Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, by Richard Hakluyt

Part 4 out of 7

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

against it, and then hale to the Northwards with the crosse which standeth
in the maine, and you shall haue at a lowe water 10. foote water, and faire
sand. And if you be disposed to goe through the Sound to the Southwards,
keepe the Northwest shoare aboorde, for on the Island side after you be
shotte so far in as the crosse, it is a shoale of rockes halfe the sound
ouer: which rockes do last vnto the Southerly part of the great Island, and
rather to the Southwards. And if you be constrained to seeke a harbor for
Northerly windes, when you come out of the sea hale in with the Southerly
part of the great Island, gluing the Island a faire birth, and as you
shoote towards the maine, you shall finde roade for all Northerly windes,
in foure fadome, fiue, sixe, and seuen fadome, at a lowe water.

Also within this great Island (if neede bee) you may haue a good place to
ground a ship in: the great Island is almost a mile long and a quarter of a
mile ouer.

This storm of Northerly winde lasted vntill the 16. of this moneth and then
the winde came Southerly, but we could not get out for ice. I went on shore
at the crosse, and tooke the latitude, which is 66. degrees, 58. minutes,
30. seconds: the variation of the Compasse 3. degrees and a halfe from the
North to the East.

Thursday (17) being faire weather, and the winde at North we plied to the
winde-wards with sailes and oares: wee stopped the flood this day three
leagues to the Northwards of Cape Race, two miles from the shore, and had
twentie fadome water, faire gray and blacke sand, and broken shels. And
when the slake came wee wayed and made aboord to the shoare-wards, and had
within two cables length of the shoare, eighteene fadomes faire gray and
blacke sand: a man may finde roade there for a North winde, and so to the

Two leagues to the Southward of Corpus Christi poynt, you may haue Landfang
for a North and by East-winde, and from that to the Westwards in 23. fadome
almost a mile from shoare, and faire sand, and amongst the sand little yong
small limpets, or such like as growe vpon muscles: and within two cables
length and lesse of the shoare are eighteene fadomes, and the sounding
aforesayd, but the yong limpets more plentifull. It was a full sea where we
roade, almost a mile from shoare, at a South and by West moone: two leagues
to the Southwards of Corpus Christi point is the vttermost land, which land
and Cape Race lyeth South and halfe a point to Westwards, and North and
halfe a point to the Eastwards, and between them are sixe leagues. Riding
this day (19) sixe leagues to the Northwards of Cape Race, the winde at
Northnorthwest, with mist and frost, at noone the sunne appeared through
the mist, so that I had the latitude in 67. degrees, 29. minutes.

Munday (21) we were thwart of Corpus Christi point, two leagues and a halfe
from shoare, or rather more, where we sounded, and had 36. fadoms, and
broken cocle shels, with brannie sand, but the broken shels very thicke.

Tuesday (22) in the morning we were shotte a head of Cape gallant, which
the Russes call Sotinoz. And as were shot almost halfe a league betwixt it,
and Cape comfort, the wind came vp at the Northwest, and after to the
Northwards, so that we were faine to beare roome to seeke a harbour, where
we found good harbour for all windes, and the least 7. fadome water
betweene S. Iohns Islands and the maine.

After that we came to an ancre, we tooke the latitude, which was 68.
degrees, 1 minute, after noone, the winde at North with plentie of snowe.

At a West Sunne there came aboord us certaine Lappians in a boate, to the
number of sixeteene persons, and amongst them there were two wenches, and
some of them could speake the Russe tongue: I asked them where their
abiding was, and they tolde mee that there was a companie or heard of them,
to the number of 100. men, besides women and children, but a little from vs
in the riuer Iekonga.

They tolde me that they had bene to seeke meate among the rockes, saying,
If wee get no meate, wee eate none. I sawe them eate rocke weedes as
hungerly, as a cowe doeth grasse when shee is hungrie. I sawe them also
eate foules egges rawe, and the yong birdes also that were in the egges.

I obserued certaine wordes of their language, which I thought good to set
downe for their vse, that hereafter shall haue occasion to continue this

COWGHTIE COTEAT, what call you this.
PODDYTHECKE, come hither.
AUANCHYTHOCKE, get the hence.
ANNA, farewell.
TEYRUE, good morrowe.
IOMME LEMAUFES, I thanke you.
PASSEUELLIE, a friend.
OLMUELKE, a man.
CAPTELLA, a woman.
ALKE, a sonne.
NEIT, a daughter, or yong wench.
OVUIE, a head.
CYELME, an eye.
NENNA, a nose.
NEALMA, a mouth.
PANNEA, teeth.
NEUGHTEMA, a tongue.
SEAMAN, a beard.
PEALLEE, an eare.
TEAPPAT, the necke.
VOAPT, the haire.
KEAT, a hand.
SOARME, fingers.
IOWLKIE, a legge.
PEELKIE, the thombe, or great toe.
SARKE, wollen cloth.
LEIN, linnen cloth.
PAYTE, a shirt.
TOL, fire.
KEATSE, water.
MURR, wood.
VANNACE, a boate.
ARICA, an oare.
NURR, a roape.
PEYUE, a day.
HYR, a night.
PEVUEZEA, the Sunne.
MANNA, the Moone.
LASTE, starres.
COSAM VOLKA, whither goe you.
OTTAPP, sleepe.
TALLYE, that.
ISCKIE, a yeere.
KESSE, Sommer.
TALUE, Winter.
IOWKSAM, colde.
PAROX, warme.
ABRYE, raine.
KEATYKYE, a stone.
SELLOWPE, siluer.
SOLDA, golde.
TENNAE, tinne.
VESKUE, copper.
ROWADT, yron.
NEYBX, a knife.
AXSHE, a hatchet.
LEABEE, bread.
PENCKA, the winde.
IOWTE, A platter.
KEMNIE, a kettle.
KEESTES, gloues.
SAPEGE, shoes.
CONDE, a wilde Deare.
POATSA, the labouring Deare.

Their wordes of number are these as followeth.

OFTE, One.
COLME, Three.
VITTE, Five.
TEWET, One hundred.

Friday (25) in the morning we departed from Saint Iohns Island: to the
Westwards thereof, a mile from the shoare, we sounded, and had 36. fadoms,
and oazie sand.

Iuana Creos is from Cape gallant Westnorthwest, and halfe a point to the
Northwards, and betweene them is 7. leagues. The point of the Island, which
is Cape comfort, lyeth from Iuana Creos, Northwest and by North, and almost
the 3. part of a point to the Westwards, and betweene them are 3. leagues.

The Eastermost of S. Georges Islands, or the 7. Islands, lyeth from Iuana
Creos Northwest, and halfe a point to the Northwards, and betweene them are
14. leagues and a halfe. The vttermost of the 7. Islands, and Cape Comfort,
lieth Northwest, and by North, Southeast, and by South.

Vnder the Southermost Island you shall finde good roade for all Northerly
windes from the Northwest to the Northeast. From the Southeast part of the
7. Islands, vnto the Northwest part of them, are 3. leagues and a halfe.

From the Northwest part of the Islands aforesaid, vnto S. Peters Islands,
are 11. leagues Northwest.

(26). S. Peters Islands rise an indifferent low point, not seeming to be an
Island, and as if it had a castle vpon it.

S. Pauls Islands lie from S. Peters Islands Northwest and to the Westwards,
and betweene them are 6. leagues. Within these Islands there is a faire
sandy bay, and there may be found a good roade for Northerly windes.

Cape Sower beere lyeth from S. Pauls Islands Northwest and by West, and
betweene them are 5. leagues.

Cape comfort, which is the Island of Kildina, lieth from Cape Sower beere,
6. leagues West Northwest, and it is altogether a bay betweene them seeming
many Islands in it.

From Cape Bonauenture, to Chebe Nauoloche are 10. leagues Northwest, and a
litle to the Westwards. Chebe Nauoloche is a faire point, whereon standeth
a certaine blacke, like an emptie butte standing a head.

From Chebe Nauoloch to Kegor, is 9. leagues and a halfe Northwest, and
halfe a poynt to the Westwards. Kegor riseth as you come from the Eastwards
like 2. round homocks standing together, and a faire saddle betweene them.

It floweth where we road this Sunday (27) to the Eastwards of Kegor, at a
Southeast and by East moone, a full sea: we roade in 15. fadome water
within halfe a mile of the shoare: at a Northwest Sunne the mist came downe
so thicke, that we were faine to come to an ancre within lesse then a mile
of the point that turneth to Doms haff, where we had 33. fadome, and the
sounding like to the skurfe of a skalde head.

Munday (28) at afternoone, wee came into the Sound of Wardhouse, although
it were very mistie. Then I sent a man a shoare to know some newes, and to
see whether they would heare any thing of our ships [Marginal note: Which
were the Bona Esperanza, the Bona confidentia and the Philip and Marie.
Whereof the two first were lost].

Tuesday (29) I went on shoare, and dined with the Captaines deputie, who
made mee great cheere: the Captaine himselfe was not as yet come from
Bergen: they looked for him euery houre, and they said that he would bring
newes with him.

At a Northwest and by North sunne we departed from Wardhouse, toward

Wednesday (30) we came to Kegor, where we met with the winde at East
Southeast, so that we were faine to go in to a bay to the Westwards of the
point Kegor, where a man may moare 2. or 3. small ships, that shall not
draw past 11. or 12. foote water, for all windes, an East Northeast winde
is the worst. It is a ledge of rocks that defendeth the Northerly winds
from the place where they moare. When we came into the bay we saw there a
barke which was of Dronton [Marginal note: Or, Trondon], and three or foure
Norway yeaghes, belonging to Northberne: so when I came a shoare, I met
first with the Dutchmen, amongst whom was the Borrowmasters sonne of
Dronton, who tolde me that the Philip and Mary wintered at Dronton, and
departed from thence for England in March: and withall he shewed me that
the Confidence was lost, and that he had bought her sailes for his ship.
Then the Dutchmen caried me to their Boothe, and made me good cheere, where
I sawe the Lappians chepen of the said Dutchmen, both siluer platters and
dishes, spoones, gilt rings, ornaments for girdles of siluer and gilt, and
certaine things made to hang about the necke, with siluer chaines belonging
to them.

The Dutchmen bring hither mightie strong beere, I am certain that our
English double beere would not be liked of the Kerile and Llappians, as
long as that would last.

Here I sawe the Dutchmen also haue course cloth, both blew, greene, and
redde, and sad horseflesh colour. And hither they bring also Ottars cases
and foxe cases, both blacke and redde: our English foxe cases are but
counterfaits vnto them.

They would not let me vnderstand any of their prises, but as I otherwise
vnderstood they bartered 2. load of siluer for 100 of stockfish, and 2.
loade is a doller. And the Dutchmen told me, and they had made a notable
good yeere this present yeere 1557. They tolde me that they should be faine
to goe to Wardhouse with one lading, and lay it on land there, and so come
againe and fetch another. The Borrowmasters sonne told me, that he would go
to Amsterdam with his lading of stockfish, who gaue me a barrell of strong
beere, and brought it in aboord our ship himseelf.

After this I went among the Russes and Kerils, who offered me fish to sell,
and likewise the Lappians desired me to look vpon their fish. I made them
answere, that I had nowe no wares nor money to barter with them, and said
that I came only to see if I might meete with our English ships. Then they
desired me that I would come thither the next yeere: I said to them, If I
should come the next yeere, I think here would not be fish ynough to serue
the Dutch and vs also. They answered me, that if more ships did resort
thither, there would more people labour to kill and make fish: and further
they said, that some of them came thither a fishing 8 weekes iourney with
Deere, which Deere will trauaile more speedily then horses will.

As I was thus in talke with the Kerils and Lappians, the Emperour of Russia
his deputie (who was there to gather the tribute of the Lappians) sent for
me to come to his tent, who after familiar salutations, made me good
cheere. He demanded of me why none of our ships came thither. I answered
him, because we knew not the place before now, neither yet heard of any
faire that was kept there. Then said he, If you will come hither, here
would more people resort to kill fish, I think it good (said he) that you
make a beginning. I tolde him, that by the grace of God the next yeere, one
English ship should come thither.

Because I sawe the seruants of the King of Denmarke there also gathering
the tribute, I asked Vasilie Pheodoruich the Russie deputie, whether the
Denmarks would not be a let to vs, if we should come to this Kegor. And he
said no, they should not: for this land is my kings, and therefore be bolde
to come hither.

The Kerils and the Lappians solde no fish, vntil the said deputie had
looked upon it, and giuen them leaue to sell. I asked him what wares were
best for vs to bring thither, and he said, siluer, pearles, cloth, blewe,
red, and greene, meale, strong beere, wine, pewter, foxe cases, and gold.

The Lappians pay tribute to the Emperour of Russia, to the king of
Denmarke, and to the king of Sweden. He told me that the Riuer Cola is
little more then 20. leagues to the Southwards of Kegor, where we should
haue great plentie of salmon, if corne were any thing cheape in Russia: for
then poore men would resort thither to kill salmon.

The Dutchmen tolde me that they had made a good yeere of this, but the
Kerils complained of it because they could not sell all their fish, and
that which they sold was as pleased the Dutchmen, and at their own price. I
asked the Kerils at what price they sold their fish to the Russes, and they
said good cheape: wee sell 24. fishes for 4. altines. I thinke they solde
little aboue 20. pence, the 25. fishes this yeere.

The Dutchmen tolde me that the best stockfish is made at Kegor. I sawe at
Vasiltes tent 7. or 8. iauelins, and halfe a dozen of bowes bent, with
their budgets of arrowes, and likewise swords with other weapons: Otherwise
I sawe no weapons there.

I was also conueyed to their lodgings, which gathered tribute for the king
of Denmarke, where I sawe a pair of bilbowes: and I asked whether they were
for the Lappians (if neede were,) and they said no, but onely for their
owne company if they should chance to be vnruly.

The Kerils and the Lappians are not to be trusted, for they will steale as
well as the Russes, if they may conueniently come by any thing.

Concerning my voyage, because the winde was scant to goe backe againe to
Colmogro, I tarried to the Eastwards of the poynt Kegor, and sent to land,
and baked two batches of bread in the ouens that the Kerils haue for their

* * * * *

Instructions giuen to the Masters and Mariners to be obserued in and about
this Fleete, passing this yeere 1577. toward the Bay of S. Nicolas in
Russia, for this present Race to be made and returne of the same by Gods
grace to the port of London, the place of their right discharge, as in
the Articles ensuing is deduced.

First, it is accorded and agreed betweene the seuerall proprietaries and
owners, masters and companies of the foure ships, surnamed the Primrose,
the Iohn Euangelist, the Anne and the Trinitie, and the Lieutenant,
Consuls, assistants and companie of the Marchant aduenturers, that the
aboue named foure ships shall in good order and conduct, saile, passe, and
trauaile together in one flote, ging, and conserue of societie, to be kept
indissolubly and not to be seuered, but vnited within continuall sight, so
farre foorth as (by winde and weather) by possibilitie shall or may be
without any separation or departure of one from the other.

2 Item, it is agreed that the good ship named the Primerose, shalbe
Admirall of this flote, and that Anthonie Ienkinson Gentleman, shalbe
captaine thereof: and that all the other 3. ships shall ensue and folow her
in all courses, and that no course or waying (in harborough especially)
shall be made without aduice, consent and agreement of the sayd Captaine,
the Master, his mate, and two other officers of the said ship, or of three
of them at the least.

3 Item, that the said Anthonie is and shalbe reputed and taken for Captaine
general of the said flote together with all such orders, preeminences,
priuiledges and preferments as by the order of seas is due and accustomed
to a Captaine during his abode and exercise of the same.

4 If is also ordeined, that if any one or moe of the said 3. ships shalbe
out of sight either before or behinde the Admirall, that then the rest of
the ships shall tacke or take off their sailes in such sort as they may
meete and come together, in as good order as may be, to the intent to keepe
the consortment exactly in all poynts.

5 It is constituted, that if any ships shalbe seuered by mist or darke
weather, in such sort as the one cannot haue sight of the other, then and
in such case the Admiral shall make sound and noise by drumme, trumpet,
horne, gunne or otherwise or meanes, that the ships may come as nigh
together, as by safetie and good order they may.

6 It is also to be obserued, that euery day once the other three shippes
shall send and come aboord the Admirall, and there consult and determine of
such matter and things as shall be for the assurance of their Nauigation,
and most expedition of the same.

7 Item, that notes and entries be daily made of their Nauigations put in
writing and memory, and that the yong Mariners and apprentices may be
taught and caused to learne and obserue the same.

8 It is accorded that the said Captaine shall haue the principall rule and
gouernement of the apprentices: And that not onely they, but also all the
other sailers, shalbe attendant and obedient to him, as of duetie and
reason appertaineth.

9 Also that no beere nor broth, or other liquor be spilt vpon the balast,
or other place of the ship, whereby any anoyance, stinke, or other
vnsauorinesse shall growe in the shippe to the infection or hurt of the
persons in the same.

10 Item, that the Captaine by discretion shall from time to time disship
any artificer or English seruingman or apprentice out of the Primrose into
any other of the three ships, and in lieu of him or them, take any such
apprentice as he shall thinke conuenient and most meete to serue the
benefite of the companie.

11 Item, that great respect be had to the Gunners and Cookes roomes, that
all danger and perill of powder and fire may be eschewed and auoyded.

12 Item, that singular care and respect be had to the ports of the ship,
aswell in Nauigation as in harborow, and especially in lading and vnlading
of the shippes, that nothing be lacking or surcharged: and that the bookes
may oftentimes be conferred and made to agree in eschuement of such losses,
as may ensue.

13 Special foresight is to be had, that at the Wardhouse no trecherie,
inuasion, or ether peril of molestation be done or procured to be attempted
to our ships by any kings, princes, or companies, that do mislike this new
found trade by seas to Russia, or would let and hinder the same, where of
no small boast hath bene made; which giueth occasion of more circumspection
and diligence.

14 If the winde and weather will serue, it is thought good rather to goe by
the Wardhouse then to come in and ancre there, lest any male engine, or
danger may be the rather attempted against vs, our goods and ships as

15 It is thought good that Richard Iohnson, late seruant to M. Chanceler,
shall be sent home in this next returne to instruct the company of the
state of the Countrey, and of such questions as may be demanded of him, for
our better aduertisements and resolutions, in such doubts as shall arise
here: and that he shall haue the roome of the Captaine in such sort as
Master Ienkinson is in this present cocket assigned vnto. And if Iohnson
can not, may not, nor will not returne and occupie the said place, then any
other person to be preferred thereunto, as by the discretion of our said
Captaine, with consent of our Agents, shall be thought meete and apt to
supply the same.

16 Prouided alway, that the ships returning be not disfurnished of one such
able man, as shall occupie the Captainship in like order, as is, and hath
bene in such case appoynted, as reason and good order requireth.

17 Item that all other former orders, rules, and deuises, made and prouided
for the good order of our ships, wares, and goods, being not repugnant,
contrary or diuerse to these articles, and the contents of the same, shall
be, and stand in full force and effect to be in all respects obserued and
kept of all and euery person and persons, whom the same doth or shall touch
or concerne.

In witnesse of the premisses faithfully to be obserued and kept, the owners
and Masters of the said foure ships, together with the said Captaine, to
these seuenteene articles, contained in two sheetes of paper, haue
subscribed their hands. Given in London the third of May, in the yeere of
our Lord God 1557.

Owners, of the Primerose
Andrewe Iudde,
William Chester,
Anthony Hickman,
Edward Casteline.

Owners of the Iohn Euangelist
Andrew Iudde,
William Chester.

Owner of the Anne
Iohn Dimocke.

Owner of the Trinitie
R. T.

* * * * *

A letter of the Company of the Marchants aduenturers to Russia vnto George
Killingworth, Richard Gray, and Henry Lane their Agents there, to be
deliuered in Colmogro or els where: sent in the Iohn Euangclist.

After our heartie commendations vnto you and to either of you: your
generall letter and other particular letters with two bookes of the sale
and remainders of our goods, and the buying of wares there with you, we
receiued about the ende of Nouember out of the Edward, with heauie newes of
the losse of the sayde good shippe and goods at Petslego in Scotland, with
the death of Richard Chancelor and his Boy, with certaine of the
Embassadours seruants, and he himselfe with nine of his seruants escaped
very hardly onely by the power of God: but all his goods and ours in maner
were lost and pilfred away by the Scots, and that that is saued is not yet
come to our hands, but we looke for it daily, and it will skant pay the
charges for the recouering of it. No remedy but patience: and to pray to
God to send vs better fortune hereafter. As touching the receiuing and
entertaining of the Embssadour and his retinewe since his comming to
England at the king and Queenes Maiesties hands, with the Counsell and
Lords of this Realme, and the Marchants that be free in Russia with
feasting and beneuolence giuen him, wee referre it to his report and
others. The like we thinke haue not bene seene nor shewed here of a long
time to any Ambassadour. The Philip and Marie arriued here tenne dayes
past: she wintered in Norway. The Confidence is lost there. And as for the
Bona Esperanza, as yet we haue no newes of her. We feare it is wrong with
her. By your billes of lading receiued in your generall letters we perceiue
what wares are laden in them both. Your letters haue no date nor mention
where they were made, which were written by Henry Lane, and firmed by you
George Killingworth, and Richard Gray: both it and the other letters and
Bookes came so sore spoyled and broken with water that we cannot make our
reckoning by them. You shall vnderstand we haue fraighted for the parts of
Russia foure good shippes to be laden by you and your order: That is to
say, The Primerose of the burthen of 240. Tunnes, Master vnder God Iohn
Buckland: The Iohn Euangelist of 170. Tunnes, Master vnder God Laurence
Roundal: The Anne of London of the burthen of 160. tunnes. Master vnder God
Dauid Philly, and the Trinitie of London of the burthen of 140. Tunnes
Master vnder God Iohn Robins, as by their Charter parties may appeare:
which you may require to see for diuerse causes. You shall receiue, God
willing, out of the said good ships, God sending them in safety for the vse
of the Company, these kinds of wares following, all marked with the general
marke of the Company as followeth. 25. fardels containing 207. sorting
clothes, one fine violet in graine, and one skarlet, and 40. cottons for
wrappers, beginning with number 1. and ending with number 52. The sorting
clothes may cost the first peny 5. li. 9. s. the cloth, one with the other.
The fine violet 18. li. 6. s. 6. d. The skarlet 17. li 13. s 6. d., the
cottons at 9. li. 10. s. the packe, accompting 7. cottons for a packe, more
500. pieces of Hampshire kersies, that is 400. watchets, 43. blewes, 53.
reds, 15. greenes, 5. ginger colours, and 2. yelowes which cost the first
penny 4. li. 6. s. the packe, and 3. packes containing 21. cottons at 9.
li. 10. s. the packe, and part of the clothes is measured by Arshines. More
9. barrels of Pewter of Thomas Hasels making, &c. Also the wares bee packed
and laden as is aforesayde, as by an Inuoyce in euery Shippe more plainly
may appear. So that when it shall please God to send the said good ships to
you in safetie, you are to receiue our said goods, and to procure the sales
to our most aduantage either by ready money, time or barter: hauing
consideration that you doe make good debts, and giue such time, if you give
any, as you may employ and returne the same against the next voyage; and
also foreseeing that you barter to a profit, and for such wares as be here
most vendible, as waxe, tallowe, traine oyle, hempe and flax. Of furres we
desire no great plentie, becuase they be dead wares. And as for Felts we
will in no wise you send any. And whereas you have provided tarre, and as
we suppose, some hempe ready bought, our aduise is, that in no wise you
send any of them hither vnwrought, because our fraight is 4. li a tunne or
little lesse which is so deare as it would not beare the charges: and
therefore we haue sent you 7. ropemakers, as by the copies of their
covenants here inclosed shall appeare. Whom we wil you set to work with al
expedition in making of cables and ropes of al sorts, from the smallest
rope to xii. inches: And that such tarre and hempe as is already brought to
the water side, they may there make it out, and after that you settle their
worke in Vologhda or Colmogro as you shall thinke good, where their stuffe
may be neerest to them: at which place and places you doe assigne them a
principall overseer aswell to see the deliuerie of the stuffe vnwrought, as
also to take charge of the stuffe wrought, and to foresee that neither the
yarne be burnt in tarring, nor the hempe rotted in the watering: and also
to furnish them so with labourers, workemen and stuffe, as hereafter when
these workmen shall come away, we be not destitute of good workmen, and
that these may dispatch as much as possibly they may, doing it
substancially: for we esteme it a principal commoditie, and that the
Counsel of England doth well allowe. Let all diligence be vsed, that at the
returne of these shippes we may see samples of all ropes and cables if it
be possible, and so after to continue in worke, that we may haue good store
against the next yeere. [Sidenote: Danske the old chiefe place for Cables.]
Therefore they haue neede to haue a place to worke in, in the winter: and
at any hand let them haue helpe enough to spinne their stuffe: for seeing
you haue great plentie of hempe there, and at a reasonable price, we trust
we shallbe able to bring as good stuffe from thence, and better cheape then
out of Danske: if it be diligently vsed; and haue a good ouerseer. Let the
chiefest lading of these foure shippes be principally in wexe, flaxe,
tallowe, and traine oyle. And if there be any more wares than these ships
be able to take in, then leaue that which is least in valew and grossest in
stouage vntill the next shipping: for wee doe purpose to ground our selues
chiefly vpon these commodities, as wexe, cables and ropes, traine oyle,
flaxe and some linen yarne. [Sidenote: Commodities not bearing the charges
of long fraight.] As for Masts, Tarre, Hempe, Feathers, or any such other
like, they would not beare the charges to haue any, considering our deere
fraight. We haue sent you a Skinner to be there at our charges for meate,
drinke, and lodging, to viewe and see such furres as you shall cheape or
buye, not minding neuerthelesse, that you shall charge your selues with
many, except those which bee most vendible, as good marterns, miniuers,
otherwise called Lettis and Mynkes. Of these you may send vs plentie,
finding them good and at a reasonable price. As for Sables and other rich
Furres, they bee not euery mans money: therefore you may send the fewer,
vsing partly the discretion of the skinner in that behalfe.

Wee heare that there is great plentie of steele in Russia and Tartarie,
whereof wee would you sent vs part for an example, and to write your mindes
in it what store is to be had: for we heare say there is great plentie, and
that the Tartars steele is better then that in Russia. And likewise we be
informed that there is great plentie of Copper in the Emperours Dominions:
we would he certified of it what plentie there is, and whether it be in
plates or in round flat cakes, and send vs some for an example. Also we
would haue you to certifie vs what kinde of wollen cloth the men of Rie and
Reuel, and the Holes and Lettoes doe bring to Russia, and send the
skantlings of them with part of the lists and a full aduise of the lengths
and breadths, colours and prices, and whether they be strained or not: and
what number of them may be vttered in a yeere, to the intent we may make
prouision for them for the like sortes, and all other Flemish wares which
they bring thither and be most vendible there. And to certifie vs whether
our set clothes be vendible there or not: and whether they be rowed and
shorne: because ofttimes they goe vndrest. Moreouer, we will you send vs of
euery commoditie in that Countrey part, but no great quantitie other then
such as is before declared. And likewise euery kinde of Lether, whereof wee
bee informed there is great store bought yeerely by the Esterlings and
Duches for hie Almaigne and Germaine.

More, that you doe send vs for proofe a quantity of such earth, hearbes, or
what thing soeuer it be, that the Russes do die and colour any kinde of
cloth linen or wollen, Lether or any other thing withall: and also part of
that which the Tartars and Turkes doe bring thither, and how it must be
vsed in dying and colouring. Moreouer, that you haue a speciall foresight
in the chusing of your Tallowe, and that it may be well purified and tried,
or els it will in one yeere putrifie and consume.

Also that you certifie vs the trueth of the waights and measures, and howe
they doe answere with ours, and to send vs 3. robles in money, that we may
trie the iust value of them.

Also we doe send you in these ships ten young men that be bound Prentises
to the Companie, whom we will you to appoynt euery of them as you shall
there finde most apt and meete, some to keepe accompts, some to buy and
sell by your order and Commission, and some to send abroad into the notable
Cities of the Countrey for vnderstanding and knowledge. And we will you
send vs aduertisement from time to time as well as of the demeanours of our
Prentises which we doe send now as also of such other as bee already there
with you. And if you finde any of them remisse, negligent, or otherwise
misuse themselues and will not be ruled, and then you doe send him home,
and the cause why.

And because we doe perceiue the Countrey to be large, and that you haue
three housholds, we doe appoynt Henry Lane to be one of our Agents, and to
ioin with you in all your doings, and to haue like authoritie and power as
you George Killingworth and Rich and Gray haue: not doubting but you three
will so conferre together, as both our Prentises and others may be
appoynted and diuided euery of them to his office, and to that he can best
skill of: and you also so diuide your selues euery of you to an house, as
by aduertisement one from another, our businesse and trafficke may take
good successe. And for diuers considerations, to auoyde many troubles and
businesse that might happen, wee haue appoynted that hee which shall abide
at Colmogro (which we doe think to bee most meetest Henry Lane) shall haue
with him there such of our young men, as can best skill in keeping of
accompts after the maner of Marchants, that is, by Debitor and Creditor:
And that there shall be the place, where our bookes shalbe kept: because it
is nearer the sea side, where our goods shalbe discharged and our ships
laden. And the said Henry Lane to be charged with all such goods as we
shall discharge there out of our ships, according to our Inuoyces. Which
goods are to be sent from Colmogro to Vologhda or to Mosco, or to any other
place where you three or two of you do appoynt them to be sold, so that
Henry Lane be one. And so from time to time immediately as any thing is
sold, doe you certifie the same to Henry Lane, that he may enter it into
the Bookes as appertaineth: otherwise he should be too farre behinde in his
Bookes at the comming of our ships, when he should send vs the accompt of
the whole yeere passed. And we will also that you George Killingworth and
Richard Gray doe in the fine of April next send either of you vnto Henry
Lane a whole, perfit, and iust accompt firmed with your owne hands of all
the goods you haue solde and bought vntill that time, and what remaineth
vnsolde: and also the accompt of all maner costs of wares, and charges of
you and the yong men vnder you particularly in such sort as the said
accompt may bee with him in Colmogro at the fine of May at the furthest: to
the intent that hee may make all our accompts perfite against the comming
of our ships: and in any wise to keepe accompt of euery voyage by it selfe,
and not minde one voyage with another at no hand. And as we will haue you
to keepe accompt of euery voyage by it selfe, euen so wee would haue all
the whole costes and charges of euery yeere put into the voyage of that
yeere. As the charges of all the last yeere must be put to the accompt of
the third voyage: and the charges of this yeere present, must in the fine
of April next, be put to the fourth voyage. Not doubting but your wisedome
is such that you will not take it in euill part, that wee doe appoynt Henry
Lane to take the accompt of the rest. For we doe it for none other cause,
but to keepe a good order in our bookes, that his bookes and ours may by
this meanes agree: and hee being the yonger man, may best take paines: and
that you doe keepe accompt of euery kinde of wares by it selfe, to the
intent wee may perceiue wherein is our most gaine. And also in the making
of your returne, in any wise name in your billes of lading, letters, and
accompts, what wares doe appertaine to the first, second, and third voyage:
and that wee may knowe the same by the numbers or otherwise as you shall
thinke good by your wisedomes, putting the charges of the said wares vnto
them, as nigh as you can. And all such money as shall bee made of your
goods in any place, wee referre that to your discretion, where it shall
remaine vntill it bee employed, either at Vologhda, Mosco, or els where.
And likewise wee will that Henry Lane doe make in a readinesse about the
beginning of Iune euery yeere our whole accompt of the voyage in that yeere
passed: in such sort that wee may receiue the same by our shippes: and that
wee may plainely perceiue what sales are made, and what remaineth of the
first, second, third, and fourth voyage, and what charges haue been layde
out for the sayd voyages, and what wares bee bought, and laden, and what
they cost, and for what voyage euery parcell thereof is: and to send vs a
copie of the same accompt in euery shippe. And also forasmuch as at this
time we haue sent you but small store of wares in comparison of that we
haue hope will bee vttered in short space, and yet neuerthelesse much more
then you wrote for, whereby there shall not be sufficient to make any ample
returne: and vnderstandinig that there is great quantitie of goods stayed
for our trade there by the Emperour, wee haue mooued the Embassador that
you may haue credite for such quantitie as shall seeme good to you to
prouide for our benefite. Which credite if you may by his means obtaine, or
otherwise haue, we would you bought as much Wexe principally as you may
get. For if there be in that countrey so great quantitie, as we be informed
there is, it will be the best commoditie we may haue: for hauing that
wholly in our hands, we may serue our owne countrey and others. Therefore
seeing the Emperour doth minde, that such commodities as bee in his
dominions shall not passe to Rie and Reuel and Poland as they haue done,
but bee reserued for vs: therefore we must so lay for it, that it may not
ly upon their hands that haue it to sell, always hauing consideration in
the price and time as our next dispatch may correspond. Whereof you may
send a certaine aduise, as well what you shall receiue of credit, and to
what quantite, as also what wares are remaining in your hands: which
together well considered, you may aduertise vs as well for how many
hundreth tonnes we must prouide fraight against the next yeere, as also
what sortes, quantities and qualities of wares we shall send you, as well
to pay your credite, as also to furnish the next aduenture after. Of this
we would be answered largely. For we trust by this time you are able to
giue full instructions of the state of the countrey: according to the
articles of your first Commissions, and what commodities doe principally
abound there with their prices: and likewise what of our commodities haue
most vtterance there, and what prices will be given for them there: and all
other things requisite and necessary to be knowen.

Also we doe vnderstand that in the Countrey of Permia or about the river of
Pechora, is great quantitie of Yewe, and likewise in the Countrey of Vgory,
which we be desirous to haue knowledge of because it is a special
commoditie for our Realme. [Sidenote: Leonard Brian sent to search out Yewe
in the North parts of Russia.] Thereon wee haue sent you a yong man, whose
name is Leonard Brian, that hath some knowledge in the wood, to show you in
what sorte it must be cut and clouen. So our minde is if there be any
store, and that it bee found to be good, that there you doe prouide a good
quantitie against the next yeere for the comming of our shippes and if
there can bee found none that will serue for our purpose then you may set
the sayd Leonard Brian to any other businesse that you shall finde most
fittest for him, vntill the returne of our ships the next yeere. For he is
hired by the yeere onely for that purpose. We doubt not but that hee shall
doe you good seruice there. For hee hath good knowledge of wares of that
Countrey for his bringing vp hath bene most in Danske, and hath good
vnderstanding in making of Ropes and Cables. Also we doe send you two
Coopers to remaine there with you at our finding hogmeat and drinke and
lodging to make in a readinesse all such caske as shalbe needfull for
traine oyle, tallowe, or any thing else One of them may goe with Leoonard
Brian to cut and cleue such Yewe as he shall like there. And because we be
not sure what timber they shall finde there to make Caske, we haue laden in
these ships 140. tunnes emptie Caske, that is 94. tunnes shaken Caske and
46. tunnes whole, and ten thousand hoopes, and 480. wrethes of twigs: they
may be doing with that till they can prouide other timber, which we would
be glad to heare of. They haue an example with them of the bigness of the
Caske they shall make. Neuerthelesse, all such Buttes and Hoggesheads as
may be found to serue we will shalbe filled with Traine Oyle.

Also we charge you that you suffer no goods nor marchandise of any persons
being not free of the Company, and of the accompt of the Company to be
laden in any wise in our ships either now or at any time hereafter: except
the Emperour or Ambassadour minde to send any thing to the King and Queenes
Maiesties, or to any noble man, or to the Marchants of the Companie: Nor
likewise that you suffer any goods that goe in these ships to be brought on
land there, except the Ambassadours goods, and the Physitions and
Apothecaries, and others that he hath with him, who carie no Marchandise.
And because our ships be freighted by the great, it shalbe very needful
that you do appoynt certaine to see the romaging of the ships, and to giue
the master or Boatswaine, or him that will take vpon him to romage, a good
reward for his labour to see the goods well romaged. If it be iii d. or
iiii d. the tunne, it shall not be amisse. For if it be not substantially
well looked into, it may bee a great deale of money [illegible] of our

Also because we reckon that from the Mosco will bee always better
conueyance of letters to vs by land: our minde is that from time to time as
occasion shall serue, our Agents shall write to him that shall lie at Mosco
of all things that shall passe, that hee may giue vs large instructions, as
well what is solde and bought as also what lading we shall take, and what
quantitie and kinde of goodes we shall send. For hitherto we haue had but a
slender aduise, more like a bill to serue a Chapman, then for quantitie of
wares to serue a kingdom. For we must procure to vtter good quantities of
wares, especially the commodities of our Realme, although we affoord a good
penyworth, to the intent to make other that haue traded thither, wearie,
and so to bring our selues and our commodities in estimation, and likewise
to procure to haue the chiefe commodities of that countrey in our hand, as
waxe and such others, that other nations may be serued by vs and at our
hands. For wee doe vnderstand that the greatest quantitie of waxe that
commeth to Danske, Lubeck, and Hambourgh, commeth out of Russia. Therefore
if wee should buy part, and they also buy, it would raise the price there,
and would bee little woorth here. And all such letters of importance and
secrecie as you doe send by land for any wares or otherwise, you must write
them in Cyphers, after the order of a booke sent you in the shippes: always
taking good heede in placing of your letters and cyphers, that wee may
vnderstand them by the same booke heere, and to send them in such sort that
we may haue them here by Christmas or Candlemas, if it be possible. And
because you cannot so certainly aduertise vs by letters of your doings, but
some doubt may arise, whereof we would most gladly be certified: our mind
is therefore that with these ships you send vs home one such yong man as is
most expert in knowledge of that countrey, and can best certifie vs in such
questions as may be demanded, whome we will remit vnto you again in the
next ships. We thinke Arthur Edwards wilbe fittest for that purpose:
neuerthelesse vse your discretion in that matter.

As touching our goods that were robbed and pilfred out of our ships at
Colmogro and Vologda we trust by this time they are restored againe, and
the malefactors so punished that other may take example for doing the like,
otherwise it will be an euil president. Moreouer, we doe perceiue that
Richard Gray doeth buy mastes to send into England; they will not quit the
costes, except we had a ship of purpose for them. And likewise that Steuen
Burrow is returned from his discouere with the Serchthrift and wintereth at
Colmogro, and is minded to set forth in the beginning of Iune next to seeke
the riuer of Ob. We pray God to speede him well, and trust to haue him here
in England this yeere to bring vs good newes.

We doe perceiue there is a riuer found about the mouth of S. Nicholas Bay
that hath thirteen foot vpon the barre at a lowe water, and is as neere
Colmogro as S. Nicholas: which will be a great pleasure vnto vs. We will
that Steuen Burrowe doe proceed on his voiage to discouer. [Sidenote: M.
Anthonie Ienkinson his first trauaile intended for Cathay by the Caspian
sea and Beghar.] Also we haue sent you one Anthonie Ienkinson Gentleman, a
man well trauelled, whom we mind to vse in further travelling, according to
a Commission deliuered him, subscribed by master Antonie Huse and others.
Wherefore we will you deliuer him one or more of such painfull young men as
he shal thinke meetest for his purpose: and likewise such money and wares
as he shal think best to take with him. He must haue fourty pounds a yeere
for foure yeeres, to be paid him by the halfe yeere, or as he wil demaund
it of you, so let him haue it from Easter last. Also the prices of wares
here at this present are, bale flaxe twenty pound the packe and better,
towe flaxe twentie eight pound the hundred, traine oyle at nine pound the
tunne, waxe at foure pound the hundred, tallow at sixteen shillings the
hundred, cables and ropes very deare: as yet there are no shippes come out
of Danske.

Kept vntill the tenth day of this present. As this day came the goods, out
of Scotland that were recouered out of the Edward Bonauenture: and nowe we
doe preceiue that the caske that the trayne oyle came in, is verie good,
and much better then ours. Therefore our minde is, that you shall lade it
all in such barrels of the biggest sort as you laded in the Edward, and no
long barrels nor small. And that caske that wee haue sent may serue for the
Tallowe or anie other ware that is not leakage. Neuerthelesse this voyage
you must take such as you can get.

Also if the Emperour bee minded to deliuer you any summe of money, or good
Waxe, at as reasonable a price as you may buye for readie money, wee will
that you shall take it and lade it for our accomptes, and to come at our
aduenture, and hee to bee payed at the return of the Shippes in Veluets,
Sattens, or any other kinde of silk, or cloth of golde, cloth of tissue, or
according as his Commission shall bee that hee shall sende vs in the
shippes and according to such paternes as hee shall send. Wee doe not finde
the Ambassadour nowe at the last so conformable to reason as wee had
thought wee shoulde. Hee is very mistrustfull, and thinketh euery man will
beguile him. Therefore you had neede to take heede howe you haue to doe
with him or with any such, and to make your bargaines plaine, and to set
them downe in writing. For they bee subtill people, and doe not alwaies
speake the trueth, and thinke other men to bee like themselues. Therefore
we would haue none of them to send any goods in our shippes at any time,
nor none to come for passengers, vnless the Emperour doe make bargaine with
you, as is aforesaid, for his owne person.

Also we charge you not to suffer any of our nation to send any wares to
their wiues or friends in any of our ships; but to take their money there
to be paid heere by the companie and not otherwise: and to haue
consideration how you doe take the roble. For although we doe rate it after
sixteene shillings eight pence of our money, yet it is not worth past 12 or
13 shillings sterling. Moreouer, you had neede to sende newe accomptes, for
them that came in the Edward bee marred and torne, so that we can make no
reckoning by them: and likewise to write vs a perfect note of all the
goodes which you receiued the last voyage out of the Edward, and heerein
not to faile.

Andrew Iudde.
George Barne.
Anthonie Huse.
William Garrand.
William Chester.

* * * * *

A Letter of Master Thomas Hawtrey to the worshipfull Master Henrie Lane
Agent at Colmogro, written in Vologda the 31. of Ianuarie 1557.

Worshipfull Sir, heartie commendations premised. These may bee to aduertise
you, that yesterday the thirtieth, of this present came hither Robert Best,
and brought with him two hundred robles, that is, one hundred for this
place, and one hundred for you at Colmogro. As for hempe which is here at
two robles and a halfe the bercouite, Master Gray hath written to buy no
more at that price: for Iohn Sedgewicke hath bought for sixe or seuen
hundred robles worth at Nouogrode for one roble and a halfe the bercouite,
and better cheape: and white Nouogrode flaxe is there at three robles the
bercouite. I trust hee will doe much good by his going thither. As I doe
vnderstand, Richard Iohnson is gone to Nouogrode with money to him, I doubt
not but Master Gray hath aduertised you of all their doings, both at the
Mosco and the Nouogrod. And touching our doings heere, you shall perceiue
that wee haue solde wares of this fourth voyage for one hundred and fourtie
robles, besides fiftie robles of the second and third voyage since the
giuing vp of my last account, and for wares of the Countrey, you shall
vnderstand that I haue bought tried and vntried for 77. robles foure
hundred podes of tried tallowe, beside foure hundred podes that I haue
giuen out money for, whereof God graunt good receipt when the time commeth,
which is in lent. And in browne flaxe and hempe I haue bought seuenteene
bercouites, sixe podes and sixteene pound, which cost 28. robles, eleuen
altines two pence. And as for other kindes of wares I haue bought none as
yet And for mastes to bee prouided, you shall vnderstand that I wrote a
letter to Totma the 28. of this present for fiftie mastes to wit, for 25.
of fifteene fathoms, and 25. of foureteene fathoms, to be an arshine and a
halfe at the small ende. [Sidenote: An Arshine is 3. quarters of a yard or
more.] And more, I haue written for 30. great trees to be two arshines and
a halfe at the small ende, and for the other that were prouided the last
yeere, I trust they will be sent downe in the spring of the yeere.
[Sidenote: A rope house erected by Colmogro.]And as concerning the
Ropemakers, you shall vnderstand that their abiding place shall bee with
you at Colmogro, as I doe thinke Master Gray has aduertised you. For, as
Roger Bontigne Master of the woorkes doeth say, there is no place more
meete for their purpose then with you: and there it will be made with
lesser cost, considering that the pale is the one halfe of it: which is to
set one pale more to that, and so for to couer it ouer, which as they say,
will be but little cost. They doe pray that it may bee made sixteene foote
broade, and one hundred and eightie fathoms long: and that in the midde way
twentie foote from the pale towarde the water side there may be a house
made to tarre in, standing alone by it selfe for danger of fire. The Tarre
house that they woulde haue made, is to bee fifteene fathoms long, and ten
fathoms broade, and they would that house should be made first: for I
thinke they will not tarre before they come there. And farther they desire
that you will prouide for as much tarre as you may, for heere wee haue
small store, but when the time commeth that it shoulde be made, I will
prouide as much as I can here, that it may bee sent downe when the Nasade
commeth. The stuffe that they haue readie spunne is about fiue thousand
waight, and they say that they trust to haue by that time they come downe
yarne ynough to make 20. cables. As concerning a copie of the Alphabet in
ciphers Master Gray hath written hither that Robert Austen had one, which
he willed that he shoulde deliuer to you. Thus I surcease, beseeching God
to preserue you in health, and to send you your hearts desire.

By yours to command to his power,

Thomas Hawtrey.

* * * * *

A letter of master Richard Gray one of the first Agents of the Moscouie
companie to Master Henrie Lane at Mosco, written in Colmogro the 19. of
Februarie 1558.

[Sidenote: Lampas a great mart for the Samoeds in the North.] Worshipfull
Sir, after heartie commendations &e. You shall vnderstand that this Lent
commeth to Lampas such a number of men of diuers nations with wares, as
hath not bene seene these ten yeeres. Thither came many out of Vgori:
therefore I would haue bene there my selfe, and also haue receiued such
money as is owning vs in wares by Kerill his brother and Osep Boscouo. For
as you well know, thence they will go with their wares to the Mosco, and
make vs payment with delayes, as they haue done these other yeeres past.
Colobone and his partner be departed towards Lampas with seuen sleddes
laden with victuals. Others also are gone to that Mart. As touching the
bringing of money with you, it will bee good, for I assure you since our
comming to this countrey haue not so many persons gone to the Sea, as will
doe this yeere. Trusting that God will send good store of traine oyle, I
will cause as much caske to bee in a readinesse as I can, if you shall
think it meete to send some money before. All our old hempe is spunne and
wrought in tenne cables from fifteene ynches to ten the least, and
thirteene Hausers from six ynches to three ynches: and all may weigh white
eight and twenty thousand pound weight and vpwarde. There is in hempe ockam
fiue thousand pound two hundred weight in twelue sackes at the least: the
flaxe that came downe in the Nassadaes with those seuen podes that came
last is all spunne with a good part of that hempe that came last. God send
more shortly, for all that is here and that is comming in the three other
sleddes will bee dispatched by the fourth weeke in Lent. Within these few
dayes I bought thirteen podes, seuen pound of hempe that cost two robles,
twenty eight altines, foure pence, which together with that that was bought
before, shall bee laide in dipping and sounding lines, for it is very good.
There are spent aboue fiftie barrels of tarre alreadie: you shall
vnderstand that these eight workemen will spinne and lay aboue fourescore
and tenne thousand pound of hempe, so it bee dressed readie to their hands,
hauing two to turne the wheeles, and two to winde vp. Therefore I haue
agreed with these two boyes to serue the worshipfull companie foure yeeres
a piece. One of them windeth vp and is very apt to spinne: therefore I will
haue two other young men Russes to spinne, if they can finde good sureties
for their trueth. I haue bene in hand with these two yong men that came put
of the Trinitie, and they with me, but vnder seuen pound a year they will
not serue, nor Thomas Bunting that was Roger Bunting his seruant. Therefore
I would haue three Russes at the least to spinne, fiue of them will be as
good as these three, and will not be so chargeable all, as one of these
would be. I thinke it were good that our Nassada were somewhat strengthened
in her floore on both sides with plankes of fiue or sixe ynches thicke,
from the stemme to the sterne, as I haue written to Thomas Hawtrey at
Vologda. Also if you shall so thinke meet, your waxe and tallowe shall be
laden in two Dosnickes, for they bee meete to goe aboord the shippes: I doe
intend to set vp an house at Boroseua ouer against the place whereat the
shippes shall ride, your aduise therein I expect it shall not cost aboue
three robles, and yet if we will, there shall be two warme roomes in it. As
for other matter at this present I haue not to trouble you withall, and if
it would please yow I would be glad to heare some good newes of Master
Ienkinson. Thus Iesus be with you and be his guide.


[Sidenote: White hawks and white beares prohibited without licence.] As for
these our Hawkes they bee not white, but white and mayled, but indeede be
Iarfawkons. These dayes past our Olen died. So this yeere our Masters of
the companie are like to haue none, nor any white beares. Neither may any
passe out of the realme without a special licence from the Emperour.

I intend God willing to goe to Lampas, if I doe I will take foure or fiue
kerseys with me, but as for money there is small store here to carie.

Yours, Richard Gray.

* * * * *

A letter of Thomas Alcocke to the worshipfull Richard Gray, and Henrie Lane
Agents in Moscouia from Tirwill in Polonia, written in Tirwill the 26. of
Aprill 1558.

My duety premised vnto your worships, with commendations &c. It may please
you to be aduertised, that my last I sent from Smolensco, which I trust you
haue receiued with other letters to diuers of our Englishmen, wherein I
certified you of my long retayning there, as also of my departure from
thence, and howe that I had hired a Totar to bring mee to Danske. We came
to a certaine village on Satterday the sixe and twentieth of Februarie, and
there remained that night and Sunday to refresh our horses, intending to
haue gone away on Munday earely. But on Saterday at night one of his
neighbours departed to Tirwill, and there declared to the Captaine howe
that at such a place there was a Dutch man that was come from the Mosco,
and woulde ride to Danske, saying, for the one, I cannot tell what he is.
The Captaine incontinent ridde to the King to shewe him thereof, so that
without any delay there was sent out for mee one of the Gentlemen of the
Kings house, and one of the Mesnickes of the Towne with sixe Officers to
take mee. They came thither in the night about midnight, and there
apprehended mee and tooke all that I had from me: they left me nothing but
my clothes to put on my backe, and so brought mee to Tirwill to the
Captaines house, where before I dyned, I had a payre of fetters clapped on
my legges, wherewithall I sate vntill it was Munday in the Easter-weeke. On
which day, after long and earnest calling to the Captaine as he ridde by
the windowe, he commaunded the Marshall that mine yrons shoulde be taken
off, but no worde I could heare when I should be deliuered out of
captiuitie till it was Saint George his day: on which day I was had before
the Marshall, who declared vnto me that the Kings Maiestie had shewed his
mercie and goodnesse towardes mee: for his pleasure was that I should be
deliuered out of prison to depart into England, but no way else. So after I
had giuen thankes for the Kings Maiesties goodnesse shewed vnto me, I
desired him that he woulde be a meane that I might haue the remaynder of
such thinges as were taken from me restored vnto me againe. Hee made me
answere, that I might thanke God that I escaped with my head, and that if
euer there came any more of vs through the land, they should not so doe.
The weeke before Easter they deliuered mee my Corobia againe with all
thinges that were therein. They tooke from mee in money nine Hungers
gylderns in golde, fiue shillings foure pence in Lettoes money, fourtie
Altines in Russe money, whereof twentie and more were for tokens, halfe an
angell and a quarter of Master Doctour Standishes, with his golde
ring.[Sidenote: Doctor Standish the Emperours Phisition.] Your two pieces
of money (Master Gray) that you sent to your wife and daughter, with my two
pieces of Boghary money. Of all this I had eight Hungers gilderns deliuered
mee the thirde weeke of mine imprisonment to paye for my charges, which
stoode mee in a Doller a weeke. So that at the day of my deliuerie I had
but three gyldernes left me. For the rest I made a supplication to the
Captaine and had the like answere giuen mee as the Marshall gaue me. So
that all the rest of the thinges before written are lost, and no recouerie
to bee had, which grieueth me more for the tokens sake then doeth mine
eight weeks imprisonment. They haue also my sword, my bootes, my bowe and
arrowes that I bought at Smolensco, which cost me foure marks, my sled, my
felt, the comhold, a booke of the Flowres of godly prayers, and my booke
wherein my charges were written. Of all these I can get nothing againe, not
so much as my two bookes.

After I had remayned there fiue and thirtie dayes, I was had before the
Captaine vp into a great chamber to bee examined for letters and of the
cause of my comming through the Countrey. In the Captaines companie was one
of the Lordes of Danske. They demaunded of mee where my letters were, I
declared vnto them that I had none: your Officers (sayd I) tooke me when I
was in my bedde, they searched mee and tooke all that I had from mee, if
there be any they shall finde them among my stuffe which they haue. They
asked mee then, for what cause I went home ouer lande? I declared vnto
them, that the Winter beeing a warme season, and hauing intelligence that
the frozen Sea was not much frozen, and supposing this Sommer it would be
nauigable, I was onely sent to prouide a Shippe to be sent to passe the
sayde Seas to discouer Cataia: which if God graunted wee might doe, it
woulde not onely bee a commoditie to the Realme of Englande, but vnto all
Christian landes, by the riches that might be brought from thence, if the
histories bee true that are written thereof. Much other communication I had
with them concerning the same voyage. Then he demaunded of mee what wares
wee brought into Russia, and what we carried from thence. I declared the
same vnto them. Then they burdened mee, that wee brought thither thousandes
of ordinance, as also of harneis, swordes, with other munitions of warre,
artificers, copper, with many other things; I made them answere, that wee
had brought thither about one hundred shirtes of mayle, such olde thinges
newe scowred as no man in Englande woulde weare. Other talke they had with
mee concerning the trade of Moscouia too long to commit to writing.

[Sidenote: An attempt to hinder our trade to Mosvouia by the Hans townes
and Easterlings.] At my comming hither heere were Ambassadours from the
townes of Danske, Lubeck, and Hamburgh, as also out of Liefland to desire
this King to bee their Captaine and head their intended voyage, which was
to stoppe all such shippes as shoulde goe out of England for Mocouia.
Whereunto the King graunted, and immediately they departed to prepare their
shippes. So that I am afraide that either these our enemies, or the great
warres that we haue with France and Scotland will be an occasion that you
shall haue no shippes at Colmogro this yeere.

To conclude, although I haue no tokens to deliuer them, that the tokens
taken from me were sent vnto, yet I will declare vnto them that I had
tokens for them, with the mischance. And thus I commit you to Almightie God
with the rest of the companie who keepe you in health to his holy will and

By yours to commaund


* * * * *

A Letter of Master Anthonie Ienkinson vpon his returne from Boghar to the
worshipful Master Henrie Lane Agent for the Moscouie compante resident in
Vologda, written in the Mosco the 18. of September, 1559.

Worshipfull Sir, after my heartie commendations premised with most desire
to God of your welfare and prosperous successe in all your affaires. It may
please you to bee aduertised that the fourth of this present I arriued with
Richard Iohnson and Robert Iohnson all in health, thankes bee to God. Wee
haue bene as farre as Boghar, [Footnote: Bokhara.] and had proceeded
farther on our voyage toward the lande of Cathay, had it not bene for the
vncessant any continuall warres, which are in all these brutall and wilde
countrey, that it is at this present impossible to passe, neither went
there any Carauan of people from Boghar that way these three yeere. And
although our iourney hath bene so miserable, dangerous, and chargeable with
losses, charges and expenses, as my penne is not able to expresse the same:
yet shall wee bee able to satisfie the woorshipfull Companies mindes, as
touching the discouerie of The Caspian Sea, with the trade of merchandise
to bee had in such landes and countreyes as bee thereabout adiacent, and,
haue brought of the wares and commodities of those Countries able to
answere the principall with profite: wishing that there were vtterance for
as great a quantitie of kersies and other wares as there is profile to bee
had in the sales of a small quantitie, (all such euill fortunes beeing
escaped as to vs haue chaunced this present voyage,) for then it woulde be
a trade woorthie to bee followed. Sir, for that I trust you will be here
shortly (which I much desire) I will deferre the discourse with you at
large vntill your comming, as well touching my trauel, as of other things.
Sir, Iohn Lucke departed from hence toward England the seuenth of this
present, and intendeth to passe by the way of Sweden, by whom I sent a
letter to the worshipfull Companie, and haue written that I intend to come
downe vnto Colmogoro to be readie there at the next shipping to imbarke my
selfe for England, declaring that my seruice shal not be needful here, for
that you are a man able to serne their worships in greater affaires then
they haue heere to doe, so farre as I perceiue. As touching the Companies
affaires heere, I referre you to Christopher Hudsons letters, for that I am
but newly arriued. Hauing heere but litle businesse to doe, I send you
Richard Iohnson to helpe you there in your affaires. Thus giuing you most
heartie thanks for my wench Aura Soltana, I commend you to the tuition of
God, who send you health with hearts desire. [Sidenote: This was a yong
Tartar girle which he gaue to the Queene afterwards.]

Your assured to command,

Anthonie Ienkinson.

* * * * *

A Letter of the Moscouie companie to their Agents in Russia, Master Henrie
Lane, Christopher Hudson, and Thomas Glouer sent in their seuenth voyage
to Saint Nicholas with three ships, the Swallowe, the Philip and Marie,
and the Iesus the fifth of May, 1560.

After our heartie commendations to you. The twelfth day of the last moneth
here arriued in safety, thanks be to God, our two ships, and by them we
receiued your letters and inuoices very well perceiuing what you haue laden
in them. The tallowe came euill conditioned and broken, by reason it came
in Corrobias, wee lose and spoyle more then the Caske will cost, and much
of this tallowe is verie euill, blacke, soft and putrified. Touching the
Waxe, as yet wee knowe not howe the weight will rise, by reason that some
of it was lost in the barkes. The weight of the last yeeres waxe did not
rise so well as the other yeeres before it did. There had neede good heede
bee taken in the weighing. Also much of this Waxe had a great foote, and is
not so faire waxe as in times past wee baue had. You must cause the foote
to bee taken off before you doe weigh it, or else you must seeke to haue a
good allowance for it. The traine Oyles which you laded this yeere came
well conditioned, and the caske was good and of a good sise. But if they
were made a little bigger, it were the better, for they be not hogsheads.
You haue written to vs to send you caske which is not heere to be had,
neither doe wee thinke it so best if it were heere, considering it must goe
either shaken and bounde vp, or else emptie, which will bee pesterable, and
likewise will shrinke and drie, and not be fitte to lade oyles in.
Therefore our minde is, you shall cause so much caske to bee made there of
the sise of hogsheads as will serue both for; your oyles and tallowe, and
let them be well trimmed with pitch on the heads and seames, and stand full
of water three or foure dayes before you put Oyles in them; Your Cowper may
bee ouerseer to them that make them, that they be well hooped and cleere
tymber without knottes, the woorst caske you may put the tallowe in. Hee
that seeth the filling of the oyles had neede to looke well to it, for
there was much water in this that, came nowe. Wee perceiue you haue bought
and haue in a readinesse one hundred and fourtie tunnes of oyles, and that
if neede bee you may haue more store. Wherefore we doe minde to send, you
shipping for three hundred tunnes and vpwards, because we would haue this
next Summer as great a returne as you can of the commodities of that
Countrey, as also such of our wares as you haue that are not vendible, or
will not be solde or bartered, because we would haue a ful knowledge and
state of our accounts. The Sables which you sent this yeere be very base,
among them all we could not make one principall timber: wee haue alwayes
written vnto you to send them that bee good or else none. The Woluerings
were indifferent, and some of the wolues, the rest verie base, the Lusernes
but meane, the Lettes not so large skinnes as we hane had: the best is,
they were of a new death. As for the Ermines, they cost more there with
you, then we can sell them for here. Therefore buy no more of them, nor of
Squirels, for wee lost the one halfe in the other. The wares that we would
haue you prouide against the comming of the shippes are, Waxe, Tallowe,
trayne Oyles, Flaxe, Cables and Ropes, and Furres, such as we haue written
to you for in our last letters by the shippes: and from hencefoorth not to
make any great prouision of any rich Furres except principall Sables and
Lettes: for now there is a Proclamation made that no furres shall be worne
here, but such as the like is growing here within this our Realme. Also we
perceiue that there might be a great deale of tallowe more prouided in a
yeere than you send. Therefore our minde is, you should enlarge somewhat
more in the price, and to send vs if you can three thousand podes a yeere:
for we doe most good in it. And likewise the Russes, if you would giue them
a reasonable price for their wares, woulde be the willinger to buy and sell
with you, and not to carie so much to Nouogrode as they doe, but woulde
rather bring it to Vologda to you, both Waxe, Tallowe, Flaxe, Hempe, and
all kinde of other wares fitte for our Countrey. Our minde is you should
prouide for the next ships fiue hundred Losh hides, of them that be large
and faire, and thickest in hand, and to be circumspect in the choosing,
that you buy them that bee killed in season and well dryed and whole. If
they be good we may sell them here for sixteene shillings and better the
piece, wee would haue the whole skinnes that is, the necke and legges
withal, for these that you sent now lacke their neckes and legges.
Neuerthelesse for this time you must sende them as you may get them: if you
coulde finde the meanes that the haire might bee clipped off them, they
woulde not take so much roome in the shippes as they doe. We perceiue by
your letters that the prices of Waxe doe rise there with you, by reason
that the Poles and Lifelanders doe trade into Russia by licence: which, if
there shoulde bee peace betweene them, would be an occasion that all other
commodities in Russia woulde rise to a bigger price, and not be sufficient
to serue them and vs too, and likewise woulde bring downe there the price
of our commodities. Therefore we thinke it good you shoulde make a
supplication to the Emperour in the name of The Companie to returne the
trade from Rye and Reuel to vs, especially for such wares as wee doe buy:
promising that wee will bee bounde to take them at a reasonable price, as
wee haue bought them in times past: and likewise that wee will bring to
them such wares of ours, as are thought fitte for the Countrey, and so sell
them at such reasonable prices as wee haue done. If this shoulde not come
to passe, wee might be out of hope of doing any good by the trade there:
but that we haue a further hope of some good trade to be found out by
Master Antonie Ienkinson: by reason we doe perceiue by your letters, that
raw silke is as plentifull in Persia, as flaxe is in Russia: beside other
commodities that may come from thence. Wee vnderstand by your letters that
you be at a point with the Russe for the Waxe, Tallow, and traine oyles
that he shipped the last yere for 311 robles 20 altines, which is well:
although much be not gotten by it, but because they should not vnderstand
our reckonings. We much maruel what you mean to buy Seale skins and tanne
them. All that you haue sent in times past lie here vnsold, and will yeelde
no money. If you send 100 of them tawed with the haire on, they will bee
solde, or else not. In our shippe we will send you such things as you write
to haue for the ropers: and wee would they should make more store of small
cables and ropes, as cables of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. inches. For these great
cables be not for euery man; and the greatest cables bee not best laded:
and likewise small ropes for shroudes, sholes, and other small tackeling:
and that you looke better to the spinning of their yarne that it be euen
and well tarred. The sables that you doe mind to send vs let them be
principall and fayre, and not past foure or fine timbars. For they will not
be so commonly worne here as they haue bin with noble men: and likewise of
Luserns send fewe and principal good. We mind to send you in our shippes
100 tunnes of salte. And because we perceiue that balast is hardly to be
had at our lading place there with you, we would you shoulde haue in a
readinesse 100 tunnes of the white stones whereof you sent vs home an
example two yeres past. And likewise to haue in a readinesse mastes of all
sortes for our shippes: for we know not what neede wee shall haue of them.
The bringer hereof is Thomas Alcock, he could not be suffered the last
yeare to passe through Poland. And as we, wrote vnto you in our shippes,
hee is our seruant for yeares: And for that we know him to be honest, true
and painefull, our mind is he shalbe placed where he may do best seruice.
He doth know the commodities and discommodities of all kinde of wares which
you doe send vs. Therefore we would you should credite his sayings both in
quantitie of wares and goodnes, as also wherin is most our profit. We see
by your letters that your opinion is that the rope-makers should remaine
there two yeres more; and that you haue prouided great plentie of hempe,
which we are content withall. But as yet we haue solde none of our cables
or halsers, neither is the proofe of them knowen; because the first you
sent vs were made of flaxe, which are worth no money: for after they be
once wet they will rotte and moulder away like mosse. And those which you
sent vs now last, by misfortune there with you at the lading were wette and
fretted in many places, and haue lost their colour: by meanes whereof they
be not so vendible as if they had come well conditioned. Of an hard
beginning we trust God will send vs a good ending. We hope in your next
letters to heare good newes of the proceedings of Master Antonie Ienkinson.
We perceiue by his letters that Astracan is not so good a Mart towne as the
fame hath gone of it: and maruell much that round pewter should be so good,
and good chepe there, and from whence it should come. And whereas you write
that you wil come for England in our next shippes, we would gladly haue you
to remaine there vntill the next yere following, for the better instruction
of our seruants there; who have not had so long time of continuance for the
language and knowledge of the people, countrey, and wares as you haue had.
[Sidenote: Christopher Hodson and Thomas Glouer appointed Agents 1560.]
Neuerthelesse if you will needs come away, we haue no doubt, but that you
will leaue good order with our seruants there, namely with Christopher
Hodson and Thomas Glouer, whom we appoint to remaine there as Agents in
your roome, till further order bee taken: not doubting but that they will
vse themselues so discreetely and wisely in all their doings, as shall be
to the worship and benefite of this company. And as we haue a good hope in
them that they will be carefull, diligent and true in all their doings: so
haue we no lesse hope, in all the rest of our seruants there, that they
will bee not onely obedient to them (considering what roome they be in) but
also will be carefull, diligent and true euery one in his roome and place
for the benefite and profite of the company: That hereafter in the absence
of others they may be called and placed in the like roome there or
elsewhere. And if you find any to be disobedient and stobborne, and will
not be ruled; wee will you shall send him home in our shippes: who shall
find such small fauour and friendship during the time that he hath to
serue, as by his disobedience and euill seruice hee hath deserued. And
whereas Christopher Hodson hath written to come home, as partly he hath
good cause, considering the death of his father and mother: yet in regard
that Sir George Barne and the Ladie his wife were his special friends in
his absence, we doubt not but that he wil remain in the roome, which we
haue appointed him, if you doe not tarie and remaine there, till farther
order be taken: and for his seruice and paines hee shall be considered, as
reason is, as friendly as if his friends were liuing. Thus we trust you
will take such order the one to remaine at the Mosco, and the other at
Colmogro, or elsewhere, as most neede is. Thomas Alcocke is desirous to be
in the Mosco: neuerthelesse you shall find him reasonable to serue where he
may doe most good. The 62 robles which you receiued of Iohn Boucher we haue
payed him here, and also the 8 robles, which you receiued the yere before
of Christopher Rose, and the money which you receiued more of George
Burton, for the which we haue you our debtors. Thus we rest, referring that
which is here omitted to the report of the bringer: and so God haue you in
his keeping. Also we would that you should send vs in our shippes 200
horse-clothes more. The things before written wee would that you should let
our seruants see and reade, to the intent they may perceiue our mindes.

Another letter to the foresaid parties. 1560.

This letter before written is the copie of one sent you by Thomas Alcock,
trusting that hee was with you long since. [Sidenote: Stockholme.] The 26
day of the last moneth we receiued a letter from him, dated in Stockholme
in Sweden the 14 day of Ianuary, and we perceiue by his letter that hee had
talked with a Dutch man that came lately from the Mosco, who informed him
that our friend Master Antony Ienkinson was returned to the Mosco in
September last past, but how farre he had beene, or what he had done, he
could not tell. [Sidenote: Iohn Luck taken prisoner in Lieflande.] Also he
wrote that one Iohn Lucke a Ioyner was taken by the Liefelanders, and put
in prison. As yet wee haue not heard from the sayd Iohn Lucke, nor know not
whether he be released out of prison or not. We suppose that by him you
wrote some letter which as yet is not come to our hands: so that we thinke
hee is yet in prison, or otherwise dispatched out of the way. The fifteenth
day of December wee receiued a letter from Christopher Hodson, dated in the
Mosco the 29 of Iuly, by the way of Danske: which is in effect a copie of
such another receiued from him in our shippes. [Sidenote: The Swallow.] You
shal vnderstand that we haue laden in three good shippes of ours these kind
of wares following: to wit, in the Swallowe of London, Master vnder God
Steuen Burrow, 34 fardels N'o 136 broad short clothes, and foure fardels
N'o 58 Hampshire Kersies: and 23 pipes of bastards and seckes, and 263
pieces of raisins and 4 hogsheds N'o 154 pieces of round pewter, and ten
hogsheds and poncheons of prunes, and one dryfatte with Almonds. [Sidenote:
The Philip and Marie.] And in the Philip and Marie, Master vnder God Thomas
Wade, 25 fardels N'o 100 broad clothes, and three fardels N'o 42 Hampshire
Kersies and thirtie pipes of seckes and bastards, and 100 pieces of
raisins. [Sidenote: The Iesus.] And in the Iesus of London, Master vnder
God Arthur Pette, 10 fardels N'o 40 broade shorte clothes, and twenty seuen
pipes of bastards and seckes, as by the Inuoices herewith inclosed may
appeare: Also you shall receiue such necessaries as you did write to bee
sent for the rope makers: trusting that you shall haue better successe with
them which you shall send vs in these ships, then with the rest which you
haue sent vs yet: for we as yet haue sold none of them. And whereas we
wrote vnto you in our former letter, that we would send you a hundred
tunnes of salte, by reason it is so deare here we doe send you but nine
tunnes and a halfe, for it cost here tenpence the bushell the first penie:
namely in the Swallow 6 tunnes and a halfe, in the Philip and Marie one
tunne and a halfe, and in the Iesus one tunne and a halfe: The 4 hogsheads
of round pewter goe in the Swallow and in the Philip and Marie N'o 154
pieces, as is aforesaid. We send you three ships, trusting that you haue
prouided according to our former writing good store of lading for them. If
yee haue more wares then will lade the ships, let it be Traine oyles that
you leaue behinde: the price is not here so good as it was; it is worth
here 9 pound the tunne. We thinke it good you should let the smaller ship
bring as much of the traine as she can cary: And that the masters of the
ships do looke wel to the romaging, for they might bring away a great deale
more than they doe, if they would take paine in the romaging: and bestowe
the traine by it selfe, and the waxe and tallowe by it selfe: for the
leakage of the traine doth fowle the other wares much. As for Allard the
skinner, if you thinke good he may come home in these shippes. We haue no
doubt but that you Henrie Lane, if you minde to come home now in these
ships as you requested, will leaue such good order there with our seruants
as shall bee for our most profite and their preferment, if they doe their
dueties diligently and truely. If our friend Master Antonie Ienkinson bee
returned, and meane to come away in these ships to declare his mind and
opinion of his trauaile, if need require and he be so minded he may returne
thither by land and be there by the fine of Ianuarie or before. But as we
be vncertaine whether he be returned or not: so we know not what he hath
done, nor what benefite may arise hereafter of his trauaile. Therefore in
this wee remit it to his and your good discretions. Wee send you Thomas
Hawtrey which is our seruant for yeeres: our minde is he should be placed,
where he may doe best seruice.

Also we send you Nicholas Chancelour to remaine there, who is our
apprentice for yeeres: our minde is hee should be set about such businesse
as he is most fit for: he hath been kept at writing schoole along: he hath
his Algorisme, and hath vnderstanding of keeping of bookes of reckonings.
We send you now but 100 Kersies: but against the next yeere, if occasion
serue, wee will send you a greater quantitie, according as you shall aduise
vs: One of the pipes of seckes that is in the Swallow, which hath 2 round
compasses upon the bung, is to be presented to the Emperour: for it is
special good. The nete waight of the 10 puncheons of prunes is 4300. 2
thirds 1 pound. It is written particularly vpon the head of euery puncheon:
and the nete weight of the fatte of almonds is 500 li. two quarters. The
raisins, prunes, and almonds you were best to dispatch away at a reasonable
price, and principally the raisins, for in keeping of them will be great
losse in the waight, and the fruit will decay. We thinke it good that you
prouide against the next yeere for the comming of our shippes 20 or 30
bullockes killed and salted, for beefe is very deare here. Therefore you
were best to saue some of this salt that we doe send you in these ships for
the purpose. [Sidenote: The salt of Russia is not so good as Baye salt.]
The salte of that countrey is not so good. In this you may take the opinion
of the masters of the shippes. [Sidenote: Foxe skinnes white, blacke and
russet vendible in England.] Foxe skins, white, blacke, and russet will be
vendible here. The last yere you sent none: but there were mariners that
bought many. If any of the mariners doe buy any trifling furres or other
commodities, we will they shall be registred in our pursers bookes, to the
intent we may know what they be. We desire to know how the Emperour tooke
the letter which we sent in our ships, as an answere to the letter that
came in his name and vnder his seale for the sixe thousand dallers.
[Sidenote: May 5. 1560.] Thus wee rest, committing you to God, from London
the fift day of May 1560.

For lacke of time the gouernours haue not firmed this letter: which is the
copie of the other two letters firmed by them.

Yours, William Mericke.
Yours, Blase Sanders.

* * * * *

The maner of Iustice by lots in Russia, written by Master Henrie Lane, and
executed in a controuersie betweene him and one Sheray Costromitskey in
Mosco. 1560.

After the comming home into Russia of Ioseph Napea the first ambassadour to
Queene Marie, I remaining the Agent there, sundrie Russian marchants by
Iosephs procurement obtained letters from the Emperour to freight goods and
passe in our ships for England: which thing vpon good consideration I
answered and refused. They were then driuen to credite vs and compound in
value vntill the next returne. At which time, notwithstanding good accompt
in the value of 600 robles, there grewe question by their double demand.
[Sidenote: Triall by combat or lot.] So in April Anno 1560. before my
comming from Moscouia, they obtained trial by combat or letter to haue
their summe double, or as I proffered 600 robles. For combatte I was
prouided of a strong willing Englishman, Robert Best, one of the companies
seruants: whome the Russes with their Champion refused. So that we had the
words of our priuiledge put in effect, which were to draw lots. The day and
maner of triall appointed by the Emperour at his castle in his palace and
high Court of Moscouia was thus. The Emperours two Treasurers, being also
Chancelours and chiefe Iudges, sate in court. They appointed officers to
bring me, mine interpreter, and the other, through the great presse within
the rayle or barre, and permitted me to sit downe some distance from them:
the aduerse parties being without at the barre. Both parties were first
perswaded with great curtesie, to wit, I to enlarge mine offer, and the
Russes to mitigate their challenge. Notwithstanding that I protested my
conscience to be cleere, and their gaine by accompt to bee sufficient, yet
of gentlenes at the magistrates request, I made proffer of 100 robles more:
which was openly commended, but of the plaintifes not accepted. Then
sentence passed with our names in two equall balles of waxe made and holden
vp by the Iudges, their sleeues stripped vp. Then with standing vp and
wishing well to the trueth attributed to him that should be first drawen,
by both consents among the multitude they called a tall gentleman, saying:
Thou with such a coate or cap, come vp: where roome with speede was made.
He was commanded to holde his cappe, wherein they put the balles, by the
crowne vpright in sight, his arme not abasing. With like circumspection,
they called at aduenture another tall gentleman, commanding him to strip vp
his right sleene, and willed him with his bare arme to reach vp, and in
Gods name seuerally to take out the two balles: which he did, deliuering to
either Iudge one. Then with great admiration the lotte in ball first taken
out was mine: which was by open sentence so pronounced before all the
people, and to be the right and true parte. The chiefe plaintifes name was
Sheray Costromitsky. I was willed forthwith to pay the plaintifes the summe
by me appointed. Out of which for their wrong or sinne, as it was termed,
they payd tenne in the hundred to the Emperor. Many dayes after, as their
maner is, the people took our nation to be true and vpright dealers, and
talked of this iudgement to our great credite.

The former letters dated 1558, 1559, and 1560, should all followe M.
Ienkinsons voyage to Boghar.

* * * * *

The first voyage made by Master Anthonie Ienkinson, from the Citie of
London toward the land of Russia, begun the twelfth of May, in the yeere

First by the grace of God, the day and yeere aboue mentioned, I departed
from the sayd Citie, and the same day at Grauesend embarked my selfe in a
good shippe, named the Primerose, being appointed, although vnworthy,
chiefe captaine of the same, and also of the other 3 good ships, to say,
the Iohn Euangelist, the Anne, and the Trinitie, hauing also the conduct of
the Emperour of Russia his ambassadour named Osep Nepea Gregoriwich, who
passed with his company in the sayde Primerose. And thus our foure tall
shippes being well appointed, aswell for men as victuals as other
necessarie furniture, the saide twelfth day of the moneth of May, we weyed
our ankers, and departed from the saide Grauesend, in the after noone, and
plying down the Thames, the wind being Easterly, and fayre weather, the 13
day we came a ground with the Primerose, upon a sand called the blacke
taile, where we sate fast vntill the 14 day in the morning, and then God be
praysed, she came off: and that day we plyed downe as ferre as our Ladie of
Holland, and there came to an anker, the wind being Easterly, and there
remayned vntill the 20 day: then we weyed and went out at Goldmore gate,
and from thence in at Balsey slade, and so into Orwel wands, where we came
to an anker: but as we came out at the sayd Goldemore gate, the Trinitie
came on ground on certaine rockes, that lye to the Northward of the said
gate, and was like to be bilged and lost. But by the aide of God, at the
last she came off againe, being very leake: and the 21 day the Primerose
remaining at an anker in the wands, the other three shippes bare into Orwel
hauen where I caused the sayd Trinitie to be grounded, searched, and
repaired. So we remayned in the said hauen, vntill the 28. day: and then
the winde being Westerly, the three shippes that were in the hauen, weyed
and came forth, and in comming forth the Iohn Euangelist came on ground
vpon a sand, called the Andros, where she remained one tide, and the next
full sea she came off againe without any great hurt, God be praised.

The 29 day in the morning all foure ships weied in the Wands, and that tide
went as farre as Orfordnesse, where we came an anker, because the wind was
Northerly: And about sixe of the clocke at night, the wind vered to the
Southwest and we weyed anker, and bare cleere of the nesse, and then set
our course Northeast and by North vntill midnight, being then cleare of
Yarmouth sands. [Sidenote: Iune.] Then we winded North and by West, and
Northnorthwest, vntill the first of Iune at noone, then it waxed calme and
continued so vntill the second day at noone: then the winde came at
Northwest, with a tempest, and much raine, and we lay close by, and caped
Northnortheast, and Northeast and by North, as the winde shifted, and so
continued vntill the third day at noone: then the wind vered Westerly
againe, and we went North our right course, and so continued our way vntill
the fourth day, at three of the clocke in the afternoone, at which time the
wind vered to the Northwest againe and blew a fresh gale, and so continued
vntill the seuenth day in the morning, we lying with all our shippes close
by, and caping to the Northwards: and then the wind vering more Northerly,
we were forced to put roomer with the coast of England againe, and fell
ouerthwart Newcastle, but went not into the hauen, and so plied vpon the
coast the eighth day and the ninth.

The tenth day the winde came to the Northnorthwest, and we were forced to
beare roomer with Flamborow head, where we came to an anker, and there
remained vntil the seuenteenth day. Then the winde came faire, and we
weyed, and set our course North and by East, and so continued the same with
a mery winde vntill the 21 at noone, at which time we tooke the sunne, and
had the latitude in sixty degrees. Then we shifted our course, and went
Northnortheast, and Northeast and by North, vntill the 25. day. [Sidenote:
Heilick Islands in 66 degrees 40 minutes.] Then we discouered certaine
Islands, called Heilick Islands, lying from vs Northeast, being in the
latitude of sixtie sixe degrees, 40 minutes. [Sidenote: Rost Islands.] Then
we went north and by West, because we would not come too nigh the land, and
running that course foure houres, we discouered, and had sight of Rost
Islands, ioining to the main land of Finmarke. Thus continuing our course
along the coast of Norway and Finmark, the 27 day we tooke the Sunne, being
as farre shot as Lofoot, and had the latitude in 69 degrees. And the same
day in the afternoone appeared ouer our heads a rainebow, like a
semicircle, with both ends vpwarde. [Sidenote: Malestrand a strange whirle
poole.] Note that there is between the said Rost Islands and Lofoot, a
whirle poole called Malestrand, [Footnote: Maelstrom.] which from halfe
ebbe vntill halfe flood, maketh such a terrible noise, that it shaketh the
ringes in the doores of the inhabitants houses of the sayd Islands tenne
miles off. Also if there commeth any Whale within the current of the same,
they make a pitifull crie. Moreouer, if great trees be caried into it by
force of streams, and after with the ebbe be cast out againe, the ends and
boughs of them haue bene so beaten, that they are like the stalkes of hempe
that is bruised. Note, that all the coaste of Finmarke is high mountaines
and hils, being couered all the yere with snow. And hard aboord the shoare
of this coast, there is 100 or 150 fadomes of water in depth. [Sidenote:
Zenam Island.] Thus proceeding and sailing forward, we fell with an Island
called Zenam, being in the latitude of 70 degrees. About this Island we saw
many Whales, very monstrous, about our ships, some, by estimation of 60
foot long: and being the ingendring time they roared and cried terriblie.
[Sidenote: Kettelwike Island.] From thence we fell with an Island, called

This coast from Rost vnto Lofoot lieth North and south, and from Lofoot to
Zenam Northeast and southwest, and from Zenam to Kettelwike Eastnortheast
and Westsouthwest. [Sidenote: Inger sound.] From the said Kettelwike we
sailed East and by North 10 leagues, and fell with a land called Inger
sound, where we fished, being becalmed, and tooke great plenty of Cods.
[Sidenote: The North Cape.] Thus plying along the coast, we fell with a
Cape, called the North Cape, which is the Northermost land that wee passe
in our voyage to S. Nicholas, and is in the latitude of 71 degrees and ten
minutes, and is from Inger sound East, and to the Northwards 15 leagues.
And being at this North Cape the second day of Iuly, we had the sunne at
North 4 degrees aboue the Horizon. The third day wee came to Wardhouse,
hauing such mists that we could not see the land. [Sidenote: Wardhouse]
This Wardhouse is a Castle standing in an Island 2 miles from the maine of
Finland, subiect to the king of Denmarke, and the Easternmost land that he
hath. There are two other Islands neere adioining vnto that, whereon the
Castle of Wardhouse standeth. The inhabitants of those three Islands liue
onely by fishing, and make much, stockefish which they dry with frost:
their most feeding is fish; bread and drinke they haue none, but such as is
brought them from other places. [Sidenote: Cattell fed with fish.] They
haue small store of cattell, which are also fed with fish. From Wardhouse
we sailed Southsoutheast ten leagues, and fell with a Cape of land called
Kegor, [Footnote: Cape Njemetsky.] the Northermost part of the land of
Lappia. [Sidenote: The Monastery of Pechinchow.] And betweene Wardhouse,
and the said Cape is a great Bay, called Dommeshaff, [Footnote: Varanger
fjord.] in the South part whereof is a Monasterie of Monkes of the Russes
religion, called Pechinchow. Thus proceeding forward and sayling along the
coast of the said land of Lappia, winding Southeast, the fourth day through
great mists and darkenes we lost the company of the other three ships, and
met not with them againe, vntill the seuenth day, when we fell with a Cape
or head land called Swetinoz, [Footnote: Cape Swjatojnos.] which is the
entring into the Bay of S. Nicholas. At this Cape lieth a great stone, to
the which the barkes that passed thereby, were wont to make offrings of
butter, meale, and other victuals, thinking that vnlesse they did so, their
barkes or vessels should there perish, as it hath bene oftentimes seene:
and there it is very darke and mistie. [Sidenote: Arzina reca the riuer
where Hugh Willoughbie was frozen.] Note that the sixt day we passed by the
place where Sir Hugh Willoughbie, with all his company perished, which is
called Arzina reca, that to say, the riuer Arzina. [Footnote: Varzina.]

The land of Lappia is an high land, hauing snow lying on it commonly all
the yere. The people of the Countrey are halfe Gentiles: they liue in the
summer time neere the sea side, and vse to take fish, of the which they
make bread, and in the winter they remoue vp into the countrey into the
woods, where they vse hunting, and kill Deere, Beares, Woolues, Foxes, and
other beasts, with whose flesh they be nourished, [Sidenote: The Lappians
couered all sauing their eies.] and with their skinnes apparelled in such
strange fashion, that there is nothing seene of them bare but their eies.
They haue none other habitation, but onely in tents, remouing from place to
place according to the season of the yeere. They know no arte nor facultie,
but onely shooting, which they exercise dayly, as well men as women, and
kill such beasts as serue them for their foode. Thus proceeding along the
coast from Swetinoz aforesaid, the ninth day of Iuly wee came to Cape
Grace, [Footnote: Cape Krasnoj.] being in the latitude of 66 degrees and 45
minutes, and is at the entring in of the Bay of S. Nicholas. Aboord this
land there is 20 or 30 fadoms water, and sundry grounds good to anker in.
[Sidenote: The current at Cape Grace.] The current at this Cape runneth
Southwest and Northeast. From this Cape wee proceeded along vntill we came
to Crosse Island, which is seuen leagues from the sayd Cape Southwest: and
from this Island, wee set ouer to the other side of the Bay, and went
Southwest, and fell with an head land called Foxenose, which is from the
sayd Island 25 leagues. [Sidenote: The entering of the Bay of S. Nicholas
is seuen leagues broad at the least.] The entring of this Bay from Crosse
Island to the neerest land on the other side is seuen leagues ouer. From
Foxenose proceeding forward the twelfth day of the sayd moneth of Iuly, all
our foure ships arriued in safetie at the road of Saint Nicholas in the
land of Russia, where we ankered, and had sailed from London vnto the said
roade seuen hundred and fifty leagues. The Russian ambassadour and his
company with great ioy got to shore, and our ships here forthwith
discharged themselues: and being laden againe, and hauing a faire winde,
departed toward England the first of August. [Sidenote: August.] The third
of the sayd moneth I with other of my company came vnto the citie of
Colmogro, being an hundred verstes from the Bay of Saint Nicholas, and in
the latitude of 64 degrees 25 minutes. I taried at the said Colmogro vntill
the fifteenth day: and then I departed in a little boate vp the great riuer
of Dwina, which runneth very swiftly, [Sidenote: Pinego River.] and the
selfe same day passed by the mouth of a riuer called Pinego, leauing it on
our lefte hand fifteen verstes from Colmogro. On both sides of the mouth of
this riuer Pinego is high land, great rockes of Alablaster, great woods,
and Pineapple trees lying along within the ground, which by report haue
lien there since Noes flood. [Sidenote: The towne of Yemps.] And thus
proceeding forward the nineteenth day in the morning, I came into a town
called Yemps, an hundred verstes from Colmogro. All this way along they
make much tarre, pitch and ashes of Aspen trees. [Sidenote: Vstiug.] From
thence I came to a place called Vstiug, an ancient citie the last day of
August. At this citie meete two riuers: the one called Iug, and the other
Sucana, both which fall into the aforesaid riuer of Dwina. The riuer Iug
hath his spring in the land of the Tartars called Cheremizzi, ioining to
the countrey of Permia: and Succana hath his head from a lake not farre
from the citie of Vologda. Thus departing from Vstiug, and passing by the
riuer Succana, we came to a towne called Totma. About this place the water
is verie shallow, and stonie, and troublesome for Barkes and boats of that
countrey, which they call Nassades, and Dosneckes, to passe that way:
wherein marchandise are transported from the aforesayd Colmogro to the
citie of Vologhda. [Sidenote: The description of their Nassades.] These
vessels called Nassades, are very long builded, broade made, and close
aboue, flatte bottomed, and draw not aboue foure foote water; and will came
two hundred tunnes: they haue none iron appertaining to them but all of
timber, and when the winde serueth, they are made to sayle. Otherwise they
haue many men, some to hale and drawe by the neckes with long small ropes
made fast to the sayd boats, and some set with long poles. There are many
of these barks vpon the riuer of Dwina: And the most part of them belongeth
vnto the citie of Vologhda: for there dwell many marchants, and they
occupie the said boates with carying of salte from the sea side vnto the
sayd Vologhda. The twentieth of September I came vnto Vologhda, which is a
great citie, and the riuer passeth through the midst of the same. The
houses are builded with wood of Firre trees, ioyned one with another, and
round without: the houses are foure square without any iron or stone worke,
couered with birch barkes, and wood ouer the same: Their Churches are all
of wood, two for euery parish, one to be heated for Winter, and the other
for Summer.

On the toppes of their houses they laye much earth, for feare of burning:
for they are sore plagued with fire. This Vologhda is in 59 degrees, eleuen
minutes, and is from Colmogro, 1000 verstes.

All the way I neuer came in house, but lodged in the wildernesse, by the
riuers side, and caried prouision for the way. [Sidenote: Good counsell for
trauellers.] And he that will trauell those wayes, must carie with him an
hatchet, a tinder boxe, and a kettle, to make fire and seethe meate, when
he hath it: for there is small succour in those parts, vnlesse it be in

[Sidenote: December.] The first day of December, I departed from Vologhda
in poste in a sled, as the maner is in Winter. And the way to Moscua is as
followeth. From Vologda to Commelski, 27 verstes, so to Olmor 25 verstes,
so to Teloytske 20 verstes, so to Vre 30 verstes, so to Voshansko 30
versus, then to Yeraslaue 30 verstes, which standeth vpon the great riuer
Volga, so to Rostoue, 50 verstes, then to Rogarin 30 verstes, so to
Peraslaue 10 verstes, which is a great town, standing hard by a faire lake.
From thence to Dowbnay 30 verstes, so to Godoroke 30 verstes, so to Owchay
30 verstes, and last to the Mosco 25 verstes, where I arriued the sixt day
of December.

There are 14 postes called Yannes betweene Vologhda and Mosco, which are
accompted 500 verstes asunder.

The 10 day of December I was sent for to the Emperors Castle by the sayd
Emperour, and deliuered my letters vnto the Secretary, who talked with me
of diuers matters, by the commandement of the Emperour. And after that my
letters were translated, I was answered that I was welcome, and that the
Emperour would giue me that I desired.

The 25 day, being the day of the natiuitie, I came into the Emperours
presence, and kissed his hand, who sate aloft in a goodly chaire of estate,
hauing on his heade a crowne most richly decked, and a staffe of gold in
his hand, all apparelled with golde, and garnished with precious stones.

There sate distant from him about two yardes his brother, and next vnto him
a boy of twelue yeares of age, who was inheritor to the Emperor of Casan,
conquered by this Emperor 8 yeares past. Then sate his nobilitie round
about him, richly apparelled with gold and stone. And after I had done
obeisance to the Emperour, he with his own mouth calling me by my name,
bade me to dinner, and so I departed to my lodging till dinner time, which
was at sixe of the clocke, by candle light.

The Emperour dined in a fayre great hall, in the midst whereof was a pillar
foure square, very artificially made, about which were diuers tables set,
and at the vppermost part of the hall, sate the Emperour himselfe, and at
his table sate his brother, his Vncles sonne, the Metropolitane, the young
Emperour of Casan, and diuers of his noble men, all of one side. There were
diuers Ambassadors, and other strangers, as well Christians as heathens,
diuersly apparelled, to the number of 600 men, which dined in the sayd
hall, besides 2000 Tartars, men of warre, which were newly come to render
themselues to the Emperour, and were appointed to serue him in his wars
against the Lieflanders, but they dined in other hals. I was set at a litle
table, hauing no stranger with me, directly before the Emperors face. Being
thus set and placed, the Emperour sent me diuers bowles of wine, and meade,
and many dishes of meat from his own hand, which were brought me by a Duke,
and my table serued all in gold and siluer, and so likewise on other
tables, there were set bowles of gold, set with stone, worth by estimation
400 pounds sterling one cup, besides the plate which serued the tables.

There was also a cupbord of plate, most sumptuous and rich, which was not
vsed: among the which, was a piece of golde of two yardes long, wrought in
the toppe with towers, and dragons heads, also diuers barrels of gold and
siluer, with Castles on the bungs, richly and artificially made. The
Emperour and all the hall throughout was serued with Dukes: and when dinner
was ended, the Emperour called me by name, and gaue me drinke with his own
hand, and so I departed to my lodging.

Note, that when the Emperour drinketh, all the company stand vp, and at
euery time he drinketh or tasteth of a dish of meate he blesseth himselfe.
Many other things I sawe that day, not here noted.

The 4 of Ianuary, which was Twelftide with them, the Emperour, with his
brother and all his nobles, all most richly appareled with gold, pearles,
precious stones, and costly furres, with a crowne vpon his head, of the
Tartarian fashion, went to the Church in procession, with the Metropolitan,
and diuers bishops and priests. That day I was before the Emperour again in
Russe apparell, and the Emperour asked if that were not I, and his
Chancelor answered yea. Then he bad me to dinner: then came he out of the
church, and went with the procession vpon the riuer, being all frozen, and
there standing bare headed, with all his Nobles, there was a hole made in
the ice, and the Metropolitan hallowed the water with great solemnitie and
seruice, and did cast of the sayd water vpon the Emperors sonne and the
Nobility. That done, the people with great thronging filled pots of the
said water to carie home to their houses, and diuers children were throwen
in, and sicke people, and plucked out quickly againe, and diuers Tartars
christened: all which the Emperour beheld. Also there were brought the
Emperours best horses, to drink at the sayd hallowed water. All this being
ended, he returned to his palace againe, and went to dinner by candle
light, and sate in a woodden house, very fairely gilt. There dined in the
place, about 300 strangers, and I sate alone as I did before, directly
before the Emperour, and had my meat, bread and drinke sent me from the

The citie of Mosco is great, the houses for the most part of wood, and some
of stone, with windowes of yron, which serue for summer time. There are
many faire Churches of stone, but more of wood, which are made hot in the
winter time. The Emperors lodging is in a faire and large castle, walled
foure square of bricke, high, and thicke, situated vpon a hill, 2 miles
about, and the riuer on the Southwest side of it, and it hath 16 gates in
the walles, and as many bulwarks. [Footnote: The Kremlin Palace.] His
palace is separated from the rest of the Castle, by a long wall going north
and south, to the riuer side. In his palace are Churches, some of stone and
some of wood, with round towers fairely gilded. In the Church doores and
within the Churches are images of golde: the chiefe markets for all things,
are within the sayd Castle, and for sundry things sundry markets, and euery
science by it selfe. And in the winter there is a great market without the
castle, vpon the riuer being frozen, and there is sold corne, earthen pots,
tubs, sleds, &c. The castle is in circuit 2900 pases.

The coontrey is ful of marish ground, and plaine, in woods and riuers
abundant, but it bringeth forth good plenty of corne. This Emperour is of
great power: for he hath conquered much, as wel of the Lieflanders, Poles,
Lettoes, and Swethens, as also of the Tartars, and Gentiles, called
Samoeds, hauing thereby much inlarged his dominions. He keepeth his people
in great subiection: all matters passe his iudgement, be they neuer so
small. The law is sharpe for all offenders.

The Metropolitan dealeth in matters of religion, as himselfe listeth, whome
the Emperour greatly honoreth. They vse the ceremonies, and orders of the
Greeke Church. They worship many images painted on tables, and specially
the image of S. Nicholas. Their Priests be maried, but their wiues being
dead, they may not marie the second time, and so become Monkes, whereof
there are a great number in the land.

They haue foure Lents in the yeere, and the weeke before Shrofetide, they
call the Butter weeke, &c.

They haue many sortes of meats and drinkes, when they banket and delight in
eating of grosse meates, and stinking fishe. Before they drinke they vse to
blowe in the cup: their greatest friendship is in drinking: they are great
talkers and lyers, without any faith or trust in their words, flatterers
and dissemblers. The women be there very obedient to their husbands, and
are kept straightly from going abroad, but at some seasons.

At my being there, I heard of men and women that drunke away their
children, and all their goods at the Emperors tauerne, and not being able
to pay, hauing impauned himselfe, the Tauerner bringeth him out to the
highway, and beates him vpon the legges: then they that passe by, knowing
the cause, and hauing peraduenture compassion vpon him, giue the money, and
so he is ransomed.

In euery good towne there is a drunken Tauerne called a Cursemay, which the
Emperour sometime letteth out to farme, and sometimes bestoweth for a yeare
or two on some duke or gentleman, in recompense of his seruice: and for
that time he is Lord of all the towne, robbing and spoiling, and doing what
pleaseth him: and then he be growen rich, is taken by the Emperor, and sent
to the warres againe, where he shall spend all that which he hath gotten by
ill meanes: so that the Emperour in his warres is little charged, but all
the burden lieth vpon the poore people.

They vse sadles made of wood and sinewes, with the tree gilded with damaske
worke, and the seat couered with cloth sometimes of golde, and the rest
Saphian leather, well stitched. They vse little drummes at their sadle
bowes, by the sound whereof their horses vse to runne more swiftly.

The Russe is appareled in this manner: his vpper garment is of golde,
silke, or cloth, long, downe to the foot, and buttoned with great buttons
of siluer, or els laces of silke, set on with brooches, the sleeues thereof
very long, which he weareth on his arme, ruffed vp. Vnder that he hath
another long garment, buttoned with silke buttons, with a high coller
standing vp of some colour and that garment is made straight. Then his
shirt is very fine, and wrought with red silk, or some gold, with a coller
of pearle. Vnder his shirt he hath linnen breeches, vpon his legs, a paire
of hose without feete, and his bootes of red or yellow leather. On his head
hee weareth a white Colepecke, with buttons of siluer, gold, pearle, or
stone, and vnder it a black Foxe cap, turned vp very broad.

When he rideth on horsebacke to the warres, or any iourney, he hath a sword
of the Turkish fashion, and his bowe and arrowes of the same maner. In the
towne he weareth no weapon, but onely two or three paire of kniues, hauing
the hafts of the tooth of a fish, called the Morse.

In the Winter time, the people trauell with sleds, in towne and countrey,
the way being hard, and smooth with snow; the waters and riuers are all
frozen, and one horse with a sled, will draw a man vpon it 400 miles, in
three daies: but in the Summer time, the way is deepe with mire, and
trauelling is very ill.

The Russe, if he be a man of any abilitie, neuer goeth out of his house in
the winter, but vpon his sled, and in Summer vpon his horse: and in his
sled he sits vpon a carpet, or a white Beares skinne: the sled is drawen
with a horse well decked, with many Foxes and Woolues tailes at his necke,
and is conducted by a little boy vpon his backe: his seruants stand vpon
the taile of the sled &c.

* * * * *

The voyage, wherein Osep Napea the Moscouite Ambassadour returned home into
his countrey, with his entertainement at his arriuall, at Colmogro: and a
large description of the maners of the Countrey.

The twelfth of Maye, in the yeare of our Lorde 1557 there departed from
Grauesend, foure good shippes well appointed for Marchants, which were
presently bound into the Baye of S. Nicholas in Russia, with which shippes
was transported, or caried home, one Osep Gregoriwich Napea, who was sent
Messenger from the Emperour and great Duke of Moscouia. The foure ships
were these, whose names follow, viz.

The Primerose Admirall.
The Iohn Euangelist Viceadmirall.
The Anne and the Trinitie Attendants.

The 13 of Iuly, the foresayd foure shippes came to an anker in the Baye of
S. Nicholas, befor an Abbey, called the Abbey of S. Nicholas, whereas the
sayde Messenger, Osep Gregoriwich Napea went a shoare, and as many English
men as came to serue the Emperour remained with him at the Abbey for the
space of sixe daies, vntill he had gotten all his things a shoare, and
laden the same in the barkes, to goe vp the riuer Dwina, vnto Vologhda,
which is by water 1000 verstes, and euery verste is about three quarters of
an English mile.

[Sidenote: Presents vsed in Russia are all for the most part of victuals.]
The 20 of Iuly, we departed from S. Nicholas, and the 24 of the same, we
came to Colmogro, where we remained eight daies and the sayd Messenger was
there of all his acquaintance welcommed home, and had presents innumerable
sent vnto him, but it was nothing but meate, and drinke. Some sent white
bread, some rie bread, and some buttered bread and pancakes, beefe, mutton,
bacon, egges, butter, fishes, swannes, geese, duckes, hennes, and all maner
of victuals, both fish and flesh, in the best maner, that the rude people
could deuise: for among them, these presents are highly esteemed.

The 29 of Iuly, we departed from Colmogro, and the 14 of August we came to
Vstiug, where we remained one day, and changed our barkes or boates.

The 27 of August, we came to Vologhda, where we remained 4 dayes vnlading
the barkes, and lading our chestes and things in small waggons, with one
horse in a piece, which in their tongue are called Telegos, and with these
Telegoes they caried our stuffe from Vologhda vnto the Mosco, which is 500
verstes: and we were vpon the same way 14 daies: for we went no faster then
the Telegoes.

[Sidenote: The citie of Boghar.] There are three great townes betweene the
Mosco and Vologhda, that is to say, Yeraslaue, Rostaue, and Pereslaue. Vpon
one side of Yeraslaue runneth a famous riuer which is called Volga. It
runneth into the Caspian sea, and it diuideth it selfe before it come into
the Mare Caspium, in 50 parts or more, and neere vnto the same sea there
stands a great Citie, called Boghar, the inhabitants of which are called by
the same name.

The people of the said Citie doe traffique vnto the Citie of Mosco: their
commodities are spices, muske, ambergreese, rubarbe, with other drugs. They
bring also many furres, which they buy in Siberia coming towards the Mosco:
the sayd people are of the sect of Mahomet.

[Sidenote: They arrived at Mosco.] The 12 of September we came vnto the
citie of Mosco, where we were brought by Napea, and two of the Emperours
gentlemen vnto a large house, where euery one of vs had his chamber

The 14 of September we were commanded to come vnto the Emperour, and
immediately after our coming we were brought into his presence, vnto whom
each of vs did his duetie accordingly, and kissed his right hand, his
maiestie sitting in his chaire of estate, with his crowne on his bead, and
a staffe of goldsmiths worke in his left hand well garnished with rich and
costly stones: and when we had all kissed his hand and done our dueties,
his maiestie did declare by his interpreter that we were all welcome vnto
him, and into his countrey, and thereupon willed vs to dine with him: that
day we gaue thanks vnto his maiestie, and so departed vntil the dinner was

When dinner time approached, we were brought againe into the Emperour's
dining chamber, where we were set on one side of a table that stoode ouer
against the Emperours table, to the end that he might wel behold vs al: and
when we came into the foresayd chamber, we found there readie set these
tables following.

First at the vpper end of one table were set the Emperour his maiestie, his
brother, and the Emperour of Cazan, which is prisoner. About two yardes
lower sate the Emperour of Cazan his sonne, being a child of fiue yeeres of
age, and beneath him sate the most part of the Emperors noble men.

And at another table neere vnto the Emperours table, there was set a Monke
all alone, which was in all points as well serued as the Emperour. At
another table sate another kinde of people called Chirkasses, [Footnote:
Kirghis.] which the Emperour entertaineth for men of warre to serue against
his enemies. Of which people and of their countrey, I will hereafter make

All the tables aforesayde were couered onely with salt and bread, and after
that we had sitten awhile, the Emperour sent vnto euery one of vs a piece
of bread, which were given and deliuered vnto euery man seuerally by these
words: The Emperour and great Duke giueth the bread this day, and in like
manner three or foure times before dinner was ended, he sent vnto euery man
drinke, which was giuen by these words, The Emperour and great Duke giueth
thee to drinke. All the tables aforesayd were serued in vessels of pure and
fine golde, as well basons and ewers, platters, dishes and sawcers, as also
of great pots, with an innumerable sorte of small drinking pottes of diuers
fashions, whereof a great number were set with stone. As for costly meates
I haue many times seene better: but for change of wines, and diuers sorts
of meads, it was wonderfull: for there was not left at any time so much
void roome on the table, that one cuppe more might haue bin set, and as far
as I could perceiue, all the rest were in the like maner serued.

In the dinner time, there came in sixe singers which stood in the midst of
the chamber, and their faces towards the Emperour, who sang there before
dinner was ended three seuerall times, whose songs or voyces delighted our
eares little or nothing.

The Emperour neuer putteth morsell of meate in his mouth, but he first
blesseth it himselfe, and in like maner as often as he drinketh: for after
his maner he is very religious, and he esteemeth his religious men aboue
his noble men.

This dinner continued about the space of fiue houres, which being ended,
and the tables taken vp, we came into the midst of the chamber, where we
did reuerence vnto the Emperors maiestie, and then he deliuered vnto euery
one of vs with his own hands a cup of mead, which when euery man had
receiued and drunke a quantity thereof, we were licensed to depart, and so
ended that dinner. And because the Emperour would haue vs to be mery he
sent to our lodging the same Euening three barrels of meade of sundry
sortes, of the quantitie in all of one hogshed.

The 16 day of September the Emperour sent home vnto our lodging for euery
of vs a Tartarie horse to ride from place to place as we had occasion, for
that the streetes of Mosco are very fowle and mirie in the Summer.

[Sidenote: M. Standish doctor of Phisicke.] The 18 of September there were
giuen vnto master Standish doctor in Physick, and the rest of our men of
our occupations, certaine furred gownes of branched veluet and gold, and
some of red damaske, of which master Doctors gowne was furred with Sables,
and the rest were furred some with white Ermine, and some with gray
Squirel, and all faced and edged round about with blacke beauer.

The 1 of October in the morning we were commanded to come vnto the Emperors
court, and when we came thither, we were brought vnto the Emperor vnto whom
we did our duties accordingly: whereupon he willed vs to dine with him that
day, and so with thanks vnto his maiestie, we departed vntill dinner time,
at which time we came, and found the tables couered with bread and salt as
at the first: and after that we were all set vpon one side of the table,
the Emperors maiestie according to his accustomed maner sent vnto euery man
a piece of bread by some of the Dukes which attended on his highnesse.

And whereas the 14 of September we were serued in vessels of gold, we were
now serued in vessels of siluer, and yet not so abundantly as was the first
of gold: they brought drinke vnto the table in siluer boles which conteined
at the least sixe gallons a piece, and euerie man had a smal siluer cuppe
to drinke in, and another to dip or to take his drinke out of the great
boll withall: the dinner being ended, the Emperour gaue vnto euery one of
vs a cup with meade, which when we had receiued, we gaue thanks and

Moreouer, whensoeuer the Emperors pleasure is that any stranger shall dine
with him, he doth send for them in the morning, and when they come before

Book of the day: