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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation v. 4 by Richard Hakluyt

Part 3 out of 8

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of Astracan (Vasili Pheodorouich Shelepin) who declared vnto them the
troubles that were in Media and Persia: and how the Turke with helpe of the
Crims had conquered, and did possesse the greatest part of Media: also he
laid before them that Winter was at hand, and if they should put out with
their ship to the sea, they should bee constrained to take what hazards
might happen them by wintring in the parts of Media, or els where, for
backe againe to that place there was no hope for them to returne: whereupon
the said factors determined to stay there all Winter to learne farther of
the state of those countreis.

[Sidenote: Ice at Astracan for foure moneths.] The 19 of Nouember the winde
being Northerly, there was a great frost, and much ice in the riuer: the
next day being the 20 of Nouember the ice stood in the riuer, and so
continued vntill Easter day.

The 22 December departed this life Iohn Moore the gunner of the ship.

[Sidenote: Anno 1580.] Thursday the 7 of Ianuary betweene 8. and 9. of the
clocke at night there appeared a crosse proceeding from the moone, with two
galles at the South and North end thereof.

The 6. of Ianuary being Twelfe day (which they call Chreshenia) the Russes
of Astracan brake a hole in the ice vpon the riuer Volga, and hallowed the
water with great solemnity according to the maner of their countrey, at
which time all the souldiers of the towne shot off their smal pieces vpon
the ice, and likewise to gratifie the captaine of the castel being a Duke,
whose name is Pheodor Michalouich Troiocouria, who stood hard by the ship,
beholding them as they were on the riuer, was shot off all the ordinance of
our ship being 15. pieces, viz. 2. faulcons, 2. faulconers, 4. fowlers, 4.
fowlers chambers, and 3. other small pieces made for the stroogs to shoote
hailestones, and afterwards the great ordinance of the castle was shot off.

On the 31. of Ianuary there happened a great eclipse of the moone, which
began about 12 of the clock at night, and continued before she was cleare
an houre and a halfe by estimation, which ended the first of February about
halfe an houre past one in the morning: she was wholly darkned by the space
of halfe an houre.

The 26. of February the towne of Nagay Tartars, called the Yourt, which is
within 3. quarters of a mile of the castle of Astracan, by casualty was set
on fire about 10. of the clock at night, and continued burning til
midnight, whereby one halfe of it was burnt, and much cattell destroyed.
The Nagayes that inhabite that towne, are the Emperour of Russia his
vassals: It is supposed there are of them inhabiting that place of men,
women, and children, the number of seuen thousand. That night the Allarum
was made in the castle and towne of Astracan. The captaine thereof had all
his souldiers in very good order and readinesse, being of them in number
two thousand gunners and cassaks, that is to say, a thousand gunners which
are accounted meere souldiers, and are not put to any other seruice then
the vse of their pieces, watch, &c. as souldiers which alwaies keepe the
castle, and the cassaks also vsing their pieces, do keepe the towne, and
are commonly set to all kind of labours.

The 7. of March 1580. the Nagayes and Crims came before Astracan to the
number of one thousand foure hundred horsemen, which incamped round about,
but the nearest of them were two Russe versts and a halfe off from the
castle and town: some of them lay on the Crims side of Volga, and some on
the Nagay side, but none of them came vpon the Island that Astracan
standeth on. [Sidenote: Astracan situate vpon an Island.] It was said that
two of the prince of the Crims his sonnes were amongst them. They sent a
messenger on the eight day to the captain of Astracan, to signifie that
they would come and visit him: who answered, he was ready to receiue them:
and taking a great shot or bullet in his hand, willed the messenger to tel
them that they should not want of that geare, so long as it would last. The
ninth day newes was brought that the Crims determined to assault the towne
or castle, and were making of fagots of reede, to bring with them for that
purpose. The tenth day two Russes that were captiues, and two of the
Tartars bondmen ranne away from the Nagayes, and came into Astracan. The
same day word was brought to the Duke of two Nagayes which were seene at
Gostine house, supposed to be spies, but were gone againe from thence
before they were suspected. This Gostine house is a place a little without
the towne where the Tisiks (or Persian merchants) do vsually remaine with
their merchandize. The 11. day the said Nagayes, and one more with them,
came againe to that house earely in the morning, where they were taken by
the Russes, and brought to the captaine of the castle, and being examined,
confessed that their coming was onely to seeke two of their bondmen that
were runne from them: whereupon their bondmen were deliuered to them: which
fauour the said captaine comonly sheweth if they be not Russies, and they
were set at libertie. The 13. day they brake vp their camps, and marched to
the Northwards into the countrey of Nagay.

[Sidenote: The variation of the compass in Astracan was 13. deg. 40.
minutes.] The 16. of April the variation of the compasse obserued in
Astracan was 13. deg. 40. min. from North to West. This spring there came
newes to Astracan that the queene of Persia (the king being blind) had bene
with a great army against the Turks that were left to possesse Media, and
had giuen them a great ouerthrow: yet notwithstanding Derbent, and the
greatest part of Media were still possessed and kept by the Turks. The
factors of the company consulting vpon their affayres, determined to leaue
at Astracan the one halfe of their goods with Arthur Edwards, and with the
other halfe the other three factors would proceed in the ship on their
proposed voyage to the coast of Media, to see what might be done there:
where, if they could not find safe traffike, they determined to proceed to
the coast of Gilan, which is a prouince nere the Caspian sea bordering,
vpon Persia: and thereupon appointed the said goods to be laden aboord the
ship, and tooke into her also some merchandize of Tisiks or Persian.

The 29. of April Amos Rial, and Anthony Marsh, the companies' seruants were
sent from Astracan by the said factors, vp the riuer Volga to Yeraslaue,
with letters of aduise to be sent for England, and had order for staying
the goods in Russia that should come that yeere out of England for
mainteining the trade purposed for Persia, vntill further triall were made
what might be done in those parts.

[Sidenote: May.] The first day of May in the morning, hauing the shippe in
readinesse to depart, the factors inuited the duke Pheodor Micalouich
Proicoorow, and the principall secretary Vasili Pheodorouich Shelepin, with
other of the chiefes about the duke to a banket aboord the ship, where they
were interteined to their good liking, and at their departure was shot off
all the ordinance of the ship, and about nine of the clocke at night the
same day they weyed anker, and departed, with their ship from Astracan, and
being but little winde, towed her with the boat about three versts, and
then ankered, hauing with them a pauos or lighter to helpe them at the
flats. The second day at foure of the clocke in the morning they weyed and
plyed downe the riuer Volga toward the Caspian sea. [Sidenote: Vchoog.] The
seuenth of May in the morning they passed by a tree that standeth on the
left hand of the riuer as they went downe, which is called Mahomet Agatch,
or Mahomets tree, and about three versts further, that is to say, to the
Southwards of the said tree is a place called Vchoog, that is too say, the
Russe weare: (but Ochoog is the name of a weare in the Tartar tongue) where
are certain cotages, and the Emperour hath lying at that place certaine
gunners to gard his fishermen that keepe the weare. This Vchoog is counted
from Astracan 60. versts: they proceeded downe the said riuer without
staying at the Vchoog. [Sidenote: Shoald water.] The ninth and tenth dayes
they met with shoald water, and were forced to lighten their ship by the
pauos: the 11. day they sent backe to the Vchoog for an other pauos: This
day by mischance the shippe was bilged on the grapnell of the pauos,
whereby the company had sustained great losses, if the chiefest part of
their goods had not bene layde into the pauos: for notwithstanding their
pumping with 3. pumps, heauing out water with buckets, and all the best
shifts they could make, the shippe was halfe full of water ere the leake
could be found and stopt The 12. day the pauos came to them from the
Vchoog, whereby they lighted the shippe of all the goods. [Sidenote:
Flats.] The 13. day in the morning there came to them a small boat, sent by
the captaine of Astracan, to learne whether the shippe were at sea cleare
of the flats. The 15. day by great industry and trauell they got their ship
cleere off the shoals and flats, wherewith they had beene troubled from the
ninth day vntill then: they were forced to passe their shippe in three foot
water or lesse. [Sidenote: Chetera Bougori.] The 16. day they came to the
Chetera Bougori, or Island of Foure Hillocks, which are counted forty
versts from Vchoog, and are the furthest land towards the sea. [Sidenote:
The Caspian Sea.] The 17. day they bare off into the sea, and being about
twelue versts from the Foure hillocks, riding in fiue foot and a halfe
water about eleuen of the clocke in the forenoone, they tooke their goods
out of the pauoses into the shippe, and filled their shippe with all things
necessary. [Sidenote: 45. degrees 20. minutes. The first obseruation in the
Caspian Sea.] The 18. day in the morning about seuen of the clock, the
pauoses being discharged departed away towards Astracan, the winde then at
Southeast, they rode still with the shippe, and obseruing the eleuation of
the pole at that place, found it to be 45. degrees 20. minutes. The 19.
day, the wind Southeast, they rode still. The 20. day the winde at
Northwest they set saile about one of the clocke in the morning, and stered
thence South by West, and Southsouthwest about 3. leagues, and then ankered
in 6. foot and a halfe water, about nine of the clocke before noone, at
which time it fell calme: the eleuation of the pole at that place 45.
degrees 13. minuts. The 21. hauing the winde at Northwest, they set saile,
and stered thence South by West, and South vntil eleuen of the clocke, and
had then nine foote water: and at noone they obserued the latitude, and
found it to be 44. degrees 47. minuts: then had they three fathoms and a
halfe water, being cleare of the flats. It is counted from the Foure
hillocks to the sea about fiftie versts. [Sidenote: Brackish water farre
within the sea.] From the said noonetide vntil foure of the clocke they
sayled South by East fiue leagues and a halfe: then had they fiue fathoms
and a halfe and brackish water: from that till twelue at night they sayled
South by East halfe a league, East tenne leagues: then had they eleuen
fathome, and the water salter. From that till the 22. day three of the
clocke in the morning they sayled three and fifty leagues, then had they
sixtene fathome water: [Sidenote: 43. degrees 15. minuts.] from thence they
sayled vntil noone South and by West seuen leagues and a halfe, the
latitude then obserued 43. degrees 15. minuts, the depth then eight and
twentie fathoms, and shallow ground: from that vntill eight of the clocke
at night, they sayled South by East fiue leagues and a halfe, then had they
three and fortie fathoms shallow ground. From thence till the 23, foure a
clocke in the morning, they sayled Southsouthwest three leagues and a
halfe: then could they get no ground in two and fiftie fathoms deepe. From
thence vntil noone they sayled South nine leagues, then the latitude
obserued was 42. degrees 20. minuts. [Sidenote: 41. degrees 32. minuts.]
From that till the 24. day at noone they sayled South by West seuenteen
leagues and a halfe, then the latitude obserued was 41. degrees 32 minuts.
From noone till seuen of the clocke at night, they sailed Southsouthwest
foure leagues, then had they perfect sight of high land or hilles, which
were almost couered with snow, and the mids of them were West from the
ship, being then about twelue leagues from the nearest land: they sounded
but could finde no ground in two hundred fathoms. [Sidenote: 40. degrees
54. minuts.] From thence they sayled Southwest vntil midnight: about three
leagues from thence till the 25. day foure of the clocke in the morning,
they sayled West three leagues, being then litle winde, and neere the land,
they tooke in their sayles, and lay hulling: at noone the latitude
obserued, was 40. degrees 54. minuts: they sounded but could get no ground
in two hundred fathoms. At four of the clocke in the afternoone, the winde
Northwest, they set their sailes, and from thence till the 26. day at noone
they sailed East southeast foure leagues. From thence they sailed till
eight of the clocke at night Southwest three leagues, the winde then at
North. From thence they sailed vntill the 27. day two of the clocke in the
morning, Westsouthwest eight leagues, the winde blowing at North very much.
From the sayd two til foure of the clocke they sailed South by West one
league: then being day light, they saw the land plaine, which was not past
three leagues from them, being very high ragged land. [Sidenote: Bilbill.]
There were certaine rocks that lay farre off into the sea, about fiue
leagues from the same land, (which are called Barmake Tash) they sayled
betweene those rocks, and the land, and about fiue of the clocke they
passed by the port Bilbill, where they should haue put in but could not:
and bearing longst the shoare about two of the clocke afternoone, they came
to Bildih in the countrey of Media or Sheruan, against which place they
ankered in 9. foot water. Presently after they were at anker, there came
aboord of them a boat, wherein were seuen or eight persons, two Turks, the
rest Persians, the Turkes vassals, which bade them welcome, and seemed to
be glad of their arriuall, who told the factors that the Turke had
conquered all Media, or the countrey Sheruan, and how that the Turks Basha
remained in Derbent with a garrison of Turkes, and that Shamaky was wholly
spoyled, and had few or no inhabitants left in it. [Sidenote: Bachu port.]
The factours then being desirous to come to the speech of the Basha, sent
one of the Tisikes (or merchants that, went ouer with them from Astracan,
passingers) and one of the companies seruants Robert Golding, with those
souldiours, to the captaine of Bachu, which place standeth hard by the sea,
to certifie him of their arriuall, and what commodities they had brought,
and to desire friendshippe to haue quiet and safe traffike for the same.
Bachu is from Bildih, the place where they road, about a dayes iourney, on
foote easily to be trauelled, which may be sixe leagues, the next way ouer
land; it is a walled towne, and strongly fortified. When the sayd messenger
came to the captaine of Bachu, the said captaine gaue him very friendly
entertainment, and after he vnderstood what they were that were come in the
shippe, and what they had brought, he seemed to reioyce much thereat: who
gaue the said Golding liccence to depart backe the next day, being the
eight and twentieth day: and promised that he would himselfe come to the
shippe the next day following: with which answere the said Golding returned
and came to the ship the sayd eight and twentieth day about nine of the
clocke at night. The nine and twentieth day in the morning the factours
caused a tent to be set vp at shoare neare the shippe, against the comming
of the sayd captaine: who came thither about three of the clock after
noone, and brought about thirtie souldiers, that attended on him in shirts
of male, and some of them had gauntlets of siluer, others of steele, and
very faire. The factors met him at their tent, and after very friendly
salutations passed betweene them, they gaue him for a present a garment of
cloth of veluet, and another of scarlet, who accepted the offer gratefully.
After they had talked together by their interpretors, as well of the state
of the voyage and cause of their coming thither, as also learned of the
sayde captaine the state of that countrey, the factours made request vnto
him, that he would helpe them to the speech of the Basha, who answered that
their demand was reasonable, and that he would willingly shew them therein
what pleasure he could, and sayd, because the way to Derbent, where the
Basha remayned, was dangerous, he would send thither and certifie him of
their arriuall, and what commodities they had brought, and such commodities
as they would desire to exchange or barter the same for he would procure
the said Basha to prouide for them: and therefore willed the factors to
consult together, and certifie him what they most desired, and what
quantity they would haue prouided: so whilest the factors were consulting
together thereupon the captaine talked with a Tisike merchant that came
ouer in the ship with them from Astracan, which Tisike, among other matters
in talke, certified the captaine, that the night before, the factors and
their company were determined to haue returned backe againe to Astracan,
and that they were about to wey their ankers, which indeed was true,
[Sidenote: Thomas Hudson of Limehouse, maister of the English barke.] but
the maister of the barke Thomas Hudson of Limehouse perswaded them that the
wind was not good for them to depart, &c. When the factors came againe to
talke with the captaine, they desired to goe to the Basha, and that he
would safely conduct them thither: he granted their requests willingly,
desiring them to goe with him to a village hard by, and there to abide with
him that night, and the next day they should go to Bachu, and from thence
to proceede on their iourney to Derbent. They were vnwilling to go that
night with him, because their prouision for the way was not in readinesse,
but requested that they might stay til the morning. [Sidenote: M.
Christopher Burrough.] Thereupon the captaine sayd it was reported vnto
him, that they ment the night before to haue gone away: and if it should so
happen, he were in great danger of losing his head: for which cause he
requested to haue some one for a pledge: wherefore M. Garrard one of the
factors offered himselfe to go, who, because he could not speake the Russe
tongue tooke with him Christopher Burrough, and a Russe interpretour: that
night they road from the seaside, to a village about ten miles off, where
at supper time the captaine had much talke with M. Garrard of our countrey,
demanding where about it did lie, what countreys were neare vnto it, and
with whom we had traffike, for by the Russe name of our countrey he could
not coniecture who we should be: but when by the situation he perceiued we
were Englishmen, he demanded if our prince were a mayden Queene: which when
he was certified of, then (quoth he) your land is called Enghilterra, is it
not? answere was made, it was so: whereof he was very glad, when he knew
the certainety. He made very much of them, placing M. Garrard next to
himselfe, and Christopher Burrough, with the Russie interpretour for the
Turkie tongue hard by. There was a Gillan merchant with him at that
present, of whom he seemed to make great account: him he placed next to
himselfe on the other side, and his gentlemen sate round about him talking
together. Their sitting is vpon the heeles, or crosse legged.

Supper being brought in, he requested them to eate. After their potage
(which was made of rice) was done, and likewise their boyled meat, there
came in platters of rice sodden thicke, and hony mingled with all: after
all which, came a sheepe roasted whole, which was brought in a tray, and
set before the captaine: he called one of his seruitors, who cut it in
pieces, and laying thereof vpon diuers platters, set the same before the
captaine: then the captaine gaue to M. Garrard and his company one platter,
and to his gentlemen another, and to them which could not well reach he
cast meat from the platters which were before him. Diuers questions he had
with M. Garrard and Christopher Burrough at supper time, about their diet,
inquiring whether they eat fish or flesh voluntarily or by order. Their
drinke in those partes is nothing but water. After supper (walking in the
garden) the captaine demanded of M. Garrard, whether the vse was in England
to lie in the house or in the garden, and which he had best liking of: he
answered, where it pleased him, but their vse was to lie in houses:
whereupon the captaine caused beds to be sent into the house for them, and
caused his kinsman to attend on them in the night, if they chanced to want
anything: he hinselfe with his gentlemen and souldiers lying in the garden.

In the morning very early he sent horse for the rest of the company which
should go to Derbent, sending by them that went tenne sheepe for the
shippe. In that village there was a stoue, into which the captaine went in
the morning, requesting M. Garrard to go also to the same to wash himselfe,
which he did. Shortly after their comming out of the Stoue, whilest they
were at breakfast, M. Turnbull, M. Tailboyes, and Thomas Hudson the M. of
the shippe, came thither, and when they had all broken their fasts, they
went to Bachu: but Christopher Burrough returned to the ship, for that he
had hurt his leg, and could not well endure that trauell. And from Bachu
they proceeded towards Derbent, as it was by the captaine promised, being
accompanied on their way for their safe conduct, with a gentleman, and
certaine souldiers, which had the captaine of Bachu his letters to the
Basha of Derbent, very friendly written in their behalfe. [Sidenote: The
receiuing of the English into Derbent.] In their iourney to Derbent they
forsooke the ordinarie wayes, being very dangerous, and trauelled thorow
woods till they came almost to the towne of Derbent: and then the gentleman
road before with the captaines letters to the Basha, to certifie him of the
English merchants comming, who receiuing the letters and vnderstanding the
matter, was very glad of the newes, and sent forth to receiue them certaine
souldiours gunners, who met them about two miles out of the towne, saluting
them with great reuerence, and afterwardes road before them: then againe
met them other souldiours, somewhat neerer the castle, which likewise
hauing done their salutations road before them, and then came foorth noble
men, captaines, and gentlemen, to receiue them into the castle and towne.
As they entered the castle, there was a shot of twentie pieces of great
ordinance, and the Basha sent M. Turnbull a very faire horse with furniture
to mount on, esteemed to be worth an hundred markes, and so they were
conueyed to his presence: who after he had talked with them, sent for a
coate of cloth of golde, and caused it to be put on M. Turnbulles backe and
then willed them all to depart, and take their ease, for that they were
wearie of their iourney, and on the morrow he would talke further with
them. The next day when the factors came againe to the presence of the
Basha according to his appointment, they requested him that he would grant
them his priuilege, whereby they might traffike safely in any part and
place of his countrey, offering him, that if it pleased his Maiestie to
haue any of the commodities that they had brought, and to write his mind
thereof to the captaine of Bachu, it should be deliuered him accordingly.
The Bashaes answer was, that he would willingly giue them his priuilege:
yet for that he regarded their safetie, hauing come so farre, and knowing
the state of his countrey to be troublesome, he would haue them to bring
their commodity thither, and there to make sale of it, promising he would
prouide such commodities as they needed, and that he would be a defence
vnto them, so that, they should not be iniured by any: wherupon the factors
sent Thomas Hudson backe for the ship to bring her to Derbent, and the
Basha sent a gentleman with him to the captaine of Bachu, to certifie him
what was determined, which message being done, the captaine of Bachu, and
the Bashaes messenger, accompanied with a doozen souldiours, went from
Bachu with Thomas Hudson, and came to the ship at Bildih the 11 day of
Iune. [Sidenote: The latitude of Bildih 40. deg. 25. min. The variation of
the compas 10. deg. 40. min.] After the captaine and his men had beene
aboord and seene the ship, they all departed presently, but the gentleman,
messenger from the Basha, with three other Turks, remained aboord, and
continued in the ship till she came to Derbent: the latitude of Bildih by
diuers obseruations is 40. degrees 25 minuts: the variation of the compasse
10. degrees 40 minuts from North to West. After the returne of Thomas
Hudson backe to Bildih, they were constrayned to remaine there with the
shippe through contrary windes vntill the 16. day of Iune foure of the
clocke in the morning, at which time they weyed anker, set saile and
departed thence towards Derbent, and arriued at anker against Derbent East
and by South from the sayd castle in foure fathome and a halfe water, the
22. day of Iune at ten of the clocke in the morning: then they tooke vp
their ordinance, which before they had stowed in hold for easing the shippe
in her rowling. In the afternoone the Basha came downe to the waterside
against the shippe, and hauing the said ordinance placed, and charged, it
was all shotte off to gratifie him: and presently after his departure
backe, he permitted the factors to come aboord the shippe. The 29. day
their goodes were vnladen and carried to the Bashaes garden, where he made
choyce of such things as he liked, taking for custome of euery fiue and
twenty karsies, or whatsoeuer, one, or after the rate of foure for the
hundred. The factors after his choyce made, determined to send a part of
the rest of the goods to Bachu, for the speedier making sale thereof, for
which cause they obteyned the Bashaes letter to the captaine of Bachu,
written very fauourably in their behoofe: and thereupon was laden and sent
in a small boat of that countrey in merchandize, to the value (very neere)
of one thousand pound sterling: videlicet, one hundred pieces of karsies,
seuen broad clothes, two barrels of cochenelio, two barrels of tinne, foure
barrels of shaffe. There went with the same of the companies seruants
William Wincle, Robert Golding, and Richard Relfe, with two Russies,
whereof one was an interpretor, besides foure barkemen. They departed from
Dertent with the saide barke the 19. of Iuly, and arriued at Bildih the 25.
day: their passage and carriage of their goods to Bachu was chargeable,
although their sales when they came thither were small: they had great
friendship shewed them of the captaine of Bachu, as well for the Bashaes
letter, as also for the factors sakes, who had dealt friendly with him, as
before is declared. Robert Golding desirous to vnderstand what might be
done at Shamaky, which is a dayes iourney from Bachu, went thither, from
whence returning, he was set on by theeues, and was shot into the knee with
an arrow, who had very hardly escaped with his life and goods, but that by
good hap he killed one of the theeues horses with his caliuer, and shot a
Turke thorow both cheeks with a dag. [Sidenote: Zere Island.] On the sixt
day of August the factors being aduertised at Derbent that their ship was
so rotten and weake, that it was doubtfull she would not cary them backe to
Astracan, did thereupon agree and bargen at that place with an Armenian,
whose name was Iacob, for a barke called a Busse, being of burden about 35.
tunnes which came that yere from Astracan, and was at that instant riding
at an island called Zere, about three or foure leagues beyond or to the
Eastwardes of Bildih, which barke for their more safety, they ment to haue
with them in their return to Astracan, and thereupon wrote vnto Wincoll and
the rest at Bachu, that they should receiue the same Busse, and lade in her
their goods at Bildih to be returned to Derbent, and to discharge their
first boate, which was obserued by them accordingly. [Sidenote: The English
suffer shipwracke.] When all their goods were laden aboord the sayd Busse
at Bildih, and being ready to haue departed thence for Derbent, there arose
a great storme with the winde out of the sea, by force whereof the cables
and halsers were broken, and their vessell put a shoare, and broken to
pieces against the rockes: euery of them that were in her saued their
liues, and part of the goods. But there was a Carobia or cheste, wherein
were dollars, and golde, which they had receiued for the commodities, of
the company, which they sold at Bachu, which at the taking out of the
Busse, fell by the Barkes side into the water amongst the rockes, and so
was lost. The packes of cloth which they could not well take out of the
Busse were also lost, other things that were more profitable they saued.

The 18. of August, the Factors receiued from the Basha 500. Batmans of raw
silke, parcell of the bargaine made with him, who bade them come the next
day for the rest of the bargaine.

The 19. day the Factors went to the Basha according to his appointment, but
that day they could not speake with him, but it was deliuered them as from
him, that they should looke and consider whether any thing were due vnto
him or not, which grieued the Factors: and thereupon M. Turnebull answered,
that their heads and all that they had were at the Bashaes pleasure: But
then it was answered there was no such matter in it: but that they should
cast vp their reckonings, to see how it stood betweene them. The 20. day
they cast vp their reckonings. The 21. they went to haue spoken with the
Basha, but were denied audience.

[Sidenote: Arthur Edwards died at Astracan.] The 22. day they heard newes
by a Busse that came from Astracan, that Arthur Edwards (whom the Factors
left at Astracan with the moietie of the goods) was dead, who departed this
life [Footnote: Left blank in Original.] of ...

[Sidenote: September.] The 23. day the Factors receiued more from the Bacha
500. Batmans of silke. The 4. of September newes was brought to Derbent,
that Golding comming from Shamaky was set on by theeues (Turkes) and had
hurt one of them.

The 5. Tobias Atkins the gunners boy died of the fluxe, who was buried the
6. day 2. miles to the Southward of the Castle of Derbent, where the
Armenian Christians do vsually bury their dead. About the 20 of September
newes came to Derbent, that the Busse which they had bought of Iacob the
Armenian as before, was cast away at Bildih, but they receiued no certaine
newes in writing from any of our people.

The 26. of September was laden aboord the ship 40. bales of silke. From the
26. til the 2. of October, they tooke into the ship, bread, water, and
other necessary prouision for their sea store: the said 2. day of October,
the Factors were commanded vpon the suddaine to auoide their house, and get
them with their prouision out of the towne: Whereupon they were constrained
to remoue and carry their things to the sea side against the ship, and
remained there all the night. The cause of this sudden auoyding them out of
the towne (as afterwards they perceiued) was for that the Basha had
receiued newes of a supplie with treasure that the Turke had sent, which
was then neare at hand comming toward him.

The 3. day of October all things were brought from the shoare aboord the
ship: and that day the Factors went to the Basha to take their leaue of
him, vnto whom they recommended those the Companies seruants, &c. which
they had sent to Bachu, making accompt to leaue them behinde in the
Countrey: who caused their names to be written, and promised they should
want nothing, nor be iniured of any. After this leaue taken, the Factors
went aboord purposing presently to haue set saile and departed towards
Astracan, the winde seruing well for that purpose at South Southeast:
[Sidenote: The Armenian village.] And as they were readie to set saile,
there came against the ship a man, who weued: whereupon the boate was sent
a shoare to him, who was an Armenian sent from William Wincoll, with his
writing tables, wherein the said Wincoll had written briefly, the mishap of
the losse of the Busse, and that they were comming from Bildih towardes
Derbent, they, and such things as they saued with a small boate, forced to
put a shoare in a place by the sea side called the Armenian village: Where
upon the Factors caused the shippe to stay, hoping that with the Southerly
winde that then blew, they would come from the place they were at to the
ship, but if they could not come with that winde, they ment to saile with
the shippe, with the next wind that would serue them, against the place
where they were, and take them in, if they could: which stay and losse of
those Southerly windes, was a cause of great troubles, that they
afterwardes sustained through yce, &c. entering the Volga as shalbe

The 4. day the winde South Southeast, the shippe rode still: This day
Christopher Burrow was sent to shore to Derbent to prouide some necessaries
for the voyage, and with him a Tisike or two, which should goe in the
shippe passengers to Astracan. [Sidenote: The Turke his treasure sent to
Derbent.] And being on shoare he saw there the comming in of the Turkes
treasure, being accompanied with 200. souldiers, and one hundreth pioners,
besides Captaines and Gentlemen: the Basha with his captaines and souldiers
very gallantly apparelled and furnished went out from Derbent about three
or foure miles, to meete the said treasure, and receiued the same with
great ioy and triumph. Treasure was the chiefe thing they needed, for not
long before the souldiers were readie to breake into the Court against the
Basha for their pay: there was a great mutinie amongst them, because hee
had long differed and not payed them their due. The treasure came in seuen
wagons, and with it were brought tenne pieces of brasse.

In the parts of Media where they were, there was no commoditie to be bought
of any value, but raw silke, neither was that to be had but at the Bashaes
hands: who shortly after their comming thither taxed the Countrey for that
commoditie. His dealing with our Merchants as it was not with equitie in
all points according to his bargaine, so it was not extreme ill. Of the
commodities they carried hee tooke the chiefest part, for which he gaue but
a small price in respect of the value it was there worth, and because he
had prouided such quantitie of commoditie for them, which otherwise they
could not haue had, the Countrey being so troublesome, and trauaile by land
so dangerous, he vsed them at his pleasure.

The newes that was reported vnto them at Astracan touching the warres
betweene the Turkes and Persians differed litle from the truth: for the
Turkes armie with the aide of the Crims, (being in number by the
information of two Spaniards that serued in those wars, about 200000)
inuaded and conquered the Countrey of Media in Anno 1577. [Sidenote: Osman
Basha.] When the great Turke vnderstood of the conquest, he appointed Osman
Basha (the said Basha, and now Captaine of Derbent) gouernour of the whole
Countrey, who settled himselfe in Shamaky the chiefe Citie of Media, and
principall place of traffike, vnto whom was sent from the great Turke, in
signification of the grateful acceptation of his seruice and the great
conquest, a sword of great value.

After the said Basha had brought the Countrey in order to his liking, and
placed garrisons where he thought conuenient, the armie was dissolued and
sent backe; when the Persians vnderstood that the Turkes armie was
dissolued and returned, they gathered a power together, and with the Queene
of their Countrey as chiefe, they entred the Countrey of Media, and
ouerranne the same with fire and sword, destroying whatsoeuer they found,
as well people, cattell, as whatsoeuer els, that might be commodious to the
Turkes. And after they had so ouerrunne the Countrey, they came to Shamaky,
where the said Basha Lieutenant generall of the great Turke was settled,
and besieged it: whereupon the Basha seeing hee could not long indure to
withstande them, fled thence to Derbent where he now remaineth.

[Sidenote: Derbent built by Alexander the great.] Derbent is a strong
Castle which was built by Alexander the great, the situation whereof is
such that the Persians being without ordinance, are not able to winne it
but by famine. When the Turkes were fled from Shamaky, the Persians entred
the same and spoyled it, leauing therein neither liuing creature nor any
commoditie, and so returned backe into Persia, and setled themselues about
Teueris, where there grewe some question among them for the kingdome.
Afterwards the Persians hauing intelligence of an armie from the Turke
comming into Media, gathered themselues together in a great armie and
encountring the said Turkes, set vpon them on the sudden, and vanquished
them, putting them all to the sword. This ouerthrow of the Turkes grieued
the Basha of Derbent, and made him to haue the more care for his own
safetie. Moreouer, newes was brought vnto him that the Kisel Bashaes, (that
is to say the nobles and Gentlemen of Persia) were minded to set vpon him,
and that neere vnto Bachu there lay an army ready to besiege it. Whereupon
the Basha oftentimes would ride about the Castle of Derbent viewing the
same, and the springs that did come to it, and where he saw any cause of
reformation it was amended.

[Sidenote: The latitude of Derbent 41. deg. 52. min. The variation of the
compasse.] The latitude of Derbent (by diuers obseruations exactly there
made) is 41. deg 52. min. The variation of the Compasse at that place about
11. degrees from North to West. From Derbent to Bildih by land 46. leagues.
From Shamaky to Bachu about 10. leagues which may be 30. miles. From Bachu
to Bildih fiue or sixe leagues by land, but by water about 12. leagues.
From the Castle Derbent Eastwards, there reach two stone wals to the border
of the Caspian sea, which is distant one English mile. Those walls are 9.
foote thicke, and 28. or 30. foote high, and the space betweene them is
160. Geometricall paces, that is 800. foot. There are yet to be perceiued
of the ruine of those wals, which do now extend, into the sea about halfe a
mile: also from the castle Westward into the land, they did perceiue the
ruines of a stone wall to extend, which wal, as it is reported, did passe
from thence to Pontus Euxinus, and was built by Alexander the great when
the Castle Derbent was made.

The 5 of October about noone the winde Northnortheast they wayed ancre, and
set saile from Derbent, being alongst the coast to the Southwards to seeke
their men: but as they had sailed about foure leagues the winde scanted
Easterly, so that they were forced to ancre in three fathom water.

The 6 day they wayed ancre, and bare further off into the sea, where they
ancred in seuen fathom water, the ship being very leake, and so rotten
abaft the maine mast, that a man with his nailes might scrape thorow her

The 7 day about 7 of the clocke in the morning, they set saile, the winde
Southwest. They considered the time of the yere was far spent, the ship
weake, leake and rotten, and therefore determining not to tarry any longer
for Wincoll and his fellowes, but to leaue them behinde, bent themselues
directly towards Astracan: and sailing Northnortheast vntill midnight about
16 leagues, the winde then came to the Northnorthwest, and blew much, a
very storme, which caused them to take in their sailes, sauing the fore
corse, with which they were forced to steere before the sea, South by West,
and Southsouthwest. And on the 8 day about two of the clocke in the morning
their great boat sunke at the ships sterne, which they were forced to cut
from the ship to their great griefe and discomfort: for in her they hoped
to saue their liues if the ship should haue miscaried. [Sidenote: Nezauoo.]
About 10 of the clocke before noone they had sight of the land about 5
leagues to the South of Derbent, and bare longst the coast to the
Southeastwards vnto Nezauoo, where they came at ancre in three fathoms, and
black oze, good ancre holde, whereof they were glad, as also that the winde
was shifted to the Northwest, and but a meane gale. Wincoll and the rest of
his fellowes being in the Armenian village, which is about 18 versts to the
Westwards of Nezauoo, the place where against they rode at ancre, saw the
ship as she passed by that place, and sent a man in the night following
alongst the coast after her, who came against the ship where she rode, and
with a firebrand in the top of a tree made signes, which was perceiued by
them in the shippe, whereupon they hoisted out their skiffe, and sent her
ashore to learne what was meant by the fire: which returned a letter from
Wincoll, wherein he wrote that they were with such goods as they had at the
Armenian village, and prayed that there they might with the same goods be
taken into the ships. The 9 day it was litle winde, they wayed and bare a
little farther off into the sea towards the said village, and ancred. The
10 day they sent their skiffe to the Armenian village to fetch those men
and the goods they had, with order that if the winde serued, that they
could not returne to fetch the ship, they of the ship promised to come for
them, against the said village. This day it was calme.

The 11 day the winde Northwest they rode still. The 12 day the winde
Southeast they wayed ancre, and bare against and nere to the Armenian
village where they ancred, and then the skiffe came aboord and tolde them
that our people at shore were like to be spoiled of the Tartars, were it
not that the gunners defended them: then was the skiffe sent backe againe
to charge them at any hand they should hasten aboord the ship whatsoeuer it
cost them. Whereupon, all the company came aboord the same day sauing
Richard Relfe and two Russes, but as soone as the skiffe was returned
aboord the ship, the winde blew at Southeast, and the sea was growen, so as
they were forced to take in their skiffe into the ship, and rode stil till
the 13 day, [Sidenote: Two Spaniards deliuered by our Englishmen.] and then
being faire weather, early in the morning the skiffe was hoisted out of the
ship, and sent to shore to fetch the said Relfe and the two Russes, which
were ready at the shore side, and with them two Spaniards that were taken
captiues at the Goletta in Barbary, which serued the Turke as souldiers.
Those Spaniards (of Christian charity) they brought also aboord the ship to
redeeme them from their captiuity, which were brought ouer into England,
and set free and at liberty here in London, in September 1581. The winde
this day at Northnortheast, faire weather. The 14 day they sent the skiffe
to shore, and filled fresh water. The 15 day they rode still, being litle
winde and fog. The 16 day the winde Eastsoutheast, they wayed ancre and set
saile, bearing Northwards towards Astracan, and the same night they ancred
in ten fathoms water, about fiue miles from the shore of the Shalkaules
countrey, which place is eight leagues Northnorthwest from Derbent. The 17
day the winde at North very stormy, they rode still all that day and night.
The 18 the winde all Southeast about one of the clocke afternoone, they
wayed ancre, and sailed thence till foure of the clocke Northnortheast sixe
leagues, then they might see the land Northwest about tenne leagues from
the winde Southeast: from thence they sailed til midnight Northnortheast
twelue leagues. From thence till the 19 day seuen a clocke in the morning
they sailed Northnortheast eight leagues: the winde then Eastsoutheast, a
faire gale, they sounded and had 17 fathoms, and sand, being (as the Master
iudged) about the head of Shetley: from thence till 12 of the clocke at
noone they sailed North 5 leagues, the winde then at East a faire gale,
they sounded and had 5 fathoms. From thence till eight of the clocke at
night, they sailed North 7 leagues, the winde then at Northeast with small
raine, they tooke in their sailes, and ancred in 3 fathoms water and soft
oze, where they rode still all night, and the 20 day and night the winde
Northeast, as before with small raine.

The 21 day the winde Northwest, they likewise rode still. The 22 day about
3 of the clocke in the afternoone, they wayed ancre, the winde
Westnorthwest, and sailed from thence till sixe of the clocke at night
North 4 leagues, then they ancred in 2 fathoms and a halfe soft oze, the
winde at West a small breath.

The 23 day about 7 of the clocke in the morning, they wayed ancre, and set
saile, being litle winde Easterly, and sailed till 2 of the clocke after
noone Northwest in with the shore about sixe leagues, and then ancred in 6
foot water, hauing perfect sight of the low land (sand hilles) being about
3 miles from the nerest land. This place of the land that they were
against, they perceiued to be to the Westwards of the 4 Islands (called in
the Russe tongue Chetera Bougori) and they found it afterwards by due
proofe, to be about 50 versts, or 30 English miles to the Southwest, or
Southwest by South, from the sayd Chetera Bougori.

The 24 day the winde at East, and by South, a Sea winde called Gillauar,
caused them to ride still. The 25 day they thought good to send in their
skiffe Robert Golding, and certaine Russes, to row him alongst Northwards
by the shore, to seeke the foure Islands, and so to passe vnto the Vchooge,
and there to land the sayd Robert Golding to proceed to Astracan, to
deliuer Amos Riall a letter, wherein he was required to prouide Pauoses to
meet the shippe at the sayd Islands, and the skiffe with the Russes were
appointed to returne from the Vchooge with victuals to the shippe, which
skiffe departed from the shippe about nine of the clocke in the forenoone.
The 26, 27, 28, and 29 dayes, the windes Easterly and Northeast, they rode
still with their ship. The 30 day the winde Southeast, they wayed, and set
saile to the Northeastwards: but the ship fell so on the side to the
shorewards, that they were forced eftsoones to take in their saile, and
ancre againe, from whence they neuer remoued her. [Sidenote: A strange
accident of prouision for their reliefe.] That day they shared their bread:
but in their want God sent them two couies of partridges, that came from
the shore, and lighted in and about their ships, whereby they were
comforted, and one that lay sicke, of whose life was small hope, recouered
his health.

[Sidenote: Nouember.] The 4 of Nouember the skiffe returned to the ship
with some victuals, and certified that the foure Islands were about 60
versts from them to the Northeastwards. When Robert Golding came to
Astracan, and deliuered there the Factors letters to Amos Rial, the duke,
captaine of that place, was done to vnderstand of the ships arriuall, and
of the state they were in, and their request for Pauoses, who was very glad
to heare of their safe returne, and appointed to be sent with all speed two
Pauoses and a Stroog, with gunners to gard and defend them. With the which
Stroog and Pauoses, Amos Riall went downe to the Chetera Bougori, or 4.
Islands aforesayd, where he stayed with those barks, according to the
Factors appointment. The 5 day they purposed to send from the ship their
skiffe with the carpenter, and 4 Russes to row him to the 4 Bougories, to
request Amos Riall to come from thence with the Pauoses to the shippe with
all possible speed. The skiffe with those men departed from the ship in the
morning, and within one houre they met with a small boat with Russes rowing
towards the ship, which came from the Ouchooge with a wilde swine and other
victuals, to sell: with the same boat the skiffe returned backe to the ship
after the Russes had receiued and were satisfied for the victuals they
brought: the same day they returned with their boat backe toward the
Ouchooge, and with them in the same boat was sent the Carpenter of the
shippe to the Chetera Bougori, which were in their way, to declare vnto
Amos Riall the message before appointed him. From the 5 vntill the 9 day
the ship rode still with contrary winds Easterly. The same 9 day came to
the shippe certaine Russes in a small boat, which brought with them some
victuals sent by Amos Riall, and declared that he with the Pauoses and
Stroog had remained at the Chetera Bougori fiue dayes, expecting the
comming thither of the ship. The 10 day being doubtfull of the Pauoses
comming, they sent Thomas Hudson Master of the ship in the skiffe (and with
her went the foresayd skiffe boat) towards the Chetera Bougori to the
Pauoses to bring word whether they would come to the ship or not, the wind
then at Northeast with fogge. The 11 day the winde Northerly with fogge,
the ship rode still. The 12 day Amos Riall, Christopher Fawcet, and a new
gunner came to the ship, and with them the M. Thomas Hudson returned; but
the Stroog with the gunners remained at the Chetera Bougori; and from
thence (when it begun to freese) returned to Astracan. Amos Riall declared
that he sent the carpenter backe from the Chetera Bougori in a small boat
on the 10 day, and marueiled that he was not come to the shippe (but in the
fogge the day before as afterwards they learned) missed the shippe, and
ouershot her, and afterwards returning backe, he found the ship at ancre,
and nothing in her but the Russes that were left to keepe her, and then he
departed thence, and went to the Vchooge, and there stayed. Presently vpon
the comming of the Pauoses to the ship they vsed as much speed as might be,
to get the goods out of the shippe into them, and after the goods were
laden in, they tooke in also of the shippes ordinance, furniture and
prouiston, as much as they could.

[Sidenote: Ice the 13 of Nouember in the mouth of the riuer of Volga.] The
13 day in the morning Amos Riall was sent away in a small boat towards
Astracan, to prouide victuals and cariages to relieue and helpe them, who
could passe no further then the foure Islands, but was there ouertaken with
yce, and forced to leaue his boat, and from thence passed poste to
Astracan, finding at the Vchooge the Carpenter returned from his ill
iourney, very ill handled, with the extremitie of the colde. The same day
they departed also in those lighters with the goods towards the Chetera
Kougori, leauing the ship at once, and in her two Russes, which with three
more that went in the Pauoses, to prouide victuals for themselues and the
rest, and therewith promised to returne backe to the ship with all speed,
had offered to undertake for twenty rubbles in money to cary the ship into
some harborow, where she might safely winter, or els to keepe her where she
rode all winter which was promised to be giuen them if they did it: and the
same day when with those lighters they had gotten sight of the foure
Islands being about eight versts Southwest from them, the winde then at
Northeast, did freese the sea so as they could not row, guide, stirre or
remoue the saide lighters, but as the wind and yce did force them.
[Sidenote: The 16 day.] And so they continued driuing with the yce,
Southeast into the sea by the space of forty houres, and then being the
sixteenth day the yce stood. Whiles they droue with the yce, the dangers
which they incurred were great: for oftentimes when the yce with the force
of winde did breake, pieces of it were tossed and driuen one vpon another.
with great force, terrible to beholde, and the same happened at sometimes
so neere vnto the lighters, that they expected it would haue ouerwhelmed
them to their vtter destruction: but God who had presented them from many
perils before, did also saue and deliuer them then.

Within three or foure dayes after the first standing of the yce, when it
was firme and strong, they tooke out all their goods, being fourty and
eight bales or packes of raw silke, &c. layde it on the yce, and couered
the same with such prouisions as they had. [Sidenote: Trauaile upon the
yce.] Then for want of victuals, &c they agreed to leaue all the goods
there vpon the yce, and to go to the shore: and thereupon brake vp their
Chests and Carobias, wherewith, and with such other things as they could
get, they made sleddes for euery of them to draw vpon the yce, whereon they
layed their clothes to keepe them warme, and such victuals as they had, and
such other things as they might conueniently cary, and so they departed
from the sayd goods and Pauoses very earely about one of the clocke in the
morning, and trauailing on the yce, directed their way North, as neere as
they could iudge, and the same day about two of the clocke in the
afternoone, [Sidenote: Chetera Babbas.] they had sight of the Chetera
Babbas (foure hillocks of Islands so called) vnto the same they directed
themselues, and there remained that night.

The goods and Pauoses which they left on the yce they iudged to be from
those Chetera Babbas about 20 versts.

And the next morning departed thence Eastwards, and came to the Chetera
Bougories (or foure Islands before spoken of) before noone (the distance
betweene those places is about 15 versts) where they remained all that
night, departing thence towards Astracan: the next morning very early they
lost their way through the perswasion of the Russes which were with them,
taking too much towards the left hand (contrary to the opinion of M.
Hudson) whereby wandering upon the yce foure dayes, not knowing whether
they were entred into the Crimme Tartars land or not, at length it fortuned
they met with a way that had bene trauailed, which crost backwards towards
the sea: that way they tooke, and following the same, within two dayes
trauaile it brought them to a place called Crasnoyare (that is to say in
the English tongue) Red cliffe, which diuers of the company knew.

[Sidenote: The English ship cut in pieces with yce] There they remained
that night, hauing nothing to eat but one loafe of bread, which they
happened to finde with the two Russes that were left in the ship to keepe
her all the Winter (as is aforesaid) whom they chanced to meet going
towards Astracan, about fiue miles before they came to the sayd Crasnoyare,
who certified them that the ship was cut in pieces with the yce, and that
they had hard scaping with their liues.

In the morning they departed early from Crasnoyare towards the Ouchooge and
about nine of the clocke before noone, being within 10 versts of the
Vchooge, they met Amos Riall, with the carpenter, which he found at
Ouchooge, and a gunner newly come out of England, and also 65 horses with
so many Cassaks to guide them, and 50 gunners for gard, which brought
prouision of vituals, &c. and were sent by the Duke to fetch the goods to
Astracan. The meeting of that company was much ioy vnto them.

[Sidenote: December] The Factors sent backe with Amos Riall and the sayd
company to fetch the goods, Thomas Hudson the Master, Tobias Paris his
Mate, and so they the sayd Factors and their company marched on to the
Vchooge, where they refreshed themselues that day, and the night following.
And from thence proceeded on towards Astracan, where they arriued the last
day of Nouember. These that went for the goods after their departure from
the Factors trauelled the same day vntil they came within 10 versts of the
Chetera Babbas, where they rested that night. The next morning by the
breake of day they departed thence, and before noone were at the Chetera
Babas, where they stayed all night; but presently departed thence Thomas
Hudson with the Carpenter and gunner to seeke where the goods lay: who
found the same, and the next day they returned backe to their company at
the Chetera Babbas, and declared vnto them in what sort they had found the
sayd goods.

The 3 day early in the morning they departed all from the 4 Babbas towards
the said goods, and the same day did lade all the goods they could find
vpon the said sleds, and with all conuenient speed returned backe towards
Astracan. And when they came to the Chetera Bougori, where they rested the
night, in the morning very early before the breake of day, they were
assaulted by a great company of the Nagays Tartars horsemen, which came
showting and hallowing with a great noise, but our people were so inuironed
with the sleds, that they durst not enter vpon them, but ranne by, and shot
their arrows amongst them, and hurt but one man in the head, who was a
Russe, and so departed presently. Yet when it was day, they shewed
themselues a good distance off from our men, being a very great troop of
them, but did not assault them any more. [Sidenote: Their returne to
Astracan.] The same day our men with those cariages, departed from thence
towards Astracan, where they arriued in safety the 4 December, about 3 of
the clocke in the afternoone, where our people greatly reioyced of their
great good happe to haue escaped so many hard euents, troubles and
miseries, as they did in that voyage, and had great cause therefore to
praise the Almighty, who had so mercifully preserued and deliuered them.
They remained the winter at Astracan, where they found great fauour and
friendship of the duke, captaine, and other chiefe officers of that place:
but that Winter there happened no great matter worth the noting.

[Sidenote: The breaking vp of the yce.] [Sidenote: Morgan Hubblethorne dier
sent into Persia.] In the spring of the yeere 1581, about the mids of
March, the yce was broken vp, and cleare gone before Astracan, and the
ninth of Aprill, hauing all the goods that were returned from the parts of
Media, laden into a Stroog, the Factors, William Turnebull, Matthew
Tailboyes, Giles Crow, Christopher Burrough, Michael Lane, Laurence Prouse
gunner, Randolfe Foxe, Tho. Hudson, Tobias Parris, Morgan Hubblethorne, the
dier, Rich, the Surgean, Rob. Golding, Ioh. Smith, Edw. Reding carpenter,
and William Perrin gunner hauing also 40 Russes, whereof 36 were Cassacks
to row, the rest merchants passengers, departed from Astracan with the sayd
Stroog and goods vp the Volga towards Yeraslaue. They left behinde them at
Astracan, with the English goods and merchandise there remaining, Amos
Riall, W. Wincoll, and Richard Relfe, and appointed them to sell and barter
the same, or so much thereof as they could to the Tisiks, if there came any
thither that spring, and to others as they might, and the rest with such as
they should take in exchange to returne vp to Yeraslaue that Summer, when
the Emperors carriage should passe vp the Volga. The 21 day they came with
their Stroog to the Perauolok, but made no stay at that place: for they had
beene much troubled with yce in their comming from Astracan. [Sidenote:
May.] The 3 of May about noone they came to Oueak, and from thence
proceeding vp the riuer, on the 17 day William Turnebull departed from the
Stroog in a small boat, and went before towards Tetusha to prouide
victuals, and send downe to the Stroog, from which place they were then
about 230 versts. The 23 day they met a boat with victuals, which William
Turnebull sent from Tetusha, and the same day they arriued with their
Stroog at Tetusha, where they stayed all night, and the next morning
betimes departed thence, but W. Turnebull was gone in the small boat before
to Cazan, to prouide necessaries from thence, and to make way for their
dispatch. The 26 day they arriued with their Stroog at Cazan, where they
remained till the fourth of Iune: the Factors sent Giles Crow from Cazan to
the Mosco, with their letters the 30 of May. The 4 day of Iune they
departed from Cazan with their Stroog, and arriued at Yeraslaue the 22 day
about 5 of the clocke in the morning.

The 23. day they prouided Telegos, to carry the goods to Vologda. The 24.
day hauing the goods laden vpon Telegos, they departed with the same
towards Vologda, and remained there fiue versts from Yeraslaue.

The 29 day they came to Vologda, with all their goods in safety, and good
order. The same 29. William Turnbull and Peter Garrard departed from
Vologda post by water towards Colmogro, the third of Iuly, hauing their
goods laden in a small doshnik, they departed with the same from Vologda
towards Rose Island by S. Nicholas; where they arriued in safety the 16 of
Iuly, and found there the Agents of Russia, and in the rode the ships sent
out from England, almost laden ready to depart.

The 25 day departed for England (out of the rode of S. Nicholas) the ship

The 26 day departed thence the Thomas Allen and Mary Susan, and in the
Thomas Allen went William Turnbul, Matthew Tailboys, Thomas Hudson, and
others. The goods returned of the Persia voyage were laden into the ship,
William and Iohn, whereof was Master, William Bigat, and in her with the
same goods came Peter Garrard and Tobias Parris.

The 11 of August, the same ship being laden and despatched departed from
the rode of S. Nicholas, and with her in company another of the companies
fraighted ships, called the Tomasin, whereof was M. Christopher Hall. In
their returne homewards they had some foule weather, and were separated at
the sea, the William and Iohn put into Newcastle the 24 of September: from
whence the sayd Peter Garrard and Tobias Parris came to London by land, and
brought newes of the arriual of the ship.

The 25 of September both the sayd ships arriued at the port of London in
safety, and ankered before Limehouse and Wapping, where they were
discharged, 1581.

* * * * *

Obseruations of the latitudes and meridian altitudes of diuers places in
Russia, from the North to the South: Anno 1581.

Michael Archangel.
Meridian altitude obserued at Michael the Archangel, 42. degrees, 30.
The true latitude, 64. degrees, 54. minuts.

The English house in Colmogro.
The English house in Colmogro, in latitude, 64. d. 25. m.
The meridian altitude there obserued, the 29. of Iuly, 42. d. 15. m.

Meridian altitude the 30 of Iuly, 41. d. 40. m.
Declination 16. d. 6. m.
64. d. 20. m.

Meridian 4 of August, 41. d. 50. m.
Declination Northerly, 14. d. 49. m.
62. d. 59. m.

Meridian altitude, the 15 of August, 40. d. 45. m.
Declination Northerly, 11. d. 2. m.
60. d. 17. m.

Meridian altitude, the 20 of August, 40. d.
Declination Northerly, 9. d. 17. m.
59. d. 17. m.

Meridian altitude, 21 of August, 39. d. 36. m.
Declination, 8. d. 56. m.
59. d. 20. m.

Latitude, by gesse, 57. d. 50. m.

Meridian altitude, 21. September, 31. d.
Declination, 2. d. 56. m.
56. d. 4. m.

Ouslona Monastery.
Meridian altitude, 23. September, 30. d. 26. m.
Declination, 2. d. 56. m.
55. d. 51. m.

Meridian altitude, 28. September, 28. d. 28. m.
Declination, 5. d. 35. m.
55. d. 22. m.

Meridian altitude, 5. October, 30. d. 12. m.
Declination, 8. d. 18. m.
51. d. 30. m.

Astracan meridian altitude, 22. October, 29. d. 36. m.
Declination, 14. d. 16. m.
46. d. 10. m.

Meridian altitude, 1 of Nouember, 26. d. 35. m.
Declination, 17. d. 16. m.
46. d. 9. m.

* * * * *

Certaine directions giuen by M. Richard Hackluit of the Middle Temple, to
M. Morgan Hubblethorne, Dier, sent into Persia, 1579.

1. For that England hath the best cloth and wool in the world, and for that
the clothes of the realme haue no good vent, if good dying be not added:
therfore it is much to be wished that the dying of forren countreyes were
seene, to the end that the arte of dying may be brought into the Realme in
greatest excellency: for thereof will follow honour to the Realme, and
great and ample vent of our clothes: and of the vent of clothes, will
follow the setting of our poore on worke, in all degrees of labour in
clothing and dying: for which cause most principally you are sent ouer at
the charge of the city: and therfore for the satisfying the lords, and of
the expectation of the merchants and of your company, it behooues you to
haue care to returne home with more knowledge then you caried out.

2. The great dearth of clothes is a great let in the ample vent of clothes,
and the price of a cloth, for a fifth, sixth and seuenth part riseth by the
colour and dying: and therefore to deuise to die as good colours with the
one halfe of the present price were to the great commodity of the Realme,
by sauing of great treasure in time to come. And therefore you must haue
great care to haue knowledge of the materials of all the countreys that you
shall passe thorow, that they may be vsed in dying, be they hearbs, weeds,
barks, gummes, earths, or what els soeuer.

3 In Persia you shall finde carpets of course thrummed wooll, the best of
the world, and excellently coloured: those cities and townes you must
repaire to, and you must vse meanes to learne all the order of the dying of
those thrummes, which are so died as neither raine, wine, nor yet vineger
can staine: and if you may attaine to that cunning, you shall not need to
feare dying of cloth: For if the colour holde in yarne and thrumme, it will
holde much better in cloth.

4 For that in Persia they haue great colouring of silks, it behooues you to
learne that also, for that cloth dying and silke dying haue a certaine
affinity, and your merchants mind to bring much raw silke into the Realme,
and therefore it is more requisit you learne the same.

5 In Persia there are that staine linnen cloth: it is not amisse you learne
it if you can: it hath bene an olde trade in England, whereof some
excellent clothes yet remaine: but the arte is now lost, and not to be
found in the Realme.

6 They haue a cunning in Persia to make in buskins of Spanish leather
flowers of many kindes, in most liuely colours, and these the Courtiers do
weare there: to learne which arte were no harme.

7 If any Dier of China, or of the East parts of the world, be to be found
in Persia, acquaint yourselfe with him, and learne what you may of him.

8 You shall finde Anile there, if you can procure the herbe that it is made
of, either by seed or by plant, to cary into England, you may doe well to
endeuour to enrich your countrey with the same: but withall learne you the
making of the Anile, and if you can get the herbe, you may send the same
dry into England, for possibly it groweth here already.

9 Returne home with you all the materials and substances that they die
withall in Russia, and also in Persia, that your company may see all.

10 In some litle pot in your lodging, I wish you to make daily trials in
your arte, as you shall from time to time learne ought among them.

11 Set downe in writing whatsoeuer you shall learne from day to day, lest
you should forget, or lest God should call you to his mercy: and by ech
returne I wish you to send in writing whatsoeuer you haue learned, or at
the least keepe the same safe in your coffer, that come death or life your
countrey may ioyne the thing that you goe for, and not lose the charge, and
trauell bestowed in this case.

12 Learne you there to fixe and make sure the colour to be giuen by logge
wood: so shall we not need to buy woad so deare, to the enriching of our

13 Enquire of the price of leckar, and all other things belonging to dying.

14 In any wise set downe in writing a true note from whence euery of them
doe come, and where, and in what countrey ech of them doth grow, I meane
where the naturall place of ech of them is, as how neere to such a city, or
to such a sea, or to such a portable riuer in Russia, Persia, or elsewhere.

15 If before you returne you could procure a singular good workeman in the
arte of Turkish carpet making, you should bring the arte into this Realme,
and also thereby increase worke to your company.

* * * * *

Commission giuen by sir Rowland Hayward knight, and George Barrie, Aldermen
and gouernours of the company of English Merchants, for discouery of new
trades, vnto Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman, for a voyage by them to be
made, for discouery of Cathay, 1580. in forme following.

In the name of God Almightie, and euerlasting. Amen. This writing for
commission Tripartite, made the twentieth day of May Anno Dom. 1580. and in
the 22. yeere of the reigne of our Souereigne Lady Elizabeth by the grace
of God, Queene of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c.
Betweene sir Rowland Hayward knight, and George Barne, Aldermen of the
Citie of London and Gouernours of the company of English Merchants, for
discouery of new trades, for the behoofe, and in the name of the said
company, on the first partie, and Arthur Pet of Ratcliffe, in the Countie
Middlesex, Captaine, Master, and chiefe ruler of the good barke, called the
George of London, of the burthen of 40. tunnes, or thereabouts, on the
second partie, and Charles Iackman of the Popler, in the said Countie of
Middlesex, Captaine, Master and ruler of the good barke, called the William
of London, of the burthen of 20. tunnes, or thereabouts, (which barkes are
now riding at anker in the riuer of Thames against Limehouse) on the third
partie: witnesseth, that the said Gouernours, and company haue hired the
saide Arthur Pet, to serue in the said barke, called the George, with nine
men and a boy: [Sidenote: Burroughs streits.] And likewise the said Charles
Iackman, to serue in the said barke, called the William, with fiue men and
a boy, for a voyage by them to be made by Gods grace, for search and
discoueries of a passage by sea from hence by Boroughs streights, and the
Island Vaigats, Eastwards to the countreis or dominions of the mightie
Prince, the Emperour of Cathay, and in the same vnto the Cities of Cambalu
and Quinsay, or to either of them.

The which passage (vpon authoritie of writers, and great reason) is
conceiued to bee from the Vaigats Eastwards, according to the description
in plat of spirall lines, made by master William Burrough, whereof either
of the saide Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman, haue one deliuered vnto them,
and also one other sailing carde, and a blanke plat for either of them. But
if it should not be in all points, according to that description, yet we
hope that the continent or firme land of Asia doth not stretch it selfe so
farre Northwards, but that there may be found a sea passeable by it,
betweene the latitude of 70. and 80. degrees. And therefore we haue
appointed you with these two barkes to make triall of the same: wishing you
both to ioyne in friendship together, as most deere friends and brothers,
to all purposes and effects, to the furtherance and orderly performing of
the same voyage. And likewise order your companies, that they of the one
barke may haue such loue and care, to helpe and succour them of the other,
as most deere friends and brothers would doe: so as it may appeare, that
though they be two barkes, and two companies, (which is so appointed for
your greater comfort and assurance) yet that you are wholy of one minde,
and bend your selues to the vttermost of your powers, to performe the thing
that you are both employed for.

Doe you obserue good order in your dayly seruice, and pray vnto God, so
shall you prosper the better.

We would haue you to meete often together, to talke, conferre, consult, and
agree how, and by what meanes, you may best performe this purposed voyage,
according to our intents. And at such meeting we thinke it requisite, that
you call vnto you your mates, and also Nicholas Chanceler, (whom wee doe
appoint as merchant, to keepe accompt of the merchandise you shall buy or
sell, barter or change) to the ende that whatsoeuer God should dispose of
either of you, yet they may haue some instructions and knowledge howe to
deale in your place, or places. And of all your assemblies and
consultations together, and the substance of matter you shal at euery time
agree vpon we would haue you to note them in the paper bookes that wee giue
you for that purpose, vnto each barke one. We do appoint Arthur Pet in the
George, as Admiral, to weare the flagge in the maine top, and Charles
Iackman in the William, as Viceadmirall. For good orders to be taken for
your good and orderly keeping of company together, which we wish may be
such, as you should neuer lose sight the one of the other, except by both
your consents, to discouer about an Island, or in some riuer, when and
where you may certainly appoint to meete together againe, we referre the
same to your discretions.

And now for your good direction, in this voyage, we would haue you with the
next good winde and weather, that God shall send thereunto meete and
conuenient, after the 22. day of this present moneth of May, saile from
this riuer of Thames, to the coast of Finmarke, to the North Cape there, or
to the Wardhouse, and from thence direct your course to haue sight of
Willoughbies land, and from it passe alongst to the Noua Zembla, keeping
the same landes alwayes in your sight on your larboordsides (if
conueniently you may) to the ende you may discouer, whether the same
Willoughbies land be continent and firme land with Noua Zembla, or not:
notwithstanding we would not haue you to entangle your selues in any Bay,
or otherwise, so that it might hinder your speedy proceeding to the Island

[Sidenote: The land of Samoeda.] And when you come to Vaigats, we would
haue you to get sight of the maine land of Samoeda, which is ouer against
the South part of the same Island, and from thence with Gods permission, to
passe Eastwards alongst the same coast, keeping it alwayes in your sight
(if conueniently you may) vntill you come to the mouth of the riuer Ob, and
when you come vnto it, passe ouer the said riuers mouth vnto the border
land, on the Eastside of the same (without any stay to bee made for
searching inwardly in the same riuer) and being in sight of the same
Easterly land, doe you in Gods name proceed alongst by it, from thence
Eastwards, keeping the same alwayes on your starboord side in sight, if you
may, and follow the tract of it, whether it incline Southerly or Northerly
(as at times it may do both) vntill you come to, the Countrey of Cathay, or
the dominion of that mightie Emperour.

And if God prosper your voyage with such good successe, that you may
attaine to the same, doe you seeke by all meanes you can to arriue to the
Cities Cambalu, and Quinsay, or to the one of them. But if it happen that
you cannot conueniently come to either of those places, or shalbe driuen to
remaine and winter in some other port or place of his dominion, do you
seeke by all meanes possible to winne fauour and liking of the people, by
gifts and friendly demeanes towards them, and not to offer violence, or do
wrong to any people or nation whatsoeuer, but therein to be innocent as
doues, yet wilie as serpents, to auoid mischiefe, and defend you from hurt.
[Sidenote: The Queenes letters.] And when you shall haue gotten friendship
through your discreete ordering of your selues, towards the people, doe you
learne of them what you can of their Prince, and shewe them one of the
Queenes Maiesties, letters, which she sendeth with you (by either of you
one, made of one substance and effect, for ech of you particularly) written
in Latine, whereunto her Maiestie hath subscribed, and caused her signet
seale to be set, the effect of the same letters you haue also written in
English, for your own vnderstanding thereof.

The same her Maiesties letters you shall procure to deliuer vnto the same
mightie Prince, or Gouernour, with some present to be giuen, such as you
shall thinke meete and conuenient, vsing your selues in all points
according to the effect of the same letters, and procure againe from the
same Prince, his letters accordingly.

And if God so prosper your voyage, that you may this Summer passe the
Streights, and compasse about the Northernmost land of Asia, vnto the
country of Cathay, or dominion of that mightie Prince, and wintering in it,
may obtaine from him his letters of priuiledge against the next yeeres
spring, you may then after your first setting foorth, search and discouer
somewhat further then you had discouered before your wintering, so farre as
you shall thinke conuenient with regard had, and alwayes prouided, that you
may returne home hither, to giue vs aduise of your proceedings the same
Summer, or before the sharpenes or extremitie of winter ouertake you.

And if it happen you cannot this summer attaine to the border of Cathay,
and yet find the land beyond the Ob, to stretch it selfe Easterly, with the
sea adioyning vnto it nauigable, doe you then proceed on your discouery (as
before said) alongst the same continent, so farre as you can this summer,
hauing care in the trauel to finde out some conuenient harborow and place,
where you may winter: and when you thinke it conuenient, put your selfe to
wintering, where if you happen to finde people, you shall deale with them,
as we haue before aduised you to do with the people of Cathay, &c. And if
you can learne that they haue a prince or chiefe gouernour, do you procure
to deliuer vnto the same Prince or gouernour one of the Queenes Maiesties
letters, as before said, and seeke to obtaine againe his letters
accordingly. If you so happen to winter and obtaine letters of priuiledge,
finding the countrey and people, with the commodities to bee such, that by
vsing trade thither with the people, and for the commodities, it may be
beneficial vnto vs (as we hope you may) the same wil be some good liking
vnto vs: notwithstanding we would haue you the next summer (by the grace of
God) at your first setting out of your wintering harborough, proceed
alongest that tract of land to Cathay, if you see likelihood to passe it
(for that is the Countrey that we chiefly desire to discouer) and seeing
you are fully victualed for two yeres and vpwards, which you may very wel
make to serue you for two yeres and a halfe, though you finde no other
help, you may therefore be the bolder to aduenture in proceeding vpon your
discouery: which if you do, we doubt not, but you shall atchieue the
Countrey of Cathay, and deliuer to the prince there, one of her Maiesties
letters, bringing from thence the same princes letters answerable: and so
in the yeere of our lord 1582. returne home with good newes, and glad
tidings, not onely vnto vs the aduenturers in this voyage, but also to our
whole Countrey and nation, which God graunt you do, Amen.

But if it happen that the land of Asia, from beyond the riuer Ob, extend it
selfe Northwards to 80. degrees, or neerer the poole, whereby you find it
to leade you into that extremitie, that small or no hope may be looked for,
to saile that way to Cathay, doe you notwithstanding followe the tract of
the same land, as farre as you can discouer this Summer, hauing care to
finde out by the way a conuenient place for you to Winter in, the which (if
you may discouer the same lande of Asia this Summer to extend it selfe to
80. degrees of latitude, and vpwards or to 85. degrees) we wish then that
the same your wintering place may be in the riuer of Ob, or as neere the
same riuer as you can, and finding in such wintering place, people, be they
Samoeds, Yowgorians, or Molgomzes, &c. doe you gently entreat with them as
aforesaide, [Sidenote: The Queenes letters.] and if you can learne that
they haue a prince or chiefe gouernour amongst them, doe you deliuer him
one of her Maiesties letters, and procure thereof an answere accordingly:
do you procure to barter and exchange with the people, of the merchandise
and commodities that you shall cary with you, for such commodities as you
shall finde them to haue, &c.

[Sidenote: The Citie of Siberia.] If you so happen to winter, we would haue
you the next Summer to discouer into the riuer Ob, so farre as conueniently
you may: And if you shall finde the same riuer (which is reported to be
wide or broad) to be also nauigable and pleasant for you, to trauell farre
into, happely you may come to the citie Siberia, or to some other towne or
place habited vpon or neere the border of it, and thereby haue liking to
winter out the second winter: vse you therein your discretions.

[Sidenote: Willoughbies land.] But if you finde the said riuer Ob to be
sholde, or not such as you may conueniently trauell in with your barkes, do
you then the next summer return backe through Buroughs streights: And from
that part of Noua Zembla, adioyning to the same streights, doe you come
alongst the tract of that coast Westwards, keeping it on the starbord side,
and the same alwayes in sight, if conueniently you may, vntil you come to
Willoughbies land, if outwards bound you shall not happen to discouer and
trie whether the said Willoughbies land ioyne continent with the same Noua
Zembla, or not. But if you shall then proue them to be one firme and
continent, you may from Noua Zembla direct your course vnto the said
Willoughbies land, as you shall thinke good, and as you may most
conueniently: and from Willoughbies land you shall proceed Westwards
alongst the tract of it, (though it incline Northerly) euen so farre as you
may or can trauell, hauing regard that in conuenient time you may returne
home hither to London for wintering.

And for your orderly passing in this voyage, and making obseruations in the
same, we referre you to the instructions giuen by M. William Burrough,
whereof one copie is annexed vnto the first part of this Indenture, vnder
our seale, for you Arthur Pet, another copie of it is annexed to the second
part of this Indenture, vnder our seale also, for you Charles Iackman, and
a third copy thereof is annexed vnto the third part of this Indenture,
remaining with vs the saide companie, sealed and subscribed by you the said
Arthur Pet and Charles Iackman.

And to the obseruing of all things contained in this Commission (so neere
as God will permit me grace thereunto) I the said Arthur Pet doe couenant
by these presents to performe them, and euery part and parcell thereof. And
I the said Charles Iackman doe for my part likewise couenant by these
presents to performe the same, and euery part thereof, so neere as God will
giue me grace thereunto.

And in witnes thereof these Indentures were sealed and deliuered
accordingly, the day and yeere first aboue written. Thus the Lorde God
Almightie sende you a prosperous voyage, with happie successe and safe
returne, Amen.

* * * * *

Instructions and notes very necessary and needfull to be obserued in the
purposed voyage for discouery of Cathay Eastwards, by Arthur Pet, and
Charles Iackman: giuen by M. William Burrough. 1580.

When you come to Orfordnesse, if the winde doe serue you to goe a seabord
the sands, doe you set off from thence, and note the time diligently of
your being against the said Nesse, turning then your glasse, whereby you
intende to keepe your continuall watch, and apoint such course as you shal
thinke good, according as the wind serueth you: And from that time forwards
continually (if your ship be lose, vnder saile, a hull or trie) do you at
the end of euery 4 glasses at the least (except calme) sound with your
dipsin lead, and note diligently what depth you finde, and also the ground.
But if it happen by swiftnes of the shippes way, or otherwise, that you
cannot get ground, yet note what depth you did proue, and could finde no
ground (this note is to be obserued all your voyage, as well outwards as
homewards.). But when you come vpon any coast, or doe finde any sholde
banke in the sea, you are then to vse your leade oftener, as you shal
thinke it requisite, noting diligently the order of your depth, and the
deeping and sholding. And so likewise doe you note the depth into
harboroughs, riuers, &c.

[Sidenote: How to note downe in his Iornall of the voyage, his dead
reckoning, and other obseruations.] And in keeping your dead reckoning, it
is very necessary that you doe note at the ende of euery foure glasses,
what way the shippe hath made (by your best proofes to be vsed) and howe
her way hath bene through the water, considering withall for the sagge
[Footnote: i.e., Current.] of the sea, to leewards, accordingly as you
shall finde it growen: and also to note the depth, and what things worth
the noting happened in that time, with also the winde vpon what point you
finde it then, and of what force or strength it is, and what sailes you

But if you should omit to note those things at the end of euery foure
glasses, I would not haue you to let it slip any longer time, then to note
it diligently at the end of euery watch, or eight glasses at the farthest.

Doe you diligently obserue the latitude as often, and in as many places as
you may possible, and also the variation of the Compasse (especially when
you may bee at shoare vpon any land) noting the same obseruations truely,
and the place and places where, and the time and times when you do the

[Sidenote: For noting the shape and view of the land at first discouery,
&c.] When you come to haue sight of any coast or land whatsoeuer, doe you
presently set the same with your sailing Compasse, howe it beares off you,
noting your iudgement how farre you thinke it from you, drawing also the
forme of it in your booke, howe it appeares vnto you, noting diligently how
the highest or notablest part thereof beareth off you, and the extreames
also in sight of the same land at both ends, distinguishing them by
letters, A. B. C. &c. Afterwards when you haue sailed 1. 2. 3. or 4.
glasses (at the most) noting diligently what way your barke hath made, and
vpon what point of the Compasse, do you againe set that first land seene,
or the parts thereof, that you first obserued, if you can well perceiue or
discerne them, and likewise such other notable points or signes, vpon the
land that you may then see, and could not perceiue at the first time,
distinguishing it also by letters from the other, and drawing in your booke
the shape of the same land, as it appeareth vnto you, and so the third
time; &c.

And also in passing alongst by any and euery coast, doe you drawe the maner
of biting in of euery Bay, and entrance of euery harborow or riuers mouth,
with the lying out of euery point, or headland, (vnto the which you may
giue apt names at your pleasure) and make some marke in drawing the forme
and border of the same, where the high cliffs are, and where lowe land is,
whether sande, hils, or woods, or whatsoeuer, not omitting to note any
thing that may be sensible and apparant to you, which may serue to any good
purpose. If you carefully with great heede and diligence, note the
obseruations in your booke, as aforesaid, and afterwards make demonstration
thereof in your plat, you shall thereby perceiue howe farre the land you
first sawe, or the parts thereof obserued, was then from you, and
consequently of all the rest: and also how farre the one part was from the
other, and vpon what course or point of the Compasse the one lieth from the

[Sidenote: For obseruing of tides and curants.] And when you come vpon any
coast where you find floods and ebs, doe you diligently note the time of
the highest and lowest water in euery place, and the slake or still water
of full sea, and lowe water, and also which way the flood doeth runne, how
the tides doe set, how much water it hieth, and what force the tide hath to
driue a ship in one houre, or in the whole tide, as neere as you can iudge
it, and what difference in time you finde betwene the running of the flood,
and the ebbe. And if you finde vpon any coast the currant to runne alwayes
one way, doe you also note the same duely, how it setteth in euery place,
and obserue what force it hath to driue a ship in one houre, &c.

[Sidenote: To take the plateformes of places within compasse of view vpon
land.] Item, as often, and when as you may conueniently come vpon any land,
to make obseruation for the latitude and variation, &c. doe you also (if
you may) with your instrument, for trying of distances, obserue the
platforme [Footenote: i.e., survey the place.] of the place, and of as many
things (worth the noting) as you may then conueniently see from time to
time. These orders if you diligently obserue, you may thereby perfectly set
downe in the plats, that I haue giuen you your whole trauell, and
description of your discouery, which is a thing that will be chiefly
expected at your hands. But withall you may not forget to note as much as
you can learne, vnderstand or perceiue of the maner of the soile, or
fruitfulnesse of euery place and countrey you shall come in, and of the
maner, shape, attire and disposition of the people, and of the commodities
they haue, and what they most couet and desire of the commodities you see,
and to offer them all courtesie and friendship you may or can, to winne
their loue and fauour towardes you, not doing or offering them any wrong or
hurt. And though you should be offered wrong at their handes, yet not to
reuenge the same lightly, but by all meanes possible seeke to winne them,
yet alwayes dealing wisely and with such circumspection that you keepe your
selues out of their dangers.

Thus I beseech God almightie to blesse you, and prosper your voyage with
good and happie successe, and send you safely to returne home againe, to
the great ioy and reioycing of the aduenturers with you, and all your
friends and our whole countrey, Amen.

* * * * *

Certaine briefe aduises giuen by Master Dee, to Arthur Pet, and Charles
Iackman, to bee obserued in their Northeasterne discouerie, Anno 1580.

If we reckon from Wardhouse to Colgoieue Island 400. miles for almost 20.
degrees difference onely of longitude very neere East and West, and about
the latitude of 70. degrees and two thirde parts: From Colgoieue to Vaigats
200. miles for 10. degrees difference onely in longitude, at 70. degrees of
latitude also: From Vaigats to the promontorie Tabin 60. degrees difference
of longitude (the whole course, or shortest distance being East and West)
in the latitude likewise of 70. degrees, maketh 1200. miles: then is summa
totalis from Wardhouse to Tabin 600. leagues, or 1800. English miles.
Therefore allowing in a discouery voiage for one day with another but 50.
English miles; it is euident that from Wardhouse to Tabin, the course may
bee sailed easily in sixe and thirtie dayes; but by Gods helpe it may be
finished in much shorter time, both by helpe of winde prosperous, and light
continuall for the time requisit thereunto.

[Sidenote: M. Dee gaue them a Chart of his owne making, which here refers
them vnto.] When you are past Tabin, or come to the longitude of 142.
degrees, as your chart sheweth, or two, three, foure, or fiue degrees
further Easterly, it is probable you shall finde the land on your right
hand runne much Southerly and Eastward, [Footenote: Had he said forty
degrees, he would have made a remarkable guess.] in which course you are
like either to fall into the mouth of the famous riuer Oechardes,
[Footenote: The Oechardes is probably the Hoang Ho, and Cambalu may then be
Pekin.] or some other, which yet I coniecture to passe by the renowmed
Citie of Cambalu, and the mouth to be in latitude about 50. or 52. degrees,
and within 300. or 400. miles of Cambalu it selfe, being in the latitude of
45. degrees Southerly of the saide riuers mouth, or els that you shal trend
about the very Northerne and most Easterly point of all Asia, passing by
the prouince Ania, and then to the latitude of 46. degrees, keeping still
the land in view on your right hand (as neere as you may with safetie) you
may enter into Quinsay [Footnote: Query, Canton?] hauen, being the chiefe
citie in the Northern China, as I terme it for distinctions sake, from the
other better knowen.

And in or about either or both of these two warme places, you may to great
good purpose bee occupied the whole winter, after your arriuall in those
quarters, as sometime by sea, sometime in notable fresh riuers, sometime in
discreet view and noting downe the situation of the Cities within land, &c.
and euer assaying to come by some charts or maps of the countrey, made and
printed in Cathay or China, and by some of their bookes likewise for
language, &c. You may also haue opportunitie to saile ouer to to Iapan
Island, where you shall finde Christian men Iesuits of many countreys of
Christendome some, and perhaps some Englishmen, at whose handes you may
haue great instruction and aduise for your affaires in hand.

* * * * *

Notes in writing, besides more priuie by mouth, that were giuen by M.
Richard Hakluyt of Eiton in the Countie of Hereford, Esquire, Anno 1580:
to M. Arthur Pet, and to M. Charles Iackman, sent by the Merchants of the
Moscouie companie for the discouery of the Northeast straight, not
altogether vnfit for some other enterprise of discouery, hereafter to be
taken in hand.

What respect of Islands is to be had and why.

Whereas the Portingals haue in their course to their Indies in the
Southeast certaine ports and fortifications to thrust into by the way, to
diuers great purposes: so you are to see what Islands, and what ports you
had neede to haue by the way in your course to the Northeast. For which
cause I wish you to enter into consideration of the matter, and to note all
the Islands, and to set them downe in plat, to two ends: that is to say,
That we may deuise to take the benefit by them, And also foresee how by
them the Sauages or ciuill Princes may in any sort annoy vs in our purposed
trade that way.

And for that the people to the which we purpose in this voyage to go, be no
Christians, it were good that the masse of our commodities were alwayes in
our owne disposition, and not at the will of others. Therefore it were good
that we did seeke out some small Island in the Scithian sea, where we might
plant, fortefie, and staple safely, from whence (as time should serue) wee
might feed those heathen nations with our commodities without cloying them,
or without venturing our whole masse in the bowels of their countrey.

And to which Island (if neede were, and if wee should thinke so good) wee
might allure the Northeast nauie, the nauie of Cambalu to resort with their
commodities to vs there planted, and stapling there.

And if such an Island might be found so standing as might shorten our
course, and so standing, as that the nauie of Cambalu, or other those
parties might conueniently saile vnto without their dislike in respect of
distance, then would it fal out well. For so, besides lesse danger and more
safetie, our ships might there vnlade and lade againe, and returne the
selfe same summer to the ports of England or of Norway.

And if such an Island may be for the stapling of our commodities, to the
which they of Cambalu would not saile, yet we might hauing ships there,
imploy them in passing betweene Cambalu and that stapling place.

Respect of hauens and harborowes.

And if no such Islands may bee found in the Scithian sea toward the firme
of Asia, then are you to search out the ports that be about Noua Zembla,
all along the tract of that land, to the end you may winter there the first
yeere, if you be let by contrary winds, and to the end that if we may in
short time come vnto Cambalu, and vnlade and set saile againe for returne
without venturing there at Cambalu, that you may on your way come as farre
in returne as a port about Noua Zembla: that the summer following, you may
the sooner be in England for the more speedy vent of your East commodities,
and for the speedier discharge of your Mariners: if you cannot goe forward
and backe in one selfe same Summer.

And touching the tract of the land of Noua Zembla, toward the East out of
the circle Arcticke in the mote temperate Zone, you are to haue regard: for
if you finde the soyle planted with people, it is like that in time an
ample vent of our warme woollen clothes may be found. [Sidenote: A good
consideration.] And if there be no people at all there to be found, then
you shall specially note what plentie of whales, and of other fish is to he
found there, to the ende we may turne out newe found land fishing or Island
fishing, or our whalefishing that way, for the ayde and comfort of our newe
trades to the Northeast to the coasts of Asia.

Respect of fish and certaine other things.

And if the aire may be found vpon that tract temperate, and the soile
yeelding wood, water, land and grasse, and the seas fish, then we may plant
on that maine the offals of our people, as the Portingals do in Brasill,
and so they may in our fishing in our passage, and diuers wayes yeelde
commoditie to England by harbouring and victualling vs.

And it may be, that the inland there may yeeld masts, pitch, tarre, hempe,
and all things for the Nauie, as plentifully as Eastland doth.

The Islands to be noted with their commodities and wants.

To note the Islands, whether they be hie land or low land, mountaine, or
flat, grauelly, clay, chalkie, or of what sorte, woody or not woody, with
springs and riuers or not, and what wilde beastes they haue in the same.

And whether there seeme to be in the same apt matter to build
withall, as stone free or rough, and stone to make lime withall,
and wood or coale to burne the same withall.

To note the goodnesse or badnesse of the hauens and harborowes in the

If a straight be found, what is to be done, and what great importance it
may be of.

And if there be a straight in the passage into the Scithian seas, the same
is specially and with great regard to be noted, especially if the same
straight be narrow and to be kept. I say it is to be noted as a thing that
doeth much import: for what prince soeuer shall be Lorde of the same; and
shall possesse the same, as the king of Denmarke doeth possesse the
straight of Denmarke, he onely shall haue the trade out of these regions
into the Northeast parts of the world for himselfe, and for his priuate
profit, or for his subiects onely, or to enioy wonderfull benefit of the
toll of the same, like as the king of Denmarke doth enioy of his straights
by suffring the merchants of other Princes to passe that way. If any such
straight be found, the eleuation, the high or lowe land, the hauens neere,
the length of the straights, and all other such circumstances are to be set
downe for many purposes: and al the Mariners in the voyage are to be sworne
to keepe close all such things, that other Princes preuent vs not of the
same, after our returns vpon the disclosing of the Mariners, if any such
thing should hap.

Which way the Sauage may bee made able to purchase our cloth and other
their wants.

If you find any Island or maine land populous, and that the same people
hath need of cloth, then are you to deuise what commodities they haue to
purchase the same withall.

If they be poore, then are you to consider of the soile, and how by any
possibilitie the same may be made to inrich them, that hereafter they may
haue something to purchase the cloth withall.

If you enter into any maine by portable riuer, and shall find any great
woods, you are to note what kind of timber they be of, that we may know
whether they are for pitch, tarre, mastes, dealeboord, clapboord, or for
building of ships or houses, for so, if the people haue no vse of them,
they may be brought perhaps to vse.

Not to venture the losse of any one man.

You must haue great care to preserue your people, since your number is so
small, and not to venture any one man in any wise.

To bring home besides merchandize certaine trifles.

Bring home with you (if you may) from Cambalu or other ciuil place, one or
other yong man, although you leaue one for him.

Also the fruites of the Countreys if they will not of themselues dure, drie
them and so preserue them.

And bring with you the kernels of peares and apples, and the stones of such
stonefruits as you shall find there.

Also the seeds of all strange herbs and flowers, for such seeds of fruits
and herbs comming from another part of the world, and so far off, will
delight the fansie of many for the strangenesse, and for that the same may
grow, and continue the delight long time.

If you arriue at Cambalu or Quinsay, to bring thence the mappe of that
countrey, for so shall you haue the perfect description, which is to great

To bring thence some old printed booke, to see whether they haue had print
there before it was deuised in Europe as some write.

To note their force by sea and by land.

If you arriue in Cambalu or Quinsay, to take a speciall view of their
Nauie, and to note the force, greatnesse, maner of building of them, the
sailes, the tackles, the ankers, the furniture of them, with ordinance,
armour, and munition.

Also, to note the force of the wals and bulwarks of their cities, their
ordonance, and whether they haue any caliuers, and what powder and shot.

To note what armour they haue.

What swords.

What pikes, halberds and bils.

What horses of force, and what light horses they haue.

And so throughout to note the force of the Countrey both by sea and by

Things to be marked to make coniectures by.

To take speciall note of their buildings, and of the ornaments of their
houses within.

Take a speciall note of their apparell and furniture, and of the substance
that the same is made of, of which a Merchant may make a gesse as well of
their commoditie, as also of their wants.

To note their Shoppes and Warehouses, and with what commodities they
abound, the price also.

To see their Shambles, and to view all such things as are brought into the
Markets, for so you shall soone see the commodities, and the maner of the
people of the inland, and so giue a gesse of many things.

To note their fields of graine, and their trees of fruite, and how they
abound or not abound in one and other, and what plenty or scarsitie of fish
they haue.

Things to be caried with you, whereof more or lesse is to bee caried for a
shew of our commodities to be made.

Karsies of all orient colours, specially of stamell, broadcloth of orient
colours also.

Frizadoes, Motlies, Bristow friezes, Spanish blankets, Baies of al colours,
specially with Stamel, Worsteds, Carels, Saies, Woadmols, Flanels, Rash,

Felts of diuers colours.

Taffeta hats.

Deepe caps for Mariners coloured in Stamel, whereof if ample bent may be
found, it would turne to an infinite commoditie of the common poore people
by knitting.

Quilted caps of Leuant taffeta of diuers colours, for the night.

Knit stocks of silke of orient colours.

Knit stocks of Iersie yarne of orient colours, whereof if ample vent might
folow the poore multitude should be set in worke.

Stocks of karsie of diuers colours for men and for women.

Garters of silke of seuerall kinds, and of colours diuers.

Girdles of Buffe and all other leather, with gilt and vngilt buckles,
specially waste girdles, waste girdles of veluet.

Gloues of all sorts knit, and of leather.

Gloues perfumed.

Points of all sorts of silke, threed, and leather, of all maner of colours.

Shooes of Spanish leather of diuers colours, of diuers length, cut and

Shooes of other leather.

Veluet shooes and pantophles.

These shooes and pantophles to be sent this time, rather for a shew then
for any other cause.

Purses knit, and of leather.

Nightcaps knit, and other.

A garnish of pewter for a shew of a vent of that English commoditie,
bottles, flagons, spoones, &c. of that mettall.

Glasses of English making.

Venice glasses.

Looking glasses for women, great and faire.

Small dials, a few for proofe, although there they will not hold the order
they do here.

Spectacles of the common sort.

Others of Christall trimmed with siluer, and other wise.

Hower glasses.

Combes of Iuorie.

Combes of boxe.

Combes of horne.

Linnen of diuers sorts.

Handkerchiefs with silke of seuerall colours wrought.

Glazen eyes to ride with against dust.

Kniues in sheaths both single and double, of good edge.

Needles great and small of euery kind.

Buttons greater and smaller, with moulds of leather and not of wood, and
such as be durable of double silke, and that of sundry colours.

Boxes with weights for gold, and of euery kind of the coine of gold, good
and bad, to shew that the people here vse weight and measure, which is a
certaine shew of wisedom, and of certaine gouernment setled here.

All the seuerall siluer coynes of our English monies, to be caried with
you, to be shewed to the gouernours at Cambalu, which is a thing that shall
in silence speake to wise men more then you imagine.

Locks and keyes, hinges, bolts, haspes, &c. great and small of excellent
workemanship, whereof if vent may be, hereafter we shall set our subiects
in worke, which you must haue in great regard. For in finding ample vent of
any thing that is to be wrought in this realme, is more woorth to our
people besides the gaine of the merchant, then Christchurch, Bridewell, the
Sauoy, and all the Hospitals of England.

For banketting on shipboord persons of credite.

First, the sweetest perfumes to set vnder hatches to make the place sweet
against their comming aboord, if you arriue at Cambalu, Quinsey, or in any
such great citie, and not among Sauages.


Figs barrelled.


Raisins of the sunne.

Comfets of diuers kinds made of purpose by him that is most excellent, that
shal not dissolue.

Prunes damaske.

Dried Peares.




Oliues to make them taste their wine.

The apple Iohn that dureth two yeres to make shew of our fruits.



Vials of good sweet waters, and casting bottels of glasses to besprinkle
the ghests withall, after their comming aboord.

Suger to vse with their wine if they will.

The sweet oyle of Zante, and excellent French vineger, and a fine kind of
Bisket stieped in the same do make a banketting dish, and a little Sugar
cast in it cooleth and comforteth, and refresheth the spirits of man.

Cynamon water/Imperiall water: is to be had with you to make a shew of by
taste, and also to comfort your sicke in the voyage.

With these and such like, you may banket where you arriue the greater and
best persons.

Or with the gift of these Marmelades in small boxes, or small vials of
sweet waters you may gratifie by way of gift, or you may make a merchandize
of them.

The Mappe of England and of London.

Take with you the mappe of England set out in faire colours, one of the
biggest sort I meane, to make shew of your countrey from whence you come.

And also the large Mappe of London to make shew of your Citie. And let the
riuer be drawen full of Ships of all sorts, to make the more shew of your
great trade and traffike in trade of merchandize.

Ortelius booke of Mappes.

If you take Ortelius booke of Mappes with you to marke all these Regions,
it were not amisse: and if need were to present the same to the great Can,
for it would be to a Prince of marueilous account.

The booke of the attire of all Nations.

Such a booke caried with you and bestowed in gift would be much esteemed,
as I perswade my selfe.


If any man will lend you the new Herball and such Bookes as make shew of
herbes, plants, trees, fishes, foules and beasts of these regions, it may
much delight the great Can, and the nobilitie, and also their merchants to
haue the view of them: for all things in these partes so much differing
from the things of those regions, since they may not be here to see them,
by meane of the distance, yet to see those things in a shadow, by this
meane will delight them.

The booke of Rates.

Take with you the booke of Rates, to the end you may pricke all those
commodities there specified, that you shall chance to find in Cambalu, in
Quinsey, or in any part of the East, where you shall chance to be.


Rowles of Parchment, for that we may vent much without hurt to the Realme,
and it lieth in small roume.


To carie Glew, for that we haue plenty and want vent.

Red Oker for Painters.

To seeke vent because we haue great mines of it, and haue no vent.

Sope of both kindes.

To try what vent it may haue, for that we make of both kinds, and may
perhaps make more.


To try what vent you may haue of Saffron, because this realme yeelds the
best of the world, and for the tillage and other labours may set the poore
greatly in worke to their reliefe.


By new deuises wonderful quantities may be made here, and therefore to
seeke the vent.

Blacke Conies skins.

To try the vent at Cambalu, for that it lieth towards the North, and for
that we abound with the commoditie, and may spare it.

Threed of all colours.

The vent may set our people in worke.

Copper Spurres and Hawkes bels.

To see the vent for it may set our people in worke.

A note and Caueat for the Merchant.

That before you offer your commodities to sale, you indeuour to learne what
commodities the countrey there hath. For if you bring thither veluet,
taffeta, spice, or any such commoditie that you your selfe desire to lade
your selfe home with, you must not sell yours deare, least hereafter you
purchase theirs not so cheape as you would.

Seeds for sale.

Carie with you for that purpose all sorts of garden seeds, as wel of sweete
strawing herbs, and of flowers, as also of pot herbes and all sorts for
roots, &c.

Lead of the first melting.

Lead of the second melting of the slags.

To make triall of the vent of Lead of all kinds.

English iron, and wier of iron and copper.

To try the sale of the same.


To try the vent of the same, because we abound with it made in the Realme.

Antimonie a Minerall.

To see whether they haue any ample vse there for it, for that we may lade
whole nauies of it, and haue no vse of it vnlesse it be for some small
portion in founding of bels, or a litle that the Alcumists vse: of this you
may haue two sortes at the Apothecaries.

Tinder boxes with Steele, Flint & Matches and Tinder, the Matches to be
made of Iuniper to auoid the offence of Brimstone.

To trie and make the better sale of Brimstone by shewing the vse.

Candles of Waxe to light.

A painted Bellowes.

For that perhaps they haue not the vse of them.

A pot of cast iron.

To try the sale, for that it is a naturall commoditie of this Realme.

All maner of edge tools.

To be sold there or to the lesse ciuil people by the way where you shall

What I would haue you there to remember.

To note specially what excellent dying they vse in these regions, and
therefore to note their garments and ornaments of houses: and to see their
Die houses and the Materials & Simples that they vse about the same, and to
bring musters and shewes of the colours and of the materials, for that it
may serue this clothing realme to great purpose.

To take with you for your owne vse.

All maner of engines to take fish and foule.

To take with you those things that be in perfection of goodnesse.

For as the goodnesse now at the first may make your commodities
in credite in time to come: so false and Sophisticate
commodities shall draw you and all your commodities into

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