Anus also, and the monstrous shapes of men, with the fish of humane
fourme: whereof although I haue made diligent inquisition, yet could I know
nothing certaine of any that had seene the same with their eyes:
neuerthelesse, to giue farther occasion to other to search the truth of
these things, I haue thought good to make mention hereof.

Noss in the Moscouites tongue signifieth a nose, and therefore they call
all capes or points that reach into the sea by the same name.

The mountaines about the riuer of Petzora are called Semnoy Poyas, or
Cingulus mundi, that is, the girdle of the world, or of the earth.

Kithai is a lake, of which the great Can of Cathay, whom the Moscouians cal
Czar Kithaiski, hath his name: For Can in the Tartars language signifieth,
A King.

[Sidenote: Moria is the sea.] The places of Lucomoria, neare vnto the sea,
are saluage full of woods, and inhabited without any houses. And albeit,
that the author of this iourney, said, that many nations of Lucomoria are
subiect to the prince of Moscouia, yet for asmuch as the kingdome of Tumen
is neare thereunto, whose prince is a Tartar, and named in their Tongue,
Tumenski Czar, that is, a king in Tumen, and hath of late done great domage
to the prince of Moscouia: It is most like that these nations should be
rather subiect vnto him.

Neare vnto the riuer Petzora (whereof mention is made in this iourney) is
the citie and castle of Papin or Papinowgorod, whose inhabitants are named
Papini, and haue a priuate language, differing from the Moscouites.
[Sidenote: High mountaines, supposed to be Hyperborei, and Rhiphei.] Beyond
this riuer are exceeding high mountaines, reaching euen vnto the bankes,
whose ridges or tops, by reason of continuall windes, are in maner vtterly
barren without grasse or fruits. And although in diuers places they haue
diuers names, yet are they commonly called Cingulus mundi, that is, the
girdle of the world. In these mountaines doe Ierfalcons breede, whereof I
haue spoken before. There growe also Cedar trees, among the which are found
the best and blackest kinde of Sables: and onely these mountaines are seene
in all the dominions of the prince of Moscouia which perhaps are the same
that the old writers call Rhipheos or Hyperboreos, so named of the Greeke
word, Hyper, that is, Aboue, and Boreas, that is, the North; for by reason
they are couered with continuall snow and frost, they can not without great
difficultie be trauayled, and reach so farre into the North, that they make
the vnknown land of Engronland. The Duke of Moscouia, Basilius the sonne of
Iohn, sent on a time two of his Captaines, named Simeon Pheodorowich
Kurbski, & Knes Peter Vschatoi, to search the places beyond these
mountaines, and to subdue the nations thereabout. Kurbski was yet aliue at
my being in Moscouia, & declared vnto me that he spent xvii. daies in
ascending the mountaine, & yet could not come to the top thereof, which in
their tongue is called Stolp, that is, a piller. This mountaine is extended
into the Ocean vnto the mouthes of the riuers of Dwina and Petzora.

But now hauing spoken thus much of the said iourney, I will returne to the
dominions of Moscouia, with other regions lying Eastward and South from the
same, toward the mighty Empire of Cathay. But I will first speake somewhat
briefly of the prouince of Rezan, and the famous riuer of Tanais.

[Sidenote: The fruitfull prouince of Rezan.] The prouince of Rezan, situate
betweene the riuers of Occa and Tanais, hath a citie builded of wood, not
far from the bank of Occa: there was in it a castle named Iaroslaue,
whereof there now remainethr nothing but tokens of the old ruine. Not farre
from that citie the riuer Occa maketh an Iland named Strub, which was
sometime a great Dukedome, whose prince was subiect to none other. This
prouince of Rezan is more fruitful then any other of the prouinces of
Moscouia: Insomuch that in this (as they say) euery graine of wheat
bringeth forth two, and sometimes more eares: whose stalkes or strawes grow
so thicke that horses can scarsely go through them, or Quayles flie out of
them. There is great plenty of hony, fishes, foules, hirdes, and wilde
beasts. The fruits also due farre exceede the fruits of Moscouia. The
people are bolde and warlike men.

A speciall note gathered by the excellent Venetian Cosmographer M. Iohn
Baptista Ramusius out of the Atabian Geographie of Abilfada Ismael,
concerning the trending of the Ocean sea from China Northward, along the
coast of Tartarie and other vnknowen lands, and then running Westwards
vpon the Northerne coasts of Russia, and so farther to the Northwest.

Descriuendo poi il predetto Abilfadai Ismael luoghi della terra habitabile,
che circuendo il mar Oceano tocca, dice cosi.

[Sidenote: La regione delle Cine. Contini delli vltimi Tartari. Alcune
Terre Incognite. Contini Settentrionali della Rosia.] Riuoltasi l'Oceano da
leuante verso la regione delle Cine, et va alla volta di Tramontana, et
passata finalmente la detta regione, se ne giunge a Gogi et Magogi, cio e
alli confini de gli Vltimi Tartari, et di quiui ad Alcune Terre che sono
Incognite: Et correndo sempre per Ponente, passa sopra li confini
Settentrionali della Rossia, et va alla volta di Maestro.

The same in English.

The aforesaid Abilfada Ismael describing afterward the habitable places of
the earth, which the Ocean sea in his circuit toucheth, sayth in this
manner following.

[Sidenote: The Countrey of China. The coasts of the vttermost Tartars.
Certaine vnknowne Countreys. The Northern coasts of Russia. The Northwest.]
The Ocean sea turneth from the East toward the Countrey of the Chinaes, and
stretcheth toward the North, and at length hauing passed the sayd Countrey,
it reacheth vnto the Gogi and Magogi, that is, to the confines of The
vttermost Tartars, and from thence vnto certaine vnknowen Countreys: and
running still Westward it passeth vpon the Northerne coasts of Russia, and
from thence it runneth toward Northwest, (which it doth indeede vpon the
coast of Lappia.) By this most notable testimony it appeareth, that the
Ocean sea compasseth and enuironeth all the East, Northeast, and North
parts of Asia and Europe.

The Emperors priuate or houshold Officers.

The chiefe Officers of the Emperors houshold are these which follow.
[Sidenote: Master of the Horse.] The first is the office of the Boiaren
Conesheua, or master of the Horse. Which conteineth no more then is
expressed by the name, that is to be ouerseer of the Horse, and not
Magister equitum, or Master of the Horsemen. For he appointeth other for
that seruice, as occasion doth require, as before was sayd. He that beareth
that office at this time, is Boris Pheodorowich Godonoe, brother to the
Empresse. Of Horse for seruice in his warres (besides other for his
ordinary vses) he hath to the number of ten thousand which are kept about

The next is the Lord Steward of his houshold at this time, one Gregory
Vasilowich Godonoe. The third is his Treasurer, that keepeth all his
monies, iewels, plate, &c. now called Stephan Vasilowich Godonoe. The
fourth his Controller, now Andreas Petrowich Clesinine. The fift his
Chamberlaine. He that attendeth that office at this time, is called Estoma
Bisabroza Pastelnischay. The sixt his Tasters, now Theodor Alexandrowich,
and Iuan Vasilowich Godonoe. The seuenth his Harbingers, which are three
Noble men, and diuers other Gentlemen that do the office vnder them. These
are his ordinary officers and offices of the chiefest account.

Of Gentlemen besides them that waite about his chamber, and person (called
Shilsey Strapsey) there are two hundred, all Noblemens sonnes. His ordinary
Garde is two thousand Hagbutters readie with their pieces charged, and
their match lighted, with other necessarie furniture continually day and
night: which come not within the house, but waite without in the court or
yard, where the Emperour is abiding. In the night time there lodgeth next
to his bedchamber the chiefe Chamberlaine with one or two more of best
trust about him. A second chamber off there lodge sixe other of like
account for trust and faithfulnesse. In the thirde chamber lie certaine
young Gentlemen, of these two hundred, called Shilsey Strapsey that take
their turnes by forties euery night. There are groomes besides that watch
in their course, and lie at euery gate and doore of the Court, called

The Hagbutters or Gunners, whereof there are two thousand (as was sayd
before) watch about the Emperours lodgings, or bedchamber by course 250.
euery night, and 250. more in the Courtyarde, and about the Treasure house.
His Court or house at the Mosco is made castle wise, walled about, with
great store of faire ordinance planted vpon the wall, and conteyneth a
great breadth of ground within it, with many, dwelling houses: Which are
appointed for such as are knowen to be sure, and trustie to the Emperor.

Of the priuate behauiour, or qualitie of the Russe people.

The priuate behauiour and qualitie of the Russe people, may partly be
vnderslood by that which hath beene sayd concerning the publique state and
vsage of the Countrey. [Sidenote: Constitution of their bodies.] As
touching the naturall habite of their bodies, they are for the most part of
a large size, and of very fleshly bodies: accounting it a grace to be
somewhat grosse and burley, and therefore they nourish and spread their
beards, to haue them long and broad. But for the most part, they are very
vnwieldy and vnactiue withall. Which may be thought to come partly of the
climate, and the numbnesse which they get by the cold in winter, and partly
of their diet that standeth most of routes, onions, garlike, cabbage, and
such like things that breede grosse humors, which they vse to eate alone,
and with their other meates.

[Sidenote: Their diet.] Their diet is rather much then curious. At their
meales they beginne commonly with a Charke or small cuppe of Aqua vitae,
(which they call Russe wine) and then drinke not till towardes the end of
their meales, taking it in largely, and all together, with kissing one
another at euery pledge. And therefore after dinner there is no talking
with them, but euery man goeth to his bench to take his afternoones sleepe,
which is as ordinary with them as their nights rest. When they exceede, and
haue varietie of dishes, the first are their baked meates (for roste meates
they vse little) and then their broathes or pottage. Their common drinke is
Mead, the poorer sort vse water and a third drinke called Quasse, which is
nothing else (as we say) but water turned out of his wits, with a litle
branne meashed with it.

This diet would breed in them many diseases, but that they vse bathstoues
or hote houses in steade of all Phisicke, commonly twise or thrise euery
weeke. All the winter time, and almost the whole Semmer, they heat their
Peaches, which are made like the Germane bathstoues, and their Poclads like
ouens, that so warme the house that a stranger at the first shall hardly
like of it. These two extremities, specially in the winter of heat within
their houses, and of extreame cold without, together with their diet, make
them of a darke, and sallow complexion, their skinnes being tanned and
parched both with cold and with heate: specially the women, that for the
greater part are of farre worse complexions, then the men. Whereof the
cause I take to be their keeping within the hote houses, and busying
themselues about the heating, and vsing of their bathstoues, and peaches.

The Russe because that he is vsed to both these extremities of heat and of
cold, can beare them both a great deale more patiently, then strangers can
doe. [Sidenote: An admirable induring of extreme heat and colde at one and
the same time.] You shall see them sometimes (to season their bodies) come
out of their bathstoues all on a froth, and fuming as hoat almost as a
pigge at a spit, and presently to leape into the riuer starke naked, or to
powre colde water all ouer their bodies and that in the coldest of all the
winter time. The women to mende the bad hue of their skinnes vse to paint
their faces with white and red colours, so visibly, that euery man may
perceiue it. Which is made no matter because it is common and liked well by
their husbands: who make their wiues and daughters an ordinarie allowance
to buy them colours to paint their faces withall, and delight themselues
much to see them of fowle women to become such faire images. Thin parcheth
the skinne, and helpeth to deforme them when their pinting is of.

They apparell themselues after the Greeke manner. [Sidenote: The Noblemans
attire.] The Noblemans attire is on this fashion. First a Taffia, or little
nightcappe on the head, that couereth litle more then his crowne, commonly
verie rich wrought of silke and golde threede, and set with pearle and
precious stone. His head he keepeth shauen close to the very skinne, except
he be in some displeasure with the Emperour. Then hee suffereth his haire
to growe and hang downe vpon his shoulders, couering his face as ugly and
deformedly as he can. Ouer the Taffia hee weareth a wide cappe of blacke
Foxe (which they account for the best furre) with a Tiara or long bonnet
put within it, standing vp like a Persian or Babilonian hatte. About his
necke (which is seene all bare) is a coller set with pearle and precious
stone, about three or foure fingers broad. Next ouer his shirt, (which is
curiously wrought, because he strippeth himselfe into it in the Sommer
time, while he is within the house) is a Shepon, or light garment of silke,
made downe to the knees, buttoned before: and then a Caftan or a close coat
buttoned, and girt to him with a Persian girdle, whereat he hangs his
kniues and spoone. This commonly is of cloth of gold, and hangeth downe as
low as his ankles. Ouer that he weareth a lose garment of some rich silke,
furred and faced about with some golde lace, called a Ferris. An other ouer
that of chainlet, or like stufle called an Alkaben, sleeued and hanging
lowe, and the cape commonly brooched, and set all with pearle. When hee
goeth abroad, he casteth ouer all these (which are but sleight, though they
seeme to be many) an other garment tailed an Honoratkey, like to the
Alkaben, saue that it is made without a coller for the necke. And this is
commonly of fine cloth or Camels haire. His buskins (which he weareth in
stead of hose, with linnen folles vnder them in stead of boot hose) are
made of a Persian leather called Saphian, embrodered with pearle. His vpper
stockes commonly are of cloth of golde. When he goeth abroad, hee mounteth
on horsebacke, though it be but to the next doore: which is the maner also
of the Boiarskey, or Gentlemen.

[Sidenote: The Gentlemans apparel.] The Boiarskey or Gentlemans attire is
of the same fashion, but differeth in stuffe: and yet he will haue his
Caftan or vndercoat sometimes of cloth of golde, the rest of cloth, or

[Sidenote: The Noble woman's attire.] The Noble woman (called Chyna
Boiarshena) weareth on her head, first a cauil of some soft silke (which is
commonly redde) and ouer it a fruntlet called Obrosa, of white colour. Ouer
that her cappe (made after the coife fashion of cloth of gold) called
Shapka Zempska, edged with some rich furre, and set with pearle and stone.
Though they haue of late begunne to disdaine embrodering with pearle aboue
their cappes, because the Diacks, and some Marchants wiues haue taken vp
the fashion. In their ears they weare earerings (which they call Sargee) of
two inches or more compasse, the matter of gold set with Rubies or
Saphires, or some like precious stone. In Sommer they goe often with
kerchiefffes of fine white lawne, or cambricke, fastned vnder the chinne,
with two long tassels pendent. The kerchiefe spotted and set thicke with
rich pearle. When they ride or goe abroad in raynie weather, they weare
white hattes with coloured bandes called Stapa Zemskoy. About their neckes
they weare collers of three or foure fingers broad, set with rich pearle
and precious stone. Their vpper garment is a loose gowne called Oposhen
commonly of scarlet, with wide loose sleeues, hanging downe to the ground
buttened before with great golde buttons or at least siluer and guilt nigh
as bigge as a walnut. Which hath hanging ouer it fastned vnder the cappe, a
large broad cape of some rich furre, that hangeth downe almost to the
middes of their backes. Next vnder the Oposken [Trascriber's note: sic] or
vpper garment, they weare another called a Leitnich that is made close
before with great wide sleeues, the cuffe or halfe sleeue vp to the
elbowes, commonly of cloth of golde: and vnder that a Ferris Zemskoy, which
hangeth loose buttoned throughout to the very foote. On the hande wrests
they weare very faire braselets, about two fingers broad of pearle and
precious stone. They goe all in buskins of white, yellow, blew, or some
other coloured leather, embrodered with pearle. This is the attire of the
Noblewoman of Russia, when she maketh the best shewe of herselfe. The
Gentlewomans apparell may differ in the stuffe, but is all one for the
making or fashion.

[Sidenote: The Mousicks or common man attire.] As for the poore Mousick and
his wife they goe poorely cladde. The man with his Honoratkey, or loose
gowne to the small of the legge, tyed together with a lace before, of
course white or blew cloth, with some Shube or long wastcoate of furre, or
of sheepeskinne vnder it, and his furred cappe, and buskins. The poorer
sort of them haue their Honoratkey, or vpper garment, made of Kowes haire.
This is their winter habite. In the sommer time, commonly they weare
nothing but their shirts on their backes, and buskins on their legges. The
woman goeth in a red or blewe gowne, when she maketh the best shewe, and
with some warme Shube of furre vnder it in the winter time. But in the
sommer, nothing but her two shirts (for so they call them) one ouer the
other, whether they be within doores, or without. On their heads, they
weare caps of some coloured stuffe, many of veluet, or of cloth of gold:
but for the most part kerchiefs. Without earings of siluer or some other
mettall, and her crosse about her necke, you shall see no Russe woman, be
she wife or maide.

* * * * *

The Lord Boris Phcodorowich his letter to the Right Honorable William
Burghley Lord high Treasurer of England. &c.

[Sidenote: The Emperors stile increased.] By the grace of God the great
Lord Emperor, and great Duke Theodore Iuanowich, great Lord, King, and
great Duke of all Russia, of Volodemer, Mosco, and Nouogorod, king of
Cazan, and Astracan, Lord of Vobsko, and great Duke of Smolensco, Tuer,
Vghori, Permi, Viatsko, Bolgorie, and other places, Lorde and great Duke of
Nouogrod in the Lowe Countrey, of Chernigo, Rezan, Polotsky, Rostoue,
Yeroslaue, Bealozera, and Liefland, of Oudorski, Obdorski, Condinski, and
commander of all Sibierland, and the North coasts, great Lorde ouer the
Countrey of Iuerski, Grisinski, Emperor of Kabardinski, and of the Countrey
Charchaski, and the Countrey of Gorsky, and Lord of many other regions.

From Boris Pheodorowich his Maiesties brother in law, master of his horses,
gouernour of the territories of Cazan and Astracan, to William Lord
Burghley, Lord high Treasurer to the most vertuous Ladie Elizabeth, Queene
of England. France, and Ireland, and other dominions: I receiued your
Lordships letters, wherein you write that you haue receiued very ioyfully
my letters sent vnto you, and aduisedly read them, and imparted the same
vnto her Maiestie: [Sidenote: The English Marchants complaints.] and that
your Merchants finde themselues agreeued, that when they approch these
parts, and are arriued here, they are not permitted to enter into a free
and liberall course of barter, traffike, and exchange of their commodities,
as heretofore they haue done, but are compelled before they can enter into
any traffike to accept the Emperours waxe, and other goods, at high rates
farre aboue their value, to their great losse: and that they are by reason
of this restraint long holden vpon these coasts to the danger of wintering
by the way. Hereafter there shalbe no cause of offence giuen to the
Marchants of the Queenes Maiestie Queene Elizabeth: they shall not be
forced to any thing, nether are there or shall be any demands made of
custome or debts. Such things as haue beene heretofore demaunded, all such
things haue beene already vpon their petition and supplication commaunded
to be discharged. I haue sollicited his Maiestie for them, that they be not
troubled hereafter for those matters, and that a fauourable hand be caried
ouer them. And according to your request I will be a meane to the Emperour
for them in all their occasions, and will my selfe shew them my fauorable
countenance. And I pray you (William Burghley) to signifie to her Maiesties
Merchants that I promise to haue a care of them, and for the Queenes
Maiestie of Englands sake, I will take her Merchants into my protection,
and will defend them as the Emperours selected people vnder the Emperors
commission: and by mine appointment all his Maiesties officers and
authorized people shall be careful ouer them. [Sidenote: English Marchants
in great fauour with the Emperor.] The Emperors gracious fauor towards them
was neuer such as it is now. And where you write that at the Port the
Emperors officers sell their waxe by commission at a set rate giuen them,
farre aboue the value and that they enforce your Marchants to accept it,
they deny that they take any such course, but say they barter their waxe
for other wares, and also put their waxe to sale for readie money to your
Merchants, according to the worth thereof, and as the price goeth in the
custome house here. It hath beene heretofore deare, and now is sold as good
cheape as in any other place, and as they can best agree: they enforce no
man to buy it, but rather kepe it: therefore your Marchants haue no iust
cause to make any such report. I haue expressely giuen order, that there
shall be no such course vsed to enforce them, but to buy according to their
owne willes, and to tarrie at the port or to depart at their pleasure.
[Sidenote: Halfe the debt of Antony Marsh remitted.] And as touching the
customes alreadie past, and debts demanded at your Merchants hands, whereof
you write: Our Lord great Emperour and great Duke Theodore Iuanowich of all
Russia of famous memory hath shewed his Maiesties especial fauour and loue,
for the great loue of his welbeloued sister Queene of England, and by my
peticion and mediation, whereas there was commandement giuen to take
Marshes whole debt of your Merchants and factors, it is moderated to the
halfe, and for the other halfe, commandement giuen it should not be taken,
and the Merchants billes to be deliuered them. And to the end hereafter
that her Maiesties Merchants moue no contention betwixt our Lord the
Emperor and great Duke of Russia, and his welbeloued sister Queene
Elizabeth, his Maiestie desireth order to be giuen, that your Marchants doe
deale iustly in their traffike, and plainely without fraud or guile. And I
will be a fauourer of them aboue all others, vnder his Maiesties
authoritie: themselues shall see it. [Sidenote: Ann. Dom. 1590.] Written in
our great Lorde the Emperours citie of Mosco in the moneth of Iuly. 7099.

* * * * *

The Queenes Maiesties letter to Theodore Iuanouich Emperour of Russia,

Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, France, and Ireland,
defender of the faith, &c. to the right high, mighty, and right noble
prince Theodore Iuanouich great Lord, King, and great Duke of all Russia,
Volodemer, Mosco, Nouogrod, King of Cazan, and Astracan, Lord of Vobsko,
and great Duke of Smolensko, Otuer, Vghory, Perme, Viatski, Bolgory, and
other places: Lord and great Duke of Nouogrod in the low countrey, of
Chernigo, Rezan, Polotsky, Rostoue, Yeraslaue, Bealozero, and Lifland, of
Oudorsky, Obdorsky, Condinsky, and commander of all Sibierland and the
North coasts, great Lord ouer the country of Tuersky, Grisinsky, Emperor of
Kabardinsky, and of the countrey of Charkasky, and of the countrey of
Gorsky, and Lord of many other countreys, our most deare and louing
brother, greeting. Right noble and excellent prince, we haue receiued your
Maiesties letters brought ouer by our merchants in their returne of their
[Marginal note: 1590.] last voyage from your port of S. Nicholas: which
letters we haue aduisedly read and considered, and thereby perceiue that
your Maiesty doth greatly mislike of our late employment of Ierome Horsey
into your dominions as our messenger with our Highnesse letters and also
that your Maiesty doth thinke that we in our letters sent by the sayd
messenger haue not obserued that due order or respect which apperteined to
your princely maiesty, in the forme of the said letter, aswel touching the
inlargement of your Maiesties stile and titles of honor which your Maiesty
expected to haue bene therein more particularly expressed, as also in the
adding of our greatest seale or signet of armes to the letters which we
send to so great a Prince as your Maiesty is: in any of which points we
would haue bene very loth willingly to haue giuen iust cause of offence
thereby to our most deare and louing brother. And as touching the sayd
messenger Ierome Horsey we are sory that contrary to our expectation he is
fallen into your Maiesties displeasure, whom we minde not to mainteine in
any his actions by which he hath so incurred your Maiesties mislike: yet
that we had reason at such time as we sent him to your Maiesty to use his
seruice as our messenger, we referre our selues to your princely iudgement,
praying your Maiesty to reduce into your minde the especiall commendation,
which in your letters written vnto vs in the yeere 1585, you made of the
sayd Ierome Horsey his behauiour in your dominions: at which time your
Maiesty was pleased to vse his seruice as your messenger to vs, requiring
our answere of your letters to be returned by him and by none other. That
imployment, with other occasions taken by your Maiesty to vse the seruice
of the sayd Ierome Horsey (as namely in the yeere 1587) when your Maiesty
sent him to vs againe with your letters, and your liberall and princely
priuiledge at our request granted to our merchants (for which we haue
heretofore giuen thanks to your Maiesty, so doe we hereby reiterate our
thankfulnesse for the same) mooued vs to be of minde, that we could not
make choise of any of our subiects so fit a messenger to your Maiesty as
he, whom your Maiesty had at seuerall times vsed vpon your owne occasions
into this our Realme. But least your highnesse should continue of the minde
that the letters which you sent by our ambassador Giles Fletcher (wherein
some mention was made of your conceiued displeasure against the sayd
Horsey) came not to our hands, and that wee were kept ignorant of the
complaint which your Maiesty made therein against the sayd Horsey, we do
not deny but that we were acquainted aswell by our ambassadour as by those
letters of some displeasure conceiued against him by your Maiesty: but your
sayd letters giuing onely a short generall mention of some misdemeanour
committed by him, expressing no particulars, we were of opinion that this
offence was not so hainous, as that it might vtterly extinguish all your
former princely fauour towards him, but that vpon his humble submission to
your Maiesty, or vpon better examination of the matter of the displeasure
conceiued against him, the offence might haue beene either remitted, or he
thereof might haue cleared himselfe. And to that end we were not onely by
his great importunity long sollicited, but by the intercession of some of
our Nobility giuing credit to his owne defence, we were intreated on his
behalfe to vse his seruice once againe into Russia as our messenger to your
Maiestie, whereby he might haue opportunity to cleare himselfe, and either
by his answere or by his submission recouer your Maiesties former fauour:
whereunto our princely nature was mooued to yeeld, wishing the good of our
subiect so farre foorth as his desert might carry him, or his innocencie
cleare him.

Thus noble Prince, our most louing and dearest brother, it may appeare vnto
your Maiesty how we were induced to vse the seruice of the sayd messenger,
aswell for the recouery of your Maiesties fauour towards him (if he had
been found woorthy of it) as for experience of the maners and fashions of
your countrey, where he hath bene much conuersant. But sith by your
Maiesties letters it appeareth that he hath not cleared himselfe in your
Maiesties sight, we meane not to vse him in any such price hereafter.

And as touching your Maiesties conceit of the breuitie which we vsed in the
setting downe of your Maiesties stile and titles of honour: as nothing is
further from vs, then to abridge so great and mighty a Prince of the honour
due vnto him (whom we holde for his greatnesse to deserue more honour then
we are able to giue him) so shall we need no further nor surer argument to
cleare vs of the suspicion of the detracting from your Maiesty any part of
your iust and princely honor and greatnesse, then the consideration of our
owne stile, which is thus contracted, videlicet, Elizabeth by the grace of
God Queene of England, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith &c. which
kingdomes and dominions of ours are expressed by these generall words,
videlicet, England, France, and Ireland: in euery of which there are
seuerall principalities, dukedomes, earledomes, prouinces and countreys:
which being seuerally expressed would enlarge much our stile, and make it
of great length: which by our progenitours hath not bene vsed:
notwithstanding, we thinke it no dishonour to vs, compendiously to abridge
the same in all our writings and letters written to what Prince, King, or
Potentate soeuer. Whereupon we inferre, that holding your Maiesties
generall stile, we offer your Highnesse no dishonour in not expressing all
the particular prouinces: albeit we can willingly content our selfe, upon
the knowledge of your vsages and customes, to obserue that course, which
your selfe shall thinke most honourable. And for the sealing vp of our
letters which we write to all our allies, kinsmen, and friends, Kings and
Princes, we haue in vse two seuerall seales: both which we esteeme alike
honourable, being our princely seales. And as the volume of our letters
falleth out to be great or small, so accordingly is our greater or lesser
seale annexed to the sayd letters, without esteeming either of them more or
lesse honourable then the other. So as, our most louing and dearest
brother, in the said letters there was nothing done of purpose to detract
from your Maiesty any thing, of the vsuall regard, which our Highnesse was
woont to yeeld vnto your most noble father of famous memory Iuan Basiliuich
Emperor of al Russia, or to your selfe, our dearest brother. For the
residue of the points of your Maiesties letters concerning the
entertainement of our ambassadour, and proceeding in the cause of Anthonie
Marsh we holde our selfe satisfied with your princely answere, and doe
therein note an honourable and princely care in your Maiestie to preuent
the like troubles, controuersies and sutes, that Marshes cause stirred vp
betweene our merchants and your subiects, which is, that your Maiestie
doeth purpose from time to time to purge your Countrey of such straglers of
our subiects, as doe or shall hereafter abide there, and are not of the
Company of our merchants, but contemptuously depart out of our land without
our Highnesse licence: of which sort there are presented vnto vs from our
merchants the names of these seuerall persons, videlicet, Richard Cocks,
Bennet Iackman, Rainold Kitchin, Simon Rogers, Michael Lane, Thomas
Worsenham: whom it may please your Maiesty by your princely order to
dismisse out of your land, that they may be sent home in the next shippes,
to auoid the mislike which their residence in those parts might breed to
the disturbance of our brotherly league, and the impeaching of the

And whereas, most louing and dearest brother, one William Turnebull a
subiect of ours is lately deceased in your kingdome, one with whom our
merchants haue had much controuersie for great summes of money due vnto
them by him while he was their Agent in their affayres of merchandises:
which differences by arbitrable order were reduced to the summe of 3000
rubbles, and so much should haue beene payed by him as may appeare by your
Maiesties councell or magistrates of iustice by very credible information
and testimony: and whereas also the sayd Turnbull was further indebted by
billes of his own hand to diuers of our subiects, amounting in the whole,
to the summe of 1326 pounds, which billes are exemplified vnder our great
seale of England, and to be sent ouer with this bearer: of which summes he
hath often promised payment: it may please your most excellent Maiestie in
your approoued loue to iustice, to giue order to your fauourable councell
and magistrates, that those seuerall debts may be satisfied to our
merchants and subiects out of the goods, merchandise, and debts which are
due to the state of the sayd Turnbull: whereof your Maiesties councell
shalbe informed by the Agent of our merchants.

[Sidenote: The Emperour seised our merchants goods.] We trust we shall not
need to make any new request by motion to your Maiesty that some order
might be taken for the finding out of the rest of our merchants goods
seised to your maiesties vse in the hands and possession of Iohn Chappel
their seruant, being a thing granted, and no doubt already performed by
your Maiesties order. We therfore intreat your Maiesty, that as
conueniently as may be, satisfaction or recompense be giuen to our said
merchants towards the repairing of their sundry great losses aswell therein
as otherwise by them of late sundry wayes sustained. And lastly, our most
deare and louing brother, as nothing in all these our occasions is to be
preferred before our entire league and amitie, descending vpon vs as an
inheritance, in succession from both our ancestours and noble progenitours:
so let us be carefull on both sides by all good meanes to holde and
continue the same to our posterity for euer. And if any mistaking or errour
of either side do rise, in not accomplishing of circumstances agreeable to
the fashion of either of our countreys and kingdomes, let the same vpon our
enterchangeable letters be reconciled, that our league and amitie be no way
impeached for any particular occasion whatsoeuer. And thus we recommend
your Maiesty to the tuition of the most High. From our royall Palace of
Whitehall the 14 of Ianuary, anno Domini 1591.

* * * * *

The Queenes Maiesties letters to the Lord Boris Pheodorowich.

Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, France, and Ireland,
defendour of the faith, &c. to the right honourable and noble prince Lord
Boris Pheodorowich Godonoua, Master of the horses to the great and mightie
Emperour of Russia, his highnesse lieutenant of Cazan and Astracan, our
most deare and louing cousin, greeting. Right honourable, it hath appeared
vnto vs vpon the reading and perusing of the Letters lately sent vnto our
Highnesse from our deare and louing brother the Emperour, in what part his
Maiestie tooke the late employment of our messenger Ierome Horsey in our
affaires into Russia: wherein we doe also finde the honourable endeuour
vsed by your Lordship to appease his Highnesse mislike and exception taken
aswell to the person of our Messenger, as to our princely letters sent by
him: both of which points we haue answered in our letters sent by this
bearer directed to our sayd louing brother the Emperour: vpon perusing
whereof we doubt not but his Maiestie will be well satisfied touching our
sayd Messenger and former letters. And for the honourable course holden by
your Lordship in the interposing of your opinion and fauourable
construction in a thing which might grow to the offence of the league and
amitie standing betweene your Soueraigne Lord and vs (wherein your Lordship
performed the office of an honourable and graue Councellour) we take our
selfe beholding to your Lordship for your readinesse in that behalfe, and
doe assure our selfe that the same did proceed of the especiall loue and
kinde affection that your Lordship hath euer borne and continued towards
vs, whereof our princely nature will neuer be vnmindfull. We haue bene also
from time to time made acquainted by our chiefe and principall Councellour
William Lord Burghley, Lord high Treasurour of our Highnesse Realme of
England, of your letters which haue passed betweene your Lordship and him,
concerning the entercourse of our Merchants trafficke in your Countreys,
and of the honourable offices done by your Lordship with the Emperpur in
fauour of our sayd Marchants. And lastly (which wee take a most assured
argument of your vndoubted loue and affection towards vs) that your
Lordship hath vouchsafed, of purpose taken into your hands the protection
of our sayd Merchants, and the hearing and determining of all their causes
and occasions whatsoeuer, which shall concerne them or their trade. All
which wee conceiue to be done for our sake, and therefore do acknowledge
ourselues to be, and still will continue beholding vnto you for the same.

And whereas we haue made mention in our sayd letters written to our louing
brother the Emperour of certeine debts due aswell to our merchants, as to
other of our subiects by one William Turnebull a subiect of ours late
deceased in Russia, wee pray you to be referred to the sayd letter. And
forasmuch as the sayd cause will fall vnder your Lordships iurisdiction by
reason of your acceptation of all their causes into your patronage and
protection: we are so well assured of your honourable inclination to
iustice, and your good affection towards our merchants for our sake, that
we shall not need to intreat your honourable furtherance either of iustice
or expedition in the sayd cause. And lastly considering that your noble
linage together with your great wisedome and desert hath made you a
principall Councellour and directour of the state of so great a Monarchie,
whereby your aduice and direction is followed in all things that doe
concerne the same, we haue giuen order to our sayd principall Counsellonr
William Lord Burghley, treasurour of our Realme of England, that as any
occasion shall arise to the hinderance of the entercourse betweene these
Countreyes, or of the priuiledges graunted by his Maiestie to our
merchants, that he may by aduertisement treat with your Lordshippe
thereupon: which we by reason of our great princely affayres can not so
conueniently at all times doe with such expedition as the cause may
require. And thus with our princely commendations we bidde you farewell.
From our royall Pallace of Whitehall the foureteenth day of Ianuarie, Anno
Domini 1591.

* * * * *

To the right honourable my very good Lord, the Lord Boris Pheodorowich,
Master of the horses to the great and mighty Emperour of Russia, his
Highnesse Lieutenant of Cazan and Astracan, William Cecil Lord Burghley,
Knight of the noble Order of the Garter, and Lord high Treasurer of
England sendeth greeting.

Right honourable my very good Lord, vpon the last returne of our merchants
shippes out of Russia, there was brought vnto my handes, by one Francis
Cherrie an English merchant, a letter directed to the Queenes Maiestie,
from the great and mightie Emperour of Russia, and another letter from your
Lordship directed to me: which sayd letter written from the Emperor to her
Maiesty hath beene considerately and aduisedly by her Highnesse read and
perused, and the matter of complaint against Ierome Horsey therein
comprised thorowly examined: which hath turned the same Horsey to some
great displeasure. I did also acquaint our Maiesty with the contents of
your Lordships letters written to mee, and enformed her of your Lordships
honourable fauour shewed to her Highnesse merchants from time to time: who
tooke the same in most gracious part, and confessed her selfe infinitly
beholding vnto your Lordship for many honourable offices done for her sake,
the which she meant to acknowledge by her letters to be written to your
Lordship vnder her princely hand and seale. And forasmuch as it hath
pleased your good Lordshippe to take into your handes the protection of her
Maiesties merchants, and the redresse of such iniuries as are, or shall be
offered vnto them contrary to the meaning of the priuiledges and the free
liberty of the entercourse, wherein some points your Lordship hath already
vsed a reformation, as appeareth by your sayd letters: yet the continuance
of traffique moouing, new occasions and other accidents tending to the
losse of the sayd merchants, whereof some particulars haue beene offered
vnto me to treat with your lordship vpon: I thought it good to referre them
to your honourable consideration, that order might be taken in the same,
for that they are apparantly repugnant to the Emperours letters written to
her Maiestie, and doe much restraine the liberty of the trade: one is, that
at the last comming of our merchants to the port of Saint Michael the
Archangel, [Sidenote: This is a new port.] where the mart is holden, their
goods were taken by the Emperours officers for his Highnesse seruice at
such rates, as the sayd officers were disposed to set vpon them, so farre
vnder their value, that the merchants could not assent to accept of those
prices: [Sidenote: The English merchants 3 weeks restrained from their
Mart.] which being denied, the sayd officers restrained them of all further
traffique for the space of three weekes, by which meanes they were
compelled to yeeld vnto their demaund how vnwillingly soeuer. Another is,
that our sayd merchants are driuen to pay the Emperours officers custome
for all such Russe money as they bring downe from the Mosco to the Sea side
to employ there at the Mart within the Emperours owne land; which seemeth
strange vnto me, considering the same money is brought from one place of
the Countrey to another, and there imployed without any transport ouer the
borders [Footnote: The original reads: _ouer the sayd of money_. As this is
unintelligible, I have ventured to insert a new reading.] of the sayd
country. These interruptions and impositions seeme not to stand with the
liberties of the Emperours priuileges and freedome of the entercourse,
which should be restrained neither to times or conditions, but to be free
and absolute: whereof it may please your Lordship to be aduised, and to
continue your honourable course holden betweene the Emperour and her
Maiesty, to reconcile such differences as any occasion doth offer to their
league or trafficke. Thus not doubting of your Lordships furtherance
herein, I humbly take my leaue of your good Lordship. From her Maiesties
royall palace of Whitehall this 15 of Ianuary 1591.

* * * * *

A letter from the Emperour of Russia, Theodore Iuanouich to the Queenes

Through the tender mercie of our God, whereby the day-spring from on high
hath visited vs, thereby to guide our feet into the way of peace. Euen this
our God by mercy we glorifie in Trinitie.

[Sidenote: The emperours stile lately enlarged.] We the great Lord, King
and great Duke Theodore Iuanowich, gouernour of all Russia, of Volodimer,
Mosco, and Nouogrod, King of Cazan and Astracan, Lord of Vobsco, and great
Duke of Smolensco, Otuer, Vghori, Perme, Viatsky, Bulgary, and other
regions, Lord and great Duke also of Nouogrod in the low countrey, of
Chernigo, of Rezan, Polotsko, Rostoue, Yeroslaue, Bealozera, and of
Lifland, of Vdorsky, Obdorsky, Condinsky, and all the countrey of Siberia,
and commander of all the North parts, and Lord ouer the countrey of
Iuersky, and King of Grusinsky, and of the countrey of Kabardinsky,
Cherchasky, and Duke of Igorsky, Lord and ruler of many countreys more etc.
To our louing sister Elizabeth Queene of England, France, and Ireland, &c.
Louing sister, your letters sent by your seruant Thomas Lind, we haue
receiued, and read what you haue written in the same touching our title,
and touching your order holden in your letters heretofore sent vs by your
seruant Ierome Horsey: wherein you haue answered vs sufficiently and most

And whereas your Maiestie hath written in your letter concerning the goods
of William Turnebull late deceased in our kingdome, that your subiects, for
whom he was factour, should haue debts growing vnto them from him by
account: we at your Maiesties request haue caused not onely order to be
taken, but for your Highnesse sake, louing sister, we haue caused the goods
to be sought out and deliuered to your merchants Agent and his company,
together with his stuffe, bookes, billes and writings, as also money to the
value of sixe hundred rubbles, which Christopher Holmes and Francis Cherry
are to pay for ycarie [Footnote: Caviare.]: [Marginal note: This is a
dainty meat made of the roas of Sturgeons.] and we haue set at libertie the
said Turnebulles kinseman Raynold Kitchin and his fellowes, and deliuered
them to your merchants Agent.

And further, where you write vnto vs for such your subiects as letting,
either in the Mosco, the Treasurehouse, or else where by any of our
authorised people, but absolutely to bee at free libertie at their owne
will and pleasure. And also I will continue to be their protectour and
defendour in all causes, by our Lorde and kings Maiesties order and
commaundement: as it shall be knowen and certified you by your people
resident here in the Mosco.

[Sidenote: Anno Domini 1592.] Written in our kings Maiesties royall citie
of Mosco from the beginning of the world, 7101. yeere, in the moneth of

* * * * *

A most gracious Letter giuen to the English Merchants Sir Iohn Hart and his
company, by Theodore Iuanowich, the King, Lord, and great duke of all
Russia, the onely vpholder thereof.

The onely God omnipotent before all eternitie, his will be done without
ende: the Father, Sonne, and holy Ghost we glorifie in Trinitie. Our onely
God the maker of all things and worker of all in all euery where with
plentifull increase: for which cause he hath giuen life to man to loue him,
and to trust in him: Our onely God which inspireth euery one of vs his holy
children with his word to discerne good through our Lord Iesus Christ, and
the holy quickning spirit of life now in these perilous times establish vs
to keepe the right scepter, and suffer vs to reigne of our selues to the
good profit of the land, and to the subduing of the people together with
the enemies, and to, the mainteinance of vertue.

We the great Lord, king and great duke Theodore Iuanowich, of all Russia
the onely vpholder, of Volodimer, Mosco, and Nouogrod, King of Cazan, and
king of Astracan, Lord of Vobsco, and great duke of Smolensko, of Otuer,
Vghorie, Permia, Viatski, Bulgari, and other regions, great duke also of
Nouogrod in the lowe Countrey, of Chernigo, of Rezan, Polotski Rostoue,
Yaruslaue, Bealozero, and of Liefland, of Vdorski, Obdorski, Condenski, and
commaunder of all the Countrey of Siberi and of the North parts, and Lord
ouer the Countrey of Iuerski, Grusinski, and King ouer the Countrey of
Igorski, and ruler ouer many other kingdomes and Lordships more.

Our princely Maiestie at the request of our brother in lawe Boris
Feodorowich Godenoua our seruant, and Master of our horses, generall
Comptroller of our house, and gouernour of the Lordships and kingdomes of
Casan and Astracan: vnto the English merchants Sir Iohn Hart knight, sir
William Webbe knight, Richard Salkenstow Alderman, Nicholas Mosely
alderman, Robert Doue, Wil. Garrowe, Iohn Harbey, Robert Chamberlaine,
Henry Anderson, Iohn Woodworth, Francis Cherry, Iohn Merrick, and
Cristopher Holmes; hath gratiously giuen leaue to come and go with their
ships into our kingdome and territories of Duina with all kind of
commodities at their pleasures to trafficke from the seaside to our roial
city of Mosco, and in all other cities, townes, countries and territories
of our whole kingdom of Mosco: vpon the humble petition and sute of the
saide English merchants sir Iohn Hart and his company, wee haue giuen them
leaue to passe and trafficke into all parts of our dominions and
territories of Mosco, and to our inheritance of Nougrod and Plesco with
their wares and commodities without paying any custome or dueties.

We the great Lord, king, and great Duke Theodore Iuanowich of all Russia,
haue firmely giuen and graunted vnto the aforesaide English merchants Sir
Iohn Hart and his company, for the loue we beare to our deare sister Queene
Elizabeth, we I say of our gracious goodnes haue giuen leaue to trauel and
passe to our royall seat of Mosco, and to all the parts of our kingdome
with all kinde of commodities, and to trafficke with all kinde of wares at
their owne pleasure, without paying any custome of their said wares.

To you our Customers we wil and command not to take any maner of custome of
the said merchants and their company, neither for entering, weying nor
passing by or through any place of our territories, nor for custome, of
iudgement by Lawe, or for their person or persons: nor any duties ouer
bridges, or for certificats or processes, or for conducting ouer any
streames or waters, or for any other customes or dueties that may be named:
we wil and straitly commaund you not to take any of them in any wise.

Prouided alwayes, that the saide merchants shall not colour any strangers
wares, nor bring them into our countrey, nor fauour them colourably, nor
sel for any stranger. To you our subiects also we command, not to meddle or
deale with any wares of strangers colourably, nor to haue them by you in
keeping, nor to offer to sel their commodities: but themselues to sel their
owne commodities in change or otherwise as they may or can. And in al
townes, cities, countreys, or any part of our dominions and territories it
shalbe lawful for the foresaid merchants and their the sayd Turnebulles
stuffe and other things, as billes, books and writings. All which shall be
deliuered to your merchants Agent and his fellowes, and in money 600
rubbles of the sayd Turnebulles.

And touching your merchants, I will haue a great care ouer them, and
protect them, whereby they shall suffer no damages in their trade: and all
kinde of trafficke in merchandise shall be at their libertie.

Written in our Lord and Kings Maiesties royall citie of Mosco, in the yeere
from the beginning of the world 7101, in the moneth of Ianuarie.

* * * * *

A letter from the Lord Boris Pheodorowich to the right honourable Lord
William Burghley, Lord high Treasurer of England.

By the grace of God great Lord, King, and great Duke Theodor Iuanowich,
gouernour of Russia, Volodimer, Mosco, and Nouogrod, King of Cazan and
Astracan, Lord of Vobsco, and great Duke of Smolensco, Otuer, Vghory,
Perme, Viatsky, Bulgary, and other regions, Lord and great Duke of all
Nouogrod in the low countreys, of Chernigo, of Liffeland, of Vdorsky,
Obdorsky, Condinsky, and all the countrey of Sibery, and commaunder of all
the North parts, and Lord ouer the countrey of Iuersky, and King of
Grusinsky, and of the countreys of Kabardinsky, Cherchasky, and Duke of
Igorsky, Lord and ruler of many Countreys more &c. His princely Maiesties
seruant, Lord and Master of his horses, and high Steward of his house,
President of the territories of Cazan and Astracan, Boris Pheodorowich
Godonoua, to the most honourable Counsellor of the most resplendent mightie
great Lady Elizabeth Queene of England, France, and Ireland, William
Burghley, Lord, and Knight of the Garter, high Treasurour of England,
sendeth greeting.

[Sidenote: M. Francis Cherie.] I perceiue by your letter that your
merchants last shippes came home in saftie, and that you haue receiued the
letters sent by them, by the hands of Francis Cherie, one from our Lord and
great King of all Russia his Maiesty, vnto your Queenes most excellent
Maiesty, and one from me to her Highnesse, and one from my selfe to you:
and the contents thereof you haue caused to be read and well vnderstood at
large. And whatsoeuer is therein written concerning Ierome Horsey, you haue
sought out the ground thereof, and that he is in great displeasure. And her
Highnesse hath written in her letter concerning her Maiesties merchants,
that whereas I haue taken them into protection, she taketh it very louingly
and kindely, that for her sake they haue receiued so great kindnesse.

And touching the damages and hinderances which your merchaunts haue
sustained by meanes of the Emperours authorised people and officers, and
that they were not permitted to traffike at libertie at the Sea port in the
yeere 1589, for the space of three weekes, it hath beene against the
Emperours Maiesties will and pleasure, as also against mine. Where you
desire and wish that betweene our Emperours Maiestie, and your Queenes
Maiestie, their loue and amitie may not bee seperated at any time, but to
continue: and you request mee that I should be good vnto the English
Merchants, and to defend them from all such domages hereafter: your honours
louing letter I haue therein throughly considered: and as I haue bene
heretofore, so I will still continue to be a meane betwixt our Lorde and
kings Maiestie, and your great Lady the Queene her hignesse, for the
mainteyning of brotherly loue and amitie, most ioyfully and willingly, as
God knoweth, aswel hereafter as I haue been heretofore: praying you to doe
the like also. Mine onely desire is for your most excellent Princesse sake,
to do all that lyeth in mee for the ayding, helping and protecting of her
Maiesties merchants, by the order and commaundement of our Lord and king
his Maiestie.

And to that ende I haue giuen order to all our authorised peopie to bee
careful ouer them, and to defende them in all causes, and to giue them free
libertie to trafficke at their owne willes and pleasures. It may bee that
your merchants doe not certifie you the trueth of all things, nor make
knowen vnto your honour my readinesse to protect them: And howe my Letters
and Commissions are sent to all authorised people for them, that they
shoulde ayde and assist them, according to the tenour of my Letters, to all
others that bee in authoritie vnder the said Officers or otherwise.

Also your honour writeth of the debarring of your merchants at the sea port
from their accustomed libertie of enterchangeable trafficke and bartar.
Touching which complaint search and inquisition hath bene made, and
commaundement giuen, that your Queenes Maiesties merchants at the Sea side,
and in all places where the trade is, doe not sustaine any domage or
hinderance hereafter, but that they shalbe at libertie without any
hindering or haue departed out of your maiesties Realme secretly without
licence, that we should giue order to send them home: concerning such your
subiects for which you haue written vnto our Maiestie by letters, we will
cause search to be made, and such as are willing to goe home into your
kingdome, we will command forthwith to be deliuered vnto your merchants
Agent, and so to passe. And such of your Maiesties people as haue giuen
themselues vnder our gouernment as subiects, we thinke it not requisite to
grant to let them passe.

And further, where you haue written vnto vs concerning the goods of Iohn
Chappell, we haue written heretofore the whole discourse thereof, not once,
but sundry times, and therefore it is not needful to write any more
thereof. And such goods as were found out of the goods of the sayd
Chappell, the money thereof was restored to your Maiesties people William
Turnbull and his fellowes. [Sidenote: M. Thomas Lind.] Your Maiesties
seruant Thomas Lind we haue sent with our letters the same way whereby he
came into our kingdome. The long abiding heere of your Maiesties seruant in
our kingdome, was for the comming of your people from the Sea port.
[Sidenote: 1592.] Written in our princely court and royall seat in the city
of Mosco in the yeere from the beginning of the world 7101, in the moneth
of Ianuary.

* * * * *

To the Queenes most excellent Maiestie from the Lord Boris Pheodorouich

By the grace of God great Lord and great Duke Theodore Iuanouich gouernour
of Russia, Volodimer, Mosco, and Nouogrod, King of Cazan and Astracan, Lord
of Vobsko, and great Duke of Smolensco, Otuer, Vgbori, Perme, Viatsky,
Bulgary, and other regions, Lord and great Duke of Nouogrod in the low
countrey, of Chernigo, of Rezan, Polotsko, Rostoue, Ieroslaue, Bealozera,
and of Lifland, of Vdorsky, Obdorsky, Condinsky, and all the countrey of
Sibery, and commander of all the North parts, and Lord ouer the countrey of
Iuersky, and King of Grusinsky, and of the countrey of Kabardinsky,
Cherchasky, and duke of Igorsky, Lord and ruler of many countreys more, &c.

Most resplendent Queene Elizabeth of England, France, and Ireland, &c. his
princely Maiesties seruant, Lord and Master of his horses, and high Steward
of his house, and President of the territories of Cazan and Astracan, Boris
Pheodorouich Godonoua, vnto your most excellent Maiesty, great Ladie Queene
Elizabeth, send my humble commendations. [Sidenote: The Empresse Irene
deliuered of a daughter.] It hath pleased your Maiestie to write vnto me
your gracious and princely letter by your seruant Thomas Lind: which letter
I receiued with all humblenesse. During the time of the abode of your
Messenger Thomas Lind here in the Mosco, it pleased God of his
mercifulnesse, and our Lady the mother of God, and holy Saints, by the
prayers of our lord and king his Maiestie Theodore Iuanouich ouer all
Russia gouernour, the right beleeuer and louer of Christ, to send our
Queene and gracious Lady Irene a yoong Princesse, to the great ioy and
comfort of our kingdome, named Pheodocine. Wherefore we giue all honour and
glory to the almightie God vnspeakable, whose giftes had beene manifolde
with mercie vnto vs: for which all wee Christians laud and praise God.

After all this your seruant was occasioned to stay vntill the comming of
your merchants from the sea port.

Touching the letters which you haue receiued from your louing qbrother our
Lord and Master by your ambassadour, therein you perceiue sufficiently my
good meaning, in trauailing for the continuance of amitie and friendship
betwixt you mighty great princes, in the which I will continue mine
endeauour. Also your merchants I haue taken into my protection for to
defend them for the loue I beare to your Maiestie. As heeretofore I haue
done it willingly, and with great care of their good, so I meane to
continue so farre as God will giue me leaue: to the end that brotherly loue
be holden betweene you princes without disturbance.

As I haue beene to your merchants in times past, so now by the permission
and commandement of our Lord and Master, I will be their defendour in all
causes: and will cause all our authorised people to fauour them and to
defend them, and to giue them free liberty to buy and sell at their
pleasure. The merchants doe not certifie your princely Maiestie of all our
friendship and fauour shewed vnto them from time to time. And whereas your
Maiestie hath now written to our Lord and Master for the debts which your
merchants ought to haue of William Turnebull lately disceased, I hauing
perused your Maiesties letter, whereby I am requested to be a meane for the
recouerie and obtaining of their sayd debts, I haue moued it to our Lord
and King his Maiestie, that order may be giuen therein: and that his
kinseman Rainold Kitchin with three persons more may be sent ouer together
with company to sell or barter away their owne commodities in change or
otherwise, for or at their pleasure as they will. And whensoeuer the said
merchants or any of them come into our territories of great Nouogrod or
Plesco, or to any other parts of our kingdome with their wares, by virtue
of these our maiesties letters we straitly charge and command you our
Captaines, generals, and all other that be authorised or in office, to
suffer the aforesaid merchants to passe and repasse, and to take no kinde
of custome or dutie of them, or any of their goods, howsoeuer it may haue
name: nor in no place else where they shall come in all our kingdome.
Likewise if they sell not nor buy no wares, you shall take no custome, but
suffer them quietly to passe where they will with their goods. Of our
gratious goodness and meere goodwill haue giuen the said merchants leaue to
trafficke, throughout all our kingdomes, and in all townes and cities with
all maner of wares and commodities without paying any custome or dutie.
Wheresoeuer they shal happen to sel or barter away any of their commodities
to our subiects, they are to barter or sell by wholesale, and not by
retalie, as by the yard or by the ounce in their houses or elsewhere: but
by the packe or whole clothes, veluets, damasks, taffaties by the piece,
and not by the yard: and al other wares that are to be sold by weight, they
are to be sold not by the ounce, but by great sale. Your wines shalbe solde
by hogs heads, pipes or buttes, but not by quartes nor pintes.

The said English merchants are to sel or barter away their owne commodities
themselues, and not to suffer any Russes to buy or sell for them: nor to
cary or tranport any wares of strangers in stead of their owne in no wise.
And if the saide English merchants shall be desirous to sell any of their
commodities at Colmogro, or vpon the Riuer of Duina, or at Vologhda or at
Yeraslaue: when as the saide merchants haue solde in any of the saide
Townes, Cities or territories, then you our officers and authorised people
by vertue of this our gratious letter wee will and straitly commaund not to
take any custome of the aforesaid merchants, howsoeuer it may be named.

Also whensoeuer the saide English merchants or any of their factours shalbe
desirous to hire carriers to carry their wares to any place of our
dominions or Cities, it shalbe at their choyse and pleasure to hier them
the best they can, and where they will, either watermen to rowe, or

Also when any of the said merchants themselues, or any of theirs are
desirous to trauel into any part of our dominions, or into any other
kingdomes, or into their owne kingdome if any of our treasure be deliuered
to them, they to take it with them, and to sel it in bartar or otherwise
for such wares as are most requisit and necessary to be brought into our
kingdome and to be deliuered into our treasury. You our nobilitie, generals
& al others in authority suffer them to passe through al our cities, towns
& countries without taking any custome of them. And when the said merchants
haue done their traffick in any place & come to the Mosco, they shal make
it knowen at their arriual at the house of Chancery and Secretariship to
Vasili Shalcan. And further when there come any English Merchants with
their ships or vessels by sea, that by mishap shalbe cast away vpon any of
our shoars or costes, we wil and command you to ayde & helpe them, and to
seeke for their goods so perished by any casualtie, and to be restored
againe to the saide English merchants or their assignes without any
prolonging or detayning. As also if any of the aforesaide merchants goods
be found in any part of our coastes or streames and they not present
themselues, let the sayd goods be taken and layd vp in safetie in some
place or other, and be deliuered to the aforesaid merchants or their
factors, vnder penaltie of our displeasure.

Furthermore we King, Lord and great duke of all Russia, of our gracious
goodnesse giue vnto the English merchants and their company, their house in
the Citie of Mosco lying hard by the Church of S. Marke behinde the market
place: which they shall keepe and remaine therein after their old
accustomed vse. Prouided alwayes that they shall keepe one Russe porter or
one of their owne people, & may keepe any other Russe seruant at their
discretion. Also their houses in sundry places, as at Ieraslaue, Vologhda,
Colmogro, and at S. Michael Archangel, all these houses they shall keepe
and vse at their owne pleasure, according to our former letters patents
without paying any dutie, rent, or custome. Nor you the communaltie of the
said townes shal take any thing of them or theirs for any duetie that
should belong to you, especially of the houses aforesaid: but the said
English merchants shal enioy them peaceably for themselues and their
families, but shall not suffer any other strangers Russes or others to vse
the aforesaid houses. Also you shall suffer them to lay their wares and
commodities in their warehouses, and to sell their commodities to whom they
please without let or hindrance, by vertue of this our gratious letter.

Their housekeeper being a Russe shall not vndertake to meddle, or sell any
of their wares without they themselues be present, nor to buy any thing for

Also it shalbe lawfull for the said merchants when they shal arriue at
their port to lade and vnlade their merchandises as in times past they haue
done at their pleasure. And when they lade their ships with Russe
commodities or vnlade them, it shalbe lawfull for them to hire any of our
subiects to helpe them for the present time, and for them to carry their
goods to and fro with their owne vessels to S. Michael Archangel, or

Also we command you our authorised people at the sea side as wel Customers
as others to take of the foresaid merchants a note, or remembrance, what
goods they bring in and ship out: whereby it may be knowen what goods come
in and go out. But in no wise shall you open or vnpacke any of their wares
or merchandises.

In like maner when as they ship or sende away any of their countrey
commodities from S. Michael Archangel to any other place, or to our royall
Citie of Mosco yee shall not hinder nor let them any maner of wise for the
shipping of their merchandises in or out by virtue of these our gratious
letters of priuiledge giuen them.

And whensoeuer any of the said English merchants haue any occasion to send
ouer land out of our dominions into their own countrey any of their
seruants or factors, by vertue of this our gratious letter we command you
to giue them their passeport out of the office of our Secretariship.

And whensoeuer any of our subiects hath any thing to do with any of the
foresaid merchants by way of contentions: or that they be damnified or
hindered by any of our subiects: then we appoint and ordeine our Chanceller
and Secretary Vasili Shalcan to heare their causes, and finally to
determine on both sides according to equitie and iustice: and that he shall
search the trueth betweene both parties.

And when the trueth cannot be proued or found out, then to cast lots by
order of the foresaide Iudge, and he to whom the lot shall fall to take his

Furthermore whensoeuer any of the English merchants or their factors shall
come into any parts of our dominions or Cities, and shalbe wronged any
kinde of wayes in trading, or otherwise by any abused, or haue any occasion
of contention with any by way of trade in merchandise or otherwayes: we
straightly charge and commaund you our gouernours, and authorised subiects
within all our realme and territories of the same, to minister iustice vnto
the aforesaid merchants, or to their deputies, and to search the trueth of
the contention: and for want of sufficient proofe cast lots who shall take
his oath for the more ready triall of the cause: And in no wise to take any
fee or duetie of the aforesaid English merchants for the said iudgement in

We wil and commaund all this to be obserued and kept in all parts of our
dominions by all our subiects and authorised people by vertue of these our
royal letters patents: And the said letters not to be diminished in any
part or parsell thereof by any persons howsoeuer they be named. And
whosoeuer shall withstand and not regard these our gracious letters shalbe
in our high displeasure, and shal incurre the losse of his life. [Sidenote:
After our accompt 1596.] This our gracious letter was giuen in our kingdom
and royal City of Mosco, in the yere from the beginning of the world 7104.
in the moneth of May.

Subscribed by the Emperours Chancellour
and Secretarie Vasili Shalean.

* * * * *

The contents of M. Garlands Commission vnto Thomas Simkinson for the
bringing of M. Iohn Dee to the Emperour of Russia his Court.

Friend Thomas Simkinson I pray you goe to Brounswik or Cassil and inquire
if Master Iohn Dee be there or where he is, and when you finde him,
certifie him howe that I haue sent you purposely to knowe where hee doeth
remaine, and at your returne I will come and speake with him my selfe. Also
you may certefie him that the Emperour of Russeland hauing certaine
knowledge of his great learning and wisdome is marueilous desirous of him
to come into his Countrey. And hath giuen me his letter with his hand and
golden seale at it for to bring him into the Countrey with mee if it be
possible, and for his liuing shewe him that he shall be sure of 2000 pound
yeerely, and also all prouision for his table out of the Emperours kitching
free: and if he thinke this too little, I will assure him that if he aske
asmuch more hee shall haue it, and for his charges into the Countrey, I
haue sufficient of the Emperours allowance to bring him and all his royally
into the Countrey. And because hee may doubt of these proffers, he shall
remaine at the borders vntill the Emperour be certified of him, and of his
requests, which he would haue. And I am sure he shall be conueyed through
the land with fiue hundred horses, and he shallbe accompted as one of the
chiefest in the land next the Emperour. Also shew him howe that my Lord
Protectour at my comming away did take me in his armes, and desired me as
hee should be my friend to bring him with me and he would giue him of his
owne purse yeerly 1000. rubbles besides the Emperours allowance. All these
foresaide grauntes and demaunds doe I Thomas Simkinson acknowledge to be
spoken by Edward Garland to mee, and to be sent to declare the same vnto
Master Iohn Dee. And in witnesse that this is of a trueth I haue written
the same with my owne hand, and thereunto set my name, in Wittingaw,
otherwise called Trebona, the 18. of September, Anno 1586.

By me Thomas Simkinson of Hull.

* * * * *

A letter to the right worshipfull M. Iohn Dee Esquire, conteyning the summe
and effect of M. Edward Garland his message, deliuered to Master Dee
himselfe, (Letterwise) for a more perfect memoriall thereof. Anno 1586.

Right worshipfull, it may please you to vnderstand, that I was sent vnto
you from the most mightie Prince Feodor Iuanowich, Lord, Emperour and great
duke of Russia, &c. As also from the most excellent prince Boris
Feodorowich, Lord Protector of Russia: to giue your worship to vnderstand
the great good will and heartie desire they beare vnto you; for that of
long time they haue had a great good report of your learning and wisedom,
as also of your good counsel vnto Princes: whereupon his Maiesties most
earnest desire and request is vnto you; that you would take the paines to
come vnto his Citie of Mosco, to visite his Maiesties Court: for that hee
is desirous of your company, and also of your good counsell in diuers
matters that his Maiestie shall thinke needfull. And for the great goodwill
that his Maiestie beareth vnto you, he will giue you yeerely toward your
mainteinance 2000. pound starling; and the Lord Protectour will giue you a
thousand rubbles, as also your prouision for your table you shall haue free
out of his Maiesties kitchin: And further whatsoeuer you shall thinke
needefull or conuenient for you, in any part or parts of his dominion, it
shall be at your worships commaundement. And this is the summe and effect
of my message and commandement guien me by his Maiestie and the Lord

In witnesse whereof I haue written this with my owne hand, the 17. of
December 1586.

By me Edward Garland.

In Trebona Castell otherwise called, Wittingaw in Boemia to which place
this M. Edward Garland, came to M. Dee with two Moscouites to serue him,
&c. He had sixe more which by M. Dees counsell were sent backe.

Witnesse M. Edward Kelley, and M. Francis
Garland, brother to foresaid Edward,
and diuers others.

It seemeth that this princely offer of the Emperour Pheodor Iuanowich, and
of the L. Boris Pheoilorowich Protectour to his Maiestie, was made vnto the
learned and famous Mathematitian M. Iohn Dee, partly to vse his counsell
and direction about certaine discoueries to the Northeast; and partly for
some other, weighty occasions: but because their conquest to Siberia was
not as then fully settled, and for diuers other secret reasons, it was for
that time with al thankfulness refused.

* * * * *

A branch of a letter from M. Iohn Merick, Agent vnto the Moscouie company
in Russia, closed vp in the Mosco the 14. of March, Anno 1597. touching
the death of Pheodor Iuanowich late Emperour of all Russia, &c.

[Sidenote: Febr. 1597.] Hauing thus farre proceeded with this my answere
vnto the chiefest points of your worships letters receiued, my desire was
to haue sent one vnto you long since, as you may perceiue, by the first
date: but by reason I could not get leaue, I haue deferred it of till this
instant, for that there was none suffered to passe out of the land. The
causes may be iudged, for that it pleased God to call out of this world,
the Emperour his Maiestie, who departed about the 7. of Ianuary: and euer
since hath bene a mourning time, and no suites for any matter could be
heard. But it hath bene a very dead season. Yet (thankes be to God) through
the wise gouernment of Lord Boris Pheodorowich the Lord Protector vnto the
saide late Emperour, since his death all things haue bene very quiet
without any dissention; as the like in such a great kingdome I haue not
heard of. [Sidenote: Prince Boris Pheodorowich by generall consent chosen
Emperour of Russia.] And now through the prouidence of Almighie God, and by
surrender of the late Empresse Irenia Feodoruna, and the common consent of
the Patriarch, Nobles, Bishops, and the whole Cleargie, with the whole
Commons besides, choise is made of none other but of the said Lord
Protector, L. Boris Pheodorowich to be Emperour, and great duke of all
Russia, who was most vnwilling to receiue the kingdome, but the people
would make no other choise, nor haue any other. So that with much adoe and
entreatie, it hath pleased his Maiestie to take vpon him the kingdome, and
he is absolute Emperor to him and his heires. And certainly God hath done
much for this Countrey, and hath made the people greatly happy, in that he
hath prouided and, appointed so famous and worthy a Prince: whose excellent
gouernment and experience these foureteene yeeres hath bene manifest to all
Russia. God graunt his highnesse a most prosperous and long raine, with his
Lady the Empresse, the Prince his sonne, and the Princesse his daughter.
All men do reioyce both Russe and strangers for this most famous Emperour.
The Coronation is thought shalbe on the Assension day next, til which time
I cannot depart from Mosco: which is a litle before the time that
ordinarily I doe take my iourney from hence. And touching his Maiesties
fauour towards me on your behalfe, especially for her Maiesties sake, as in
foretime it was extraordinary, and so specially shewed to mee, as to none
the like: so hath his highnesse promised the continuance thereof, with,
further fauour as shalbe desired. Whereof I haue no doubt: for dayly I do
finde the same.

* * * * *

A learned Epistle written 1581. vnto the famous Cosmographer M. Gerardus
Mercator concerning the riuer Pechora, Naramsay, Cara reca, the mighty
riuer of Ob, the place of Yaks Olgush in Siberia, the great riuer Ardoh,
the lake of Kittay called of the borderers Paraha, the Countrey of Carrah
Colmak, giuing good light to the discouery of the Northeast passage to
Cathay, China and the Malucaes.

Inclyto et celebri Gerardo Mercatori, domino et amico singulari in manus
proprias Duisburgi in Cliuia.

Cum meminissem, amice optime, quanta, cum vnam ageremus, delectatione
afficerere in legendis Geographicis scriptis Homeri, Strabonis,
Aristotelis, Plinij, Dionis et reliquorum, laetatus sum eo quod incidissem
in hunc nuncium, qui tibi has literas tradit, quem tibi commendatum esse
valde cupio, quique dudum Arusburgi hic ad Ossellam fluuium appulit.
Hominis experientia, vt mihi quidem videtur, multum te adiuuerit in re vna,
eaque summis a te votis expetita, et magnopere elaborata, de qua tam varie
inter se dissentiunt Cosmographi recentiores; patefactione nimirum ingentis
illius Promontorij Tabin, celebrisque illius et opulentae regionis sub
Cathayorum rege per Oceanum ad Orientem brumalem. [Sidenote: Duae naues
aedificatae in Duina fluuio ad patefactionem Orientalem.] Alferius is est
natione Belga, qui captiuus aliquot annos vixit in Moscouitarum ditione,
apud viros illic celeberrimos Yacouium et Vnekium; a quibus Antuerpiam
missus est accersitum homines rei nauticae peritos, qui satis amplo
proposito praemio ad illos viros se recipiant; qui Sueuo artifice duas ad
eam patefactionem naues aedificarunt in Duina fluuio. Vt ille rem proponit,
quamquam sine arte, apposite tamen, et vt satis intelligas, quod quaeso
diligenter perpendas, aditus ad Cathayam per Orientem procul dubio
breuissimus est et almodum expeditus. Adijt ipse fluuium Obam tum terra per
Samoedorum et Sibericorum regionem, tum mari per littus Pechorae fluminis ad
Orientem. Hac experientia confirmatus certo apud se statuit nauim mercibus
onustam, cuius carinam non nimium profunde demissam esse vult, in Sinum S.
Nicolai conducere in regione Moscouitarum, instructam illam quidem rebus
omnibus ad eam patefactionem necessarijs, atque illic redintegrato
commeatu, Moscouitiae nationis notissimos iusta mercede asciscere: qui et
Samoedicam linguam pulchre teneant, et fluuium Ob exploratum habeant, vt
qui quotannis ea loca ventitant. Vnde Maio exeunte constituit pergere ad
Orientem per continentem Vgoriae ad Orientales partes Pechorae, Insulamque
cui nomen est Dolgoia. [Sidenote: Dolgoia Insula.] Hic latitudines
obseruare, terram describere, bolidem demittere, locorumque ac punctorum
distantias annotare, vbi et quoties licebit. Et quoniam Pechorae Sinus vel
euntibus vel redeuntibus commodissimus est tum subsidij tum diuersorij
locus propter glaciem et tempestates, diem impendere decreuit cognoscendis
vadis, facillimoque nauium aditu inueniendo: quo loco antehac aquarum
altitudinem duntaxat ad quinque pedes inuenit, sed profundiores canales
esse non dubitat: [Sidenote: Insula Vaigats.] deinde per eos fines pergere
ad tria quatuorve milliaria nautica, relicta Insula quam Vaigats vocant,
media fere via inter Vgoriam et Nouam Zemblam: [Sidenote: Sinus inter
Vaigats et Obam vergens per meridiem.] tum Sinum quendam paeterire inter
Vaigats atque Obam, qui per Meridiem vergens pertingit ad terram Vgoriae, in
quem confluunt exigui duo amnes Marmesia atque Karah [Marginal note: Vel
Naramsey et Cara reca.], ad quos amnes gens alia Samoedorum accolit immanis
et efferata. Multa in eo tractu loca vadosa, multas cataractas inuenit; sed
tamen per quas possit Nauigari. [Sidenote: Littus Obae incolitubar Ostijs
trium dierum itinere.] Vbi ad fluuium Obam peruentum fuerit, qui quidem
fluuius (vt referunt Samoedi) septuaginta habet ostia, quae propter ingentem
latitudinem multas magnasque concludentem Insulas, quas varij incolunt
populi, vix quisquam animaduertat, ne temporis nimium impendat, constituit
ad summum tria quatuorve tentate ora, ea praesertim quae ex consilio
Incolarum, quos in itinere aliquot habiturus est, commodissima videbuntur,
triaque quatuorve eius regionis nauigiola tentandis Ostijs adhibere, quam
fieri potest ad littus proxime, (quod quidem sub itinere trium dierum
incolitur) vt quo loco tutissime nauigan possit, intelligat.

[Sidenote: Yaks Olgush locus super Obam fluuium duodecim dierum itinere a
mari.] Quod si nauim per fluuium Obam aduerso amne possit impellere, prima
si poterit cataracta, eaque, vt verisimile est, commodissima, ad eumque
locum appellere, quem aliquando ipse cum suis aliquot per Sibericorum
regionem terra adijt, qui duodecim iuxta dierum itinere distat a Mari, qua
influit in mare flumen Ob, qui locus est in continente, prope fluuium Ob
cui nomen est Yaks Olgush, nomine mutuato ab illo magno Profluente flumini
Ob illabente, tum certe speraret maximas se difficultates superasse.
Referunt enim illic populares, qui trium duntaxat dierum nauigatione ab eo
loco abfuerunt (quod illic rarum est, eo quod multi ad vnum duntaxat diem
cymbas pelliceas a littore propellentes oborta tempestate perierunt, cum
neque a sole neque a syderibus rectionem scirent petere) per transuersum
fluminis Ob, vnde spaciosum esse illius latitudinem constat, grandes se
carinas praeciosis onustas mercibus magno fluuio delatas vidisse per Nigros,
puta AEthiopes. [Sidenote: Ardoh flumen influens in lacum Kitthaym: de quo
in itinere ad Boghariam scribit Antonius Ienkinsonus.] Eum fluuium Ardoh
illi vocant, qui influit in lacum Kittayum, quem Paraha illi nominant, cui
contermina est gens illa latissime fusa, quam Carrah Colmak appellant, non
alia certe quam Cathaya. Illic, si necessitas postulabit, opportunum erit
hybernare, se suosque reficere, resque omnes necessarias conquirere. Quod
si acciderit, non dubitat interim plurimum se adiutum iri, plura illic
quaerentem atque ediscentem. Veruntamen sperat aestate eadem ad Cathayorum
fines se peruenturum, nisi ingenti glaciei mole ad os fluuij Obae
impediatur, quae maior interdum, interdum minor est. Tum per Pechoram redire
statuit, atque illic hybernare: vel si id non poterit, in flumen Duinae, quo
mature satis pertinget, atque ita primo vere proximo in itinere progredi.
Vnum est quod suo loco oblitus sum. [Sidenote: Carrah Colmakest Cathaya.]
Qui locum illum Yaks Olgush incolunt, a maioribus suis olim praedicatum
asserunt, se in lacu Kitthayo dulcissimam campanarum harmoniam audiuisse,
atque ampla aedificia conspexisse: Et cum gentis Carrah Colmak mentionem
faciunt (Cathaya illa est) ab imo pectore suspiria repetunt manibusque
proiectis suspiciunt in coelum, velut insignem illius splendorem innuentes
atque admirantes. Vtinam Alferius hic Cosmographiam melius saperet, multum
ad illius vsum adiungeret, qui sane plurimus est. Multa praetereo, vir
amicissime, ipsumque hominem te audire cupio, qui mihi spospondit se in
itinere Duisburgi te visurum. Auet enim tecum conferre sermones, et procul
dubio hominem multum adiuueris. Satis instructus videtur pecunia et gratia,
in quibus alijsque officijs amicitiae feci illi, si vellet, mei copiam. Deus
Optimus maximus hominis votis atque alacritati faueat, initia secundet,
successus fortunet, exitum foelicissimum concedat. Vale amice ac Domine

Arusburgi ad Ossellam fluuium 20. Februarij 1581.

Tuus quantus quantus sum
Ioannes Balakus.

The same in English.

To the famous and renowned Gerardus Mercator, his Reuerend and singular
friend at Duisburgh in Clieueland, these be deliuered.

Calling to remembrance (most deare Friend) what exceeding delight you tooke
at our being together, in reading the Geographicall writings of Homer,
Strabo, Aristotle, Plinie, Dion, and the rest, I reioyced not a little that
I happened vpon such a messenger as the bearer of these presents, (whom I
do especially recommend vnto you) who arriued lately here at Arusburg vpon
the riuer of Osella. This mans experience (as I am of dpinion) will greatly
auaile you to the knowledge of a certaine matter which hath bene by you so
vehemently desired, and so curiously laboured for, and concerning the which
the late Cosmographers do hold such varietie of opinions: namely, of the
discouerie of the huge promontorie of Tabin, and of the famous and rich
countreys subiect vnto the Emperor of Cathay and that by the Northeast
Ocean sea. [Sidenote: Two ships built vpon the riuer of Dwina for the
Northeast discouerie.] The man is called Alferius [Marginal note: Or
Oliuer.] being by birth a Netherlander, who for certaine yeeres liued
captiue in the dominions of Russia vnder two famous men Yacouius and
Vnekius, by whom he was sent to Antwerp to procure skilfull Pilots and
Mariners, (by propounding liberall rewards) to go vnto the two famous
personages aforesayd, which two had set a Sweden Shipwright on worke to
build two ships for the same discouerie vpon the riuer of Dwina. The
passage vnto Cathay by the Northeast (as he declareth the matter, albeit
without arte, yet very aptly, as you may well perceiue, which I request you
diligently to consider) is without doubt very short and easie. This very
man himselfe hath trauelled to the riuer of Ob, both by land, through the
countreys of the Samoeds, and of Sibier, and also by Sea, along the coast
of the riuer Pechora Eastward. Being encouraged by this his experience he
is fully resolued with himselfe to conduct a Barke laden with merchandize
(the keele whereof hee will not haue to drawe ouer much water) to the Baie
of Saint Nicholas in Russia, being furnished with all things expedient for
such a discouerie, and with a new supply of victuals at his arriuall there,
and also to hire into his companie certaine Russes best knowen vnto
himselfe, who can perfectly speake the Samoeds language, and are acquainted
with the riuer of Ob, as hauing frequented those places yeere by yeere.

[Sidenote: The Island of Dolgoia.] Whereupon about the ende of May hee is
determined to saile from the Baie of S. Nicholas Eastward, by the maine of
Ioughoria, and so to the Easterly parts of Pechora, and to the Island which
is called Dolgoia. And here also hee is purposed to obserue the latitudes,
to suruey and describe the countrey, to sound the depth of the Sea, and to
note the distances of places, where, and so oft as occasion shall be
offered. And forasmuch as the Baie of Pechora is a most conuenient place
both for harbour and victuall, as well in their going foorth as in their
returne home in regard of Ice and tempest, he is determined to bestow a day
in sounding the Flats, and in searching out the best entrance for ships: in
which place heretofore he found the water to be but fiue foote deepe,
howbeit he doubteth not but that there are deeper chanels: [Sidenote: The
Island of Vaigats. A Baie betweene Vaigats and Ob trending Southerly.] and
then hee intendeth to proceed on along those coasts for the space of three
or foure leagues, leauing the Island called Vaigats almost in the middle
way betweene Vgoria and Noua Zembla: then also to passe by a certaine Baie
betweene Vaigats and Ob, trending Southerly into the land of Vgoria,
whereinto fall two small riuers called Marmesia and Carah [Marginal note:
Or, Naramsey and Cara Reca.], vpon the which riuers doe inhabite an other
barbarous and sauage nation of the Samoeds. He found many Flats in that
tract of land, and many cataracts or ouerfals of water, yet such as hee was
able to saile by. When hee shall come to the riuer of Ob, which riuer (as
the Samoeds report) hath seuentie mouthes, which by reason of the huge
breadth thereof containing many and great Islands, which are inhabited with
sundry sortes of people, no man scarcely can well disouer, because he will
not spend too much time, he purposeth to search three or foure at the most
of the mouthes thereof, those chiefly which shall be thought most
commodious by the aduise of the inhabitants, of whom hee meaneth to haue
certaine with him in his voyage, and meaneth to employ three or foure
boates of that Countrey in search of these mouthes, as neere as possibly he
can to the shore, which within three dayes iourney of the Sea is inhabited,
that he may learne where the riuer is best nauigabie. [Sidenote: The place
vpon the riuer Ob, where he was but 12. dayes iourney from the mouthes
thereof and is called Yaks Olgush.] If it so fall out that he may sayle vp
the riuer Ob against the stream, and mount vp to that place which
heretofore accompanied with certaine of his friends, he passed vnto by land
through the countrey of Siberia which is about twelue dayes iourney from
the Sea, where the riuer Ob falleth into the Sea, which place is in the
Continent neere the riuer Ob, and is called Yaks Olgush, borowing his name
from that mightie riuer which falleth into the riuer Ob, then doubtlesse
hee would conceiue full hope that hee had passed the greatest difficulties:
for the people dwelling thereabout report, which were three dayes sayling
onely from that place beyond the riuer Ob, whereby the bredth thereof may
be gathered (which is a rare matter there, because that many rowing with
their boates of leather one dayes iourney onely from the shore, haue bene
cast away in tempest, hauing no skill to guide themselues neither by Sunne
nor Starre) that they haue seene great vessels laden with rich and precious
merchandize brought downe that great riuer by blacke or swart people.
[Sidenote: M. Ienkinson in his voyage to Boghar speaketh of the riuer
Ardok.] They call that riuer Ardoh, which falleth into the lake of Kittay,
which they call Paraha, whereupon bordereth that mighty and large nation
which they call Carrah Colmak, which is none other then the nation of
Cathay. There, if neede require, he may fitly Winter and refresh himselfe
and his, and seeke all things which he shall stand in need of: which if it
so fall out, he doubteth not but in the meane while he shall be much
furthered in searching and learning out many things in that place. Howbeit,
he hopeth that hee shall reach to Cathaya that very Sommer, vnlesse he be
hindered by great abundance of Ice at the mouth of the riuer of Ob, which
is sometimes more, and sometimes lesse. If it so fall out, he then
purposeth to returne to Pechora, and there to Winter: or if he cannot doe
so neither, then hee meaneth to returne to the riuer of Dwina, whither he
will reach in good time enough, and so the next Spring following to proceed
on his voyage. One thing in due place I forgate before.

The people which dwell at that place called Yaks Olgush, affirme that they
haue heard their forefathers say, that they haue heard most sweete harmonie
of bels in the lake of Kitthay, and that they haue seene therein stately
and large buildings: and when they make mention of the people named Currah
Colmak (this countrey is Cathay) they fetch deepe sighes, and holding vp
their hands, they looke vp to heauen, signifying as it were, and declaring
the notable glory and magnificence of that nation. I would this Oliuer were
better seen in Cosmographie, it would greatly further his experience, which
doubtlesse is very great. Most deare friend, I omit many things, and I wish
you should heare the man himselfe which promised mee faithfully that he
would visite you in this way at Duisburg, for he desireth to conferre with
you, and doubtlesse you shall very much further, the man. He seemeth
sufficiently furnished with money and friends, wherein and in other offices
of curtesie I offered him my furtherance if it had pleased him to haue vsed
me. The Lord prosper the mans desires and forwardnesse, blesse his good
beginnings, further his proceedings, and grant vnto him most happy issue.
Fare you well good sir and my singular friend. From Arusburg vpon the riuer
of Ossella, the 20. of February, 1581.

Yours wholly at commandement,

Iohn Balak

Master Anthonie Ienkinson in a disputation before her Maiestie with sir
Humfrey Gilbert for proofe of a passage by the Northeast to Cathaya, among
other things alleageth this: videlicet, that there came a continuall
streame or currant through Mare glaciale, of such swiftnesse as a Colmak
told him, that if you cast any thing therein, it would presently be caried
out of sight towards the West, &c.

* * * * *

A testimonie of the Northeasterne Discouerie made by the English, and of
the profite that may arise by pursuing the same: taken out of the second
volume of Nauigations and Voyages, fol. 17. of the notable Cosmographer
M. Iohn Baptista Ramusius, Secretaire to the State of Venice: Written in
Italian in the yeere, 1557.

D'alla parte poi di sotto la nostra Tramontana, che chiascuno scrittore et
Cosmographo di questi et de passati tempi fin'hora vi ha messo e mette mare
congelato, et che la terra corra continuamente fino a 90. gradi verso il
Polo: sopro questa mappa-mondo all' incontro si vede che la terra va
solamente vn poco sopra la Noruega et Suetia, e voltando corre poi Greco e
Leuante nel paese della Moscouta et Rossia, et va diritto al Cataio. Et che
cio sia la verita, le nauigationi che hanno fatte gl' Inglesi con le loro
naui, volendo andare a scoprire il Cataio al tempo del Re Odoardo Sesto
d'Inghilterra, questi anni passati, ne possono far vera testimonianza:
perche nel mezzo del loro viaggio, capitate per fortuna a i liti di
Moscouia doue trouarano all' hora regnare Giouanni Vasiliuich Imperatore
della Rossia e gran Duca di Moscouia, il quale con molto piacere e
marauiglia vedutogli, fece grandissime carezze, hanno trouato quel mare
essere nauigabile, e non agghiacciato. La qual nauigatione (ancor che con
l'esito fin hora non sia stata bene intesa) se col spesso frequentarla et
col lungo vso et cognitione de que' mari si continuera, e per fare
grandissima mutatione et riuolgimento nelle cose di questa nostra parte del

The same in English.

Moreouer (hauing before spoken of diuers particularities, in an excellent
Map of Paulus Venetus) on that part subiect to our North pole, where euery
writer and Cosmographer of these and of former times hitherto, haue, and
doe place the frozen Sea, and that the land stretcheth continually to 90.
degress, towards the pole: contrarywise, in this mappe is to bee seene,
that the land extendeth onely a litle aboue Norway and Swethland, and then
turning it selfe trendeth afterwards towards the Southeast and by East,
vnto the countrey of Moscouie and Russia, and stretcheth directly vnto
Cathay. And that this is true, the nauigations which the English men haue
of late made, intending to discouer Cathay, in the time of Edward the sixt,
king of England, are very sufficient witnesses. For in the mids of their
voiage, lighting by chance vpon the coast of Moscouie (where they found
then reigning Iohn Vasiliwich Emperor of Russia, and great Duke of
Moscouia, who after he had, to his great delight and admiration, seene the
English men, entertained them with exceeding great curtesies) found this
sea to be nauigable, and not frozen.

[Sidenote: The great hope of the Northeastern dicouerie.] Which nauigation
to Cathay, although it be not as yet throughly knowen, yet if with often
frequenting the same, and by long vse and knowledge of those seas it bee
continued it is like to make a wonderfull change and reuolution in the
state of this our port of the world.

* * * * *

The testimonie of Gerardus Mercator in his last large Mappe of Europe,
touching the notable discoueries of the English, made of Moscouie by the

Magnam occasionem certamque rationem emendandae Europae nobis attulit
celeberrima Angloram per Cronium mare nauigatio: quae littora
Septentrionalia Finlappie Moscouiaeque iuxta coeli situm, mundique plagas
digesta habet. Exacta etiam vrbis Moscuae latitudo ab Anglis obseruata,
interiorum Regionum emendatius describendarum infallibilem legem
praescripsit: Quibus oblatis adminiculis pulcherrimis, iniquum putaui
tabulam hanc castigatiorem non reddere.

The same in English.

The most famous nauigation of the English men by the Northeast sea hath
offered vnto me a great occasion, and certaine direction for the
reformation of the mappe of Europe: which discouerie hath the Northerne
parts of Finmarke, Lapland, and Moscouie, laied out according to the iust
eleuation and the quarters of the world. And further, the true obseruation
of the latitude of the city of Mosco, made by the foresaid Englishmen, hath
yeelded me an infallible rule, for the correcting of the situation of the
inland countries: which notable helps being ministred vnto me, I thought it
my duetie to exhibite to the world this Mappe, more exact and perfect then
hitherto it hath bene published.

* * * * *

Another testimonie of Ioannes Metellus Sequanus concerning the same
Nauigation and Discouerie in his preface prefixed before Osorius de rebus
gestis Emanuelis Regis Portugalliae. written about the yeere, 1574.

At ne omnis, vnis Hispanis, Oceani maris gloria totaque concederetur,
Britanni Septentriones noua in Moscouiam nauigatione, ab hinc annis viginti
plus minus illustrarunt. Nam bellis Sueticis a Moscouitarum, Naruaeque
Liuoniae exclusi commercio, iter ad illos Oceano, hinc Noruegiae, Finmarchiae,
Lappiae, Scricfinniae, Biarmiaeque; illinc Groenlandiae littora praeteruecti,
vltra Septuagesimum latitudinis Aquilonaris gradum sibi patefaciunt. Quam
nauigationem Belgae postea, non sine tamen cum ijsdem Britannis velitatione,
sunt secuti. Eo vehunt argenti veteris fragmenta, lineasque vestes prope
detritas, omnisque generis minutiores merces, ad vsum, cultumque corporis
hominum vtriusque sexus, veluti lintea et byssea cingula, periscelides,
crumenas, cultros, et id genus sexcenta. A Moschis autem pelles omnis
generis pretiosas adferunt, et salmones salitos, fumoque duratos.

The same in English.

But least all and the whole glory of discouering the Ocean sea should be
ascribed to the Spaniards, the Englishmen about twentie yeeres past, by a
new nauigation into Moscouie, discouered the Northeast partes. For they by
reason of the warres of Swethland being hindered from the traffique of the
Moscouites and of the Narue in Liefland, opened a passage for themselues by
the Ocean sea, beyond the Northerne latitude of 70. degrees: hauing in
their course on the one side the coastes of Norway, Finmark, Lapland,
Scrickfin and Biarmia: On the other side the coast of Gronland. Which
voyage the Hollanders afterwarde entred into, but not without some conflict
with the English. They cary thither old plate and course linnen cloth, and
all kind of small Mercerie wares, seruing for the apparelling of men and
women, as linnen, and silke girdles, garters, purses, kniues, and many such
like things. And they bring away from the Moscouites, all kinde of precious
Furres, and Salmons salted and dried in the smoke.




N.B.--The large print indicates that the _whole_ section refers to the
subject mentioned.


ALANIANS, Greek Christians
ALBANIA described
ALEPPO (Sultan of) attacked by Tartars
ALMANS (Germans), mentioned
ALTI (Soldan), mentioned
AMBASSADORS received by Cuyne
ANDREW, duke of Russia
ANDREW, (Friar) visits the Caspian
ANTIOCH taken by the French
AQUILEIA (Patriarch of) attacks Tartars
ARCTIC OCEAN visited by Tartars
ARMENIANS attacked by Tartars
ASCELLINUS (Friar) sent to Tartary
ASSASSIN, origin of word
ASSASSINI, a mountain tribe
ASTAR, mentioned
ASTRACAN, mentioned
AUSTRIA (Duke of) attacks Tartars
AZOV, mentioned
AZOV, (Sea of)

BAATU. See _Bathy_
BADEN (Earl of) said to attack Tartars.
BALDACH (Caliph of) attacked by Tartars--Mentioned
BAN, brother to Bathy, put to death
BARCHIN besieged
BARTHOLOMEW OF CREMONA accompanies Rubruquis to Tartary--Sent back by Bathy
to Sartach.
BATHY. His expedition--Carpini sent to him--His power--Receives Carpini--
Revisited by Carpini--Mentioned--His wives--His reception of Rubruquis
BEARS, mentioned
BEAUVAIS (Vincent of), see _Beluacensis_
BELUACENSIS (V.), quoted--note on
BENEDICT (Friar) accompanies J. de Piano Carpini
BERTA, mentioned
BISERSMINIA, mentioned
BLACK SEA. See _Pontus Euximus_
BOHEMIA, mentioned
BOHEMIA (King of) attacks Tartars
BOLAC, mentioned
BOLESAUS, Duke of Silesia
BORISTHENES. See _Dnieper_
BULGARIA (Greater).

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