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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries by Richard Hakluyt

Part 4 out of 4

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He returneth by Derbent.] Concerning the situation whereof, your maiestie
shall vnderstand more about the end of this Treatise: for I trauailed in my
returne by the very same place. Betweene the two foresaid riuers, in the
regions through the which we passed did Comanians of olde time inhabite,
before they were ouerrun by the Tartars.

De Curia Sartach et de gloria eius. Cap. 17.

Inuenimus ergo Sartach prope Etiliam per tres dietas: cuius curia valde
magna videbatur nobis: quia habet sex vxores, et filius eius primogenitus
iuxta eum duas vel tres: et qualibet habet domum magnam et bigas forte
ducentas. [Sidenote: Coiat Nestorinus.] Accessit autem doctor noster ad
quendam Nestorinum Coiat nomine, qui est vnus de maioribus Curia sua. Ille
fecit nos ire valde longe ad domini Iannam. Ita vocant illum qui habet
officium recipiendi nuncios. In sero pracepit nobis dictus Coiat vt
veniremus ad eum. Tunc incepit quarere ductor noster quid portaremus ei,
et coepit multum scandalizari, quum vidit quod nihil parabamus ad
portandum. Stetimus coram eo, et ipse sedebat in gloria sua et faciebat
sonare citharam et saltare coram se. Tunc dixi ei verba pradicta qualiter
veniremus ad dominum eius, rogans eum vt iuuaret nos vt Dominus eius
videret literas nostras. Excusaui etiam me quia monachus eram, non habens,
nec recipiens, nec tractans aurum vel argentum vel aliquid preciosum, solis
libris et capella in qua seruiebamus deo exceptis: vnde nullum xenium
afferebamus ei nec domino suo. Qui enim propria dimiseram, non poteram
portator esse alienorum. Tunc respondit satis mansuete, quod bene faciebam
ex quo eram monachus: sic seruarem votum meum, et non indigebat rebus
nostris; sed magis daret nobis de suis, si indigeremus: et fecit nos sedere
et bibere de lacte suo. Et post pauca rogauit vt diceremus benedictionem
pro eo, quod et fecimus. Quasiuit et quis esset maior dominus inter
Francos. Dixi, Imperator, si haberet terram suam in pace. Non, inquit, sed
Rex Francia, Audiuerat enim de vobis a domino Baldewyno de Hannonia. Inueni
etiam ibi vnum de Socijs domus Domimica. qui fuerat in Cypro, qui
narrauerat omnia qua viderat. Tunc reuersi sumus ad hospitium nostrum. In
crastino misi ei vnum flasconem de vino Muscato, quod optime se custodierat
in tam longa via; et cophinom plenum biscocto quod fuit ei gratissimum, et
retinuit illo sero famulos nostros secum. In crastino mandauit mihi quod
venirem ad curiam; afferens literas regis et capellam et libros mecum, quia
dominus suus vellet videre ea; quod et fecimus, onerantes vnam bigam libris
et capella, et aliam pane et vino et fructibus. Tunc fecit omnes libros et
vestes explicari, et circumstabant nos in equis multi Tartari et Christiani
et Saraceni: quibus inspectis, quasiuit, si vellem ista omnia dare domino
suo, quo audito, expaui, et displicuit mihi verbum, dissimulans tamen
respondi, domine rogamus, quatenus dominus noster dignetur recipere panem
istum, vinum et fructus non pro xenio quia exiguum quid est, sed pro
benedictione, ne vacua manu veniamus coram eo. Ipse autem videbit literas
domini regis, et per eas sciet, qua de causa venimus ad eum: et tunc
stabimus mandato eius nos et omnes res nostra. Vestes enim sancta sunt, et
non licet eas contingere nisi sacerdotibus. Tunc pracepit quod indueremus
nos ituri coram domino suo: quod et fecimus. Ego autem indutus
preciosioribus vestibus accepi in pectore puluinar, quod erat valde
pulchrum, et biblium quod dederatis mihi, psalterium pulcherrimum, quod
dederat mihi domina regina, in quo erant pictura pulchra. Socius meus
accepit missale et crucem, clericus indutus supercilicio accepit
thuribulum: sic accessimus ante dominum eius: et leuauerunt filtrum quod
pendebat ante ostium vt nos posset videre. Tunc fecerunt flectere genua ter
clerico et interpreti: a nobis non requisiuerunt. Tunc monuerant nos valde
diligenter, vt caueremus ingrediendo et egrediendo ne tangeremus limen
domus, et vt cantaremus aliquam benedictionem pro eo. Tunc ingressi sumus
cantando, Salue regina. In introitu, autem ostij stabat bancus cum cosmos
et cum ciphis. Et conuenerant omnes vxores eius: et ipsi Moal. Ingredientes
nobiscum comprimebant nos. Illic Coiac tulit ei thuribulum cum incenso,
quod ipse respexit, tenens in manu diligenter: postea tulit ei psalterium
quod valde respexit, et vxor eius sedens iuxta eum. Postea tulit biblium,
et ipse quasiuit, si euangelium esset ibi. Dixi, etiam tota Scriptura
Sacra. Accepit etiam crucem in manu sua, et quasiuit de imagine, vtrum
esset imago, Christi? Respondi quod sic. Ipsi Nestoriani et Armeni nunquam
faciunt super cruces suas figuram Christi. Vnde videntur male sentire de
passione, vel erubescunt eam. Postea fecit circumstantes nos retrahere se,
vt plenius posset videre ornamenta nostra. Tunc obtuli ei literas vestras
cum transcriptis in Arabico et Syriano. Feceram enim eas transferri in Acon
in vtraque litera et lingua. Et ibi erant sacerdotes Armeni, qui sciebant
Turcicum et Arabicum, et Ille Socius domus Domini qui sciebat Syrianum, et
Turcicum et Arabicum. Tunc exiuimus et deposuimus vestimenta nostra: et
venerunt scriptores et ille Coiac, et fecerunt literas interpretari. Quibus
auditis, fecit recipi panem et vinum et fructus: vestimenta et libros fecit
nos reportare ad hospitium. Hoc actum est in festo Sancti Pietri ad

The same in English.

Of the Court of Sartach, and of the magnificence thereof. Chap. 17.

And we found Sartach lying within three daies iourney of the riuer Etilia:
whose Court seemed vnto vs to be very great. For he himselfe had sixe
wiues, and his eldest sonne also had three wiues: euery one of which women
hath a great house, and they haue ech one of them about 200. cartes.
[Sidenote: Coiat the historian.] Our guide went vnto a certaine Nestorian
named Coiat, who is a man of great authoritie in Sartachs Court. He made vs
to goe very farre vnto the Lordes gate. For so they call him, who hath the
office of enterteining Ambassadours. In the euening Coiac commanded vs to
come vnto him. Then our guide began to enquire what we would present him
withal, and was exceedingly offended, when he saw that we had nothing ready
to present. We stoode before him, and he sate maiestically, hauing musicke
and dauncing in his presence. Then I spake vnto him in the wordes before
recited, telling him, for what purpose I was come vnto his lorde, and
requesting so much fauour at his hands, as to bring our letters vnto the
sight of his Lord. I excused my selfe also, that I was a Monke, not hauing,
nor receiuing, nor vsing any golde, or siluer, or any other precious thing,
saue onely our bookes, and the vestiments wherein we serued God: and that
this was the cause why I brought no present vnto him, nor vnto his Lord.
For I that had abandoned mine owne goods, could not be a transporter of
things for other men. Then hee answered very courteously, that being a
Monke, and so doing, I did well: for so I should obserue my vowe: neither
did himselfe stande in neede of ought that we had, but rather was readie to
bestowe vpon vs such thinge as we our selues stood in neede of: and he
caused vs to sit downe, and to drinke of his milke. And presently after he
requested vs to say our deuotions for him: and we did so. He enquired also
who was the greatest Prince among the Franckes? And I saide, the Emperour,
if he could inioy his owne dominions in quiet. No (quoth he) but the king
of France. For he had heard of your Highnes by lord Baldwine of Henault. I
found there also one of the Knights of the temple, who had bene in Cyprus,
and had made report of all things which he sawe there. Then returned wee
vnto our lodging. And on the morow we sent him a flagon of Muscadel wine
(which had lasted very wel in so long a iourney) and a boxe full of bisket,
which was most acceptable vnto him and he kept our seruants with him for
that euening. The next morning he commanded me to come vnto the Court, and
to bring the kings letters and my vestiments and bookes with me: because
his Lorde was desirous to see them. Which we did accordingly, lading one
cart with our bookes and vestiments and another with bisket, wine, and
fruites. Then he caused all our bookes and vestiments to bee laide forth.
And there stoode rounde about vs many Tartars, Christians and Saracens on
horseback. At the sight whereof, he demanded whether I would bestow all
those things vpon his lord or no? Which saying made me to tremble, and
grieued me full sore. Howbeit, dissembling our griefe as well as we could,
we shaped him this answer: Sir, our humble request is, that our Lorde your
master would vouchsafe to accept our bread, wine, and fruits, not as a
present, because it is too meane, but as a benediction, least we should
come with an emptie hand before him. And he shall see the letters of my
souereigne Lord the king, and by them he shall vnderstand for what cause we
are come vnto him and then both our selues, and all that we haue, shall
stand to his curtesie: for our vestiments be holy, and it is vnlawfull for
any but Priests to touch them. Then he commaunded vs to inuest our selues
in the said garments, that we might goe before his Lord: and wee did so.
Then I my selfe putting on our most precious ornaments, tooke in mine armes
a very faire cushion, and the Bible which your Maiesty gaue me, and a most
beautifull Psalter, which the Queenes Grace bestowed vpon me, wherein there
were goodly pictures. Mine associate tooke a missal and a crosse: and the
clearke hauing put on his surplesse, tooke a censer in his hand. And so we
came vnto the presence of his Lord and they lifted vp the felt hanging
before his doore, that he might behold vs. Then they caused the clearke and
the interpreter thrise to bow the knee: but of vs they required no such
submission. And they diligently admonished vs to take heed, that in going
in, and in comming out, we touched not the threshold of the house, and
requested vs to sing a benediction for him. Then we entred in, singing
_Salue Regina_. And within the entrance of the doore, stood a bench with
cosmos, and drinking cups thereupon. And all his wiues were there
assembled. Also the Moals or rich Tartars thrusting in with vs pressed vs
sore. Then Coiat caried vnto his Lord the censer with incense, which he
beheld very diligently, holding it in his hand. Afterward hee caried the
Psalter vnto him, which he looked earnestly vpon, and his wife also that
sate beside him. After that he caried the Bible: then Sartach asked if the
Gospel were contained therein? Yea (said I) and all the holy scriptures
besides. He tooke the crosse also in his hand, and demanded concerning the
image, whether it were the image of Christ or no? I said it was. The
Nestorians and the Armenians do neuer make the figure of Christ vpon their
crosses. [Sidenote: No good consequence.] Wherefore either they seem not to
think wel of his passion, or els they are ashamed of it. Then he caused
them that stood about vs, to stand aside, that he might more fully behold
our ornaments. Afterward I deliuered vnto him your Maiesties letters, with
translation therof into the Arabike, and Syriake languages. For I caused
them to be translated at Acon into the character, and dialect of both the
saide tongues. And there were certain Armenian Priests, which had skil in
the Turkish and Arabian languages. The aforesaid knight also of the order
of the Temple had knowledge in the Syriake, Turkish, and Arabian tongues.
Then we departed forth, and put off our vestiments, and there came vnto vs
certaine Scribes together with the foresaid Coiat, and caused our letters
to be interpreted. Which letters being heard, he caused our bread, wine and
fruits to be receiued. And he permitted vs also to carie our vestiments and
bookes vnto our owne lodging. This was done vpon the feast of S. Peter ad

Qualiter habuerunt in mandatis adire Baatu patrem Sartach. Cap. 18.

In crastino mane venit quidam sacerdos frater ipsius Coiac postulans
vasculum cum chrismate, quia Sartach volebat illud videre, vt dicebat, et
dedimus ei. Hora vespertina vocauit nos Coiac, dicens nobis: Dominus rex
scripsit bona verba Domino meo: Sed sunt in eis difficilia, de quibus nihil
auderet facere, sine consilio patris sui. Vnde oportet vos ire ad patrem
suum, et duas bigas quas adduxistis heri cum vestimentis et libris
dimittetis mihi, quia Dominus meus vult res diligentius videre. Ego statim
suspicatus sum malum de cupiditate eius, et dixi ei. Domine, non solum
illas sed etiam duas quas adhuc habemus relinquemus sub custodia vestra.
Non inquit, illas relinquetis, de alijs facietis velle vestrum. Dixi quod
hoc nullo modo posset fieri. Sed totam dimitteremus ei. Tunc quasiuit si
vellemus morari in terra? Ego dixi, Si bene intellexistis literas domini
regis, potestis scire, quod sic. Tunc dixit, quod oporteret nos esse
patientes multum, et humiles. Sic discessimus ab eo illo sere. In crastino
mane misit vnum sacerdotem Nestorinum pro bigis, et nos duximus omnes
quatuor. Tunc occurrens nobis frater ipsius Coiacis, separauit omnia nostra
ab ipsis rebus quas tuleramus pridie ad curiam, et ilia accepit tanquam
sua, scilicet libros et vestimenta: et Coiac praceperat, quod ferremus
nobiscum vestimenta quibus induti fueramus coram Sartach vt illis
indueremur coram Baatu si expediret: quas ille sacerdos abstulit nobis vi,
dicens: Tu attulisti eas ad Sartach, modo vis ferre Baatu? Et cum vellem ei
reddere rationem, respondit mihi, Ne loquaris nimis, et vade viam tuam.
Tunc necessaria fuit patientia, quia apud Sartach, non patebat nobis
ingressus; nec aliquis erat, qui nobis exhiberet iusticiam. Timebam etiam
de interprete, ne ipse aliquid aliter dixissit, quam ego dixissem ei: quia
ipsi bene voluisset, quod de omnibus fecissemus xenium. Vnum erat mihi
solacium, quia quum persensi cupiditatem eorum, ego subtraxi de libris
Biblium et sententias, et alios libros quos magis diligebam. Psalterium
domina regina non fui ausus subtrahere, quia illud fuerat nimis notatum
propter aureas picturas qua erant in eo. Sic ergo reuersi sumus cum duobus
residuis bigis ad hospitium nostrum. Tunc venit ille, qui debebat ducere
nos ad Baatu, volens cum festinatione arripere iter; cui dixi quod nulla
ratione ducerem bigas. Quod ipse retulit ad Coiac. Tunc pracepit Coiac quod
relinqueremus eas apud ipsum cum garcione nostro: quod et fecimus.
[Sidenote: Perueniunt ad Etiliam vel Volgam.] Sic ergo euntes versus Baatu
recta in Orientem, tertia die peruenimus ad Etiliam: cuius aquas cum vidi,
mirabar vnde ab Aquilone descenderunt tanta aqua. Antequam recederemus a
Sartach, dixit nobis supradictus Coiac cum alijs multis scriptoribus curia,
Nolite dicere quod dominus noster sit Christianus, sed Moal. Quia nomen
Christianitatis videtur eis nomen cuiusdam gentis. [Sidenote: Tartari
volunt vocari Moal.] In tantam superbiam sunt erecti, quod quamuis aliquid
forte credant de Christo, tamen nolunt dici Christiani volentes nomen suum,
hoc est, Moal exaltare super omne nomen. Nec volunt vocari Tartari: Tartari
enim fuerunt alia gens de quibus sic didici.

The same in English

How they were giuen in charge to goe vnto Baatu the Father of Sartach.
Chap. 18.

The next morning betimes came vnto vs a certaine Priest who was brother
vnto Coiat, requesting to haue our box of Chrisme, because Sartach (as he
said) was desirous to see it: and so we gaue it him. About euentide Coiat
sent for vs, saying: My lord your king wrote good words vnto my lord and
master Sartach. Howbeit there are certaine matters of difficulty in them
concerning which he dare not determine ought, without the aduise and
counsell of his father. And therfore of necessitie you must depart vnto his
father, leauing behind you the two carts, which you brought hither
yesterday with vestiments and bookes, in my custodie because my lorde is
desirous to take more diligent view thereof. I presently suspecting what
mischiefe might ensue by his couetousnes, said vnto him: Sir, we will not
onely leaue those with you, but the two other carts also, which we haue in
our posession, will we commit vnto your custodie. You shall not (quoth he)
leaue those behinde you, but for the other two carts first named, we will
satisfie your request. I saide that this could not conueniently be done:
but needes we must leaue all with him. Then he asked, whether we meant to
tarie in the land? I answered: If you throughly vnderstand the letters of
my lorde the king, you know that we are euen so determined. Then he
replied, that we ought to be patient and lowly: and so we departed from him
that euening. On the morrowe after he sent a Nestorian Priest for the
carts, and we caused all the foure carts to be deliuered. Then came the
foresaid brother of Coiat to meet vs, and separated all those things, which
we had brought the day before vnto the Court, from the rest, namely the
bookes and vestiments, and tooke them away with him. Howbeit Coiat had
commanded, that we should carie those vestiments with vs, which wee ware in
the presence of Sartach, that wee might put them on before Baatu, if neede
should require: but the said Priest tooke them from vs by violence, saying:
thou hast brought them vnto Sartach, and wouldest thou carie them vnto
Baatu? And when I would haue rendred a reason, he answered: be not too
talkatiue, but goe your wayes. Then I sawe that there was no remedie but
patience: for wee could haue no accesse vnto Sartach himselfe, neither was
there any other, that would doe vs iustice. I was afraide also in regard of
the interpreter, least he had spoken other things then I saide vnto him:
for his will was good that we should haue giuen away all that we had. There
was yet one comfort remaining vnto me: for when I once perceiued their
couetous intent, I conueyed from among our bookes the Bible, and the
sentences, and certaine other bookes which I made speciall account of.
Howbeit I durst not take away the Psalter of my soueraigne Lady the Queene,
because it was too wel known, by reason of the golden pictures therein. And
so we returned with the two other carts vnto our lodging. Then came he that
was appointed to be our guide vnto the court of Baatu, willing vs to take
our iourney in all posthaste: vnto whom I said, that I would in no case
haue the carts to goe with me. Which thing he declared vnto Coiat. Then
Coiat commaunded that we should leaue them and our seruant with him: And we
did as he commanded. [Sidenote: They are come as farre as Volga.] And so
traueling directly Eastward towards Baatu, the third day we came to Etilia
or Volga: the streams whereof when I beheld, I wondered from what regions
of the North such huge and mighty waters should descend. Before we were
departed from Sartach, the foresaid Coiat, with many other Scribes of the
court said vnto vs: doe not make report that our Lord is a Christian, but a
Moal. [Sidenote: The Tartars will be called Moal.] Because the name of a
Christian seemeth vnto them to be the name of some nation. So great is
their pride, that albeit they beleeue perhaps some things concerning
Christ, yet will they not bee called Christians, being desirous that their
owne name, that is to say, Moal should be exalted aboue all other names.
Neither wil they be called by the name of Tartars. For the Tartars were
another nation, as I was informed by them.

Qualiter Sartach, et Mangucham et Kencham faciunt reuerentiam Christianis.
Cap. 19.

Tempore quo Franci ceperunt Antiochiam tenebat monarchiam in illis
lateribus Aquilonis quidam qui vocabatur Concan. [Sidenote: Con can.] Con
est proprium nomen: Can nomen dignitatis quod idem est qui diuinator. Omnes
diuinatores vocant Can. Vnde principes dicuntur Can, quia penes eos spectat
regimen populi per diuinationem. Vnde legitur in historia Antiocha, quod
Turci miserunt propter succursum contra Francos ad regnum Con can. De illis
enim partibus venerunt omnes Turci. [Sidenote: Vnde venerunt Turci.
Caractay. Oceanus.] Iste Con erat Cara-Catay. Cara idem est quod nigrum.
Catai nomen gentis. Vnde Cara-Catay idem est quod nigri Catay. Et hoc
dicitur ad differentiam ipsorum Catay qui erant in Oriente super Oceanum de
quibus postea dicam vobis. Isti Catay erant in quibusdam alpibus per quas
transiui. Et in quadam planicie inter illas Alpes erat quidam Nestorinus
pastor potens et dominus super populum, qui dicebatur Vayman [Marginal
note: Vel Nayman.], qui erant Christiani Nestorini. [Sidenote: Presbyter
Iohannes.] Mortuo Con can eleuauit se ille Nestorius in regem, et vocabant
eum Nestoriani Regem Iohannem: et plus dicebant de ipso in decuplo quam
veritas esset. Ita enim faciunt Nestoriani venientes de partibus illis. De
nihilo enim faciunt magnos rumores. Vnde disseminauerunt de Sartach quod
esset Christianus, et de Mangu Can et Ken can: quia faciunt maiorem
reuerentiam Christianis, quam alijs populis, et tamen in veritate
Christiani non sunt. Sic ergo exiuit magna fama de illo Rege Iohanne. Et
quando ego transiui per pascua eius, nullus aliquid sciebat de eo nisi
Nestoriani pauci. [Sidenote: Kencham vbi habitauit Frater Andreas in Curia
Kencham. Vut can, vel Vne. Caracarum Villula. Crit, et Merkit.] In pascuis
eis habitat Kencam, apud cuius curiam fuit frater Andreas: et ego etiam
transiui per eam in reditu. Huic Iohanni erat frater quidam potens, pastor
similiter, nomine Vut: et ipse erat vltra Alpes ipsorum Caracatay, distans
a fratre suo spacium trium hebdomadarum et erat dominus cuiusdam Villula
qua dicitur Caracarum, populum habens sub se, qui dicebantur Crit, Merkit,
qui erant Christiani Nestorini. Sed ipse dominus eorum dimisso cultu
Christi, sectabatur idola; habens sacerdotes idolorum, qui omnes sunt
inuocatores damonum et sortilegi. [Sidenote: Moal pauperimi homines.] Vltra
pascua istius ad decem vel quindecem dictas erant pascua Moal: qui erant
paupernmi homines sine capitaneo et sine lege, exceptis sortilegijs et
diuinationibus, quibus omnes in partibus illis intendunt. [Sidenote:
Tartarorum sedes.] Et iuxta Moal erant alij pauperes, qui dicebantur
Tartari. Rex Iohannes mortuus fuit sine harede, et ditatus est frater eius
Vnc: et faciebat se vocari Can: et mittebantur armenta greges eius vsque ad
terminos Moal. [Sidenote: Cyngis.] Tunc temporis Chingis faber quidam erat
in populo Moal, et furabatur de animalibus Vnc can quod poterat: In tantum
quod conquesti sunt pastores Vut domino suo. Tunc congregauit exercitum et
equitauit in terram Moal, quarens ipsum Cyngis. Et ille fugit inter
Tartaros et latuit ibi. Tunc ipse Vut accepta prada Moal et a Tartaris
reuersus est. Tunc ipse Cyngis allocutus est Tartaros et ipsos Moal dicens,
Quia sine duce sumus opprimunt nos vicini nostri et fecerunt ipsum ducem et
capitaneum Tartari et Moal. Tunc latenter congregato exercitu irruit super
ipsum Vut, et vicit ipsum et ipse fugit in Cathaiam. Ibi capta fuit filia
eius, quam Cyngis dedit vni ex filijs in vxorem, ex quo ipsa suscepit istum
qui nunc regnat Mangu. [Sidenote: Mangu-can.] Tunc ipse Cyngis permittebat
vbique ipsos Tartaros: et inde exiuit nomen eorum, quia vbique clamabatur,
Ecce Tartari veniunt. Sed per crebra bella modo omnes fere deleti sunt.
Vnde isti Moal modo volunt extinguere illud nomen et suum eleuare.
[Sidenote: Mancherule] Terra illa in qua primo fuerunt, et vbi est adhuc
curia Cyngiscan, vocatur Mancherule. Sed quia Tartari est regio circa quam
fuit acquisitio corum, illam ciuitatem habent pro regali, et ibi prope
eligunt suum Can.

The same in English.

Howe Sartach, and Mangu Can, and Ken Can doe reuerence vnto Christians.
Chap. 19.

At the same time when the French men tooke Antioch, a certaine man named
Con Can had dominion ouer the Northren regions, lying thereabouts. Con is a
proper name: Can is a name of authority or dignitie, which signifieth a
diuiner or soothsayer All diuiners are called Can amongst them. Whereupon
their princes are called Can, because that vnto them belongeth the
gouernment of the people by diuination. Wee doe reade also in the historie
of Antiochia, that the Turkes sent for aide against the French-men, vnto
the kingdome of Con Can. For out of those parts the whole nation of the
Turkes first came. The said Con was of the nation of Kara-Catay, Kara
signifieth blacke, and Katay is the name of a countrey. So that Kara-Catay
signifieth the blacke Catay. [Sidenote: An Ocean sea.] This name was giuen
to make a difference between the foresaid people, and the people of Catay,
inhabiting Eastward ouer against the Ocean sea: concerning whom your
maiesty shall vnderstand more hereafter. These Catayans dwelt vpon certaine
Alpes, by the which I trauailed. [Sidenote: Nayman. Presbiter Iohn.] And in
a certaine plane countrey within those Alpes, there inhabited a Nestorian
shepheard, being a mighty gouernour ouer the people called Yayman, which
were Christians, following the sect of Nestorius. After the death of Con
Can, the said Nestorian exalted himselfe to the kingdome, and they called
him King Iohn, [Marginal note: This history of Presbiter Iohn in the
North-east, is alledged at large by Gerardus Mercator in his generall
mappe. From whence the Turkes first sprang.] reporting ten times more of
him then was true. For so the Nestorians which come out of those parts, vse
to doe. For they blaze abroade great rumors, and reports vpon iust nothing.
Whereupon they gaue out concerning Sartach, that he was become a Christian,
and the like also they reported concerning Mangu Can, and Ken Can namely
because these Tartars make more account of Christians, then they doe of
other people, and yet in very deede, themselues are no Christians. So
likewise there went foorth a great report concerning the said king Iohn.
Howbeit, when I trauailed along by his territories, there was no man that
knew any thing of him, but onely a fewe Nestorians. [Sidenote: The place of
Ken Can his abode. Vut Can, or Vnc Can. The village of Cara Carum. Crit and
Merkit.] In his pastures or territories dwelleth Ken Can, at whose Court
Frier Andrew was. And I my selfe passed by it at my returne. This Iohn had
a brother, being a mightie man also, and a shepheard like himselfe, called
Vut, and be inhabited beyond the Alpes of Cara Catay, being distant from
his brother Iohn, the space of three weekes iourney. He was lord ouer a
certain village, called Cara Carum, hauing people also for his subiects,
named Crit, or Merkit, who were Christians of the sect of Nestorius. But
their Lorde abandoning the the worship of Christ followed after idoles,
reteining with him Priests of the saide idoles, who all of them are
worshippers of deuils and and sorcerers. [Moal in olde time a beggerly
people.] Beyond his pastures, some tenne or fifteene dayes iourney, were
the pasture of Moal, who were a poore and beggerly nation, without
gouernour, and without Lawe, except their soothsayings, and their
diuinations, vnto the which detestable studies, all in those partes doe
apply their mindes. [Sidenote: The place of the Tartars.] Neere vnto Moal
were other poore people called Tartars. The foresaid king Iohn died without
issue male, and thereupon his brother Vut was greatly inriched, and caused
himselfe to be named Can; and his droues and flockes raunged euen vnto the
borders of Moal. [Sidenote: Cyngis] About the same time there was one
Cyngis, a blacke smith among the people of Moal. This Cyngis stole as many
cattel from Vut Can as he could possibly get: insomuche that the shepherds
of Vut complained vnto their Lord. Then prouided he an armie and marched vp
into the countrey of Moal to seeke for the saide Cyngis. But Cyngis fledde
among the Tartars and hidde himselfe amongest them. And Vut hauing taken
some spoils both from Moal and also from the Tartars, returned home. Then
spake Cyngis vnto the Tartars and vnto the people of Moal, saying: Sirs
because we are destitute of a gouernonr and Captaine, you see howe our
neighbours do oppresses vs. And the Tartars and Moals appointed him to be
their Chieftaine. Then hauing secretly gathered together an armie, he brake
in suddenly vpon Vut, and ouercame him, and Vut fledde into Cataua.
[Sidenote: Magnu-can.] At the same time was the daughter of Vut taken,
which Cyngis married vnto one of his sonnes, by whome she conceiued, and
brought forth the great Can, Which now reigneth called Mangu-Can. Then
Cyngis sent the Tartars before him in al places where he came: and
thereupon was their name published and spread abroade for in all places the
people woulde crie out: Loe, the Tartars come, the Tartars come. Howbeit
through continuall warres, they are nowe all of them in a maner consumed
and brought to nought. Whereupon the Moals endeuour what they can, to
extinguish the name, of the Tartars that they may exalt their owne name.
The countrey wherein they first inhabited and where the Court of Cyngis Can
[Sidenote: Mancherule] as yet remaineth, is called Macherule. But because
Tartaria is the region about which they haue obtained their conquests, they
esteeme that as their royall and chiefe citie and there for the most part
doe they elect their great Can.

De Rutenis et Hungaris, et Manis, et de mari Caspio. Cap. 20.

De Sartach autem vtrum credit in Christum vel non nescio. Hoc scio quod
Christianus non vult dici. Immo magis videtur mihi deridere Christianos.
Ipse enim est in itinere Christianorum, scilicet Rutenorum, Blacorum,
Bulgarorum minoris Bulgaria Soldainorum, Kerkisorum, Alanorum: qui omnes
transeunt per cum quum vidunt ad curiam patris sui deferre ei munera, vnde
magis amplectitur eos. Tamen si Saraceni veniant, et maius afferint cuius
expediuntur. Habet etiam circa se Nestorinos sacerdotes qui pulsant
tabulam, et cantant officium suum.

[Sidenote: Berta vel Berca.] Est alius qui dicitur Berta super Baatu, qui
pascit versus Portam ferream, vbi est iter Saracenorum omnium qui veniunt
de Perside et de Turchia, qui euntes ad Baatu, et transeuntes per eum,
deferunt ei munera. Et ille facit se Saracenum, et non permitit in terra
sua comedi carnes porcinas. Baatu in reditu nostro praceperat ei, quod
transferret se de illo loco vltra Etiliam ad Orientem, nolens nuncios
Saracenorum transire per eum, quia videbatur sibi damnosum.

Quatuor autem diebus quibus fuimus in curia Sartach, nunquam prouisum fuit
nobis de cibo, nisi semel de modico cosmos. In via vero inter ipsum et
patrem suum habuimus magnum timorem. Ruteni enim et Hungari, et Alani serui
eorum, quorum est magna multitudo inter eos, associant se viginti vel
triginta simul, et fugiant de nocte, habentes pharetras et arcus, et
quemcunque inuenuint de nocte interficiunt, de die latitantes. Et quando
sunt equi eorum fatigati veniunt de nocte ad multitudinem equorum in
pascuis, et mutant equos, et vnum vel duos ducunt secum, vt comedant quum
indiguerint. Occursum ergo talium timebat multum Dux noster. In illa via
fuissemus mortui fame, si non portauissemus nobiscum modicum de biscocto.

[Sidenote: Exacta Maris Caspij descripto.] Venimus tandem ad Etiliam
maximum flumen. Est enim in quadruplo maius quam Sequana, et
profundissimum: Veniens de maiori Bulgaria, qua est ad Aquilonem, tendens
in quendam lacum, siue quoddam mare, quod modo vocat illud mare Sircan, a
quadam ciuitate, qua est iuxta ripam eius in Perside. Sed Isidorus vocat
illud mare Caspium. Habet enim montes Caspios, et Persidem a meridie:
montes vero Musihet, hoc est, Assassinorum ad Orientem, qui contiguantur
cum montibus Caspijs. Ad Aquilonem vero habet illam solitudinem, in qua
modo sunt Tartari. [Sidenote: Cangla populi, vel Cangitta.] Prius vero
erant ibi quidam qui dicebantur Cangla: Et ex illo latere recipit Etiliam,
qui crescit in astate sicut Nilus Agypti. Ad Occidentem vero habet montes
Alanorum et Lesgi; et Portam ferream, et montes Georgianorum. Habet igitur
illud mare tria latera inter montes, Aquilonare vero habet ad planiciem.
[Sidenote: Frater Andreas.] Frater Andreas ipse circumdedit duo latera
eius, meridionale scilicet et Orientale. [Sidenote: Reprehenditur Isidori
error de mari Caspio.] Ego vero alia duo; Aquilonare scilicet in eundo a
Baatu ad Mangu cham, Occidentale vero in reuertendo de Baatu in Syriam.
Quatuor mensibus potest circundari. Et non est verum quod dicit Isidorus.
quod sit sinus exiens, ab Oceano: nusquan enim tangit Oceanum, sed vndique
circundatur terra.

The same in English.

Of the Russians, Hungarians, and Alanians: and of the Caspian Sea. Chap.

Now, as concerneth Sartach, whether he beleeues in Christ, or no, I knowe
not. This I am sure of, that he will not be called a Christian. Yea rather
he seemeth vnto mee to deride and skoffe at Christians. He lieth in the way
of the Christians, as namely of the Russians, the Valachians, the
Bulgarians of Bulgaria the lesser, the Soldaianes, the Kerkis, and the
Alanians: who all of them passe by him, as they are going to the Court of
his father Baatu, to carie gifts: whereupon he is more in league with them.
How best, if the Saracens come, and bring greater gifts than they, they are
dispatched sooner. He hath about him certaine Nestorian Priestes, who pray
vpon their beades, and sing their deuotions. Also, there is another vnder
Baatu called Berta [Sidenote: Or, Berca.], who feedeth his cattell toward
Porta ferrea, or Derbent, where lieth the passage of all those Saracens,
which come out of Persia, and out of Turkie to goe vnto Baatu, and passing
by they giue rewards vnto him. And he professeth himselfe to be a Saracene,
and will not permit swines flesh to be eaten in his dominions. Howbeit, at
the time of our return, Baatu commanded him to remoue himselfe from that
place, and to inhabite vpon the East side of Volga: for hee was vnwilling
that the Saracens messengers should passe by the saide Berrta, because he
sawe it was not for his profite. For the space of foure dayes while we
remained in the court of Sartach, we had not any victuals at all allowed
vs, but once onely a little Cosmos. And in our iourney betweene him and his
father, wee trauelled in great feare. For certaine Russians, Hungarians,
and Alanians being seruants vnto the Tartars (of whom they haue great
multitudes among them) assemble themselues twentie or thirtie in a
companie, and so secretly in the night conueying themselues from home they
take bowes and arrowes with them, and whomsoeuer they finde in the night
season, they put him to death, hiding themselues in the day time. And
hauing tired their horses, they goe in the night vnto a company of other
horses feeding in some pasture, and change them for newe, taking with them
also one or two horses besides, to eate them when they stand in neede. Our
guide therefore was sore afraide, least we should haue met with such
companions. In this iourney wee had died for famine, had we not caried some
of our bisket with vs. At length we came vnto the mighty riuer of Etilia,
or Volga. For it is foure times greater then the riuer of Sein, and of a
wonderfull depth: and issuing forth of Bulgaria the greater, it runneth
into a certain lake or sea, which of late they call the Hircan sea,
according to the name of a certain citie in Persia, standmg vpon the shore
thereof. Howbeit Isidore calleth it the Caspian Sea. For it hath the
Caspian mountaines and the land of Persia situate on the south side
thereof: and the mountaines of Musihet, that is to say, of the people
called Assassini [Footnote: A tribe who murdered all strangers: hence our
word _assassin_.] towards the East, which mountaines are coioyned vnto the
Caspian mountaines, but on the North side thereof lieth the same desert,
wherein the Tartars doe now inhabite. [Sidenote: Changla.] Howbeit
heretofore there dwelt certaine people called Changla. And on that side it
receiueth the streams of Etilia: which riuer increaseth in Sommer time,
like vnto the riuer Nilus in Agypt. Vpon the West part thereof, it hath the
mountaines of Alani, and Lesgi, and Porta ferrea, or Derbent, and the
mountaines of Georgia. This Sea therefore is compassed in on three sides
with the mountaines, but on the North side by plaine grounde. [Sidenote:
Frier Andrew.] Frier Andrew, in his iourney traueiled round about two sides
therof, namely the South and the East sides: and I my selfe about other
two, that is to say, the North side in going from Baatu to Mangu-Can, and
in returning likewise; and the West side in comming home from Baatu into
Syria. A man may trauel round about it in foure moneths. And it is not true
what Isidore reporteth, namely that this Sea is a bay or gulfe comming
forth of the Ocean: for it doeth, in no part thereof, ioyne with the Ocean,
but is enuironed on all sides with lande.

De curia Baatu, et qualiter recepti fuerunt ab eo. Cap. 21.

[Sidenote: Oceanus Aquilonaris Isisdorus.] Tota ilia regio a latere
Occidentali istius maris, vbi sunt Porta ferrea Alexandri, et montes
Alanorum, vsque ad Occanum Aquilonarem et paludes Maotidis vbi mergitur
Tanais, solebat dici Albania: de qua dicit Isisdorus quod habet canes ita
magnos, tantaque feritatis, vt tauros premant, leones perimant. Quod verum
est, prout intellexi a narrantibus, quod ibi versus Oceanum Aquilonarem
faciunt canes trahere in bigis sicut boues propter magnitudinem et
fortitudinem eorum. In illo ergo loco vbi nos aplicuimus super Etiliam est
casale nouum, quod fecerunt Tartari de Rutenis mixtim, qui transponunt
nuncios euntes, et redeuntes ad curiam Baatu: quia Baatu est in vlteriori
ripa versus Orientem nec transit illum locum vbi nos applicuimus ascendendo
in astate, sed iam incipiebat descendere. [Sidenote: Descendit naui per
flumen Volga. Nota] De Ianuario enim vsque ad Augustum ascendit ipsi, et
omnes alij versus frigidas regiones, et in Augusto incipiunt redire.
Descendimus ergo in naui ab illo casali vsque ad curiam eius. Et ab illo
vsque ad villas maioris Bulgaria versus Aquilonem, sunt quinque dicta. Et
miror quis Diabolus portauit illuc legem Machometi. [Sidenote: 30 dieta a
Porta ferrea. Astracan.] A Porta enim ferrea, qua est exitus Persidis, sunt
plusquam triginta dieta per transuersum, solitudinem ascendendo iuxta
Etiliam vsque in illam Bulgariam, vbi nulla est ciuitas, nisi quadam
casalia prope vbi cadit Etilia in mare. Et illi Bulgari sunt pessimi
Saraceni, fortius tenentes legem Machometi, quam aliqui alij. [Sidenote:
Descriptio curia Baatu.] Quum ergo vidi curiam Baatu, expaui, quia
videbantur prope domus eius, quasi quadam magna ciuitas protensa in longum,
et populus vndique circumfusus, vsque ad tres vel quatuor leueas. Et sicut
populus Israel sciebat vnusquisque ad quam regionem tabernaculi deberet
figere tentoria: ita ipsi sciunt ad quod latus curia debeant se collocare,
quando ipsi deponunt domus. [Sidenote: Horda sonat medium.] Vnde dicitur
curia Orda lingua corum, quod sonat medium, quia semper est in media
hominum suorum: hoc excepto quod recte ad meridiem nullus se collocat, quia
ad pattem illam aperiuntur porta Curia: Sed a dextris et a sinistris
extendunt se quantum volunt secundum exigentiam locorum: dummodo recte ante
curiam, vel ex opposito curia non descendunt. Fuimus ergo ducti ad quondam
Saracenum, qui non prouidebat nobis de aliquo cibo sequenti die fuimus ad
curiam, et fecerat extendi magnum tentorium, quia domus non potuisset
capere tot homines et mulieres, quot conuenerant. Monuit nos ductor noster
vt non loqueremur, donec Baatu praciperet: et tunc loqueremur breuiter.
[Sidenote: Misit rex Francia ad Kencham nuncios.] Quasiuit etiam vtrum
misissetis nuncios ad eos. Dixi qualiter miseratis ad Kencham, et quod nec
ad ipsum misissetis nuncios, nec ad Sartach literas, nisi credidissetis eos
fuisse Christianos: quia non pro timore aliquo, sed ex congratulatione,
quia audiueratis eos esse Christianos misistis. Tunc duxit nos ad
papilionem: et monebamur, ne tangeremus cordas tentorij, quas ipsi reputant
loco liminis domus. Stetimus ibi nudis pedibus in habitti nostro
discoopertis capitibus, et eramus spectaculum magnum in oculis eorum.
[Sidenote: Iohannes de Plano carpini.] Fuerat enim ibi frater Iohannes de
Plano Carpini, sed ipse mutauerat habitum ne contemneretur; quia erat
nuncius Domini Papa. Tunc inducti fuimus vsque ad medium tentorij, nec
requisiuerunt vt faceremus aliquam reuerentiam genua flectendo, sicut
solent facere nuncij. Stetimus ergo coram eo quantum possit dici, Miserere
mei Deus: et omnes erant in summo silentio. Ipse vero super solium longum
sedebat et latum sicut lectus, totum deauratum, ad quod ascendebatur tribus
gradibus, et vna domina iuxta eum. Viri vero diffusi sedebant a dextris
domina et a sinistris quod non implebant mulieres ex parte vna quia erant
ibi sola vxores Baatu, implebant viri. Bancus vero cum cosmos et ciphis
maximis aureis et argenteis, ornatis lapidibus pratiosis erat in introitu
tentorij. Respexit ergo nos diligentius, et nos eum: et videbatur mihi
similis in statura Domino Iohanni de Bello monte cuius anima rcquiescit in
pace. Erat etiam vultus eius tunc perfusus gutta rosea. Tandem pracepit vt
loqueremur. Tunc ductor noster pracepit vtflecteremus genua, et loqueremur.
Flext vnum genu tanquam homini: tunc innuit quod ambo flecterem, quod et
feci, nolens contendere super hoc. Tunc pracepit quod loquerer. Et ego
cogitans quod orarem Dominum, quia flexeram ambo genua, Incepi verba
oratione, dicens: Domine, nos oramus Dominum, a quo bona cuncta procedunt,
qui dedit vobis ista terrena, vt det vobis post hac calestia: quia hac sine
illis vana sunt. Et ipse diligenter auscultauit, et subiunxit: Noueritis
pro certo quod coelestia non habebitis, nisi fueritis Christianus. Dicit
enim Deus, Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit, saluus erit: qui vero non
crediderit, condemnabitur. Ad illud verbum ipse modeste subrisit, et alij
Moal inceperunt plaudere manus deridendo nos. Et obstupuit interpres meus,
quem oportuit me confortare ne timeret. [Sidenote Litera Regis Francorum.]
Tunc facto silentio, dixi: Ego veni ad filium vestrum, quia audiuimus quod
esset Christianus, et attuli et literas ex parte Domini Regis Francorum
ipse misit me huc ad vos. Vos debetis scire qua de causa. Tunc fecit me
surgere. Et quasiuit nomem vestrum, et meum, et socij mei, et interpretis,
et fecti omnia scribi. Quasiuit etiam quia intellexerat quod exieratis
terram vestram cum exercitu vt haberetis bellum. Respondi, Contra Saracenos
violantes domum Dei Hierusalam. Quasiuit etiam si vnquam misissetis nuncios
ad eum. Ad vos dixi nuquam. Tunc fecit nos vedere et dari de lacte, suo ad
bibendum, quod ipsi valde magnum reputant, quando aliquis bibit cosmos eum
eo in domo sua. Et dum sedens respicerem terram, pracepit vt cleuarem
vultum volens adhuc nos amplius respicere, vel forte pro sortilegio: quia
habent pro malo omine vel signo, vel pro mala Prognostica, quando aliquis
sedet coram eis inclinata facie quasi tristis, maxime quum appodiat
maxillam vel mentum super manum. Tunc exiuimus, et post pauca, venit Ductor
noster ad nos, et ducens nos ad hospitium, dixit mihi, Dominus Rex rogat,
quod retinearis in terra ista: et hoc non potest Baatu facere sine
conscientia Mangu cham. Vnde oportet quod tu et interpres tuus eatis ad
Mangu cham. Socius vero tuus et alius homo reuertentur ad curiam Sartach
ibi expectantes donec reuertatis. Tunc incepit homo DEI Interpres lugere
reputans se perditum: Socius etiam meus contestari, quod citius amputarent
ei caput quam quod diuideretur a me. Et ego dixi, quod sine socio non
possem ire: Et etiam quod bene indigebamus duobus famulis, quia si
contingeret vnum infirmari, non possem solus romanere. Tunc ipse reuersus
ad curiam dixit verba Baatu. Tunc pracepit, vadant duo sacerdotes et
interpres: et Clericus reuertatur ad Sartach. Ille reuersus dixit nobis
summam. Et quando volebam loqui pro Clerico, quod iret nobiscum, dixit, Non
loquamini amplius qua Baatu definiuit, et eo amplius non audeo redire ad
curiam. De eleemosyna habebat Goset clericus viginti sex ipperpera et non
plus: quoram decem retinuit sibi et puero: et sexdecem dedit homini Dei pro
nobis. Et sic diuisi sumus cum lachrimis ab inuicem: Illo redeunte ad
curiam Sartach, et nobis ibi remanentibus.

The same in English.

Of the Court of Baatu: and howe we were entertained by him. Chap. 21.

At the region extending from the West shore of the foresaid sea, where
Alexanders Iron gate, otherwise called the gate of Derbent, is situate and
from the mountaines of Alania, all along by the fennes of Alcotts,
whereinto the riuer of Tanais falleth and so forth, to the North Ocean, was
wont to be called Albania. [Sidenote: The North Ocean.] Of which countrey
Isidore reporteth, that there be dogs of such an huge stature and so
fierce, that they are able in fight to match bulles and to master lions.
Which is true, as I vnderstand by diuers, who tolde me, that there towardes
the North Ocean they make their dogges to draw in carts like oxen, by
reason of their bignesse and strength. Moreouer, vpon that part of Etilia
where we arriued, there is a new cottage built, wherein they haue placed
Tartars and Russians both together, to ferrie ouer, and transport
messengers going and comming to and fro the court of Baatu. For Baatu
remaineth vpon the farther side towards the East. Neither ascendeth hee in
Sommer time more Northward then the foresaide place where we arriued, but
was euen then descending to the South. From Ianuarie vntil August both he
and all other Tartars ascend by the banks of riuers towards cold and
Northerly regions, and in August they begin to returne backe againe.
[Sidenote: He descended downe the riuer Volga in a barke.] We passed downe
the streame therefore in a barke, from the foresaid cottage vnto his court.
From the same place vnto the villages of Bulgaria the greater, standing
toward the North, it is fiue dayes iourney. I wonder what deuill caried the
religion of Mahomet thither. For, from Derbent, which is vpon the extreame
borders of Persia, it is about 30 daies iourney to passe ouerthwart the
desert, and so to ascend by the banke of Etilia, into the foresaid countrey
of Bulgaria. [Sidenote: Astrscan.] All which way there is no citie, but
onely certaine cottages neere vnto that place where Etilia falleth into the
sea. Those Bulgarians are most wicked Saracens, more earnestly professing
the damnable religion of Mahomet, then any other nation whatsoeuer.
[Sidenote: The description of Baatu and his court.] Moreouer, when I first
behelde the court of Baatu, I was astonied at the sight thereof; for his
houses or tents seemed as though they had bene some huge and mighty citie,
stretching out a great way in length, the people ranging vp and downe about
it for the space of some three or four leagues. And euen as the people of
Israel knew euery man, on which side of the tabernacle to pitch his tent:
euen so euery one of them knoweth right well, towards what side of the
court he ought to place his house when he takes it from off the cart.
[Sidenote: Horda signifieth the midst.] Wherupon the court is called in
their language Horda, which signifieth, the midst: because the gouernour or
chieftaine among them dwels alwaies in the middest of his people: except
onely that directly towards the South no subiect or inferiour person
placeth himselfe, because towards that region the court gates are set open:
but vnto the right hand, and the left hand they extend themselues as farre
as they will, according to the conueniencie of places, so that they place
not their houses directly opposite against the Court. At our arriual we
were conducted vnto a Saracen, who prouided not for vs any victuals at all.
The day following, we were brought vnto the court and Baatu had caused a
large tent to be erected, because his house or ordinarie tent could not
contain so many men and women as were assembled. Our guide admonished vs
not to speake, till Baatu had giuen vs commandement so to doe, and that
then we should speake our mindes briefly. Then Baatu demanded whether your
Maiestie had sent Ambassadours vnto him or no? I answered, that your
Maiestie had sent messengers to Ken Can: and that you would not haue sent
messengers vnto him, or letters vnto Sartach, had not your Highnes bene
perswaded that they were become Christians: because you sent not vnto them
for any feare, but onely for congratulation, and curtesies sake, in regard
that you heard they were conuerted to Christianitie. Then led he vs vnto
his pauilion and wee were charged not to touch the cordes of the tent,
which they account in stead of the threshold of the house. There we stoode
in our habite bare footed, and bare-headed, and were a great and strange
spectacle in their eyes. [Sidenote: Iohn de Plano Carpini.] For indeed
Frier Iohn de Plano Carpini had byn there before my comming: howbeit,
because he was the Pope's messenger, he changed his habit that he might not
be contemned. Then we were brought into the very midst of the tent, neither
required they of vs to do any reuerence by bowing our knees, as they vse to
doe of other messengers. Wee stood therefore before him for the space
wherein a man might haue rehearsed the Psalme, Miserere mei Deus: and there
was great silence kept of all men. Baatu himselfe sate vpon a seate long
and broad like vnto a bed, guilt all ouer, with three stairs to ascend
thereunto, and one of his ladies sate beside him. The men there assembled,
sate downe scattering, some on the right hand of the saide Lady, and some
on the left. Those places on the one side which the women filled not vp
(for there were only the wiues of Baatu) were supplied by the men. Also, at
the very entrance of the tent stoode a bench furnished with cosmos, and
with stately great cuppes of siluer, and golde, beeing richly set with
precious stones. Baatu beheld vs earnestly, and we him and he seemed to me
to resemble in personage, Monsieur Iohn de beau mont, whose soule resteth
in peace. And hee had a fresh ruddie colour in his countenance. At length
he commanded vs to speake. Then our guide gaue vs direction, that wee
should bow our knees and speak. Wherupon I bowed one knee as vnto a man:
then he signified that I should kneele vpon both knees: and I did so, being
loath to contend about such circumstaunces. And again he commanded me to
speak. Then I thinking of praier vnto God, because I kneeled on both my
knees, began to pray on this wise: Sir, we beseech the Lord, from whom all
good things doe proceed and who hath giuen you these earthly benefites,
that it would please him hereafter to make you partaker of his heauenly
blessings: because the former without these are but vain and vnprofitable.
And I added further. Be it knowen vnto you of a certainty, that you shal
not obtain the ioyes of heauen, vnles you becomes a Christian: for God
saith, Whosoeuer beleeueth and is baptized, shalbe saued: but he that
beleeueth not, shalbe condemned. At this word he modestly smiled: but the
other Moals began to clap their hands, and to deride vs. And my silly
interpreter, of whom especially I should haue receiued comfort in time of
need, was himself abashed and vtterly dasht out of countenance. [Sidenote:
The letters of the French King.] Then, after silence made, I said vnto him,
I came vnto your soune, because we heard that he was become a Christian:
and I brought vnto him letters on the behalfe of my souereigne Lord the
king of France: and your sonne sent me hither vnto you. The cause of my
comming therefore is best known vnto your selfe. Then he caused me to rise
vp. And he enquired your maiesties name, and my name, and the name of mine
associate and interpreter, and caused them all to be put down in writing.
He demaunded likewise (because he had bene informed, that you were departed
out of your owne countreys with an armie) against whom you waged warre? I
answered: against the Saracens, who had defiled the house of God at
Ierusalem. He asked also, whether your Highnes had euer before that time
sent any messengers vnto him, or no? To you sir? (said I) neuer. Then
caused he vs to sit downe, and gaue vs of his milke to drinke, which they
account to be a great fauour, especially when any man is admitted to drinke
Cosmos with him in his own house. And as I sate looking downe vpon the
ground, he commanded me to lift vp my countenance, being desirous as yet to
take more diligent view of vs, or els perhaps for a kinde of superstitious
obseruation. For they esteeme it a signe of ill lucke, or a prognostication
of euill vnto them, when any man sits in their presence, holding downe his
head, as if he were sad: especially when he leanes his cheeke or chinne
ypon his hand. Then we departed forth, and immediately after came our guide
vnto vs, and conducting vs vnto our lodging, saide vnto me: Your master the
King requesteth that you may remaine in this land, which request Baatu
cannot satisfie without the knowledge and consent of Mangu-Can. Wherefore
you, and your interpreter must of necessitie goe vnto Mangu-Can. Howbeit
your associate, and the other man shall returne vnto the court of Sartach,
staying there for you, till you come backe. Then began the man of God mine
interpreter to lament, esteeming himselfe but a dead man. Mine associate
also protested, that they should sooner chop off his head, then withdrawe
him out of my companie. Moreouer I my selfe saide, that without mine
associate I could not goe: and that we stood in neede of two seruants at
the least, to attend vpon vs, because, if one should chance to fall sicke,
we could not be without another. Then returning vnto the court, he told
these sayings vnto Baatu. And Baatu commanded saying: let the two Priests
and the interpreter goe together, but let the clearke return vnto Sartach.
And comming againe vnto vs, hee tolde vs euen so. And when I would haue
spoken for the clearke to haue had him with vs, he saide: No more words:
for Baatu hath resolued, that so it shall be; and therefore I dare not goe
vnto the court any more. Goset the clearke had remaining of the almes money
bestowed vpon him, 26. Yperperas, and no more; 10. Whereof he kept for
himselfe and for the lad, and 16. he gaue vnto the man of God for vs. And
thus were we parted asunder with teares: he returning vnto the court of
Sartach, and our selues remaining still in the same place.

De itinere fraturn versus curiam Mangu cham. Cap. 22.

In Vigilia Assumptionis peruenit ipse clericus ad Curiam Sartach: et in
crastino fuerunt Sacerdotes Nestormi induti vestimentis nostris coram
Sartach. Tunc ducti fuimus ad alium hospitem, qui debebat nobis prouidere
de domo et cibo et equis. Sed quia non habuimus, quod daremus ei, omnia
male faciebat. [Sidenote: Quintano septimanas iuxta Etiliam descendebant.]
Et bigauimus cum Baatu descendendo iuxta Etiliam quinque septimanas.
Aliquando habuit socius meus tantam famem, quod dicebat mihi quasi
lachrymando: videbatur mihi quod nunquam comederim. Forum sequitur semper
Curiam Baatu. Sed illud erat tam longe a nobis, quod non poteramus ire.
Oportebat enim nos ire pedibus pro defectu equorum. [Sidenote: Quidam
Hungari.] Tandem inuenerunt nos quidam Hungari, qui fuerant Clericuli,
quorum vnus sciebat adhuc cantare multa corde, et habebatur ab alijs
Hungaris quasi Sacerdos, et vocabatur ad exequias suorum defunctorum: Et
alius fuerat competenter instructus in Grammatica: qui intelligebat
quicquid dicebamus ei literaliter, sed nesciebat respondere: qui fecerunt
nobis magnam consolationem, afferentes cosmos ad bibendum, et carnes
aliquando ad comedendum: qui quum postulassent a nobis aliquos libros, et
non haberem quos possem dare, nullos enim habebam, nisi Biblium et
breuiarium, dolui multum. Tunc dixi eis, afferte nobis chartas, et ego
scribam vobis, quandiu erimus hic: quod et fecerunt. Et scripsi vtrasque
horas Beata Virginis et officium defunctorum. [Sidenote: Comanus] Quodam
die iunxit se nobis quidam Comanus, salutans nos verbis latinis, dicens,
Saluete Domini. Ego mirens, ipso resalutato, quasiui ab eo, quis eum
docuerat illam salutationem. Et ipse dixit quod in Hungaria fuit baptizatus
a fratribus nostris qui docuerant illam salutationem. Et ipsi dixit quod in
Hungaria fuit baptizatus a fratribus nostris qui docuerant illum eam. Dixit
etiam quod Baatu quasiuerat ab eo multa de nobis, et quod ipse dixerat ei
conditiones ordinis nostri. Ego vidi Baatu equitantem cum turba sua, et
omnes patres familias equitantes cum eo, secundum astimationem meam non
erant quingenti viri. [Sidenote: Iter quatuor mensium a Volga. Ingens
frigus.] Tandem circa finem exaltationis sancta crucis venit ad nos quidam
diues Moal, cuius pater erat millenarius, quod magnum est inter eos,
dicens, Ego vos debeo ducere ad Mangu cham, et est iter quatuor mensium: et
tantum frigus est ibi, quod finduntur ibi lapides et arbores pro frigore:
Videatis vtrum poteritis sustinere. Cui respondi: Spero in virtute Dei,
quod nos sustinebimus, quod alij homines possunt sustinere. Tunc dixit: Si
non poteritis sustinere, ego relinquam vos in via. Cui respondi, hoc non
esset iustum: quia non iuimus pro nobis, nisi missi a Domino vestro: Vnde
ex quo vobis committimur, non debetis nos dimittere. Tunc dixit, bene erit.
Post hoc fecit nos ostendere sibi omnes vestes nostras, et quod sibi
videbatur minus necessarium fecit deponere sub custodia hospitis nostri.
[Sidenote: 16. Septemb.] In crastino attulerunt cuilibet nostrum vnam
pelliceam villosam arietinam et braccas de eadem, et botas siue bucellos
secundum morem eorum cum soccis de filtro; et almucias de pellibus secundum
modum eorum. [Sidenote: Cangle populi Maior Bulgaria.] Et secunda die post
exaltationem Sancta crucis incepimus equitare nos tres habentes signarios
et equitauimus continue versus Orientem vsque ad festum Omnium Sanctorum,
per totam illam terram, et adhuc amplius habitabant Cangle, quedam
parentela Romanorum. Ad Aquilonem habebamus maiorem Bulgariam, et ad
meridiem pradictum mare Caspium.

The same in English.

Of our iourney towards the Court of Mangu Can. Chap. 22.

Vpon Assumption euen our clearke arriued at the court of Sartach. And on
the morrow after, the Nestorian Priestes were adorned with our vestments in
the presence of the said Sartach. Then wee our selues were conducted vnto
another hoste, who was appointed to prouide vs houseroome, victualles, and
horses. But because wee had not ought to bestowe vpon him, hee did all
things vntowardly for vs. [Sidenote: They trauell fiue weekes by the banke
of Etilia.] Then wee rode on forwards with Baatu, descending along by the
banks of Etilia, for the space of fiue weekes together: Sometimes mine
associate was so extremelie hungrie, that hee would tell mee in a manner
weeping, that it fared with him as though hee had neuer eaten any thing in
all his life before. There is a faire or market following the court of
Baatu at all times: but it was so farre distant from vs that we could not
haue recourse thereunto. For wee were constrained to walke on foote for
want of horses. [Sidenote: Hungarians.] At length certaine Hungarians (who
had sometime bene after a sort Cleargie men) found vs out and one of them
could as yet sing many songs without booke, and was accompted of other
Hungarians as a Priest, and was sent for vnto the funerals of his deceased
countrey men. There was another of them also pretily wel instructed in his
Grammer: for hee could vnderstand the meaning of any thing that wee spake
but could not answere vs. These Hungarians were a great comfort vnto vs,
bringing vs Cosmos to drinke, yea and some times flesh for to eate also
who, when they requested to haue some bookes of vs, and I had not any to
giue them (for indede we had none but onely a Bible, and a breuiarie) it
grieued mee exceedingly. And I said vnto them: Bring mee some inke and
paper, and I will write for you so long as we shall remaine here: and they
did so. And I copied out for them Horas beata Virginis, and Officium
defunctorum. [Sidenote: A Comanian.] Moreouer, vpon a certaine day, there
was a Comanian that accompanied vs, saluting vs in Latine, and saying:
Saluete Domini. Wondering thereat and saluting him againe, I demaunded of
him, who had taught him that kind of salutation? Hee saide that hee was
baptised in Hungaria by our Friers, and that of them hee learned it. He
said moreouer, that Baatu had enquired many things of him concerning vs,
and that hee told him the estate of our order. Afterwarde I sawe Baatu
riding with his companie, and all his subiects that were householders or
masters of families riding with him, and (in mine estimation) they were not
fiue hundred persons in all. At length about the ende of Holy roode, there
came a certaine great Moal vnto vs (whose father was a Millenarie, which is
a great office among them) saying: [Sidenote: A iourney of 4. moneths from
Volga.] I am the man that must conduct you vnto Mangu-Can, and we haue
thither a iourney of foure moneths long to trauell, and there such extreame
colde in those parts, that stones and trees do euen riue asunder in regarde
thereof. Therefore I would wish you throughly to aduise your selues,
whether you be able to indure it or no. Vnto whom I answered: I hope by
Gods help that we shalbe able to brooke that which other men can indure.
Then he saide: if you cannot indure it, I will foresake you by the way. And
I answered him: it were not iust dealing for you so to doe: for wee goe not
thither vpon anie busmesse of our owne, but by reason that we are sent by
your lord. Wherefore sithence we are committed vnto your charge, you ought
in no wise to forsake vs. Then he said: all shalbe well. Afterward he
caused vs to shewe him all our garments: and whatsoeuer hee deemed to be
lesse needfull for vs, he willed vs to leaue it behind in the custodie of
our hoste. On the morrow they brought vnto each of vs a furred gowne, made
all of rammes skinnes, with the wool stil vpon them, and breeches of the
same, and boots also of buskins, according to their fashion, and shooes
made of felt, and hoods also made of skins after their maner. [Sidenote:
The 16. of September. 46. dayes.] The second day after Holy rood, we began
to set forward vpon our iourney, hauing three guides to direct vs: and we
rode continually Eastward, till the feast of All Saints. Throughout all
that region, and beyonde also did the people of Changle [Marginal note: Or,
Kangitta.] inhabite, who were by parentage descended from the Romanes. Vpon
the North side of vs, wee had Bulgaria the greater, and on the South, the
foresaid Caspian sea.

De flumine Iagag, et de diuersis regionibus siue nationibus. Cap. 21.

[Sidenote: Iagag flumen 12. dietis a Volga Pascatir terra, vel Bascardorum
terra vel Zibiet] Postquam iueramus duodecim diebus ab Etilia inuenimus
magnum flumen, quod vocant Iagag: et venit ab Aquilone de terra Pascatir
descendens in pradictum mare. Idioma Pascatir et Hungarorum idem est: et
sunt pastores sine ciuitate aliqua. Et contiguatur maiori Bulgaria ab
Occidente. Ab illa terra versus Orientem in latere illo Aquilonari non est
amplius aliqua ciuitas. Vnde Bulgaria maior est vltima regio habens
ciuitatem. [Sidenote: Hungaria Pascitir oriundi.] De illa regione Pascatir
exierunt Huni, qui postea dicti sunt Hungari. Vnde ipsa est maior Bulgaria.
Et dicit Isidorus, quod pernicibus equis claustra Alexandri rupibus Caucusi
feras gentes cohibentia transierunt: ita quod vsque in Agyptum soluebatur
eis tributum. Destruxerunt etiam omnes terras vsque in Franciam. Vnde
fuerunt maioris potentia, quam sunt adhuc Tartari. Cum illis occurrerunt
Blaci et Bulgari et Vandali. De illa enim maiori Bulgaria venerunt illi
Bulgari: Et qui sunt vltra Danubum prope Constantinopolin, et iuxta
Pascatir sunt Ilac, quod idem est quod Blac: [Sidenote: Nota.] sed B.
nesciunt Tartari sonare: a quibus venerunt illl qui sunt in terra Assani.
Vtrosque enim vocant Ilac, et hos et illos lingua Rutenorum et Polonorum et
Boemorum. Sclauorum est idem idioma cum lingua Vandalorum, quorum omnium
manus fuit cum Hunis: et nunc pro maiori parte est cum Tartaris quos Deus
suscitant a remotioribus partibus, populum multum, et gentem stultam
secundum quod dicit Dominus, Prouocabo eos, id est, non custodientes Legem
suam, in eo qui non est populus, et in gente stulta irritabo eos.
[Sidenote: Deut 32. 21.] Hoc completur ad literam super omnes nationes non
custodientes Legem Dei. Hoc quod dixi de terra Pascatir scio per fratres
Pradicatores, [Marginal note: Qui fuerunt isti fratres?] qui iuerunt illuc
ante aduentum Tartarorum. Et ex tunc erant ipsi subiugati a vicinas
Bulgaris Saracenis, et plures eorum facti Saracenii. Alia possunt sciri per
Chronica: quia constat quod illa prouincia post Constantinopolum, qua modo
dicuntur Bulgaria, Valachia, Sclauonia, fuerunt prouincia Gracorum.
Hungaria fuit Pannonia. [Sidenote: Cangle planicies ingens.] Equitatuimus
ergo per terram Cangle a festo Sancta crucis vsque ad festum Omnium
Sanctorum, quolibet die fere quantum est a Parisijs vsque Aurelianum,
secundum quod possum estimare, et plus aliquando: secundum quod habebamus
copiam equorum. Aliquando enim mutabamus bis in die vel ter equos.
Aliquando ibamus duobus diebus vel tribus, quibus non inueniebamus populum,
et oportebat leuius ire. De viginti vel triginta equis nos semper hauebamus
peiores, quia extranei eramus. Omnes enim accipiebant ante nos equos
meliores. Mihi semper prouidebant de forti equo, quia eram ponderosus
valde: sed vtrum suauiter ambularet vel non, de hoc non auderem facere
quastionem. Nec etiam audebam conqueri, si dure portaret. Sed fortunam suam
oportebat vnumquemque sustinere. Vnde oriebatur nobis difficilimus labor:
quia multoties fatigabantur equi, antequam possemus peruenire ad populum.
Et tunc oportebat nos percutere et flagellare equos, ponere etiam vestes
super alios saginarios, mutare equos saginarios; aliquando nos duos ire in
vno equo.

The same in English.

Of the the riuer of Iagac [Marginal note: Or, Iaic.]: and of diuers regions
or nations. Chap. 23.

[Sidenote: Iaic twelue dayes iourney from Volga. Pascatir.] Hauing
traueiled twelue dayes iourney from Etilia, wee fonnd a mightie riuer
called Iagac: which riuer issuing out of the North, from the land of
Pascatir, descendeth into the foresaid sea. The language of Pascatir, and
of the Hungarians is all one, and they are all of them shepheards, not
hauing any cities. And their countrey bordereth vpon Bulgaria the greater,
on the West frontier thereof. From the Northeast part of the said countrey,
there is no citie at all. For Bulgaria the greater is the farthest countrey
that way, that hath any citie therein. [Sidenote: The Hungarians descended
from the Bascirdes.] Out of the forenamed region of Pascatir, proceeded the
Hunnes of olde time, who afterwarde were called Hungarians. Next vnto it is
Bulgaria the greater. Isidore reporteth concerning the people of this
nation, that with swift horses they trauersed the impregnable walles and
bounds of Alexander, (which, together with the rocks of Caucasus, serued to
restraine those barbarous and blood-thirstie people from inuading the
regions of the South) insomuch that they had tribute paid vnto them, as
farre as Agypt. Likewise they wasted all countreis euen vnto France.
Whereupon they were more mightie than the Tartars as yet are. [Sidenote:
Valachians.] And vnto them the Blacians, the Bulgarians, and the Vandals
ioyned themselues. For out of Bulgaria the greater, came those Bulgarians.
Moreouer, they which inhabit beyond Danubius, neere vnto Constantinople,
and not farre from Pascatir, are called Ilac, which (sauing the
pronunciation) is al one with Blac, (for the Tartars cannot pronounce the
letter B) from whom also descended the people which inhabit the land of
Assani. For they are both of them called Ilac (both these, and the other)
in the languages of the Russians, the Polonians, and the Bohemians. The
Sclauonians speake all one language with the Vandals, all which banded
themselues with the Hunnes: and now for the most part, they vnite
themselues vnto the Tartars: whom God hath raised vp from the vtmost panes
of the earth, according to that which the Lord saith: [Sidenote: Deut. 32.
v. 21. Rom. 10. v. 19.] I will prouoke them to enuy (namely such as keepe
not his Law) by a people, which is no people, and by a foolish nation will
I anger them. This prophecie is fulfilled, according to the literal sense
thereof, vpon all nations which obserue not the Law of God. All this which
I haue written concerning the land of Pascatir, was told me by certaine
Friers pradicants, which trauailed thither before euer the Tartars came
abroad. And from that time they were subdued vnto their neighbors the
Bulgarians being Saracens, whereupon many of them proued Saracens also.
Other matters concerning this people, may be known out of Chronicles. For
it is manifest, that those prouinces beyond Constantinople, which are now
called Bulgaria, Valachia, and Sclauonia, were of old time prouinces
belonging to the Greekes. Also Hungaria was heretofore called Pannonia.
[Sidenote: Cangle an huge plaine countrey.] And wee were riding ouer the
land of Cangle, from the feast of Holy roode, vntill the feast of All
Saints: traueiling almost euery day (according to mine estimation) as
farre, as from Paris to Orleans, and sometimes farther, as we were prouided
of poste horses: for some dayes we had change of horses twise or thrise in
a day. Sometimes we trauailed two or three daies together, not finding any
people, and then we were constrained not to ride so fast Of 20. or 30.
horses we had alwayes the woorst, because wee were strangers. For euery one
tooke their choice of the best horses before vs. They prouided mee alwaies
of a strong horse, because I was very corpulent and heauy: but whether he
ambled a gentle pase or no, I durst not make any question. Neither yet
durst I complaine, although he trotted full sore. But euery man must be
contented with his lot as it fell. Whereupon wee were exceedingly troubled:
for oftentimes our horses were tired before we could come at any people.
And then wee were constrained to beate and whip on our horses, and to lay
our garments vpon other emptie horses: yea and sometimes two of vs to ride
vpon one horse.

De fame et siti, et alijs miserijs quas sustinuerant in itinere. Cap. 24.

De fame et siti, frigore et fatigatione non est numerus. Non enim dant
cibum nisi in sero. In mane dant aliquid bibere, vel sorbere milium. In
sero dabant nobis carnes, scapulam arietis cum costis et de brodio ad
mensuram bibere. Quando habebamus de brodio carnium ad satietatem optime
reficiebamur. Et videbatur mihi suauissimus potus et maxime nutriens. Feria
sexta permanebam ieiunus vsque ad noctem, nihil auriens. Tunc oportebat me
in tristitia et dolore comedere carnes. [Sidenote: Defectus materia ignis.]
Aliquando oportebat nos comedere carnes semicoctas vel fere crudas propter
defectum materia ignis quando iacebamus in campis et de nocte
descendebamus: quia tunc non poteramus bene colligere stercora equorum vel
boum: aliam materiam ignis raro inueniebamus; nisi forte alicubi aliquas
spinas. In ripis etiam aliquorum fluminum sunt alicubi sylua. Sed hoc raro.
[Sidenote: Aliqua flumina.] In principio despiciebat nos multum Ductor
noster, et fastidiebat eum ducere tam viles homines. Postea tamen quando
incepit nos melius cognoscere, ducebat nos per curias diuitum Moallorum: et
oportebat nos orare pro ipsis. Vnde si habuissem bonum interpretem, habebam
oportunitatem seminandi multa bona. [Sidenote: Vasta solitudo.] Ille
Chirigis primus Cham habuit quatuor filios, de quibus egressi sunt multi,
qui omnes habent modo magnas curias: et quotidie multiplicantur et
diffunduntur per illam Vastam solitudinem, qua est sicut mare. Per multos
ergo illorum ducebat nos Ductor noster. Et mirabantur supra modum, quia
nolebamus recipere aurum, vel argentum, vel vestes praciosas. Quarebant
etiam de magno Papa, si esset ita senex sicut audierant: audierant enim
quod esset quingentorum annorum. Quarebant de terris nostris si ibi essent
multa oues, et boues, et equi. De Oceano mari non potuerunt intelligere,
quod esset sine termnino vel sine ripa. In vigilia omnium Sanctorum
dimisimus viam in Orientem, [Marginal note: Nota diligenter. Iter versus
mieridiem octo dierum.] quia iam populus descenderat multum versus
meridiem: Et direximus iter per quasdam Alpes recte in meridiem continue
per octo dies. In illa solitudine vidi multos asinos, quos vocant Colan,
qui magis assimilantur mulis: quos multum prosequuti [Footnote: sic.] sunt
Dux noster et socij eius, sed nihil profecerunt propter nimiam velocitatem
eorum. Septima die inceperunt nobis apparere ad meridiem montes altissimi:
et intrauimus planiciem, qua irrigabatur sicut hortus, et inuenimus terras
cultas. [Sidenote: Asuni velocissimi. Montes Altissimi. Terra culta.
Kenchat villa Saracenorum.] In octauis omnium Sanctorum intrauimus villam
quandam Saracenorum nomine Kenchat: cuius capitaneus occurrebat extra
villam duci nostro cum ceruisia et ciphis. Hic est enim mos eorum; quod de
omnibus villis subditis eis, occurratur nuncijs Baatu, et Mangu cham cum
cibo et potu. Tunc temporis ibant ibi super glaciem. [Sidenote: Septimo die
Nouembris ibant super glaciem.] Et prius a festo Sancti Michaelis
habueramus gelu in solitudine. Quasiui de nomine Prouincia illius: sed quia
iam eramus in alio territorio nescierunt mihi dicere, nisi a nomine
ciuitatis, qua erat valde parua. [Sidenote: Ciuitas valde parua. Magnus
Fluuius. Multa Paludes. Vites.] Et descendebat magnus fluuius de montibus
qui irrigabat totam regionem, secundum quod volebant aquam ducere: nec
descendebat in aliquod mare, sed absorbebatur a terra: et faciebat etiam
multas paludes. Ibi vidi vites, et bibi bis de vino.

The same in English.

Of the hunger, and thirst, and other miseries, which wee sustained in our
iourney. Chap. 24.

Of hunger and thirst, colde and wearinesse, there was no end. For they gaue
vs no victuals, but onely in the euening. In the morning they vsed to giue
vs a little drinke, or some sodden Millet to sup off. In the euening they
bestowed flesh vpon vs, as namely, a shoulder and breast of rams mutton,
and euery man a measured quantitie of broath to drinke. When we had
sufficient of the flesh-broath, we were maruellously wel refreshed. And it
seemed to me most pleasant, and most nourishing drinke. Euery Saterday
[Footnote: Friday (?).], I remained fasting vntil night, without eating or
drinking of ought. And when night came, I was constrained, to my great
grief and sorow, to eat flesh. Sometimes we were faine to eate flesh halfe
sodden, or almost rawe, and all for want of fewel to seethe it withal:
especially when we lay in the fields, or were benighted before we came at
our iourneis end: because we could not then conueniently gather together
the doung of horses or oxen: for other fewel we found but seldome, except
perhaps a few thornes in some places. [Sidenote: Certaine riuers.] Likewise
vpon the bankes of some riuers, there are woods growing here and there.
Howbeit they are very rare. In the beginning our guide highly disdained vs,
and it was tedious vnto him to conduct such base fellowes. Afterward, when
he began to know vs somewhat better, he directed vs on our way by the
courts of rich Moals, and we were requested to pray for them. Wherefore,
had I caried a good interpreter with me, I should haue had opportunities to
haue done much good. The foresaid Chingis, who was the first great Can or
Emperour of the Tartars, had foure sonnes, of whome proceeded by natural
descent many children, euery one of which doeth at this day enioy great
possessions: and they are daily multiplied and dispersed ouer that huge and
waste desert, which is, in dimensions, like vnto the Ocean Sea. Our guide
therefore directed vs, as we were going on our iourney, vnto many of their
habitations. And they marueiled exceedingly, that we would receiue neither
gold, nor siluer, nor precious and costly garments at their hands. They
inquired also, concerning the great Pope, whether he was of so lasting an
age as they had heard? For there had gone a report among them, that he was
500 yeeres olde. They inquired likewise of our countreis, whether there
were abundance of sheep, oxen, and horses or no? Concerning the Ocean sea,
they could not conceiue of it, because it was without limits or banks. Vpon
the euen of the feast of All Saints, we forsook the way leading towards the
East, (because the people were now descended very much South) and we went
on our iourney by certaine Alpes, or mountaines directly Southward, for the
space of 8. dayes together. [Sidenote: Eight dayes iourney southward. Asses
swift of foote.] In the foresaid desert I saw many asses (which they cal
Colan) being rather like vnto mules: these did our guide and his companions
chase very eagerly: howbeit, they did but lose their labour: for the
beastes were too swift for them. [Sidenote: High mountaines. Manured
grounds.] Vpon the 7. day there appeared to the South of vs huge high
mountaines, and we entred into a place which was well watered, and fresh as
a garden, and found land tilled and manured. [Sidenote: Kenchat a village
of the Saracens.] The eight day after the feast of All Saints, we arriued
at a certain towne of the Saracens, named Kenchat, the gouernour whereof
met our guide at the townes end with ale and cups. For it is their maner at
all townes and villages, subiect vnto them, to meet the messengers of Baatu
and Mangu Can with meate and drinke. At the same time of the yere, they
went vpon the yce in that countrey. And before the feast of S. Michael
[Sidenote: The 7. day of Nouember.], we had frost in the desert. I enquired
the name of that prouince but being now in a strange territorie, they could
not tell mee the name thereof, but onely the name of a very smal citie in
the same prouince. [Sidenote: A great riuer.] And there descended a great
riuer [Footnote: The Terek is probably alluded to.] downe from the
mountaines, which watered the whole region, according as the inhabitants
would giue it passage, by making diuers chanels and sluces: neither did
this riuer exonerate it selfe into any sea, but was swallowed vp by an
hideous gulfe into the bowels of the earth: [Sidenote: Many lakes. Vines.]
and it caused many fennes or lakes. Also I saw many vines, and dranke of
the wine thereof.

De interfectione Ban et habitatione Teutonicorum. Cap. 25.

[Sidenote: Casale Montes Caucasi contiguantur mari Orientali Talas, vel
Chincitalas ciuitas. Frater Andreas.] Sequenti die venimus ad aliud casale
propinquius montibus. Et quasiui de montibus, de quibus intellexi, quod
essent montes Caucasi: qui contiguantur ex vtraque parte maris ab Occidente
vsque ad Orientem: et quod transiueramus mare supradictum, quod intrat
Etilia. Quasiui etiam de Talas ciuitate, in qua erant Teutonici serui Buri,
de quibus dixerat frater Andreas, de quibus etiam quasiueram multum in
curia Sartach et Baatu. Sed nihil poteram intelligere, nisi quod Ban
dominus eorum fuerat interfectus tali occasione. Ipse non erat in bonis
pascuis. Et quadam die dum esset ebrius, loquebatur ita cum hominibus suis.
Nonne sum de genere Chingis can sicut Baatus (Et ipse erat nepos Baatu vel
frater) quare non vadam super ripam Etilia, sicut Baatu, vt pascam ibi? Qua
verba relata fuerunt Baatu. Tunc ispse Baatu scripsit hominibus illius, vt
adducerent ei dominum ipsorum vinctum quod et fecerunt. [Sidenote: Casale.]
Tunc Baatu quasiuit ab eo si dixisset tale verbum: et ipse confessus est,
tamen excusauit se, quia ebrius erat: (quia solent condonare ebrijs:) et
Baatu respondit: Quomodo audebas me nominare in ebrietate tua? Et fecit ei
amputari caput. De illis Teutonicis nihil potui cognoscere vsque ad curiam
Mangu. Sed in supradicto casali intellexi, quod Talas erat post nos iuxta
montes per sex dietas. [Sidenote: Bolac villa. Aurifodina.] Quando veni ad
curiam Mangu cham, intellexi quod ipse Mangu transtulerat eos de licentia
Baatu versus Orientem spacio itineris vnius mensis a Talas ad quandam
villam qua dicitur Bolac: vbi fodiunt auram, et fabricant arma, Vnde non
potui ire nec redire per eos. Transiui eundo satis prope, per tres dietas
forte ciuitatem illam: sed ego ignoraui: nec potuissem etiam declinasse
extra viam, si bene sciuissem. [Sidenote: Intrat ditionem Mangu cham.] A
pradictos casali iuimus ad Orientem iuxta montes pradictos: et tunc
intrauimus inter homines Mangu cham, qui vbique cantabant et plaudebant
coram ductore nostro: quia ipse erat nuncius Baatu. Hunc enim honorem
exhibent sibi mutuo, vt homines Mangu cham recipiant nuncios Baatu pradicto
modo: Et similiter homines Baatu nuncios Mangu. Tamen homines Baatu
superiores sunt, nec exequuntur ita diligenter. [Sidenote: Alpes in quibus
habitabant Caracatay. Magnus fluuius.] Paucis diebus post hoc intrauimus
Alpes, in quibus solebant habitare Caracatay: et inuenimus ibi magnum
fluuium, [Footnote: The River Roup.] quem oportuit nos transire nauigio.
Post hac intrauimus quandam vallem, vbi vidi castrum quoddam destructum,
cuius muri non erant nisi de luto, et terra colebatur ibi. [Sidenote: Terra
culta. Equius villa boua, longissime a Perside.] Et post inuenimus quandam
bonam villam qua dicitur Equius, in qua erant Saraceni loquentes Persicum:
longissime tamen erant a Perside. [Sidenote: Lacus quindecem dietarum
circuitu.] Sequenti die transgressis illis Alpibus qua descendebant a
magnis montibus ad meridiem, ingressi sumus pulcherrimam planiciem habentem
montes altos a dextris, et quoddam mare a sinistris, siue quendam lacum qui
durat quindecem dietas in circuitu. Et illa planicies, tota irrigabatur ad
libitum aquis descendentibus de montibus, qua omnes recipiuntur in illud
mare. In astate rediuimus ad latus Aquilonare illius maris, vbi similiter
erant magni montes. In planicie pradicta solebant esse multa villa: sed pro
maiori parte omnes erant destructa, vt pascerent ibi Tartari: quia optima
pascua erant ibi. [Sidenote: Cailac magna villa et plena mercatoribus.]
Vnam magnam villam inuenimus ibi nomini Cailac, in qua erat forum, et
frequentabant eam multi mercatores. In illa quieuimus quindecem diebus,
expectantes quendam scriptorem Baatu, qui debebat esse socius ducis nostri
in negotijs expediendis in curia Mangu. [Sidenote: Contomanni.] Terra illa
solebat dici Organum: et solebant habere proprium idioma, et propriam
literam: Sed hac tota erat occupata a Contomannis. Etiam in literatura illa
et idiomate solebant facere Nestorini de partibus illis. Dicuntur Organa,
quia solebant esse optimi Organista vel Citharista, vt dicebatur mihi. Ibi
primo vidi Idolatrias, de quibus noueritis, quod sunt multa secta in

The same in English.

How Ban was put to death: and concerning the habitation of the Dutch men.
Chap. 25.

[Sidenote: A cottage. The mountains of Caucasus are extended vnto the
Easterne Sea.] The day following, we came vnto another cottage neere vnto
the mountains. And I enquired what mountains they were, which I vnderstood
to be the mountains of Caucasus, which are stretched forth, and continued
on both parts to the sea, from the West vnto the East: and on the East part
they are conioyned vnto the foresaid Caspian sea, whereinto the riuer of
Volga dischargeth his streams. I enquired also of the city of [Sidenote:
The citie of Talas or Chincitalas. Friar Andrew.] Talas, wherein were
certaine Dutchmen seruants vnto one Buri, of whom Frier Andrew made
mention. Concerning whom also I enquired very diligently in the courts of
Sartach and Baatu. Howbeit I could haue no intelligence of them, but onely
that their lord and master Ban was put to death vpon the occasion
following: This Ban was not placed in good and fertile pastures. And vpon a
certain day being drunken, he spake on this wise vnto his men. Am not I of
the stocke and kinred of Chingis Can, as well as Baatu? (for in very deede
he was brother or nephew vnto Baatu). Why then doe I not passe and repasse
vpon the banke of Etilia, to feed my cattel there, as freely as Baatu
himselfe doeth? Which speeches of his were reported vnto Baatu. Whereupon
Baatu wrote vnto his seruants to bring their Lorde bound vnto him. And they
did so. Then Baatu demanded of him whether he had spoken any such words?
And hee confessed that he had. Howbeit, (because it is the Tartars maner to
pardon drunken men) he excused himselfe that he was drunken at the same
time. Howe durst thou (quoth Baatu) once name mee in thy drunkennesse? And
with that hee caused his head to be chopt off. Concerning the foresaid
Dutchmen, I could not vnderstand ought, till I was come vnto the court of
Mangu-Can. [Sidenote: The village of Bolac.] And there I was informed that
Mangu-Can had remoued them out of the iurisdiction of Baatu, for the space
of a moneths iourney from Talas Eastward, vnto a certaine village, called
Bolac: where they are set to dig gold, and to make armour. Whereupon I
could neither goe nor come by them. I passed very neere the saide citie in
going forth, as namely, within three dayes iourney thereof: but I was
ignorant that I did so: neither could I haue turned out of my way, albeit I
had knowen so much. From the foresaide cottage we went directly Eastward,
by the mountaines aforesaid. [Sidenote: He entreth into the territories of
Mangu Can.] And from that time we trauailed among the people of Mangu-Can,
who in all places sang and daunced before our guide, because hee was the
messenger of Baatu. For this curtesie they doe affoord eche to other:
namely the people of Mangu-Can receiuing the messengers of Baatu, in maner
aforesaide: and so likewise the people of Baatu intertaining the messengers
of Mangu-Can. Notwithstanding the people of Baatu are more surlie and
stoute, and shewe not so much curtesie vnto the subiectes of Mangu-Can, as
they doe vnto them. [Sidenote: Certain Alpes wherein the Cara Catayans
inhabited. A mighty riuer.] A fewe dayes after, wee entered vpon those
Alpes where the Cara Catayans were woont to inhabite. And there wee found a
mightie riuer: insomuch that we were constrained to embarke our selues, and
to saile ouer it. Afterward we came into a certaine valley, where I saw a
castle destroyed, the walles whereof were onely of mudde: and in that place
the ground was tilled also. [Sidenote: Ground tilled. Equius.] And there
wee founde a certaine village, named Equius, wherein were Saracens,
speaking the Persian language: howbeit they dwelt an huge distance from
Persia. [Sidenote: A lake of fifteene dayes iourney in compasse.] The day
following, hauing passed ouer the foresaide Alpes which descended from the
great mountains Southward, we entered into a most beautiful plaine, hauing
high mountaines on our right hande, and on the left hande of vs a certaine
Sea or lake, [Footnote: Lake Erivan.] which containeth fifteene dayes
iourney in circuite. All the foresayde plaine is most commodiously watered
with certaine freshets distilling from the said mountaines, all which do
fall into the lake. In Sommer time wee returned by the North shore of the
saide lake, and there were great mountaines on that side also. Vpon the
forenamed plaine there were wont to be great store of villages: but for the
most part they were all wasted, in regarde of the fertile pastures, that
the Tartars might feede their cattel there. [Sidenote: Cailac a great city,
and full of merchants.] Wee found one great citie there named Cailac,
wherein was a mart, and great store of Merchants frequenting it. In this
citie wee remained fifteene dayes, staying for a certaine Scribe or
Secretarie of Baatu, who ought to haue accompanied our guide for a
despatching of certaine affaires in the court of Mangu. All this countrey
was wont to be called Organum: and the people thereof had their proper
language, and their peculiar kinde of writing. [Sidenote: Contomanni.] But
it was altogether inhabited of the people called Contomanni. The Nestorians
likewise in those parts vsed the very same kinde of language and writing.
They are called Organa, because they were wont to be most skilfull in
playing vpon the Organes or citherne, as it was reported vnto me. Here
first did I see worshippers of idoles, concerning whom, bee it knowen vnto
your maiestie, that there be many sects of them in the East countries.

Quod Nestorini et Saraceni sunt mixti et Idolatra. Cap. 26.

[Sidenote: Iugures populi, Idolatra.] Primi sunt Iugures, quorum terra
contiguatur cum terra pradicta Organum inter montes illos versus Orientem:
Et in omnibus ciuitatibus eorum sunt mixti Nestorini et Saraceni. Et ipsi
etiam sunt diffusi versus Persidem in ciuitatibus Saracenorum. [Sidenote:
Cailac.] In pradicta ciuitate Cailac habebant etiam ipsi tres Idolatrias,
quarum duas intraui, vt viderem stultitias eorum. In prima inueni quendam,
qui habebat cruciculam de atramento super manum suam. Vnde credidi quod
esset Christianus: quia ad omnia qua querebam ab eo, respondebat vt
Christianus. Vnde quasiui ab eo: Quare ergo non habetis crucem et imaginem
Iesu Christi? Et ipse respondit, non habemus consuetudinem. Vnde ego
credidi quod essent Christiani: sed ex defectu doctrina omitterent. Videbam
enim ibi post quandam cistam, qua erat eis loco altaris, super quam ponunt
lucernas et oblationes, quandam imaginationem habentem alas quasi Sancti
Michaelis: et alias quasi ipsorum tenentes digitos sicut ad benedieendum.
Illo sero non potui aliud inuenire. Quia Saraceni in tantum inuitant eos,
quod nec etiam volunt loqui inde eis. Vnde quando quarebam a Saracenis de
ritu talium, ipsi scandalizabantur. In crastino fuerunt kalenda et pascha
Saracenoram et mutaui hospitium: ita quod fui hospitatus prope aliam
Idolatriam. Homines enim colligunt nuncios, quilibet secundum posse suum
vel portionem suam. Tunc intrans Idolatriam pradictam inueni sacerdotes
Idolorum. In kalendis enim aperiunt templa sua, et ornant se sacerdotes, et
offerunt populi oblationes de pane et fructibus. [Sidenote: Iugures secta
diuisa ab alijs Idolatris.] Primo ergo describo vobis ritus communes omnes
Idolatrarum: et postea istorum Iugurum; qui sunt quasi secta diuisa ab
alijs. Omnes adorant ad Aquilonem complosis manibus: et prosternentes se
genibus flexis ad terram, ponentes frontem super manus. Vnde Nestorini in
partibus illis nullo modo iungunt manus orando: sed orant extensis palmis
ante pectus. Porrigunt templa sua ab Oriente in Occidentem: et in latere
Aquilonari faciunt cameram vnam quasi eorum exeuntem: vel aliter, Si est
domus quadrati, in medio domus ad latus aquilonare intercludunt vnam
cameram in loco chori. Ibi ergo collocant vnam arcam longam et latam sicut
mensam vnam. [Sidenote: Fuit apud Caracarum frater Wilhelmus.] Et post
illam arcam contra meridiem collocant principale idolum: quod ego vidi apud
Caracarum, ita magnum sicut pingitur Sanctus Christopherus. Et dixit mihi
quidam sacerdos Nestorinus, qui venerat ex Cataya, quod in terra illa est
Idolum ita magnum, quod potest videri a duabus dietis. Et collocant alia
idola in circuitu, omnia pulcherrime deaurata: Super cistam illam, qua est
quasi mensa vna, ponunt lucernas et oblationes. Omnes porta templorum sunt
aperta ad meridiem contrario modo Saracenis. Item habent campanas magnas
sicut nos. Ideo credo quod orientales Christiani noluerunt habere eas.
Ruteni tamen habent et Graci in Gasaria.

The same in English.

How the Nestorians, Saracens, and Idolaters are ioyned together. Chap. 26.

[Sidenote: The people called Iugures idolaters.] The first sort of these
idolaters are called Iugures: whose land bordereth vpon the foresaid land
of Organum, within the said mountains Eastward: and in al their cities
Nestorians do inhabit together, and they are dispersed likewise towards
Persia in the cities of the Saracens. The citizens of the foresaid city of
Cailac had 3. idole-Temples: and I entred into two of them, to beholde
their foolish superstitions. In the first of which I found a man hauing a
crosse painted with ink vpon his hand, whereupon I supposed him to be a
Christian: for he answered like a Christian vnto al questions which I
demanded of him. And I asked him, Why therefore haue you not the crosse
with the image of Iesu Christ thereupon? And he answered: We haue no such
custome. Whereupon I coniectured that they were indeede Christians: but,
that for lacke of instruction they omitted the foresaide ceremonie. For I
saw there behind a certaine chest (which was vnto them in steed of an
altar, whereupon they set candles and oblations) an image hauing wings like
vnto the image of Saint Michael, and other images also, holding their
fingers, as if they would blesse some body. That euening I could not find
any thing els. For the Saracens doe onely inuite men thither, but they will
not haue them speake of their religion. And therfore, when I enquired of
the Saracens concerning such ceremonies, they were offended thereat. On the
morrow after were the Kalends, and the Saracens feast of Passeouer. And
changing mine Inne or lodging the same day, I tooke vp mine abode neere
vnto another idole-Temple. For the citizens of the said citie of Cailac doe
curteously inuite, and louingly intertaine all messengers, euery man of
them according to his abilitie and portion. And entring into the foresaid
idole-Temple, I found the Priests of the said idoles there. For alwayes at
the Kalends they set open their Temples, and the priests adorne themselues,
and offer vp the peoples oblations of bread and fruits. First therefore I
will describe vnto you those rites and ceremonies, which are common vnto
all their idole-Temples: and then the superstitions of the foresaid
Iugures, which be, as it were, a sect distinguished from the rest They doe
all of them worship towards the North, clapping their hands together, and
prostrating themselues on their knees vpon the earth, holding also their
foreheads in their hands. Wherupon the Nestorians of those parts will in no
case ioyne their hands together in time of prayer: but they pray,
displaying their hands before their breasts. They extend their Temples in
length East and West: and vpon the North side they build a chamber, in
maner of a Vestry for themselues to goe forth into. Or sometimes it is
otherwise. If it be a foure square Temple, in the midst of the Temple
towards the North side therof, they take in one chamber in that place where
the quire should stand. And within the said chamber they place a chest long
and broad like vnto a table: and behinde the saide chest towardes the South
stands their principall idole: which I sawe at Caracaram, and it was as
bigge as the idole of Saint Christopher. [Sidenote: Frier William was at
Caracarum.] Also a certaine Nestorian priest, which had bin in Catay, saide
that in that countrey there is an idole of so huge a bignes, that it may be
seen two daies iourney before a man come at it. And so they place other
idoles round about the foresaid principal idole, being all of them finely
gilt ouer with pure golde: and vpon the saide chest, which is in manner of
a table, they set candles and oblations. The doores of their Temples are
alwayes opened towards the South, contrary to the custome of the Saracens.
They haue also great belles like vnto vs. And that is the cause (as I
thinke) why the Christians of the East will in no case vse great belles.
Notwithstanding they are common among the Russians, and Gracians of

De templis eorum et idolis, et qualiter se habent in officio deorum suorum.
Cap. 27.

Omnes sacerdotes eorum rasum habent totum caput et barbam; sunt vestiti de
croceo, et seruant castitatem, ex quo radunt caput: et viuunt pariter
centum vel ducenti in vna congregatione. Diebus quibus intrant templum,
ponunt duo scamna, et sedent e regione chorus contra chorum habentes libros
in manibus, quos aliquando deponunt super illa scamna: et habent capita
discooperta quandiu insunt in templo, legentes in silencio, et tenentes
silencium. Vnde cum ingressus fuissem apud Oratorium quoddam eorum, et
inuenissem eos ita sedentes, multis modis tentaui eos prouocare ad verba,
et nullo modo potui. Habent etiam quocunque vadunt quendam restem centum
vel ducentorum nucleorum, sicut nos portamus pater noster: Et dicunt semper
hac verba: Ou mam Hactani: hoc est, Deus tu nosti; secundum quod quidem
eorum interpretatus est mihi. Et toties expectant remunerationem a Deo,
quoties hoc dicendo memoratur Dei. Circa templum suum semper faciunt
pulchrum atrium, quod bene includunt muro: et ad meridiem faciunt portam
magnam, in qua sedent ad colloquendum. Et super illam portam erigunt
perticam longam, qua emineat si possint, super totam villam. Et per illam
perticam potest cognosci, quod domus illa sit templum Idolorum. Ista
communia sunt omnibus Idolatris. Quando ergo ingressus fui pradictam
Idolatriam, inueni sacerdotes sedentes sub porta exteriori. Illi quos vidi,
videbantur mihi fratres Franci esse rasis barbis. [Sidenote: Tyara
cartacea.] Tyaras habebant in capitibus cartaceas. Istorum Iugurum
sacerdotes habent talem habitum quocunque vadunt: semper sunt in tunicis
croceis satis strictis accincti desuper recte sicut Franci: et habent
pallium super humerum sinistrum descendens inuolutum per pectus et dorsum
ad latus dextrum sicut diaconus portans casulam in quadragesima. Istorum
literas acceperunt Tartari. [Sidenote: Chinenses ita etiam scribunt.] Ipsi
incipiunt scribere sursum, et ducunt lineam deorsum, et, eodem modo ipsi
legunt et multiplicant lineas a sinistra ad dextram. [Sidenote: Sortilegi.]
Isti multum vtuntur cartis et caracteribus pro sortilegio. Vnde templa sua
plena sunt breuibus suspensis. Et Mangu-cham mittit vobis literas in
idiomate Moal et literatura eorum. [Sidenote: Combustio mortuorum.] Isti
comburunt mortuos suos secundum antiquum modum, et recondunt puluerem in
summitate pyramidis. Cum ergo sedissem iuxta pradictos sacerdotes postquam
ingressus fueram templum et vidissem idola eorum multa magna et parua:
quasiui ab eis quid ipsi crederent de Deo. Qui responderunt, Non credimus
nisi vnum Deum. Et ego quasiui: Creditis quod ipse sit spiritus vel aliquid
corporale? Dixerunt, credimus quod sit spiritus. Et ego: Creditis quod
nunquam sumpserit humanam naturam: Dixerunt, minime. Tunc ego: ex quo
creditis, quod non sit nisi vnus spiritus, quare facitis ei imagines
corporales et tot insuper? Ex quo non creditis quod factus sit homo, quare
facitis ei magis imagines hominum, quam alterius animalis? Tunc
responderunt, Nos non figuramus istas imagines Deo. Sed quando aliquis
diues moritur ex nostris, vel filius, vel vxor, vel aliquis charus eius
facit fieri imaginem defuncti, et ponit eam hic: et nos veneramur eam ad
memoriam eius. Quibus ego, Tunc ergo non facitis ista nisi propter
adulationem hominum. Immo dixerunt ad memoriam. Tunc quasiuerunt a me quasi
deridendo: vbi est Deus? Quibus ego, Vbi est anima vestra? Dixerunt, in
corpore nostro. Quibus ego, Nonne est vbique in corpore tuo et totum regit,
et tamen non videtur? Ita Deus vbique est, et omnia gubernat, inuisibilis
tamen, quia intellectus et sapientia est. Tunc cum vellem plura ratiocinari
cum illis, interpres meus fatigatus non valens verba exprimere, fecit me
tacere. Istorum secta sunt Moal siue Tartari, quantum ad hoc, quod ipsi non
credunt nisi vnum Deum: tamen faciunt de filtro imagines defunctorum
suorum, et induunt eas quinque pannis preciosissimis, et ponunt in vna biga
vel duabus, et illas bigas nullus audet tangere: et sunt sub custodia
diuinatorum suorum, qui sunt eorum sacerdotes, de quibus postea narrabo
vobis. Isti diuinatores semper sunt ante curiam ipsius Mangu et aliorum
diuitum: pauperes enim non habent eos; nisi illi qui sunt de genere
Chingis. Et cum debent bigare, ipsi pracedunt, sicut columna nubis filios
Isral, et ipsi considerant locum metandi castra, et post deponunt domos
suas; et post eos tota curia. Et tunc cum sit dies festus siue kalenda ipsi
extrahunt pradictas imagines et ponunt eas ordinate per circuitum in domo
sua. Tunc veniunt Moal et ingrediuntur domum illam, et inclinant se
imaginibus illis et venerantur illas. Et illam domum nemini ingredi
extraneo licet: Quadam enim vice volui ingredi et multum dure increpatus

The same in English.

Of their Temples and idoles: and howe they behaue themselues in worshipping
their false gods. Chap. 27.

All their Priests had their heads and beards shauen quite ouer: and they
are clad in saffron coloured garments: and being once shauen, they lead an
vnmaried life from that time forward: and they liue an hundreth or two
hundreth of them together in one cloister or couent. Vpon those dayes when
they enter into their temples, they place two long foormes therein:
[Sidenote: Bookes.] and so sitting vpon the sayd foormes like singing men
in a quier, namely the one halfe of them directly ouer against the other,
they haue certaine books in their hands, which sometimes they lay downe by
them vpon the foormes: and their heads are bare so long as they remaine in
the temple. And there they reade softly vnto themselues, not vttering any
voice at all. Whereupon comming in amongst them, at the time of their
superstitious deuotions, and finding them all siting mute in maner
aforesayde, I attempted diuers waies to prouoke them vnto speach, and yet
could not by any means possible. They haue with them also whithersoeuer
they goe, a certaine string with an hundreth or two hundreth nutshels
thereupon, much like to our bead-roule which we cary about with vs. And
they doe alwayes vtter these words: _Ou mam Hactani_, God thou knowest: as
one of them expounded it vnto me. And so often doe they expect a reward at
Gods hands, as they pronounce these words in remembrance of God. Round
about their temple they doe alwayes make a faire court, like vnto a
churchyard, which they enuiron with a good wall: and vpon the South part
thereof they build a great portal, wherein they sit and conferre together.
And vpon the top of the said portall they pitch a long pole right vp,
exalting it, if they can, aboue all the whole towne besides. And by the
same pole all men may knowe, that there stands the temple of their idoles.
These rites and ceremonies aforesayd be common vnto all idolaters in those
parts. Going vpon a time towards the foresayd idole-temple, I found certain
priests sitting in the outward portal. And those which I sawe, seemed vnto
me, by their shauen beards, as if they had bene French men. They wore
certaine ornaments vpon their heads made of paper. The priestes of the
foresaide Iugures doe vse such attire whithersoeuer they goe. They are
alwaies in their saffron coloured iackets, which be very straight being
laced or buttened from the bosome right downe, after the French fashion.
And they haue a cloake vpon their left shoulder descending before and
behind vnder the right arme, like vnto a deacon carying the housselboxe in
time of lent. Their letters or kind of writing the Tartars did receiue.
[Sidenote: Paper. So do the people of China vse to write, drawing their
lines perpendicularly downward, and not as we doe from the right hand to
the lefte.] They begin to write at the top of their paper drawing their
lines right downe: and so they reade and multiply their lines from the left
hand to the right. They doe vse certaine papers and characters in their
magical practices. Whereupon their temples are full of such short scroules
hanged round about them. Also Mangu-Can hath sent letters vnto your
Maiestie written in the language of the Moals or Tartars, and in the
foresayd hand or letter of the Iugures. They burne their dead according to
the auncient custome, and lay vp the ashes in the top of a Pyramis. Now,
after I had sit a while by the foresaid priests, and entred into their
temple and seene many of their images both great and small, I demanded of
them what they beleeued concerning God? And they answered: We beleeue that
there is onely one God. And I demaunded farther: Whether do you beleue that
he is a spirit, or some bodily substance? They saide: We beleeue that he is
a spirite. Then said I: Doe you beleeue that God euer tooke mans nature
vpon him? They answered: Noe. And againe I said: Sithence ye beleeue that
he is a spirit, to what end doe you make so many bodily images to represent
him? Sithence also you beleeue not that hee was made man: why doe you
resemble him rather vnto the image of a man then of any other creature?
Then they answered saying: we frame not these images whereby to represent
God. But when any rich man amongst vs, or his sonne, or his wife, or any of
his friends deceaseth, hee causeth the image of the dead party to be made,
and to be placed here: and we in remembrance of him doe reuerence
thereunto. Then I replyed: you doe these things onely for the friendship
and flatterie of men. Noe (said they) but for their memory. Then they
demanded of me, as it were in scoffing wise: Where is God? To whom I
answered: where is your soule? They said, in our bodies. Then saide I, is
it not in euery part of your bodie, ruling and guiding the whole bodie, and
yet notwithstanding is not seene or perceiued? Euen so God is euery where
and ruleth all things, and yet is he inuisible, being vnderstanding and
wisedome it selfe. Then being desirous to haue had some more conference
with them, by reason that mine interpreter was weary, and not able to
expresse my meaning, I was constrained to keepe silence. The Moals or
Tartars are in this regard of their sect: namely they beleeue that there is
but one God: howbeit they make images of felt, in remembrance of their
deceased friends, couering them with fiue most rich and costly garments,
and putting them into one or two carts, which carts no man dare once touch:
and they are in the custody of their soothsayers, who are their priests,
concerning whom I will giue your Highnesse more at large to vnderstand
hereafter. These soothsayers or diuiners do alwaies attend vpon the court
of Mangu and of other great personages. As for the poorer or meaner sorte,
they haue them not, but such onely as are of the stocke and kindred of
Chingis. And when they are to remoue or to take any iourney, the said
diuiners goe before them, euen as the cloudie piller went before the
children of Israel. And they appoint ground where the tents must be
pitched, and first of al they take down their owne houses: and after them
the whole court doth the like. Also vpon their festiual dates or kalends
they take forth the foresayd images, and place them in order round, or
circle wise within the house. Then come the Moals or Tartars, and enter
into the same house, bowing themselues before the said images and worship
them. Moreouer, it is not lawfull for any stranger to enter into that
house. For vpon a certaine time I my selfe would haue gone in, but I was
chidden full well for my labour.

De diuersis nationibus, et de illis qui comedere solebant parentes suos.
Cap. 28.

Pradicti vero Iugures, qui sunt mixti cum Christianis et Saracenis, per
frequentes disputationes, vt credo, peruenerunt ad hoc, quod non credunt
nisi vnum deum. Et isti fuerunt habitantes in ciuitatibus, qui post
obediuerunt Chingis Cham: vnde ipse dedit regi eorum filiam suam.
[Sidenote: Patria Presbiter Iohannis.] Et ipsa Caracarum est quasi in
territorio eorum: Et tota terra regis siue presbyteri Iohannis et Vut
fratris eius circa terras eorum; Sed isti in pascuis ad aquilonem, illi
Iugures inter montes ad meridiem. Inde est quod ipsi Moal sumpserunt
literas eorum. Et ipsi sunt magni scriptores eorum: et omnes fere Nestorim
sciunt literas eorum. [Sidenote: Tangut populi fortissimi.] Post istos sunt
ipsi Tangut ad orientem inter montes illos, homines fortissimi, qui
ceperunt Chingis in bello. Et pace facta dimissis ab eis, postea subiugauit
eos. [Sidenote: Boues pilosis caudis: his similes sunt in Quinera America
septentrionalis prouincia.] Isti habent boues fortissimos habentes caudas
plenas pilis sicut equi, et ventres pilosos et dorsa. Bassiores sunt alijs
bobus in tibijs, sed ferociores multum. Isti trahunt magnas domos
Moallorum: et habent cornua gracilia, longa, acuosa, acutissima: ita quod
oportet semper secare summitates eorum. Vacca non permittit se iniungi nisi
cantetur ei. Habent etiam naturam bubali quia si vident hominem indutum
rubeis, insiliunt in eum volentes interficere. [Sidenote: Tebet populi.]
Post illos sunt Tebet homines solentes comedere parentes suos defunctos, vt
causa pietatis non facerent aliud sepulchrum eis nisi viscera sua. Modo
tamen hoc dimiserunt, quia abominabiles erant omni nationi. Tamen adhuc
faciunt pulcros ciphos de capitibus parentum, vt illis bibentes habeant
memoriam eorum in iocunditate sua. Hoc dixit mihi qui viderat. Isti habent
multum de auro in terra sua. [Sidenote: Auri Abundantia.] Vnde qui indiget
auro, fodit donec reperiat, et accipiat quando indiget, residuum condens in
terra: quia si reponeret in arca vel in thesauro, crederet quod Deus
auferret ei aliud quod est in terra. De istis hominibus vidi personas
multum deformes. [Sidenote: Tangut homines magni sed fusci.] Tangut vidi
homines magnos sed fuscos. Iugures sunt mediocris statura sicut nostri.
Apud Iugures est fons et radix ideomatis Turci et Comanici. [Sidenote:
Langa et Solanga.] Post Tebet sunt Langa et Solanga, quorum nuncios vidi in
curia: Qui adduxerant magnas bigas plusquam decem, quarum qualibet
trahebatur sex bobus. [Sidenote: Solanisimiles Hispanis, et fusci.] Isti
sunt parui homines et fusci sicut Hispani: et habent tunicas sicut
supertunicale diaconi manicis parum strictioribus: et habent in capitibus
mitras sicut episcopi. Sed pars anterior est parum interior quam posterior,
et non terminatur in vnum angulum: sed sunt quadra desuper, et sunt de
stramine rigidato per calorem magnum, et limato in tantum, quod fulget ad
radium solis sicut speculum vel galea bene burnita. Et circa tempora habent
longas bendas de eadem materia assutas ipsi mitra; qua se extendunt ad
ventum sicut duo cornua egredientia de temporibus. Et quando ventus nimis
iactat eas plicant eas per medium mitra superius a tempore in tempus: et
iacent sicut circulus ex transuerso capitis. [Sidenote: Tabula de
elephantino.] Et principalis nuncius quando veniebat ad curiam, habebat
tabulam de dente elephantino ad longitudinem vnius cubiti, et ad
latitudinem vnius palmi, rasam multum: Et quandocunque loquebatur ipsi
Cham, vel alicui magno viro, semper aspiciebat in illam tabulam, ac si
inueniret ibi ea qua dicebat: nec respiciebat ad dextram vel sinestram, nec
in faciem illius cui loquebatur. Etiam accedens coram domino et recedens
nusquam respicit nisi in tabulam suam. [Sidenote: Muc populi.] Vltra istos
sunt alij homines, vt intellexi pro vero, qui dicuntur Muc, qui habent
villas, sed nulla animalia sibi appropriant: tamen sunt multi greges et
multa armenta in terra ipsorum, et nullos custodit ea. Sed cum aliquis
indiget aliquo, ascendit collem et clamat, et omnia animalia audientia
clamorem accedunt circa illum, et permittunt se tractari quasi domestica.
Et si nuncius vel aliquis extraneus accedat ad regionem illam, ipsi
includunt eum in domo, et ministrant ei necessaria, donec negocium eius
fuerit expeditum. Quia si iret extraneus per regionem, animalia ad odorem
eius fugerent, et efficerentur syluestria. [Sidenote: Magna Cathaya.] Vltra
est magna Cathaya, cuius incola antiquitus vt credo dicebantur Seres. Ab
ipsis enim veniunt optimi panni serici. Et ille populus dicitur Seres a
quodam oppido eorum. Bene intellexi, quod in illa regione est oppidum
habens muros argenteos et propugnacula aurea. In ista terra sunt multa
prouincia, quarum plures adhuc non obediunt Moallis. Et inter [Footnote:
_Aliqua desiderantur_.]

The same in English.

Of diuers and sundry nations: and of certaine people which
were wont to eate their owne parents. Chap. 28.

But the foresayd Iugures (who liue among the Christians, and the Saracens)
by their sundry disputations as I suppose, haue bene brought vnto this, to
beleeue that there is but one onely God. And they dwelt in certaine cities,
which afterward were brought in subiection vnto Chingis Can: whereupon he
gaue his daughter in mariage vnto their king. [Sidenote: The countrey of
Presbiter Iohn] Also the citie of Caracarum it selfe is in a manner within
their territory: and the whole countrey of king or Presbyter Iohn, and of
his brother Vut lyeth neere vnto their dominions: sauing, that they
inhabite in certaine pastures Northward and the sayde Iugures betweene the
mountaines towardes the South. Whereupon it came to passe, that the Moals
receiued letters from them. And they are the Tartars principall scribes and
al the Nestorians almost can skill of their letters. [Sidenote: Tangut.]
Next vnto them, between the foresaid mountaines Eastward, inhabiteth the
nation of Tangut, who are a most valiant people, and tooke Chingis in
battell. But after the conclusion of a league hee was set at libertie by
them, and afterward subdued them. [Sidenote: Strange oxen.] These people of
Tangut haue oxen of great strength, with tailes like vnto horses, and with
long shagge haire vpon their backes and bellyes. They haue legges greater
then other oxen haue, and they are exceedingly fierce. These oxen drawe the
great houses of the Moals and their hornes are slender, long, streight, and
most sharpe pointed, insomuch that their owners are faine to cut off the
endes of them. A cowe will not suffer her selfe to be coupled vnto one of
them vnles they whistle or sing vnto her. They haue also the qualities of a
Buffe: for if they see a man clothed in red, they run vpon him immediately
to kill him. [Sidenote: The people of Tebet.] Next vnto them are the people
of Tebet, men which were wont to eate the carkases of their deceased
parents that for pities sake, they might make no other sepulchre for them,
then their owne bowels. Howbeit of late they haue left off this custome,
because that thereby they became abominable and odious vnto al other
nations. Notwithstanding vnto this day they make fine cups of the skuls of
their parents, to the ende that when they drinke out of them, they may
amidst all their iollities and delights call their dead parents to
remembrance. This was tolde mee by one that saw it. [Sidenote: Abundance of
golde.] The sayd people of Tebet haue great plentie of golde in their land.
Whosoeuer therefore wanteth golde, diggeth till he hath found some
quantitie, and then taking so much thereof as will serue his turne, he
layeth vp the residue within the earth: because, if he should put it into
his chest or storehouse, hee is of opinion that God would withholde from
him all other gold within the earth. I sawe some of those people, being
very deformed creatures. [Sidenote: The stature of the people of Tangut,
and of the Iugures.] In Tangut I saw lusty tall men, but browne and swart
in colour. The Iugures are of a middle stature like vnto our French men.
Amongst the Iugures is the originall and roote of the Turkish, and Comanian
languages. [Sidenote: Langa and Solanga.] Next vnto Tebet are the people of
Langa and Solanga, whose messengers I saw in the Tartars court. And they
had brought more than ten great cartes with them, euery one of which was
drawen with sixe oxen. [Sidenote: The people of Solanga resemble
Spaniards.] They be little browne men like vnto Spaniards. Also they haue
iackets, like vnto the vpper vestment of a deacon, sauing that the sleeues
are somewhat streighter. And they haue miters vpon their heads like
bishops. But the fore part of their miter is not so hollow within as the
hinder part: neither is it sharpe pointed or cornered at the toppe: but
there hang downe certaine square flappes compacted of a kinde of strawe
which is made rough and rugged with extreme heat, and is so trimmed, that
it glittereth in the sunne beames, like vnto a glasse, or an helmet well
burnished. And about their temples they haue long bands of the foresayd
matter fastened vnto their miters, which houer in the wind, as if two long
hornes grewe out of their heads. And when the wind tosseth them vp and
downe too much, they tie them ouer the midst of their miter from one temple
to another: and so they lie circle wise ouerthwart their heads. [Sidenote:
A table of elephants tooth.] Moreouer their principal messenger comming
vnto the Tartars court had a table of elephants tooth about him of a cubite
in length, and a handfull in breadth, being very smoothe. And whensoeuer
hee spake vnto the Emperor himselfe, or vnto any other great personage, hee
alwayes beheld that table, as if hee had found therein those things which
hee spake: neither did he cast his eyes to the right hand, nor to the
lefte, nor vpon his face, with whom he talked. Yea, going too and fro
before his lord, he looketh no where but only vpon his table. [Sidenote:
The people called Muc.] Beyond them (as I vnderstand of a certainty) there
are other people called Muc, hauing villages, but no one particular man of
them appropriating any cattell vnto himselfe. Notwithstanding there are
many flockes and droues of cattell in their countrey, and no man appointed
to keepe them. But when any one of them standeth in neede of any beast, hee
ascendeth vp vnto an hill, and there maketh a shout, and all the cattel
which are within hearing of the noyse, come flocking about him, and suffer
themselues to be handled and taken, as if they were tame. And when any
messenger or stranger commeth into their countrie, they shut him vp into an
house, ministring there things necessary vnto him, vntill his businesse be
despatched. For if anie stranger should trauell through that countrie, the
cattell would flee away at the very sent of him, and so would become wilde.
[Sidenote: Great Cathaya.] Beyond Muc is great Cathaya, the inhabitants
whereof (as I suppose) were of olde time, called Seres. For from them are
brought most excellent stuffes of silke. And this people is called Seres of
a certame towne in the same countrey. I was crediblie informed, that in the
said countrey, there is one towne hauing walls of siluer, and bulwarkes or
towers of golde. There be many prouinces in that land, the greater part
whereof are not as yet subdued vnto the Tartars. And amongst [Footnote:
Somewhat is wanting.]

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