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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries by Richard Hakluyt

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The same in English.

Of the beginning of their empire or gouernment. Chap. 8.

[Sidenote: The people of Tartarie. ]

The East countrie, whereof wee haue entreated, which is called Mongal, is
reported to haue had of olde time foure sortes of people. One of their
companions was called Yeka Mongal, that is the great Mongals. The second
company was called Sumongal, that is, the Water-Mongals, who called
themselues Tartars of a certaine riuer running through their countrey named
Tartar. The third was called Merkat, and the fourth Metrit. All these
people had one and the same person, attire of body and language, albeit
they were diuided by princes and prouinces. [Sidenote: The original and the
exploits of Chingis.] In the prouince of Yeka Mongol, there was a certaine
man called Chingis. This man became a mighty hunter. For he learned to
steale men, and take them for a pray. He ranged into other countries taking
as many captiues as he could, and ioining them vnto himselfe. Also hee
allured the men of his owne countrey vnto him, who followed him as their
captaine and ringleader to doe mischiefe. Then began he to make warre vpon
the Sumongals or Tartars, and slewe their captaine, and after many
conflicts, subdued them vnto himselfe, and brought them all into bondage.
Afterwards he vsed their helpe to fight against the Merkats, dwelling by
the Tartars, whom also hee vanquished in battell. Proceeding from thence,
he fought against the Metrites, and conquered them also. [Sidenote: The
Naimani.] The Naimani hearing that Chingis was thus exalted, greatly
disdeined thereat. For they had a mighty and puissant Emperour, vnto whom
all the foresaid nations payed tribute. Whose sonnes, when he was dead,
succeeded him in his Empire. [Sidenote: The discord of brethren.] Howbeit,
being young and foolish, they knew not howe to gouerne the people, but were
diuided, and fell at variance among themselues. Now Chingis being exalted,
as is aforesaid, they neuerthelesse inuaded the forenamed countries, put
the inhabitants to the sword, and carried away their goods for a pray.
Which Chingis hauing intelligence of, gathered all his subiects together.
The Naimani also, and the people called Karakitay assembled and banded
themselues at a certaine straight valley, where, after a battell foughten
they were vanquished by the Mongals. And being thus vanquished, they were,
the greater part of them, slaine; and others, which could not escape, were
carried into captiuitie. [Sidenote: Occoday Cham.] In the land of the
foresayd Karakytayans, Occoday Cham, the sonne of Chingis Cham, after he
was created Emperour, built a certaine citie, which he called Chanyl. Neare
vnto which citie, on the South side, there is an huge desert, wherein wilde
men are certainely reported to inhabite, which cannot speake at all, and
are destitute of ioynts in their legges, so that if they fall, they cannot
rise alone by themselues. Howbeit, they are of discretion to make feltes of
Camels haire, wherewith they clothe themselues, and which they holde
against the winde. And if at any time, the Tartars pursuing them, chance to
wound them with their arrowes, they put herbes into their wounds and flye
strongly before them.

De mutua victoria ipsorum et Kythaorum. Cap. 9.

Mongali autem in terram suam reuertentes, se contra [Marginal note:
Haythono et Paulo Veneto sunt Cathay.] Kythaos ad pralium parauerunt, et
castra mouentes, eorum terram intrauerunt. [Sidenote: Tartarorum Cathayna
clades.] Quod audiens eorum Imperator, vnit cum exercitu suo contra illos,
et commissum est pralium durum, in quo Mongali sunt deuicti, omnesque
nobiles eorum, qui erant in exercitu, prater septem occisi sunt. Vnde cum
illis volentibus aliquam impugnare regionem, minatur aliquis stragem, adhuc
respondent: Olim etiam occisi non nisi septem remansimus, et tamen modo
creuimus in multitudinem magnam, ideoque non terremur de talibus. Chingis
autem et alij, qui remanserunt, in terram suam fugerunt. Cumque quieuisset
aliquantulum, praparauit se rursus ad pralium, et processit contra terram
Huyrorum. Isti sunt homines Christiani de secta Nestorianorum. [Sidenote:
Noua victoria. Litera.] Et hos etiam Mongali deuicerunt, eorumque literam
acceperunt; prius enim scripturam non habebant, nunc autem eandem
Mongalorem literam appellant. Inde contra terram Saruyur, et contra terram
Karanitarum, et contra terram Hudirat processit, quos omnes bello deuicit.
Inde in terram suam redijt, et aliquantulum quieuit. Deinde conuocatis
omnibus hominibus suis, contra Kythaos pariter processerunt, diuque contra
illos pugnantes, magnam partem terra illorum vicerunt, eorumque Imperatorem
in ciuitatem suam maiorem concluserunt. Quam et tam longo tempore
obsederunt, quod exercitus expensa omnino, defecerunt. Cumque iam quod
manducarent, penitus non haberent, pracipit Chingischam suis, vt de decem
hominibus vnum ad manducandum darent. [Sidenote: Argentum loco lapidum in
hostem proiectum.] Illi vero de ciuitate machinis et sagittis viriliter
contra istos pugnabant et cum deficerent lapides, argentum et maxime
liquefactum proijciebant. Ciuitas siquidem illa multis erat diuitijs plena.
Cumque diu Mongali pugnassent, et eam bello vincere non possent, vnam
magnam sub terra viam ab exercitu vsque ad medium ciuitatis fecerunt, et
prosilientes in medium eius, contra ciues pugnauerunt. Illi quoque qui
extra remanserant, eodem modo contra illos pugnabant. Denique concidentes
portas ciuitatis intrauerunt, et imperatorem cum pluribus occidentes vrbem
possederunt, aurumque et argentum, et omnes eius diuitias abstulerunt.
[Sidenote: Chingis salutatur Imperator.] Et cum aliquos terra suos homines
nuntios praficissent, in terram propriam reuersi sunt. Tunc primum
Imperatore Kythaorum deuncto, factus est Chingischam imperator Quandam
tamen partem illius terra, quia posita erat in mari nullatenus deuicerunt
vsque hodie. [Sidenote: Cathaynorum litera et religio.] Sunt autem Kitai
homines pagani, habentes literam specialem, et etiam vt dicitur, veteris et
noui Testamenti scripturam. Habent etiam vitas patrum et eremitas et domes,
in quibus orant temporibus suis, ad modum Ecclesiarum facias. Quosdam etiam
sanctos habere se dicunt, et vnum Deum colunt. Christum IESVM Dominum
venerantur, et credunt vitam aternam, sed non baptizantur. Scripturam
nostram honorant ac reuerentur. Christianos diligunt, et eleemosynas plures
faciunt, homines benigni satis et humani videntur. Barbam non habent, et in
dispositione faciei cum Mongalis in parte concordant. [Sidenote:
Opificiorum [Greek: exochae].] Meliores artifices in mundo non inueniuntur
in omnibus operibus, in quibus homines exercentur. Terra eonira est
opulenta numis in frumento et vino, auro et serico ac rebus cateris.

The same in English

Of the mutuall victories betweene them, and the pepole of Kythay. Chap. 9.

But the Mongals returning home into their owne countrey prepared themselues
to battell against the Kythayans: [Marginal note: Haython [1] and Paulus
Venetus [2] call them Cathayans. [Footnote 1: Bishop of Basle, was sent by
Charlemagne as ambassador to Nicephorus Emperor of Constantinople, in 811.
He published an account of his journey which he called his _Itinerarium_.
There is a curious capitulary of his, inserted in Lucas of Acheri's
_Spicilegium_.] [Footnote 2: Better known as Fra Paolo, or Paul Sarpi, the
citizen monk of Venice who has been said to have been "a Catholic in
general, but a Protestant in particular". His attempted assassination on
the Piazza of St Mark at Venice by order of Paul V, the Pope is still one
of the fauourite legends of the City of Gondolas. He is said to have
discouered the circulation of the blood. He died in 1623. (See _Native
Races of America_, in Goldsmid's _Bibliothica Curiosa_, p 17).]] Which
their Emperour hearing, set forward against them with his armie, and they
fought a cruell battell, wherein the Mongals were ouercome, and all their
nobles in the armie, except seuen, were slaine. And for this cause, when
they, purposing to inuade anie region, are threatned by the inhabitants
thereof to be slaine, they doe, to this day, answere: in old time also our
whole number besides being slaine, we remayned but seuen of vs aliue, and
yet notwithstanding we are now growen vnto a great multitude, thinke not
therefore to daunt vs with such brags. [Sidenote: New victories.] But
Chingis and the residue that remained aliue, fled home into their countrey:
And hauing breathed him a little, he prepared himselfe to warre, and went
forth against the people called Huyri: These men were Christians of the
sect of Nestorius. [Sidenote: Letters.] And these also the Mongals
ouercame, and receiued letters or learning from them: for before that time
they had not the arte of writing, and nowe they call it the hand or letters
of the Mongals. Immediately after, hee marched against the countrey of
Saruyur, and of the Karanites, and against the land of Hudirat; all which
he vanquished. Then returned he home into his owne countrey, and breathed
himselfe. Afterward, assembling his warlike troupes, they marched with one
accord against the Kythayans, and waging warre with them a long time, they
conquered, a great part of their land, and shut vp their Emperour into his
greatest citie: which citie they had so long time besieged, that they began
to want necessary prouision for their armie. And when they had no victuals
to feede vpon, Chingis Cham commaunded his souldiers that they should eate
euery tenth man of the companie. [Sidenote: Siluer cast at the enemie
instead of stones.] But they of the citie fought manfully against them,
with engines, dartes, and arrowes, and when stones wanted they threw
siluer, and especially melted siluer: for the same citie abounded with
great riches. Also, when the Mongals had fought a long time and could not
preuale by warre, they made a great trench vnderneath the ground from the
armie vnto the middest of the citie, and there issuing foorth they fought
against the citizens, and the remnant also without the walles fought in
like manner. At last, breaking open the gates of the citie, they entred,
and putting the Emperour, with many other to the sworde, they tooke
possession thereof and conueighed away the golde, siluer, and all the
riches therein. And hauing appointed certaine deputies ouer the countrey,
they returned home into their owne lande. [Sidenote: Chigis Cham proclaimed
Emperour.] This is the first time, when the Emperour of the Kythayans being
vanquished, Chingis Cham obtayned the Empire. [Sidenote: Part of Cathay in
the sea.] But some parte of the countrey, because it lyeth within the sea,
they could by no meanes conquere vnto this day. [Sidenote: The letters and
the religion of the Cathayans.] The men of Kytay are Pagans, hauing a
speciall kinde of writing by themselues, and (as it is reported) the
Scriptures of the olde and newe Testament. They haue also recorded in
hystories the liues of their forefathers and they haue Eremites, and
certaine houses made after the manner of our Churches. which in those dayes
they greatly resorted vnto. They say that they haue diuers Saints also, and
they worship one God. They adore and reuerence CHRIST IESUS our Lorde, and
beleeue the article of eternall life, but are not baptized. They doe also
honourably esteeme and reuerence our Scriptures. They loue Christians, and
bestowe much almes, and are a very courteous and gentle people. They haue
no beardes, and they agree partly with the Mongals in the disposition of
their countenance. [Sidenote: Their excelent workmanship.] In all
occupations which men practise, there are not better artificers in the
whole worlde. Their countrey is exceeding rich, in corne, wine, golde,
silke, and other commodities.

De pugna ipsorum contra Indiam minorem et maiorem. Cap. 10.

Cum autem Mongali cum Imperatore suo Chingischam post prafatam victoriam
aliquantulum quieuissent, exercitus suos diuiserunt. [Sidenote: Thossut
Can, Chingis F.] Imperator siquidem vnum de filijs suis nomine Thosut, quem
etiam Can, id est, Imperatorem, appellabant, cum exercitu contra Comanos
misit, quos ille multo bello deuicit, et postmodum in terram suam redijt.
[Sidenote: India minor debellata.] Alium vero filium cum exercitu contra
Indos misit, qui et minorem Indiam subiecit. Hi sunt nigri Sarraceni, qui
Athiopes sunt vocati. Hic autem excercitus ad pugnam contra Christianos,
qui sunt in India maiori, processit. [Sidenote: Regis maioris India
stratagema.] Quod audiens Rex illus terra, qui vulgo [Marginal note: Vide
scolion in lib 1. cap. 51. M. Pauli Veneti.] Presbyter Iohannes appellatur,
contra illos venit exercitu congregato. Et faciens imagines cupreas
hominum, vnamquanque posuit in sella super equum. Posuit et interius ignem,
et hominem cum folle super equum post imaginem. Itaque cum multis equis et
imaginibus, taliter praparatis, ad pugnam contra Mongalos seu Tartaros
processerunt. Et cum ad locum pralij peruenissent equos istos vnum iuxta
alium pramiserunt. Viri autem qui erant retro, nescio quid super ignem, qui
erat intra imagines, posuerunt, et cum follibus fortiter sufflauerunt. Vnde
factum est, vt ex Graco igne homines et equi comburerentur, et etiam aer ex
fumo denigrantur. [Sidenote: Victoria.] Tumque super Tartaros sagittas
iecerunt Indi, ex quibus multi vulnerati fuerunt et interfecti. Sicque
eiecerunt illos cum magna confusione de suis finibus, nec vnquam, quod ad
ipsos vltra redierint audiuimus.

The same in English.

Of their warre against India maior and minor. Chap. 10.

And when the Mongals with their emperour Chingis Cham had a while rested
themselues after the foresayd victorie, they diuided their armies.
[Sidenote: Thossut Can son of Chingis.] For the Emperour sent one of his
sonnes named Thossut (whom also they called Can, that is to say, Emperour)
with an armie against the people of Comania, whom he vanquished with much
warre, and afterward returned into his owne country. [Sidenote: India minor
subdued.] But he sent his other sonne with an armie against the Indians,
who also subdued India minor. These Indians are the blacke Saracens, which
are also called Athiopians. But here the armie marched forward to fight
against Christians dwelling in India maior. Which the King of that countrey
hearing (who is commonly called Presbiter Iohn) gathered his souldiers
together, and came foorth against them. And making mens images of copper,
he set each of them vpon a saddle on horsebacke, and put fire within them,
and placed a man with a paire of bellowes on the horse backe behinde euery
image. [Sidenote: The stratagem of the king of India.] And so with many
horses and images in such sorte furnished, they marched on to fight against
the Mongals or Tartars. And comming neare vnto the place of the battell,
they first of all sent those horses in order one after another. But the men
that sate behind laide I wote not what vpon the fire within the images, and
blew strongly with their bellowes. Whereupon it came to passe, that the men
and the horses were burnt with wilde fire, and the ayre was darkened with
smoake. Then the Indians cast dartes vpon the Tartars, of whom many were
wounded and slain. And so they expelled them out of their dominions with
great confusion, neither did we heare, that euer they returned thither

Qualiter ab hominibus caninis repulsi, Burithabethinos vicerunt. Cap. 11.

[Sidenote: De monstrosis mulieribus et canibus monstrosa narratio. Forsam
totem videri allegorica allusio possit ad Canibales de quibus Petrus [1]
Martyr Mediolan de rebus Occatucis. [Footnote 1: Born at Florence in 1500,
he entered the church very young, but the reading of the works of Zwingler
and Bucer led him to join the reformers. He withdrew to Basle, where he
married a young nun. He passed over to England in 1547, and obtained a
chair of Theology at Oxford, but Mary caused him to be expelled. He
withdrew to Augsburg, and thence to Zurich, where he died in 1562. His real
name was Pietro Vermigli.]] Cum autem per deserta redirent, in quandam
terram venerunt, in qua, sicut nobis apud Imperatoris curiam per clericos
Ruthenos, et alios, qui diu fuerant inter ipsos, firmiter asserendo
referebatur, monstra quadam, imaginem foemineam habentia, repererunt. Quas
cum per multos interpretes interrogassent, vbi viri terra illius essent,
responderunt, quod in illa terra quanunque foemina nascebantur, habebant
formam humanam, masculi vero speciem caninam. Dumque moram in terra illa
protraherent, Canes in alia fluuij parte conuenerunt. Et cum esset hyems
asperrima omnes se in aquam proiecerunt. Post hac incontinenti sponte in
puluerem voluebantur, sicque puluis admixtus aqua super eos corugelabatur,
et vt ita pluries fecerunt, glacie super eos depressata, cum impetu magno
contra Tartaros ad pugnam conuenerunt. At vero cum illi sagittas super eos
iaciebant, ac si super lapides sagittassent, retro sagitta redibant. Alia
quoque arma eorum in nullo eos ledere poterant. Ipsi vero Canes insultum in
Tartaros iacientes, morsibus vulnerauerunt multos, et occiderunt sicque
illos de suis finibus eiecerunt. Vnde adhuc inter illos est prouerbium de
hoc facto, quod dicunt ad inuicem ridendo: Pater meus vel frater meus a
Canibus fuit occisus. Mulieres autem illorum, quas ceperant, ad terram suam
duxerunt, et vsque ad diem mortis eorum ibidem fuerunt. [Sidenote:
Burithabeth regio. Incolarum mores.] Cum autem exercitus ille Mongalorum
rediret, venit ad terram Burithabeth, cuius habitatores pagani sunt, et hos
Tartari bello vicerunt. Hi consuetudinem habent mirabilem, imo potius
miserabilem. Cum enim alicuius pater humana natura soluit debitum,
congregant omnem parentelam, et comedunt eum. Hi pilos in barba non habent,
imo ferrum quoddam in manibus, sicut vidimus, portant, cum quo semper
barbam, si forte crinis aliquis in ea crescit, depilant. Multi etiam
deformes sunt. Inde vero ille Tartarorum exercitus in terram suam est

The same in English

How being repelled by monstrous men shapen like dogs, they ouercame the
people of Burithabeth. Chap. 11.

[Sidenote: A strange report of certain monstrous women and dogs.] But
returning through the deserts, they came vnto a certaine countrey, wherein
(as it was reported vnto vs in the Emperours court, by certaine clergie men
of Russia and others, who were long time among them, and that by strong and
stedfast affirmation) they found certaine monsters resembling women who
being asked by many interpreters, where the men of that land were, they
answered, that whatsoeuer women were borne there, were indued with the
shape of mankinde, but the males were like vnto dogges. And delaying the
time, in that countrey they met with the said dogges on the other side of
the riuer. And in the midst of sharpe winter, they cast themselues into the
water: Afterward they wallowed in the dust vpon the maine land and so the
dust being mingled with water, was frozen to their backes, and hauing often
times so done, the ice being strongly frozen vpon them, with great fury
they came to fight against the Tartars. And when the Tartars threwe their
dartes, or shot their arrowes among them, they rebounded backe againe, as
if they had lighted vpon stones. And the rest of their weapons coulde by no
meanes hurt them. Howbeit the Dogges made an assault vpon the Tartars, and
wounding some of them with their teeth, and slaying others at length they
draue them out of their countries. And thereupon they haue a Prouerbe of
the same matter, as yet rife among them, which they speake in iesting sorte
one to another: My father or my brother was slaine of Dogges. The women
which they tooke they brought into their owne countrey, who remayned there
till their dying day. [Sidenote: The region of Burithabeth.] And in
traueling homewardes, the sayd armie of the Mongals came vnto the lande of
Burithabeth (the inhabitants whereof are Pagans) and conquered the people
in battell. These people haue a strange or rather a miserable kinde of
custome. [Sidenote: The manners of the people.] For when anie man's father
deceaseth, he assembleth all his kindred and they eate him. These men haue
no beards at all, for we saw them carie a certaine iron instrument in their
hands wherewith, if any haires growe vpon their chinne, they presently
plucke them out. They are also very deformed. From thence the Tartars army
returned to their owne home.

Qualiter a montibus Caspijs, et ab hommibus subterraneis repulsi sunt.
Cap. 12.

[Sidenote: Alia Chingis expeditio.]

Chingischam etiam illo tempore, quo dimisit alios exercitus contra
Orientem, per terram Kergis cum cxpeditione perrexit, quos tamen tunc bello
non vicit et vt nobis dicebatur, ibidem vsque ad montes Caspios peruenit.
At illi montes in ea parte, ad quam applicauerunt, de lapide Adamantino
sunt: ideoque sagittas et arma ferrea illorum ad se traxerunt. Homines
autem inter Caspios montes conclusi clamorem exercitus, vt creditur,
audientes, montem frangere coeperunt, et cum alio tempore post decem annos
redirent Tartari, montem confractum inuenerunt. Cumque ad illos accedere
attentassent, minime potuerunt: quia nubes quadam erat posita ante ipsos,
vltra quam ire nullatenus poterant. Omnino quippe visum amittebant, statim
vt ad illam perueniebant. [Marginal note: Vide an Hamsem regionem dicat de
qua Haythonus cap. 10.] Illi autem ex aduerso credentes, quod Tartari ad
illos accedere formidarent, insultum contra eos fecerunt, sed statim vt
peruenerunt ad nubem propter causam pradictam, procedere non potuerunt. Ac
vero antequam ad montes pradictos peruenirent Tartari, plusquam per mensem
per vastam solitudinem transierunt, et inde procedentes adhuc contra
Orientem, plusquam per mensem per magnum desertum perrexerunt. Itaque
peruenerunt ad quandam terram, in qua vias quidem tritas videbant, sed
neminem inuenire poterant. Tandem quarentes, vnum hominem cum vxore sua
repererunt, quos in prasentiam Chingischam adduuerunt. [Sidenote:
Troglodyta.] Qui cum interrogasset illos vbi homines allius terra essent,
responderunt, quod in terra sub montibus habitarent. Tunc Chingischam
retenta vxore, misit ad eos virum illum, mandans illis, vt venirent ad
ipsius mandatum. Qui pergens ad illos, omnia narrauit, qua Chingischam eis
mandauit. Illi vero respondentes dixerunt, quod die tali venirent ad ipsum,
vt facerent eius mandatum. Ac ipsi medio tempore per vias occultas sub
terra se congregantes, ad pugnam contra illos venerunt, et subito super eos
irruentes, plurimos occiderunt. [Sidenote: Fabulosus Solis orientis
sonitus.] Solis quoque sonitus in ortu suo sustinere non poterant, imo
tempore, quo oriebatur, oportebat eos vnam aurem ad terram ponere, et
superiorem fortiter obturare, ne sonum illum terribilem audirent. Nec sic
tamen cauere poterant, quin hac de causa plurimi ex eis interirent. Videns
ergo Chingischam et sui, quod nihil proficerent, sed potius homines suos
perderent, fugerunt, ac terra illa exierunt. Illum tamen virum cum vxore
sua secum deduxerunt, qui etiam vsque ad mortem in terra eorum fuerunt.
Interrogati vero, cur in regione sua sub terra soleant habitare, dixerunt,
quod ibi quodam tempore anni, cum oritur Sol, tantus fit sonitus, vt
homines nulla ratione valeant sustmere. Quin etiam tunc in organis et
tympanis caterisque musicis instrumentis percutere solent, vt sonitum illum
non audiant.

The same in English.

How they had the repulse at the Caspian mountaynes, and were driuen backe
by men dwelling in caues. Chap 12.

[Sidenote: Another expedition of Chingis.] Moreouer Chingis Cham, at the
same time when he sent other armies against the East, hee himselfe marched
with a power into the lande of Kergis, which notwithstanding, he conquered
not in that expedition and as it was reported vnto vs, he went on forward
euen to the Caspian mountaines. But the mountaines on that part where they
encamped themselues, were of adamant, and therefore they drew vnto them
their arrowes, and weapons of iron. And certaine men contained within those
Caspian mountaynes, hearing as it was thought, the noyse of the armie, made
a breach through, so that when the Tartars returned vnto the same place
tenne yeeres after, they found the mountaine broken. And attempting to goe
vnto them, they could not: for there stood a cloud before them, beyond
which they were not able to passe, being depriued of their sight so soone
as they approached thereunto. But they on the contrary side thinking that
the Tartars durst not come nigh them gaue the assault, and when they came
at the cloud, they could not proceed for the cause aforesaid. Also the
Tartars, before they came vnto the said mountaines, passed for the space of
a moneth and more, through a vast wildernes, and departing thence towards
the East, they were aboue a moneth traueiling through another huge desert.
At length, they came vnto a land wherin they saw beaten waies, but could
not find any people. Howbeit at the last, diligently seeking, they found a
man and his wife, whom they presented before Chingis Cham: and demanding of
them where the people of that countrey were, they answered, that the people
inhabited vnder the ground in mountains. Then Chingis Cham keeping still
the woman, sent her husband vnto them, giuing them charge to come at his
command. And going vnto them, he declared all things that Chingis Cham had
commanded them. But they answered, that they would vpon such a day visite
him, to satisfie his desire. And in the meane season by blinde and hidden
passages vnder the earth, assembling themselues they came against the
Tartars in warlike manner, and suddenly issuing forth, they slewe a great
number of them. [Sidenote: A fabulous narration of the sun rising.] This
people were not able to endure the terrible noise, which in that place the
Sunne made at his vprising: for at the time of the Sunne rising, they were
inforced to lay one eare vpon the ground, and to stoppe the other close,
least they should heare that dreadfull sound. Neither could they so escape,
for by this meanes many of them were destroyed. Chingis Cham therefore and
his company, seeing that they preuailed not, but continually lost some of
their number, fled and departed out of that land. But the man and his wife
aforesaid they caried along with them, who all their life time continued in
the Tartars countrey. Being demaunded why the men of their countrey doe
inhabite vnder the ground, they sayd, that at a certeine time of the yeare,
when the sunne riseth, there is such an huge noyse, that the people cannot
endure it. Moreouer, they vse to play vpon cymbals, drums, and other
musicall instruments, to the ende they may not heare that sounde.

De statutis Chingischam, et morte ipsius, et filijs ac Ducibus. Cap. 13.

Cum autem de terra illa reuerteretur Chingischam, defecerunt eis victualia,
famemque patiebantur maximam. Tunc interiora vnius bestia recentia casu
inuenerunt: qua accipientes, depositis tantum stercoribus, decoxerunt, et
coram Chingischam deportata pariter comederunt. [Sidenote: Chingis lex.]
Ideoque statuit Chingischam, vt nec sanguis, nec interiora, nec aliquid de
bestia, qua manducari potest, proijciatur, exceptis stercoribus. Inde ergo
in terram propriam reuersus est, ibique leges et statuta edidit, qua
Tartari inuiolabiliter obseruant, de quibus scilicet iam alias superius
dictum est. Post hoc ab ictu tonitrui occissus est. [Sidenote: Liberi.]
Habuit autem quatuor filios: Occoday vocobatur primus, Thossut Can
secundus, Thiaday Tertius, quarti nomen ignoramus. Ab his iiij.
descenderunt omnes Duces Mongalorum. Primus filiorum Occoday est Cuyne, qui
nunc est Imperator. [Sidenote: Nepotes.] Huius fratres Cocten et Chyrenen.
Ex filijs autem Thossut Can sunt Bathy, Ordu, Siba, Bora. Bathy post
Imperatorem omnibus ditior est ac potentior. Ordu vero omnium Ducum senior.
Filij Thiaday, sunt Hurin et Cadan. Filij autem alterius filij Chingischam,
cuius ignoramus nomen, sunt, Mengu et Bithat et alij plures. Huius Mengu
mater Seroctan est, Domina magna inter Tartaros. excepta Imperatoris matre
plus nominata, omnibusque potentior, excepto Bathy. [Sidenote: Duces.] Hac
autem sunt nomina Ducum: Ordu, qui fuit in Polonia, et Hungaria, Bathy
quoque et Huryn et Cadan et Syban et Ouygat, qui omnes fuerunt in Hungaria.
Sed et Cyrpodan, qui adhuc est vltra mare contra quosdam Soldanos
Sarracenorum, et alios habitatores terra transmarina. Alij vero remanserunt
in terra, scilicet Mengu. Chyrenen, Hubilai, Sinocur, Cara, Gay, Sybedey,
Bora, Berca, Corrensa. Alij quoque Duces eorum plures sunt, quorum nomina
nobis ignota sunt.

The same in English.

Of the statutes of Chingis Cham, of his death, of his sonnes, and of his
dukes. Chap. 13.

But as Chingis Cham returned out of that countrey, his people wanted
victuals, and suffered extreme famin. Then by chance they found the fresh
intrails of a beast: which they tooke, and casting away the dung therof,
caused it to be sodden, brought it before Chingis Cham, and did eat therof.
[Sidenote: The lawe of Chingis.] And hereupon Chingis Cham enacted: that
neither the blood, nor the intrails, nor any other part of a beast which
might be eaten, should be cast away, saue onely the dunge. Wherefore he
returned thence into his owne land, and there he ordayned lawes and
statutes, which the Tartars doe most strictly and inuiolably obserue, of
the which we haue before spoken. [Sidenote: The death of Chingis. His
sonnes.] He was afterward slaine by a thunderclap. He had foure sonnes: the
first was called Occoday, the second Thossut Can, the third Thiaday: the
name of the fourth is vnknowen. From these foure descended all the dukes of
the Mongals. [Sidenote: His graund children.] The first sonne of Occoday is
Cuyne, who is now Emperour: his brothers be Cocten and Chyrinen. The sons
of Thossut Can are Bathy, Ordu, Siba, and Bora Bathy, next vnto the
Emperour, is richer and mightier then all the rest. But Ordu is the
seignior of all the dukes. The sonnes of Thiaday be Hurin and Cadan. The
sonnes of Chingis Cham his other sonne, whose name is vnknowen, are Mengu,
Bithat and certaine others. The mother of Mengu was named Seroctan, and of
all others most honoured among the Tartars, except the Emperors mother, and
mightier than any subiect except Bathy. [Sidenote: The Tartarian Dukes.]
These be the names of the dukes: Ordu, who was in Poland and in Hungarie:
Bathy also and Hurin and Cadan, and Siban, and Ouygat, all which were in
Hungarie. In like maner Cyrpodan, who is as yet beyond the sea, making war
against certaine Soldans of the Saracens, and other inhabitants of farre
countries. Others remained in the land, as namely Mengu, Chyrinen, Hubilai,
Sinocur, Caray, Gay, Sybedey, Bora, Berca, Corrensa. There be many other of
their dukes, whose names are vnknowen vnto vs.

De postestate Imperatoris et Ducum eius. Cap. 14.

[Sidenote: Imperatoris Tartarorum seruile in omnes imperium.]

Porro Imperator eorum, scilicet Tartarorum, super omnes habet mirabile
dominium. Nullus enim audet in aliqua morari parte, nisi vbi assignauerit
ipse. Et ipse quidem assignat Ducibus vbi maneant. Duces autem loca
Millenarijs assignant, Millenarij vero Centenarijs et Centenarij Decanis.
Quicquid autem eis pracipitur, quocunque tempore, quocunque loco, siue, ad
bellum, siue ad mortem, vel vbicunque sine vlla obediunt contradictione.
Nam etsi petit alicuius filiam virginem, vel sororem, mox ei sine
contradictione exponunt eam, imo frequenter colligit virgines ex omnibus
Tartarorum finibus, et si vult aliquas retinere, sibi retinet, alias vero
dat suis homimbus. Nuncios etiam quoscunque et vbicunque transmittat,
oportet quod dent ei sine mora equos et expensas. Similiter vndecunque
veniant ei tributa vel nuncij, oportet equos et currus et expensas tribui.
[Sidenote: Inhumanitas erga Legatos.] Ac vero nuncij, qui aliunde veniunt,
in magna miseria, et victus et vestitus penuria sunt. Maximeque quando
veniunt ad Principes, et ibi debent moram contrahere. Tunc adeo parum datur
decem hominibus, quod vix inde possent duo viuere. Insuper et si aliqua
illis iniuria fiunt, minime conqueri facile possunt. Multa quoque munera
tam a principibus quam a cateris ab illis petuntur: qua si non dederint,
vilipenduntur, et quasi pro nihilo reputantur. Hinc et nos magnam partem
rerum, qua nobis pro expensis a fidelibus erant data, de necessitate
oportuit in muneribus dare. Denique sic omnia sunt in manu Imperatoris,
quod nemo audet dicere, Hoc meum est vel illius, sed omnia, scilicet res et
iumenta ac homines, sunt ipsius. Super hoc etiam nuper emanauit statutum
eiusdem. Idem quoque per omnia dominium habent Duces super sibi subditos

The same in English.

Of the authoritie of the Emperour, and of his dukes. Chap. 14.

[Sidenote: The absolute and lordly dominion of the Tartarian Emperour ouer
his subiects] Moreouer, the Emperour of the Tartars hath a wonderful
dominion ouer all his subiects. For no man dare abide in any place, vnles
he hath assigned him to be there. Also he himselfe appointeth to his dukes
where they should inhabite. Likewise the dukes assigne places vnto euery
Millenarie, or conductor of a thousand souldiers, the Millenaries vnto each
captaine of an 100. the captaines vnto euery corporall of ten. Whatsoeuer
is giuen them in charge, whensoeuer, or whersoeuer, be it to fight or to
lose their liues, or howsoeuer it be, they obey without any gainsaying. For
if he demandeth any mans daughter, or sister being a virgine, they
presently deliuer her vnto him without all contradiction: yea, often times
he makes a collection of virgines throughout all the Tartars dominions, and
those whom he meanes to keepe, he retaineth vnto himselfe, others he
bestoweth vpon his men. Also, whatsoeuer messenger he sendeth, or
whithersoeuer his subiects must without delay hnde them horses and other
necessaries. In like sorte, from what countrey soeuer tribute payers, or
ambassadours come vnto him, they must haue horses, carriages, and expenses
allowed them. [Sidenote: Their barbarous inhumanitie towards ambassadours.]
Notwithstanding ambassadours comming from other places do suffer great
misery, and are in much wante both of victuals, and of apparel: especially
when they come to any of the dukes, and there they are constrayned to make
some lingering abode. Then ten men are allowed so little sustenance, that
scarcely two could liue thereof. Likewise, if any iniuries be offered them,
they cannot without danger make complaint. Many gifts also are demaunded of
them, both by dukes and others, which if they do not bestow, they are
basely esteemed, and set at nought. And hereupon, wee were of necessitie
enforced to bestowe in giftes a great part of those things which were giuen
vs by well disposed people, to defray our charges. To be short, all things
are so in the power and possession of the Emperour, that no man dare say,
This is mine, or, this is my neighbours, but all, both goods, cattell and
men are his owne. Concerning this matter also he published a statute of
late. The very same authority and iurisdiction doe the dukes in like sorte
exercise vpon their subiects.

De electione Imperatoris Occoday, et legatione Ducis Bathy. Cap. 15.

[Sidenote: Occoday surrogatur patri. Bathy eiusque expeditio.] Mortuo, vt
supra dictum est, Cyngischam conuenerunt Duces, et elegerunt Occoday,
filium eius Imperatorem. Qui habito consilio Principum, diuisit exercitus.
Misitque Bathy, qui in secundo gradu attingebat eum, contra terram
Altissodan et contra terram Bisminorum, qui Sarraceni erant, sed
loquebantur Comanicum. Qui terram illorum ingressus, cum eis pugnauit,
eosque sibi bello subiecit. [Sidenote: Barchin ciuitas.] Quadam autem
ciuitas, nomine Barchin, diu restitit eis. Ciues enim in circuitu ciuitatis
foueas multas fecerant, propter quas non poterant a Tartaris capi, donec
illas repleuissent. [Sidenote: Sarguit ciuitas.] Ciues autem vrbis Sarguit
hoc audientes, exierunt obuiam eis, sponte in manus eoram se tradentes.
Vnde ciuitas eorum destructa non fuit, sed plures eorum occiderunt, et
alios transtulerunt, acceptisque spolijs, vrbem alijs hominibus
repleuerunt, et contra ciuitatem Orna perrexerunt. [Sidenote: Orna
ciuitas.] Hac erat nimium populosa et diuitijs copiosa. Erant enim ibi
plures Christiani, videlicet Gasari et Rutheni, et Alani, et alij nec non
et Sarraceni. Eratque Sarracenorum ciuitatis dominium. Est etiam posita
super quendam magnum fluuium, et est quasi portus, habens forum maximum.
Cumque Tartari non possent eos aliter vincere, fluuium qui per vrbem
currebat, praciderunt, et illam cum rebus et hominibus submerserunt. Quo
facto, contra Russiam perrexerunt, et magnam stragem in ea fecerunt,
ciuitates et castra destruxerunt, et homines occiderunt. Kiouiam, Russia
metropolin, diu obsederunt, et tandem ceperunt, ac ciues interfecerunt.
[Sidenote: Vide Mechouium lib. 1. cap. 3.] Vnde quando per illam terram
ibamus, innumerabilia capita et ossa hominum mortuorum, iacentia super
campum, inueniebamus. Fuerat enim vrbs valde magna et populosa, nunc quasi
ad nihilum est redacta: vix enim domus ibi remanserunt ducenta, quarum
etiam habitatores tenentur in maxime seruitute. Porro de Russia et de
Comania Tartari contra Hungaros et Polonos processerunt, ibique plures ex
ipsis interfecti fuerunt, et vt iam superius dictum est, si Hungari
viriliter restitissent, Tartari ab eis confusi recessissent. [Sidenote:
Morduani.] Inde reuertentes in terram Morduanorum, qui sunt Pagani,
venerunt, eosque bello vicerunt. [Sidenote: Bulgaria magna.] Inde contra
Byleros, id est, contra Bulgariam magnam profecti sunt, et ipsam omnino
destruxerunt. [Sidenote: Hungaria magna. Parossita.] Hinc ad Aquilonem
adhuc contra Bastarcos, id est Hungariam magnam processerunt, et illos
etiam deuicerunt. Hinc amplius ad Aquilonem pergentes, ad Parossitas
venerunt, qui paruos habentes stomachos et os paruum, non manducant sed
carnes decoquunt, quibus decoctis, se super ollam ponunt, et fumum
recipiunt, et de hoc solo reficiuntur, vel si aliquid manducant, hoc valde
modicum est. [Sidenote: Samogeta.] Hinc et ad Samogetas venerunt qui tantum
de venationibus viuunt, et tabernacula vestesque tantum habent de pellibus
bestiarum. [Sidenote: Monstra aquilinaria.] Inde ad quandam terram super
Oceanum peruenerunt, vbi monstra quadam inuenerunt, qua per omnia formam
humanam habebant, sed pedes bouinos, et caput quidem humanum, sed faciem vt
canis. Duo verba loquebantur vt homines tertio latrabant vt canes. Hinc
redierunt in Comaniam, et vsque nunc ibi morantur ex eis quidam.

+ De his regionibus Herbersteinius pag. 8. b. et 91. b. Paret enim hodie
vtraque Moscuorum Principi. Item de Bulgaria Guaguinus pag. 106. b.

The same in English.

Of the election of Emperour Occoday, and of the expedition of duke Bathy.
Chap. 15.

[Sidenote: Occoday succeedeth his father. The expedition of Bathy.] After
the death of Chingis Cham aforesayd, the dukes assembled themselues and
chose Occoday his sonne to be their Emperour. And he, entering into
consultation with his nobles, diuided his armies, and sent duke Bathy his
nephew against the countrie of Altisoldan, and against the people called
Bisermini, who were Saracens, but spake the language of Comania. The
Tartars inuading their countrey, fought with them and subdued them in
battel. [Sidenote: The citie of Barchin.] But a certeine citie called
Barchin resisted them a long time. For the citizens had cast vp many
ditches and trenches about their citie, in regard whereof the Tartars could
not take it till they had filled the said ditches. But the citizens of
Sarguit hearing this, came foorth to meete them, yeelding themselues vnto
them of their owne accord. Whereupon their citie was not destroyed, but
they slue manie of them and others they carried away captiue, and taking
spoyles, they filled the citie with other inhabitants, and so marched
foorth against the citie of Orna. [Sidenote: Orna.] This towne was very
populous and exceeding rich. For there were many Christians therein, as
namely Gasarians, Russians, and Alanians, with others, and Saracens also.
The gouernment of the citie was in the Saracens hande. It standeth vpon a
mighty riuer, and is a kinde of porte towne, hauing a great marte exercised
therein. And when the Tartars could not otherwise ouercome it, they turned
the said riuer, running through the citie, out of his chanell, and so
drowned the citie with the inhabitantes and their goods. Which being done,
they set forward against Russia, and made foule hauocke there, destroying
cities and castles and murthering the people. They laid siege a long while
vnto Kiow the chiefe citie of Russia, and at length they tooke it and slue
the citizens. Whereupon, traueiling through that countrey, wee found an
innumerable multitude of dead mens skulles and bones lying vpon the earth.
For it was a very large and a populous citie, but it is nowe in a maner
brought to nothing for there doe scarce remaine 200 houses, the inhabitants
whereof are kept in extreame bondage. Moreouer, out of Russia and Comania,
they proceeded forward against the Hungarians, and the Polonians and there
manie of them were slaine, as is aforesaid and had the Hungarians manfully
withstood them, the Tartars had beene confounded and driuen backe.
[Sidenote: The Morduans.] Returning from thence, they inuaded the countrey
of the Morduans being pagans, and conquered them in battell. [Sidenote:
Bulgaria magna.] Then they marched against the people called Byleri, or
Bulgaria magna, and vtterly wasted the countrey. [Sidenote: Hungaria
magna.] From hence they proceeded towards the North against the people
called Bastarci or Hungaria magna, and conquered them also. [Sidenote:
Parossita.] And so going on further North, they came vnto the Parossita,
who hauing little stomacks and small mouthes, eate not any thing at all,
but seething flesh they stand or sitte ouer the potte, and receiuing the
steame or smoke thereof, are therewith onely nourished, and if they eate
anie thing it is very little. [Sidenote: Samogeta.] From hence the came
they came to the Samogeta, who liue onely vpon hunting, and vse to dwell in
tabernacles onely, and to weare garments made of beastes skinnes.
[Sidenote: The North Ocean.] From thence they proceeded vnto a countrey
lying vpon the Ocean sea, where they found certaine monsters, who in all
things resembled the shape of men, sauing that their feete were like the
feete of an oxe, and they had in deede mens heads but dogges faces.
[Sidenote: Northerne monsters.] They spake, as it were, two words like men,
but at the third they barked like dogges. From hence they retired into
Comania, and there some of them remaine vnto this day.

De legatione Cyrpodan Ducis. Cap. 16.

[Sidenote: Expeditius Cyrpodanis.] Eo tempore misit Occoday Can Cyrpodan
Ducem cum exercitu ad meridiem contra Kergis, qui et illos bello superauit.
Hi homines sunt Pagani, qui pilos in barba non habent. Quorum consuetudo
talis est, vt cum alicuius pater moritur, pra dolore quasi vnam corrigiam
in signum lamenti ab aure vsque aurem de facie sua leuet. His autem
deuicus, Dux Cyrpodan contra Armenios iuit ad meridiem cum suis. Qui cum
transirent per deserta quadam, monstra inuenerunt effigiem humanam
habentia, qua non nisi vnum brachium cum manu in medio pectoris, et vnum
pedem habebant, et duo cum vno arco sagittabant, adeoque fortiter
currebant, quod equi eos inuestitare non poterant. Currebant autem super
vnum pedem illum saltando, et cum essent fatigati, taliter eundo ibant
super manum et pedem, se tanquam in circulo reuoluendo. Cumque sic etiam
fessi essent, iterum secundum priorem modum currebant. [Sidenote:
Cyclopedes.] Hos Isidorus Cyclopedes appellat. Et ex eis Tartari non nullus
occiderunt. Et sicut nobis a Ruthenis Clericis in curia dicebatur, qui
morantur cum Imperatore pradicto plures ex eis nuncij venerunt in legatione
ad curiam Imperatoris superius annotati, vt possent habere pacem cum illo.
[Sidenote: Armenia et Georgia subacta.] Inde procedentes venerunt in
Armeniam, quam bello deuicerunt, et etiam Georgia partem. Alia vero pars
venit ad mandatum eorum, et singulis annis dederunt, et adhuc dant ei pro
tributo xx millia Yperperarum. Hinc ad terram Soldam Deurum potentis et
magni, processerunt, cum quo etiam pugnantes, ipsum deuicerunt. [Sidenote:
Soklanus Halapia.] Denique processerunt vlterius debellando ac vincendo
vsque ad terram Soldani Halapia, et nunc etiam terram obtinent, alias
quoque terras vltra illas proponentes impuguare: nec postea reuersi sunt in
terram suam vsque hodie. [Sidenote: Calipha Baldacensis.] Idemque exercitus
contra terram Caliphi Baldach perrexit, quam etiam sibi subdidit, et vt
CCCC Byzantios, exceptis Baldekinis caterisque muneribus, ei quotidie pro
tributo daret, obtinuit. Sed et quolibet anno mittunt nuncios ad Caliphum,
vt ad eos veniat. Qui cum tributo munera magna trasmittens, vt eum
supportent, rogat. Ipse autem Imperator Tartarorum munera quidem accipit,
et nihilommus vt veniat, pro eo mittit.

The same in English.

Of the expedition of duke Cyrpodan. Chap. 16.

[Sidenote: Kergis.] At the same time Occoday Can sent duke Cyrpodan with an
armie against Kergis, who also subdued them in battell. These men are
Pagans, hauing no beardes at all. They haue a custome when any of their
fathers die, for griefe and in token of lamentation to drawe as it were, a
leather thong ouerthwart their faces, from one eare to the other. This
nation being conquered, duke Cyrpodan marched with his forces Southward
against the Armenians. And trauailing through certain desert places, they
found monsters in the shape of men, which had each of them but one arme and
one hand growing out of the midst their breast, and but one foote. Two of
them vsed to shoote in one bowe, and they ran so swiftly, that horses could
not ouertake them. They ran also vpon that one foote by hopping and
leaping, and being weary of such walking, they went vpon their hand and
their foote, turning themselues round, as it were in a circle. And being
wearie of so doing, they ran againe according to their wonted manner.
[Sidenote: Cyclopodes.] Isidore calleth them Cyclopedes. And as it was told
vs in court, by the clergie men of Russia, who remaine with the foresayd
Emperour, many ambassadours were sent from them vnto the Emperours court,
to obtaine Peace. [Sidenote: Armenia and Georgia conquered.] From thence
they proceeded forth into Armenia, which they conquered in battell, and
part also of Georgia. And the other part is, vnder their iurisdiction,
paying as yet euery yeare vnto them for tribute, 20000. pieces of coyne
called Yperpera. [Sidenote: The Soldan of Aleppo his land.] From thence
they marched into the dominions of the puissant and mighty Soldan called
Deurum, whom also they vanquished in fight. And to be short, they went on
farther sacking and conquering, euen vnto the Soldan of Aleppo his
dominions, and now they haue subdued that land also, determining to inuade
other countries beyond it: neither returned they afterward into their owne
land vnto this day. [Sidenote: The Caliph of Baldach.] Likewise the same
armie marched forward against the Caliph of Baldach his countrey, which
they subdued also, and exacted as his handes the daylie tribute of 400.
Byzantines, besides Balkakines and other giftes. Also euery yeare they send
messenters vnto the Caliph mouing him to come vnto them. Who sending back
great gifts together with his tribute beseecheth them to be fauourable vnto
him. Howbeit the Tartarian Emperour receiueth al his gifts, and yet still
neuertheles sends for him, to haue him come.

Qualiter Tartari se habent in pralijs. Cap. 17.

Ordinauit Chingischam Tartaros per Decanos et centenarios et millenarios.
[Sidenote: Tartarorum militaris disciplina.] Decem quoque millenarijs
praponunt vnum, cunctoque nihilominus exercitui duos aut tres Duces, ita
tamen vt ad vnum habeant respectum. Cumque in bello contra aliquos
congrediuntur nisi communiter cedant, omnes qui fugiunt, occiduntur. Et si
vnus aut duo vel plures ex decem audacter accedunt ad pugnam, alij vero ex
illo Denario non sequuntur similiter occiduntur. Sed etiam si vnus ex decem
vel plures capiuntur, socij eorum si non eos liberant, ipsi etiam
occiduntur. Poro arma debent habere tallia. Duos arcus vel vnum bonum ad
minus. [Sidenote: Armatura.] Tresque pharetras sagittis plenas, et vnam
securim et funes ad machinas trahendas. Diuites autem habent gladios in
fine acutos, ex vna parte tantum incidentes, et aliquantulum curuos. Habent
et equos armatos, crura etiam tecta, galeas et loricas. Verum loricas et
equorum cooperturas quidam habent de corio, super corpus artificiose
duplicato vel etiam triplicato. Galea vero superius est de chalybe, vel de
ferro: sed illud, quod in circuitu protegit collum et gulam, est de corio.
Quidam autem de ferro habent omnia supradicta, in hunc modum formata.
Laminas multas tenues ad vnius digni latitudinem et palma longitudinem
faciunt, et in qualibet octo foramina paruula facientes, interius tres
corrgias strictas et fortes ponunt. Sicque laminas, vnam alij quasi per
gradus ascendendo, supponunt. Itaque laminas ad corrigias, tenuibus
corrigiolis per foramina pradicta immissis, ligant, et in superiori parte
corrigiolam vnam ex vtraque parte duplicatam cum alia corrigiola consuunt,
vt lamina simul bene firmiterque cohareant. Hac faciunt tam ad cooperturas
equorum, quam ad armaturas hominum. Adeoque faciunt ilia lucere, quod in
eis potest homo faciem suam videre. Aliqui vero in collo ferri lancea vncum
habent, cum quo de sella, si possunt, hominem detrahant. Sagittarum eorum
ferramenta sunt acutissima, ex vtraque parte quasi gladius biceps
incidentia, semperque iuxta pharetram portant limas ad acuendum sagittas.
Habent vero scuta de viminibus, aut de virgulis facta. Sed non credimus,
quod ea soleant portare, nisi id castra et ad custodiam Imperatoris ac
principum, et hoc tantum de nocte. [Sidenote: Vsas bellorum.] In bellis
astutissimi sunt: quia per annos xlij. cum cateris gentibus dimicarunt.
[Sidenote: Mos tranandi flumina.] Cum autem ad flumim peruenerunt, maiores
habent rotundum ac letie corium, in cuius summitate per circuitum ansas
erebras facientes funem imponunt ac stringunt, ita quod in circuitu quasi
ventrem efficiunt, quem vestibus ac rebus cateris replent, fortissimeque ad
inuicem comprimunt. In medio autem ponunt sellas et alias res duriores: ibi
quoque sedent homines. Huiusmodi nauim ad equi caudam ligant, et hominem,
qui equum regat, pariter natare faciunt, vel habent aliquando duos remos,
cum quibus remigant. Equo igitur in aquam impulso, omnes alij equi
sequuntur illum, et sic transeunt fluuium. Pauperior autem quilibet vnam
bursam vel saccum de corio bene consutum habet, in quo res suas omnes
imponit, et in summitate fortiter ligatum, ad equi caudam suspendit, sicque
modo pradicto transit.

The same in English.

How the Tartars behaue themselues in warre. Chap. 17.

[Sidenote: The military discipline of the Tartars] Chingis Cham diuided his
Tartars by captaines of ten, captaines of an 100, and captaines of a 1000.
And ouer ten Millenaries or captains of a 1000, he placed, as it were, one
Colonel, and yet notwithstanding ouer one whole army he authorised two or
three dukes, but yet so that all should haue especiall regart vnto one of
the said dukes. And when they ioine battel against any other nation, vnles
they do all with one consent giue backe, euery man that flies is put to
death. And if one or two, or more of ten proceed manfully to the battel,
but the residue of those ten draw backe and follow not the company, they
are in like manner slaine. Also, if one among ten or more bee taken, their
fellowes, if they rescue them not, are punished with death. [Sidenote:
Their weapons.] Moreouer they are enioined to haue these weapons following.
Two long bowes or one good one at the least, three quiuers full of arrowes,
and one axe, and ropes to draw engines withal. But the richer sort haue
single edged swords, with sharpe points, and somewhat crooked. They haue
also armed horses with their shoulders and breasts defenced, they haue
helmets and brigandines. Some of them haue iackes, and caparisons for their
horses made of leather artificially doubled or trebled vpon their bodies.
The vpper part of their helmet is of iron or steele, but that part which
compasseth about the necke and the throate is of leather. Howbeit some of
them haue of the foresaide furniture of iron trimed in maner following.
They beate out many thinne plates a finger broad and a handful long, and
making in euery one of them eight littel holes, they put thereunto three
strong and straight leather thongs. So they bind the plates one to another,
as it were, ascending by degrees. Then they tie the plates vnto the said
thongs with other small and slender thongs drawen through the holes
aforesaid, and in the vppper part, on each side therof, they fasten one
small doubled thong vnto another, that the plates may firmely be knit
together. These they make as well for their horses caparisons, as for the
armour of their men: And they skowre them so bright that a man may behold
his face in them. Some of them vpon the necke of their launce haue an
hooke, wherewithall they attempt to pull men out of their saddles. The
heads of their arrowes are exceedingly sharpe cutting both wayes like a two
edged sworde, and they alwaies carie a file in their quiuers to whet their
arrowheads. They haue targets made of wickers, or of small reddes. Howbeit
they doe not (as we suppose) accustome to carrie them, but onely about the
tents or in the Emperours or dukes guards, and that only in the night
season. [Sidenote: Their experience and cunning in warres.] They are most
politique in warres, hauing bene exercised therein with other nations for
the of these 42. yeres. [Sidenote: Their maner of passing ouer riuers.]
When they come at any riuers the chiefe men of the company haue a round and
light piece of leather, about the borders whereof making many loopes, they
put a rope into them to draw it together like a purse, and so bring it into
the round forme of a ball, which leather they fill with their garments and
other necessities trussing it vp most strongly. But vpon the midst of the
vpper parte thereof, they lay their saddles and other hard things there,
also doe the men themselues sit. This their boate they tye vnto an horse
tayle, causing a man to swimme before, and to guide ouer the horse, or
sometime they haue two oares to row themselues ouer. The first horse
therefore being driuen into the water all the other horses of the company
followe him, and so they passe through the riuer. But the poorer sorte of
common souldiers haue euery man his leather bag or sachell well sown
together, wherin he packs vp all his trinkets, and strongly trussing it vp
hangs it at his horses tayle, and so passeth ouer in maner aforesaid.

Qualiter resistendum sit eis. Cap 18

Nullam astimo prouinciam esse qua per se possit eis resistere: quia de omni
terra potestatis sua solent homines ad bellum congregare. Et siquidem
vicina prouincia non vult eis opem ferre, quam impugnant, delentes illum
cum hominibus, quos ex illa capiunt, contra aliam pugnant. [Sidenote:
[Greek: Harainesis] de bello contra Tartaros gerendo.] Et illos quidem in
acie primos ponunt et si male pugnant, ipsos occidunt. Itaque si Christiani
eis resistere volunt oportet quod Principes ac rectores terrarum in vnum
conueniant, ac de communi consilio eis resistant Habeantque pugnatores
arcus fortes et balistais, quas multum timent sagittasque sufficientes
dolabrum quoque de bono ferro, vel securim cum manubrio longo. [Sidenote:
Ferri temperamentum.] Ferramenta vero sagittarum more Tartarorum, quando
sunt calida, temperare debent in aqua, cum sale mixta, vt fortia sint ad
penetrandum illorum arma. Gladios etiam et lanceas cum vncis habeant, qui
volunt, ad detrahendum illos de sella, de qua facillime cadunt. Habeant et
galeas et arma catera, ad protegendum corpus et equum ab armis et saggitis
eorum, et si qui non ita sunt armati, debent more illorum post alios ire,
et contra ipsos arcubus vel balistis traijcere. Et sicut dictum est supra
de Tartaris, debent acies suas ordinare, ac legem pugnantibus imponere.
Quicunque conuersus fuerit ad pradam ante victoriam maximam debet poenam
subire: talis enim apud illos occiditur absque miseratione. Locus ad
pralium, si fieri potest, eligendus est planus, vt vndique possint videre,
nec omnes debent in vnum conuenire, sed acies multas et diuisas, nec tamen
nimis distantes ab inuicem facere. Contra illos qui primo veniunt, debent
vnam aciem mittere, et alia parata sit ad iuuandum illam opportuno tempore.
Habeant et speculatores ex omni parte, qui videant, quando veniunt acies
catere. Nam ideo semper debent aciem contra aciem, vt ei occurrant,
mittere, quoniam illi semper nituntur aduersarios in medio concludere. Hoc
autem acies caueant, ne si etiam illi fugere videantur, diu post illos
currant, ne forte, sicut facere solent, ipsos ad paratas insidias trahent:
quia plus fraudulentia quam fortitudine pugnant. Et iterum ne fatigentur
equi eorum: quia nostri multitudinem non habent equorum. Tartari vero quos
equitant die vna, non ascendunt tribus diebus, vel quatuor postea. Pratera
si cedunt Tartari, non ideo debent nostri recedere, vel ab inuicem
separari: quoniam hoc simulando faciunt, vt exercitus diuidatur, et sic ad
terra destructionem libere ingrediantur. Caterum Duces nostri die noctuque
facere debent exercitum custodiri: nec iacere spoliati, sed semper ad
pugnam parati: quia Tartari quasi Damones semper vigilant, excogitantes
artem nocendi. Porro si aliqui Tartarorum in bello de suis equis
proijciuntur, statim capiendi sunt, quia quando sunt in terra fortiter
sagittant, et equos hominesque vulnerant.

The same in English.

Howe they may be resisted. Chap. 18.

I deeme not any one kingdome or prouince able to resist them because they
vse to take vp souldiers out of euery countrey of their dominions. And if
so be the neighbour prouince which they inuade, wil not aide them, vtterly
wasting it, with the inhabitants therof, whom they take from thence with
them, they proceed on to fight against another countrey. And placing their
captiues in the forefront of the battell, if they fight not couragiously,
they put them to the sworde. [Sidenote: Counsel how to wage warre against
the Tartar.] Wherefore, if Christians would withstande them, it is
expediennt, that the prouinces and gouernours of countreies should agree in
one, and so by common counsell, should giue them resistance. Their
souldiers also must be furnished with strong hand-bowes and cros-bowes,
which they greatly dread, and with sufficient arrowes, with maces also of
good iron, or an axe with a long handle or staffe. [Sidenote: A notable
temper of iron or steele.] When they make their arrow heads they must
(according to the Tartars custome) dip them red-hot into water mingled with
salte, that they may be strong to pierce the enemies armour. They that wil
may haue swords also and lances with hooks at the ends, to pull them from
their saddles, out of which they are easilie remoued. They must haue
helmets likewise and other armour to defend themselues and their horses
from the Tartars weapons and arrowes, and they that are vnarmed, must
(according to the Tartars custome) march behinde their fellowes, and
discharge at the enemie with long bowes and cros-bowes. And (as it is aboue
said of the Tartars) they must orderly dispose their bandes and troupes,
and ordeine lawes for their souldiers. Whosoeuer runneth to the pray or
spoyle, before the victorie be achieued, must vndergoe a most seuere
punishment. For such a fellow is put to death among the Tartars without all
pitie or mercie. The place of battel must be chosen, if it be possible, in
a plaine fielde, where they may see round about, neither must all be in one
company, but in manie and seuerall bandes, not very farre distant one from
another. They which giue the first encounter must send one band before, and
must haue another in a readynesse to relieue and second the former in time
conuenient. They must haue spies also on euery side to giue them notice
when the rest of the enemies bandes approch. For therefore ought they
alwayes to send forth band against band and troupe against troupe, because
the Tartar euer practiseth to gette his enemie in the midst and so to
enuiron him. Let our bands take this caveat also, if the enemie retire, not
to make any long pursuit after him, lest peraduenture (according to his
custome) he might draw them into some secret ambush: for the Tartar fights
more by policie than by maine force. Those horses which the Tartars vse one
day, they ride not vpon three or foure dayes after. Moreouer, if the
Tartars draw homeward, our men must not therefore depart and casseir their
bandes, or separate themselues asunder: because they doe this vpon policie,
namely to haue our armie diuided, that they may more securely inuade and
waste the countrey. And in very deede, our captaines ought both day and
night to keepe their armie in a readines: and not to lie out of their
armour, but at all assayes, to bee prouided for battell. For the Tartars
like deuils are alwaies watching and deuising howe to practise mischiefe.
Furthermore, if in battell any of the Tartars be cast off their horse
backes, they must presently bee layd holde on and taken, for being on foote
they shoote strongly, wounding and killing both horses and men.

De itinere Fratris Iohannis de Plano carpini vsque ad primam custodiam
Tartarorum. Cap. 19.

Nos igitur ex mandato sedis Apostolica cum iremus ad Orientis nationes,
elegimus prius ad Tartaros proficisci: quia timebamus, ne per illos in
proximo Ecclesia Dei periculum immineret. [Sidenote: Itinarium Iohann. et
sociorum legatorum.] Itaque pergentes, ad regem Boemorum peruenimus: qui
cum esset nobis familiaris, consuluit, vt per Poloniam et Russiam iter
ageremus. Habebat enim consanguineos in Polinia, quorum auxilo Russiam
intrare possemus. [Sidenote: Boleslaus Dux Silesia.] Datisque literis et
bono conductu, fecit et expensas nobis dari per curias et ciuitates eius,
quo vsque ad Ducem Silesia Bolezlaum, nepotem eius, veniremus, qui etiam
erat nobis familiaris et notus. Hinc et ipse nobis similiter fecit, donec
veniremus ad Conradum, Ducem [Marginal note: Mazouia.] Lautiscia, ad quem
tunc, Dei gratia nobis fauente, venerat Dominus Wasilico, Dux Russia, a quo
etiam plenius de facto audiuimus Tartarorum: quia nuncios illuc miserat,
qui iam redierant ad ipsum. Audito autem, quod opporteret nos illis munera
dare, quasdam pelles castorum et aliorum animalium fecimus emi, de hoc,
quod datum nobis fuerat in eleemosynam ad subsidium via. Quod agnoscentes
Dux Conradus et [Marginal note: Grimislaua vt Mechouius lib. 1. cap. 9.]
Ducissa Cracouia, et Episcopus et quidam milites, plures etiam nobis
dederunt huiusmodi pelles. Denique Dux Wasilico a Duce Cracouia, et
Episcopo atque Baronibus pro nobis attente rogatus, secum nos in terram
suam duxit, et vt aliquantulum quiesceremus aliquot diebus nos in expensis
suis detinuit. [Sidenote: Litera Papa ad Russos.] Et cum rogatus a nobis,
fecisset Episcopos suos venire, legimus eis literas Domini Papa, monentis
eos, ad sancta matris Ecclesia vnitatem redire. Ad idem quoque nos ipsi
monuimus eos, et induximus, quantum potuimus, tam Ducem quam Episcopos et
alios. [Sidenote: Daniel, frater Basilij.] Sed quia Dux Daniel, frater
Wasiliconis pradicti, prasens non erat, quoniam ad Baty profectus erat, non
potuerunt eo tempore finaliter respondere. Post hac Dux Wasilico transmisit
nos vsque in Kiouiam metropolin Russia, cum seruiente vno. [Sidenote:
Lituani.] Ibamus tamen in periculo capitis semper propter Lituanos, qui
sape faciebant insultum super terram Russia et in illis maxime locis, per
quos debebamus transire. At per pradictum seruientem eramus securi a
Ruthenis, quorum etiam maxima pars occisa vel captiuata erat a Tartaris.
Porro in Danilone vsque ad mortem tunc infirmati fuimus. Nihilominus tamen
in vehiculo per niuem et frigus magnum trahi nos fecimus. Cum ergo Kiouiam
peruenimus, habuimus de via nostra consilium cum millenario ac cateris
ibidem nobilibus. [Sidenote: Pabulum equorum Tartario.] Qui responderunt
nobis, quod si duceremus equos illos, quos tunc habebamus, ad Tortaros, cum
essent magna niues, morerentur omnes: qui nescirent herbam fodere sub niue,
sicut equi faciunt Tartarorum, nec inueniri posset aliquod pro eis ad
manducandum, cum Tartari nec stramina nec foenum habeant, nec pabulum.
Itaque decreuimus eos illic dimittere cum duobus pueris, deputatis eorum
custodia. Ideoque nos oportuit millenario dare munera, vt ipsum haberemus
propitium, ad dandum nobis equos subductitios et conductum. Secundo igitur
die post festum Purificationis cepto itinere, venimus ad villam Canoua, qua
sub Tartaris erat immediate. [Sidenote: Micheas [Greek: pankakos].] Cuius
prafectus nobis dedit equos et conductum vsque ad aliam, in qua reperimus
prafectum Micheam omni malitia plenum. Qui tamen acceptis a nobis muneribus
secundum velle suum, duxit nos vsque ad primam custodiam Tartarorum.

The same in English.

Of the iourney of frier [Marginal note: Iohannes de plano Carpini.] Iohn
vnto the first guard of the Tartars. Chap. 19.

[Sidenote: The iourney of frier Iohn and his fellow Legates.] We therefore
by the commaundement of the sea apostolique setting foorth towards the
nations of the East, chose first to trauel vnto the Tartars, because we
feared that there might be great danger imminent vpon the Church of God
next vnto them, by their inuasions. [Sidenote: Boleslaus duke of Silesia.]
Proceeding on therefore, we came to the king of Bohemia, who being of our
familiar acquaintance, aduised vs to take our iourney through Polonia and
Russia. For he had kinsfolkes in Polonia, by whose assistance, we might
enter into Russia. Hauing giuen vs his letters, hee caused our charges also
to be defrayed, in all his chiefe houses and cities, till we came vnto his
nephew Boleslaus duke of Silesia, who also was familiar and well knowen
vnto vs. The like fauour he shewed vs also, till wee came vnto Conradus
duke of [Marginal note: Mazouia.] Lautiscia, vnto whome then (by Gods
especiall fauour towards vs) lord Wasilico duke of Russia was come, from
whose mouth we heard more at large concerning the deedes of the Tartars:
for he had sent ambassadours thither, who were returned backe vnto him.
Wherefore, it being giuen vs to vnderstand, that we must bestow giftes vpon
them, we caused certaine skinnes of beuers and other beastes to be bought
with part of that money, which was giuen vpon almes to succour vs by the
way. Which thing duke Conradus and the [Marginal note: Grimslaua.] duches
of Cracow, and a bishop, and certaine souldiers being aduertised of, gaue
vs likewise more of the same skins. And to be short, duke Wasilico being
earnestly requested by the duke of Cracow, and by the bishop and barons, on
our behalfe, conducted vs with him, vnto his owne land, and there for
certaine daies, enterteined vs at his owne charges, to the ende that we
might refresh ourselues a while. And when, being requested by vs, he had
caused his bishops to resort vnto him, we reade before them the Popes
letters, admonishing them to returne vnto the vnitie of the Church. To the
same purpose also, we our selues admonished them, and to our abilitie,
induced as well the duke as the bishops and others thereunto. [Sidenote:
Daniel brother vnto Wasilico.] Howbeit because Duke Daniel the brother of
Wasilico aforesaid (hauing as then taken his iourney vnto Baty) was absent,
they could not at that time, make a finall answere. After these things duke
Wasilico sent vs forward with one of his seruants as farre as Kiow the
chiefe citie of Russia. [Sidenote: The Lithuanians.] Howbeit we went
alwayes in danger of our liues by reason of the Lithuanians, who did often
inuade the borders of Russia, euen in those verie places by which we were
to passe. But in regard of the foresayd seruant, wee were out of the
Russians daunger, the greatest part of whome were either slaine, or caried
into captiuitie by the Tartars. Moreouer, at Danilon wee were feeble euen
vnto the death. (Notwithstanding wee caused our selues to bee carried in a
waggon through the snowe and extreme colde) And being come vnto Kiow, wee
consulted with the Millenary, and other noble men there concerning our
iourney. [Sidenote: The fodder of the Tartarian horses.] They told vs, that
if wee carried those horses, which wee then had, vnto the Tartars, great
store of snowe lying vpon the ground, they would all dye: because they knew
not how to digge vp the grass vnder the snow, as the Tartarian horses doe,
neither could there bee ought found for them to eate, the Tartars hauing
neither hay nor strawe, nor any other fodder. We determined therefore to
leaue them behind at Kiow with two seruants appointed to keepe them. And
wee were constrayned to bestow gifts vpon the Millenary, that we might
obtaine his fauour to allowe vs poste horses and a guide. Wherefore
beginning our iourney the second daye after the feast of the Purification,
wee arriued at the towne of Canow, which was immediately vnder the dominion
of the Tartars. [Sidenote: Michaas the malicious] The gouernour whereof
allowed vs horses and a guide vnto another towne, wherein wee found one
Michaas to be gouernour, a man full of all malice and despight. Who
notwithstanding, hauing receiued giftes at our handes, according to his
maner conducted vs to the first guarde of the Tartars.

Qualiter primo cum socijs suis receptus est a Tartaris. Cap. 20.

Cum ergo in prima sexta feria post diem cinerum, Sole ad occasum tendente,
hospitaremur, Tartari super nos armati horribiliter irruerunt, quarentes
cuiusmodi homines essemus: cumque respondissemus, quod Domini Papa nuncij
essemus, quibusdam cibarijs a nobis acceptis, continuo discesserunt. Porro
mane facto, cum surgentes aliquantulum processissemus, maiores illorum, qui
erant in custodia, nobis occurrerunt, interrogantes, cur ad eos veniremus?
et quid negotij haberemus? [Sidenote: Papa Christianorum pater et Dominus.]
Quibus respondimus, Domini Papa nuncij sumus, qui Christianorum pater est
ac Dominus. Hic nos idcirco tam ad Regem quam ad Principes, omnesque
Tartaros, mittit, quia placet ei, quod omnes Christiani Tartarorum sint
amici, et pacem habeant cum ipsis. [Sidenote: Legationibus mandata.]
Desiderat insuper, vt apuud Deum in coelo sint magni, et idcirco monet eos
tam per nos quam per literas suas, vt efficiantur Christiani, fidemque
recipiant Domini nostri Iesu Christi, quia non possunt aliter saluari.
Mandat praterea, quod miratur de tanta occisione hominum, et maxime
Christianorum, ac potissime Hungarorum Montanorum, et Polonorum, qui sunt
ei subiecti, facta per Tartaros, cum in nullo lasissent, aut ladere
attentassent eos. Et quia Dominus Deus grauiter est super hoc offensus,
monet eos vt a talibus de catero caueant, et de commissis poenitentiam
agant. Super his etiam rogat, vt ei rescribant, quid facere velint de
catero, et qua sit eorum intentio. [Sidenote: Corrensa.] Quibus auditis, et
intellectis, dixerunt Tartari, se velle equos nobis subductitios vsque ad
Corrensam et ducatum prabere. Statimque munera petierunt, et a nobis
acceperunt. Equis igitur acceptis, de quibus descenderunt ipsi, cum eorum
ducatu ad Corrensam arripuimus iter eundi. Ipsi tamen velociter equitantes,
nuncium vnum pramiserunt ad prafatum Ducem cum his verbis, qua dixeramus
eisdem. [Sidenote: Dux limitis occidentalis.] Est autem Dux iste Dominus
omnium, qui positi sunt in custodia contra omnes Occidentis populos, ne
forte subito et improuiso irruant aliqui super illos. Et iste dicitur
habere sexaginta millia hominum armatorum sub se.

The same in English.

How he and his company were at the first receiued of the Tartars. Chap. 20.

Wherefore, the first saturday next after Ashwednesday, hauing about the
Sunnes going downe, taken vp our place of rest, the armed Tartars came
rushing vpon vs in vnciuil and horrible maner, being very inquisitiue of vs
what maner of persons, or of what condition we were: and when we had
answered them that we were the Popes Legates, receiuing some victuals at
our handes, they immediately departed. Moreouer in the morning rising and
proceeding on our iourney, the chiefe of them which were in the guard met
with vs, demaunding why, or for what intent and purpose we came thither,
and what business we had with them: Vnto whom we answered, We are the
legates of our lord the Pope, who is the father and lord of the Christians.
[Sidenote: The content of the legacie.] He hath sent vs as well vnto your
Emperour, as to your princes, and all other Tartars for this purpose,
because it is his pleasure, that all Christians should be in league with
the Tartars, and should haue peace with them. It is his desire also that
they should become great or in fauour with God in heauen, therfore he
admonisheth them aswel by vs, as by his own letters, to become Christians,
and to embrace the faith of our Lord Iesu Christ, because they could not
otherwise be saued. Moreouer, he giues them to vndersand, that he much
marueileth at their monstrous slaughters and massacres of mankind, and
especially of Christians, but most of al of Hungarians, Mountaineirs, and
Polonians, being al his subiects, hauing not iniuried them in ought, nor
attempted to doe them iniurie. And because the Lord God is grieuously
offended thereat, he aduiseth them from henceforth to beware of such
dealing, and to repent them of that which they had done. He requesteth
also, that they would write an answere vnto him, what they purpose to doe
hereafter, and what their intention is. All which things being heard and
vnderstood, the Tartars sayd that they would appoint vs poste horses and a
guide vnto Corrensa. And immediately demanding gifts at our hands, they
obtained them. [Sidenote: Corrensa.] Then receiuing the same horses, from
which they dismounted, together with a guide wee tooke our iourney into
Corrensa. [Sidenote: The duke of the western marches.] But they riding a
swift pace, sent a messenger before vnto the sayd duke to signifie the
message, which we had deliuered vnto them. This duke is gouernour of all of
them, which lie in guard against the nations of the West, least some enemy
might on the sudden and at vnawares breake in vpen them. And hee is said to
haue 60000. men vnder him.

Qualiter recepti sunt apud Corrensam. Cap. 21.

[Sidenote: Mos salutandi Tartaricos proceres.] Cum ergo peruenissemus an
eius curiam, fecit nobis longe a se poni stationem, et misit ad nos
procuratores suos, vt quarent a nobis, cum quo ei vellemus inclinare id
est, qua ei munera inclinando vellemus offerre. Quibus respondimus, quod
Dominus Papa non mittebat aliqua munera; quia non erat certus, quod ad
illos peruenire possemus, et insuper veneramus per loca valde periculosa.
Veruntamen in quantum de his, qua habebamus ex gratia Dei et Domini Papa ad
victum nostrum, sicut poterimus, honorabimus ipsum. Acceptisque muneribus
duxerunt nos ad ordam siue tentorium ipsius, et instructi fuimus, vt ante
ostium stationis ter cum sinistro genu inclinaremus, et caueremus attente
ne pedem super limen ostij poneremus. Et postquam intrauimus, opportunt nos
coram Duce omnibusque maioribus, qui ad hoc erant vocari, dicere flexis
genibus ea, qua dixeramus superius. Literas etiam Dom. Papa obtulimus: sed
interpres, quem de Kyouia, dato pretio, duxeramus, non erat sufficiens ad
interpretandum, nec aliquis alius habebatur idoneus. [Sidenote: Bathy
eiusque potentia.] Hinc equi nobis dati sunt, et tres Tartari qui nos
ducerent festinanter ad ducem Bathy. Ipse est apud eos potentior excepto
Imperatore, cui tenentur pra cunctis principibus obedire. Itaque iter
arripuimus secunda feria post primam dominicam [Marginal note:
Quadragesime.] xl. et equitando, quantum equi trotare poterant, quoniam
habebamus equos recentes fere ter aut quater omni die, properabamus de mane
vsque ad noctem, imo etiam de nocte sapissime, nec tamen ante quartam
feriam maioris hebdomada potuimus ad ipsum peruenire. [Sidenote: Comania.]
Ibamus autem per terram Comanorum qua tota est plana, et flumina quatuor
habet magna. Primuim appellatur [Marginal note: Veteribus Borysthenes.]
Neper, iuxta quod ex parte Russia ambulabat Correnza et Montij, qui maior
est ille ex altera parte per campestria. Secundum appellatur [Marginal
note: Tanais] Don, super quod ambulat quidam Princeps habens in coniugio
sororem Baty, qui vocatur Tirbor. Tertium dicitur [Marginal note: Rha.]
Volga, quod est magnum valde super quod incecdit Bathy. Quartum nominatur
[Marginal note: Rhymnus.] Iaec, super quod duo millenarij vadunt, vnus ex
parte illuminis vna, et alter ex altera. Hi omnes in hyeme ad mare
descendunt, et in astate super ripam corundem fluminum ad montes ascendunt.
Hoc est mare magnum, de quo brachium saneti Georgij exit, quod in
Constantinopolin vadit. [Sidenote: Pontus Euxinas.] Hac autem flumina sunt
piscibus valde plena, maxime Volga, intrantque mare Gracia, quod dicitur
Magnum mare. [Sidenote: Volga non intrat.] Super Nepre autem multis diebus
iuimus per glaciem. Super littora quoque maris Gracia satis periculose per
glaciem iuimus in pluribus locis multis diebus. Congelantur enim circa
littora vnda ad tres leugas inferius. Prius autem quam ad Bathy
perueniremus, duo ex nostris Tartaris pracesserunt, ad indicandum ei omnia
verba qua apud Corrensam dixeramus.

The same in English.

How they were receiued at the court of Corrensa. Chap. 21.

[Sidenote: The maner of saluting the Tartarian princes.] Being come
therefore vnto his court, hee caused our tent to be placed farre from him,
and sent his agents to demaund of vs with what we would incline vnto him,
that is to say, what giftes we would offer, in doing our obeisance vnto
him. Vnto whome wee answered, that our lord the Pope had not sent any
giftes at all, because he was not certaine that wee should euer bee able to
come at them: for we passed through most dangerous places. Notwithstanding,
to our abilitie, we will honour him with some part of those things which
haue bene, by the goodnes of God and the fauour of the Pope, bestowed vpon
vs for our sustenance. Hauing receiued our gifts, they conducted vs vnto
the Orda or tent of the duke, and we were instructed to bow thrise with our
left knee before the doore of the tente, and in any case to beware, lest
wee set our foote vpon the threshold of the sayd doore. And that after we
were entred, wee should rehearse before the duke and all his nobles, the
same wordes which wee had before sayd, kneeling vpon our knees. Then
presented wee the letters of our lord the Pope: but our interpreter whome
we had hired and brought with vs from Kiow was not sufficiently able to
interpret them, neither was there any other esteemed to bee meete for the
same purpose. Here certaine poste horses and three Tartars were appoynted
for vs to conduct vs from hence with al speede vnto duke Bathy. [Sidenote:
Duke Bathy and his power] This Bathy is the mightiest prince among them
except the Emperour, and they are bound to obey him before all other
princes. We began our iourney towards his court the first tuesday in Lent,
and riding as fast as our horses could trot (for we had fresh horses almost
thrise or foure times a day) we posted from morning till night, yea very
often in the night season also, and yet could we not come at him before
Maundie thursday. All this iourney we went through the land of Comania,
which is al plaine ground, and hath foure mighty riuers running through it:
[Marginal note: Boristhenes] Neper, on the side whereof towards Russia,
duke Corrensa and Montij marched vp and downe, which Montij on the other
side vpon the plaines is greater then he. The second is called [Marginal
note: Tanais.] Don, vpon the banke whereof marcheth a certain prince hauing
in marriage the sister of Bathy, his name is Tirbon. The third is called
[Marginal note: Rha.] Volga, which is an exceeding great riuer, vpon the
bankes whereof duke Bathy marcheth. The fourth is called [Marginal note:
Rhymnus.] Iaec, vpon which two Millenaries doe march, on each side of the
riuer one. All these, in the winter time, descend down to the sea, and in
summer ascend backe by the bankes of the said riuers vp to the mountains.
The sea last named is the [Marginal note: Pontes Euxima. He is deceiued,
for albeit Neper and Don run into Mare Maior: yet Volga and Iaec flowe into
the Caspian Sea.] Great Sea, out of which the arme of S. George proceedeth,
which runneth by Constantinople. These riuers do abound with plenty of
fishes, but especially Volga, and they exonerate themselues into the
Grecian sea, which is called Mare maior. Ouer Neper we went many daies vpon
the ice. Along the shore also of the Grecian sea we went very dangerously
vpon the ice in sundry places, and that for many daies together. For about
the shore the waters are frozen three leagues into the sea. But before we
came into Bathy, two of our Tartars rode afore, to giue him intelligence of
all the sayings which we had vttered in the presence of Corrensa.

Qualiter recepti sunt apud Bathy magnum Principem. Cap. 22.

Porro cum in finibus terra Comanorum ad Bathy perueniremus, bene positi
fuimus per vnam leucam a stationibus eius. [Sidenote: Ceremonia per duos
ignes transeundi.] Cumque duci debuimus ad curiam ipsius, dictum fuit
nobis, quod inter duos ignes transire deberemus. Nos autem hoc nulla
ratione facere volebamus. At illi dixerunt nobis: Ite secure quia pro nulla
causa volumus hoc facere, nisi tantum, vt si vos aliquid malum cogitatis
Domino nostro, vel portatis venenum, ignis auferat omne malum Quibus
respondemus: quod propter hoc, ne de tali re suspectos redderemus nos,
transiremus. [Sidenote: Eldegay.] Cum igitur ad Ordam peruenissemus,
interrogati a procuratore ipsius Eldegay, cum quo inclinare vellemus? idem
quod prius apud Corrensam respondimus, datisque muneribus et acceptis,
auditis etiam itineris causis, introduxerunt nos in stationem Principis,
prius facta inclinatione, et audita de limine non calcando, sicut prius,
admonitione. [Sidenote: Bathy audit legatos.] Ingressi autem flexis
genibus, verba nostra proposuimus, deinde literas obtulimus, et vt nobis
darentur interpretes ad transferendum eas, rogauimus. Qui etiam in die
Parasceue dati fuerunt nobis, et eas in litera Ruthenica, Sarracenica, et
in Tartarica diligenter cum ipsis transtulimus. Hac interpretatio Bathy
prasentata fuit; quam et legit, et attente notauit. Tandem ad nostram
stationem reducti fuimus, sed nulla cibaria nobis dederunt, nisi semel
aliquantulum millij in vna scutella, scilicet in prima nocte quando
venimus. [Sidenote: Gerit se regifice.] Iste Bathy magnifice se gerit,
habens ostianos et omnes officiales ad modum Imperatoris, et sedet in
eminenti loco velut in throno cum vna de vxoribus suis. Alij vero tam
fratres sui et filij, quam alij maiores inferius sedent in medio super
bancum, et homines cateri post eos in terra deorsum, sed viri a dextris, et
foemina a sinistris. Tentoria quoque de panno lineo habet pulchra et magna
satis, qua fuerunt Hungaria regis. Nec aliquis ad eius tentorium audet
accedere prater familiam, nisi vocatus, quantumcunque sit potens et magnus,
nisi forte sciatur, quod sit voluntas ipsius. Nos etiam dicta causa sedimus
a sinistris: Sic etenim et omnes nuncij faciunt in eundo: sed in redeundo
ab Imperatore, semper ponebamur a dextris. [Sidenote: Eiusdem bibendi ad
Symphonia cantum mos.] In medio ponitur mensa eius prope ostium stationis,
super quam apponitur potus in aureis et argenteis vasis. Nec vnquam bibit
Bathy, vel aliquis Tartarorum Princeps, maxime quando in publico sunt, nisi
cantetur ei vel cytharizetur. Et cum equitat, semper portatur solinum vel
tentoriolum super caput eius in hasta. [Sidenote: Authoritas.] Sicque
faciunt cuncti maiores Principes Tartarorum, et etiam vxores eorum. Idem
vero Bathy satis est hominibus suis benignus, valde tamen ab eis timetur,
et in pugna est crudelisimus, sagax est multum et astutissimus in bello:
quia iam pugnauit tempore longo.

The same in English.

How we were receiued at the court of the great prince Bathy. Chap. 22.

Moreouer, when we came vnto Bathy in the land of Comania, we were seated a
good league distant from his tabernacles. [Sidenote: A ceremony of passing
betweene two fires.] And when we should be conducted vnto his court, it was
told vs that we must passe between two fires. But we would by no means be
induced thereunto. Howbeit, they said vnto vs: you may passe through
without al danger: for we would haue you to doe it for none other cause,
but only that if you intend any mischiefe against our lord, or bring any
poyson with you, fire may take away all euill. Vnto whom we answered, that
to the end we might cleare ourselues from all suspition of any such matter,
we were contented to passe through. [Sidenote: Eldegay.] When therefore we
were come vnto the Orda, being demanded by his agent Eldegay with what
present or gift we would do our obeisance? Wee gaue the same answere which
we did at the court of Corrensa. The gifts being giuen and receiued, the
causes of our iourney also being heard, they brought vs into the tabernacle
of the prince, first bowing ourselues at the doore, and being admonished,
as before, not to tread vpon the threshold. [Sidenote: Bathy heareth the
Legates.] And being entred, we spake vnto him kneeling vpon our knees, and
deliuered him our letters, and requested him to haue interpreters to
translate them. Who accordingly on good friday were sent vnto vs, and we
together with them, diligently translated our sayd letters into the
Russian, Tartarian, and Saracen languages. This interpretation was
presented vnto Bathy, which he read, and attentiuely noted. At length wee
were conducted home againe vnto our owne lodging, howbeit no victuals were
giuen vnto vs, except it were once a litle Millet in a dich, the first
night of our comming. [Sidenote: He behaues himselfe like a king.] This
Bathy caries himselfe very stately and magnificently, hauing porters and
all officers after the maner of the Emperour, and sittes in a lofty seate
or throne together with one of his wiues. The rest, namely, as well his
brethren and sonnes, as other great personages sit vnderneath him in the
midst vpon a bench, and others sit down vpon the ground, behinde him, but
the men on the right hand and the women on the left. He hath very faire and
large tentes of linnen cloth also, which were once the kings of Hungaria.
Neither dare any man come into his tent (besides them of his owne family)
vnles he be called, be he neuer so mighty and great, except perhaps it be
knowen that it is his pleasure. Wee also, for the same cause, sate on the
left hand; for so doe all ambassadors in going: but in returning from the
Emperour, we were alwaies placed on the right hand. In the middest stands
his table, neare vnto the doore of the tent, vpon the which there is drinke
filled in golden and siluer vessels. [Sidenote: Their custome of drinking
at the sound of musicke.] Neither doth Bathy at any time drinke, nor any
other of the Tartarian princes, especially being in a publique place, but
they haue singing and minstrilsie before them. And alwaies, when hee rides,
there is a canopie or small tent caried ouer his head vpon the point of a
iaueline. And so doe all the great princes of the Tartars, and their wiues
also. The sayd Bathy is courteous enough vnto his owne men, and yet is hee
had in great awe by them: he is most cruel in fight: he is exceedingly
prudent and politique in warre, because he hath now continued a long time
in martiall affaires.

Qualiter recedentes a Bathy per terram Comanorum et Kangittarum
transierunt. Cap. 23.

[Sidenote: Legati iubentur ad Cuyme Imperat. pergere.] In die porro
Sabbathi sancti ad stationem fuimus vocati, et exiuit ad nos procurator
Bathy pradictus, dicens ex parte ipsius, quod ad Imperatorem Cuyne in
terram ipsorum iremus, retentis quibusdam ex nostris sub hac specie, quod
vellent eos remittere ad Dominum Papam, quibus et literas dedimus de
omnibus factis nostris, quas deferrent eidem. Sed cum rediissent vsque ad
Montij Ducem supra dictum, ibi retenti fuerunt vsque ad reditum nostrum.
Nos autem in die Pascha officio dicto, et facta comestione qualicunque cum
duobus Tartaris, qui nobis apud Corrensam fuerant assignati, cum multis
lacrymis recessimus, nescientes vtrum ad mortem vel vitam pergeremus.
Eramus tamen ita infirmi corpore, quod vix poteramus equitare. In tota
siquidem illa quadragesima fuerat cibus noster millum cum aqua et sale
tantum, et in alijs similiter diebus ieiuniorum. Nec habebamus aliquid ad
bibendum prater niuem in caldario liquefactam. Ibamus autem per Comaniam
equitando fortissime quoniam habebamus equos recentes quinquies aut pluries
in die, nisi quando per deserta ibamus, et tunc equos meliores atque
fortiores, qui possent continuum sustinere laborem, accipiebamus. Et hoc ab
ineunte quadragesima vsque ad octo dies post Pascha. [Sidenote: Comania
descriptio.] Hac terra Comania ab Aquilone immediate post Russiam habet
Morduynos. Byleros, id est, magnam Bulgariam, Bastarcos, id est, magnam
Hungariam, post Bastarcos, Parositas et Samogetas. [Sidenote: Oceanus
septentrionalis.] Post Samogetas, illos, qui dicuntur habere faciem caninam
in Oceani littoribus desertis. A meridie habet Alanos. Circassos, Gazaros,
Graciam et Constantinopolin, ac terram Iberorum, Cathos, Brutachios, qui
dicuntur esse Iudai, caput radentes per totum, terram quoque Cithorum atque
Georgianorum et Armeniorum et Turcorum. Ab occidente autem Hungariam habet
atque Russiam. Et est Comania terra maxima et longa. Cuius populos,
scilicet Comanos, Tartari occiderunt, quidam tamen a facie eorum fugerunt,
et quidam in eorum seruitutem redacti sunt. Plurimi autem ex eis, qui
fugerunt, ad ipsos redierunt. [Sidenote: Terra Kangittarum.] Post hac
intrauimus terram Kangittarum, qua magnam habet in plurimis locis penuriam
aquarum, in qua etiam homines pauci morantur propter aqua defectum.
[Sidenote: Ieroslaus, Dux Russia.] Vnde homines Ieroslai, Ducis Russia, cum
ad ipsum in terram Tartarorum perrexerunt, plures eorum in illo deserto pra
siti mortui sunt. In hac etiam terra et in Comania multa inuenimus capita
et ossa mortuorum hominum, super terram acentia tanquam sterquilinium. Per
hanc itaque terram iuimus ab octo diebus post Pascha fere vsque ad
Ascensionem Dominicam. Huiusque habitatores Pagani erant, et tam ipsi quam
Comani non laborabant, sed tantum de animalibus viuebant, nec domos
adificabant, sed in tabernaculis habitabant. Istos etiam Tartari
deleuerunt, et habitabant in terris eorum, illique qui remanserunt, redacti
sunt in seruitutem ipsorum.

The same in English.

How departing from Bathy, they passed through the land of Comania, and of
the Kangitta. Chap. 23.

Moreouer, vpon Easter euen, we were called vnto the tent, and there came
forth to meete vs the foresaid agent of Bathy, saying on his masters
behalfe, that we should go into their land, vnto the Emperor Cuyne,
deteining certaine of our company with this pretence, that they would send
them backe vnto the Pope, to whom we gaue letters of al our affaires to
deliuer vnto him. But being come as farre as duke Montij aforesaid, there
they were kept vntill our returne. [Sidenote: They trauelled post from
Easter day to the 22 of Iuly Eastward to Volga.] Vpon Easter day, hauing
said our praiers, and taken a slender breakfast, in the company of two
Tartars, which were assigned vnto vs by Corensa, we departed with many
teares, not knowing whether we went to death or to life. And we were so
feeble in bodie, that we were scarce able to ride. For all that Lent
through, our meat was Millet onely with a little water and salte. And so
likewise vpon other fasting dayes. Neither had we ought to drinke, but snow
melted in a skillet. And passing through Comania we rode most earnestly,
hauing change of horses fiue times or oftener in a day, except when we went
through deserts, for then we were allowed better and stronger horses, which
could vndergoe the whole labour. And thus farre had we trauailed from the
beginning of Lent vntill eight dayes after Easter. [Sidenote: A description
of Comania.] The land of Comania on the North side immediately after
Russia, hath the people called Morduym Byleri, that is, Bulgaria magna, the
Bastarci, that is, Hungaria magna, next vnto the Bastarci, the Parosita and
the Samogeta. [Sidenote: The North Ocean.] Next vnto the Samogeta are those
people which are sayd to haue dogges faces, inhabiting vpon the desert
shores of the Ocean. On the South side it hath the Alani, the Circassi, the
Gazari, Greece and Constantinople, also the land of Iberia, the Cathes, the
Brutaches who are said to be Iewes shauing their heads all ouer, the landes
also of Scythia, of Georgia, of Armenia, of Turkie. On the West side it
hath Hungaria, and Russia. Also Comania is a most large and long countrey.
The inhabitantes whereof called Comani the Tartars, slewe, some
notwithstanding fled from them, and the rest were subdued vnder their
bondage. But most of them that fled are returned againe. [Sidenote: The
lande of the Kangitta.] Afterward wee entred the lande of the Kangitta,
which in many places hath great scarcetie of waters, wherin there are but
fewe inhabitants by reason of the foresayd defect of water. [Sidenote:
Ieroslaus duke of Russia.] For this cause diuers of the seruants of
Ieroslaus duke of Russia, as they were traueiling towards him into the land
of Tartaria, died for thirst, in that desert. As before in Comania, so
likewise in this countrey, wee found many skulles and bones of dead men
lying vpon the earth like a dunghill. Through this countrey we were
traueiling from the eight day after Easter vntil Ascension day. The
inhabitants therof were Pagans, and neither they nor the Comanians vsed to
till the ground, but liued onely vpon cattell, neither built they any
houses but dwelled in tents. These men also haue the Tartars rooted out,
and doe possesse and inhabite their countrey, howbeit, those that remained
are reduced into their bondage.

Qualiter ad primam Imperatoris futuri curiam deuenerunt. Cap. 24.

[Sidenote: Terra Biserminorum.] Porro de terra Kangittarum intrauimus
terram Biserminorum, qui loquuntur lingua Comanica, sed legem tenent
Sarracenorum. In hac etiam terra inuenimus vrbes innumeras cum castris
dirutas, villasque multas desertas. [Sidenote: Altisoldanus.] Huius Dominus
dicebatur Altisoldanus, qui cum tota sua progenie a Tartaris est
destructus. [Sidenote: Montes maximi.] Habet autem hac terra montes
maximos. Et a meridie quidem habet Hierosalem et Baldach, totamque
Sarracenorum terram. Atque in finibus illis propinquis morantur duo fratres
carnales, [Sidenote: Burin. Cadan. Oceanus ab Aquilone. Syban, frater
Bathy.] Tartarorum Duces, scilicet Burin et Cadan, filij Thiaday, qui fuit
filius Chingischam. Ab Aquilone vero terram habet nigrorum Kythaorum and
Oceanum. In illa vero moratur Syban, frater Bathy. Per hanc iuimus a festo
Ascensionis dominica fere vsque ad viij. dies ante festum sanct. Iohan.
Baptista. [Sidenote: Nigri Cathayni.] Deinde ingressi sumus terram nigrorum
Kythaorum, in qua Imperator adificauit domum, vbi etiam vocati fuimus ad
bibendum. Et ille, qui erat ibidem ex parte imperatoris, fecit maiores
ciuitatis, et etiam duos filios eius, plaudere eoram nobis. [Sidenote: Mare
paruum.] Hinc exeuntes, quoddam mare paruum inuenimus, in cuius littore
quidam existit mons paruus. In quo scilicet monte quoddam foramen esse
dicitur, vnde in hyeme tam maxima tempestates ventorum exeunt, quod homines
inde vix et cum magno periculo transire possunt. In astate vero semper
quidem ibi ventorum sonitus auditur, sed de foramine tenuiter egreditur.
Per huius maris littora plurimis diebus perreximus, quod quidem licet non
multum sit magnum, plures insulas habet, et illud in sinistris dimisimus.
[Sidenote: Plurimus diebus. Plures insula. Ordu. cap. 13.] In terra vero
illa habitat Ordu, quem omnium Ducum Tartarorum antiquiorem diximus, et est
orda, siue curia patris ipsius, quam inhabitat, et regis vna de vxoribus
eius. Consuetudo enim est apud Tartaros, quod principum et maiorum curia
non delentur, sed semper ordinantur aliqua mulieres, qua illas regant,
eisque donariorum partes, sicut Dominis earum dari solebant, dantur.
[Sidenote: Prima curia Imperatoris.] Sic tandem ad primam Imperatoris
curiam venimus, in qua erat vna de vxoribus ipsius.

The same in English,

How they came vnto the first court of the new Emperour. Chap. 24.

[Sidenote: The land of the Bisermini.] Moreouer, out of the land of the
Kangitta, we entered into the countrey of the Bisermini, who speake the
language of Comania, but obserue the law of the Saracens. In this countrey
we found innumerable cities with castles ruined, and many towns left
desolate. [Sidenote: Alti Soldanus. Huge mountaines.] The lord of this
country was called Soldan Alti, who with al his progenie, was destroyed by
the Tartars. This countrey hath most huge mountains. On the South side it
hath Ierusalem and Baldach, and all the whole countrey of the Saracens.
[Sidenote: Burin and Cadan.] In the next territories adioyning doe inhabite
two carnall brothers dukes of the Tartars, namely, Burin and Cadan, the
sonnes of Thyaday, who was the sonne of Chingis Can. [Sidenote: The North
ocean.] On the North side thereof it hath the land of the blacke Kythayans,
and the Ocean. [Sidenote: Syban brother vnto Bathy.] In the same countrie
Syban the brother of Bathy remaineth. Through this countrie we were
traueiling from the feast of Ascension, vntil eight daies before the feast
of S. Iohn Baptist. [Sidenote: The blacke Kythayans.] And then we entred
into the land of the blacke Kythayans, in which the Emperour built an
house, where we were called in to drinke. Also the Emperours deputy in that
place caused the chiefe men of the citie and his two sonnes to daunce
before vs. [Sidenote: A small sea.] Departing from hence, wee found a
certaine small sea, vpon the shore whereof stands a little mountaine. In
which mountaine is reported to be a hole, from whence, in winter time such
vehement tempests of winds doe issue, that traueilers can scarcely, and
with great danger passe by the same way. In summer time, the noise in deede
of the winde is heard there, but it proceedeth gently out of the hole.
[Sidenote: Many dayes.] Along the shores of the aforesaid sea we traueiled
for the space of many dayes, which although it bee not very great, yet hath
it many islandes, and wee passed by leauiug it on our left hande.
[Sidenote: Ordu cap. 13.] In this lande dwelleth Ordu, whom wee sayde to
bee auncient vnto all the Tartarian dukes. And it is the Orda or court of
his father which hee inhabiteth, and one of his wiues beareth rule there.
For it is a custome among the Tartars, that the Courts of Princes or of
noble men are not dissolued, but alwayes some women are appointed to keepe
and gouerne them, vpon whom certain gifts are bestowed, in like sort as
they are giuen vnto their Lords. [Sidenote: The first court of the
Emperour.] And so at length we arriued at the first court of the Emperour,
wherein one of his wiues dwelt.

Qualiter ad ipsum Cuyne, Imperatorem futurum peruenerunt. Cap. 25.

At vero quia nondum Imperatorem videramus, noluerunt vocare nos, nec
intromittere ad Ordam ipsius, sed nobis in tentorio nostro secundum morem
Tartarorum valde bene seruiri fecerunt, et vt quiesceremus, nos ibidem per
vnam diem tenuerunt. [Sidenote: Terra Nyamanorum] Inde procedentes in
vigilia sanctorum Petri et Pauli, terram Naymanorum intrauimus, qui sunt
Pagani. In ipsa vero die Apostolorum ibidem cecidit magna nix, et habuimus
magnum frigus. Hac quidem terra montiosa et frigida est supra modum, ibique
de planicie reperitur modicum. Ista quoque dua nationes pradicta non
laborabant, sed sicut et Tartari in tentorijs habitabant, quas et ipsi
deleuerant per hanc etiam multis diebus perreximus. Deinde terram
Mongalorum intrauimus, quos Tartaros appellamus. [Sidenote: Tartaria. Iulij
22. Acceleratum legatorum iter.] Per has itaque terras, vt credimus, tribus
septimanis equitando fortiter iuimus, et in die Beata Maria Magdalena ad
Cuyne Imperatorem electum peruenimus. Ideo autem per omnem viam istam valde
festinauimus, quia praceptum erat Tartaris nostris, vt cito nos deducerent
ad curiam solennem, iam ex annis pluribus indictam, propter ipsius
Imperatoris electionem. Idcirco de mane surgentes, ibamus vsque ad noctem
sine comestione, et sapius tam tarde veniebamus, quod non comedebamus in
sero, sed quod manducare debebamus in vespere, dabatur nobis in mane.
Mutatisque frequentius equis, nullatenus parcebatur eis, sed equitabamus
velociter ac sine intermissione, quantum poterant equi trotare.

The same in English.

Howe they came vnto Cuyne himselfe, who was forthwith to be chosen
Emperour. Chap. 25.

But because we had not as yet seene the Emperour, they would not inuite vs
nor admit vs into his Orda, but caused good attendauce and entertainment,
after the Tartars fashion, to be giuen vnto vs in oure owne tent, and they
caused vs to stay there, and to refresh our selues with them one day.
[Sidenote: The land of Naymani.] Departing thence vpon the euen of Saint
Peter and Saint Paul, wee entered into the land of the Naymani, who are
Pagans. But vpon the very feast day of the saide Apostles, there fel a
mightie snowe in that place, and wee had extreame colde weather. This lande
is full of mountaines, and colde beyonde measure, and there is little
plaine ground to bee seene. These two nations last mentioned vsed not to
till their grounde, but, like vnto the Tartars, dwelt in tents, which the
sayde Tartars had destroyed. Through this countrey wee were trauailing
manie dayes. Then entered wee into the lande of the Mongals, whome wee call
Tartars. Through the Tartars lande wee continued our trauaile (as wee
suppose) for the space of some three weekes, riding alwayes hastily and
with speede, and vpon the day of Marie Magdalene we arriued at the court of
Cuyne the Emperour elect. [Sidenote: The 22. of Iuly.] But therefore did we
make great haste all this way, because our Tartarian guides were straightly
commaunded to bring vs vnto the court Imperiall with all speede, which
court hath beene these if many yeeres, ordained for the election of the
Emperour. Wherefore rising earely, wee trauailed vntil night without eating
of any thing, and oftentimes wee came so late vnto our lodging, that we had
no time to eate the same night, but that which we should haue eaten ouer
night, was giuen vs in the morning. And often changing our horses, wee
spared no Horse-fleshe, but rode swiftly and without intermission, as fast
as our horses could trot.

Qualiter Cuyne Fratres Minores suscepit. Cap. 26.

Cum autem peruenimus ad Cuyne, fecit nobis dari tentorium et expensas,
quales Tartaris dare solent, nobis tamen melius quam alijs nuncijs
faciebant. [Sidenote: Cuyne in legatos benignitas.] Ad ipsum autem vocati
non fuimus, eo quod nondum electus erat, nec adhuc de imperio se
intromittebat. Interpretatio tamen literarum Domini Papa, ac verba etiam a
nobis dicta, a pradicto Baty erant ei mandata. Cum ergo stetissemus ibi per
quinque vel sex dies, ad matrem suam nos transmisit, vbi adunabatur curia
solennis. [Sidenote: Tentorium regium.] Et cum venissemus illuc, tam
extensum erat tentorium magnum, de alba purpura praparatum, eratque tam
grande nostro indicio, quod plusquam duo millia hominum poterant esse sub
illo. Et in circuitu factum erat ligneum tabulatum varijs imaginibus
depictum. [Sidenote: Comitia.] Illuc ergo perreximus cum Tartaris, nobis ad
custodiam assignatis, ibique conuenerant omnes duces, et vnusquisque cum
hominibus suis equitaibat in circuitu per planiciem et colles. In prima die
vestiti sunt omnes purpuris albis, in secunda vero rubeis. Et tunc venit
Cuyne ad teritorium illud. Porro tertia die fuerunt omnes in blaueis
purpuris, et quarta in optimis Baldakinis. In illo autem tabulato iuxta
tentorium erant dua maiores porta, per quarum vnam solus Imperator debebat
intrare, et ad illam nulla erat custodia, quamuis esset aperta, quia per
illam nullus audebat ingredi vel exire: per aliam omnes, qui admittebantur,
intrabant, et ad illam custodes cum gladijs et arcubus et sagittis erant.
Itaque si quis tentorio propinquabat vltra terminos, qui positi erant, si
capiebatur, verberabatur, si fugiebat, sagitta siue ferro sagittabatur.
Multique ibi erant, qui in franis, pectoralibus, sellis et huiusmodi,
iudicio nostro, auri circiter viginti marcas habebant. Sic Duces infra
tentorium colloquebantur, et de Imperatoris electione tractabant, vt a
nobis creditur. Alius autem vniuersus populus longe extra tabulatum
collocabatur, et ita fere vsque ad meridiem morabantur. Tunc incipiebant
lac iumentinum bibere, et vsque ad vesperas tantum bibebant, quod erat visu
mirabile. [Symposium procorum.] Nos autem vocauerunt interius, et dederunt
nobis cereuisiam: quia iumentinum lac non bibebamus. Et hoc quidem nobis
pro magno fecerunt honore: sed tamen nos compellebant ad bibendum, quod
nullatenus poteramus propter consuetudinem sustinere. Vnde ostendimus eis,
hoc esse nobis graue, ideoque nos cessauerunt compellere. [Ieroslaus Dux
Russia. Legati diuersarum nationum.] Foris autem erat Dux Ieroslaus de
Susdal Russia, pluresque Duces Kythaorum et Solangorum. Duo quoque filij
regis Georgia, nuncius etiam Caliphi de Baldach, qui erat Soldanus, et plus
quam decem alij Soldani Sarracenorum, vt credimus. Et sicut nobis a
procuratoribus dicebatur, erant ibi nunciorum plus quam quatuor millia,
inter illos, qui tributa portabant, et illos, qui deferebant munera, et
Soldanos ac Duces alios, qui ad tradendum seipsos veniebant, et illos, pro
quibus ipsi miserant, illosque qui terrarum prafecti erant. Hi omnes simul
extra tabulatum ponebantur, eisque simul bibere prabebatur. Nobis autem et
Duci Ierozlao fere semper ab eis dabatur superior locus, quando cum eis
eramus exterius.

The same in English

How Cuyne enterteined the Minorite Friers. Chap. 26.

[Sidenote: The curtesie of Cuyne towards Ambassadors] But when wee were
come vnto the court of Cuyne, hee caused (after the Tartars manner) a Tent
and all expenses necessarie to bee prouided for vs. And his people
entreated vs with more regarde and courtesie, then they did anie other
Ambassadours. Howbeeit wee were not called before his presence, because hee
was not as yet elected, nor admitted vnto his empire. Notwithstanding, the
interpretation of the Popes letters, and the message which we deliuered,
were sent vnto him by the foresaid Bathy. And hauing stayed there fiue or
sixe dayes, hee sent vs vnto his mother, vnder whome there was mainteyned a
verie solemne and royall court. [Sidenote: The tent roial] And being come
thither, we saw an huge tent of fine white cloth pitched, which was, to our
iudgement, of so great quantitie, that more then two thousand men might
stand within it, and round about it there was a wall of planks set vp,
painted with diuers images. [Sidenote: A generall assemblie] Wee therefore
with our Tartars assigned to attende vpon vs, tooke our iourney thither,
and there were all the Dukes assembled, eche one of them riding vp and
downe with his traine ouer the hilles and dales. The first day they were
all clad in white, but the second in skarlet robes. Then came Cuyne vnto
the saide tent. Moreouer, the third day they were all in blew robes, and
the fourth in most rich robes of Baldakin cloth. In the wall of boardes,
about the tent aforesaid, were two great gates, by one of the which gates,
the Emperour only was to enter, and at that gate there was no gard of men
appointed to stand, although it stood continually open, because none durst
go in or come out the same way: all that were admitted, entred by another
gate, at which there stood watchmen, with bowes, swords, and arrowes. And
whosoeuer approached vnto the tent beyond the bounds and limit assigned,
being caught, was beaten, but if he fled, he was shot at with arrowes or
iron. There were many to our iudgement, had vpon their bridles, trappers,
saddles, and such like furniture, to the value of 20 markes in pure gold.
The foresaid Dukes (as we thinke) communed together within the tent, and
consulted about the election of their Emperor. But all the residue of the
people were placed farre away without the walles of board, and in this
maner they staied almost til noone. [Sidenote: The banquet of the Nobles.]
Then began they to drink mares milk, and so continued drinking til euen
tide, and that in so great quantity, as it was wonderfull. And they called
vs in vnto them, and gaue vs of their ale, because we could not drink their
mares milke. And this they did vnto vs in token of great honor. But they
compelled vs to drink so much, that in regard of our customary diet, wee
coulde by no means endure it. Whereupon, giuing them to vnderstand, that it
was hurtful vnto vs, they ceassed to compel vs any more. [Sidenote:
Ieroslaus Duke of Susdal.] Without the doore stoode Duke Ieroslaus of
Susdal, in Russia, and a great many Dukes of the Kythayans, and of the
Solangi. The two sonnes also of the king of Georgia, the ligier of the
Caliph of Baldach, who was a Soldan, and (as we thinke) aboue ten Soldans
of the Saracens beside. [Sidenote: Ambassadors of sundry nations.] And, as
it was tolde vs by the agents, there were more than 4000. ambassadors,
partly of such as paide tributes, and such as presented gifts, and other
Soldans, and Dukes, which came to yeeld themselues, and such as the Tartars
had sent for, and such as were gouernours of lands. All these were placed
without the lists, and had drinke giuen vnto them. But almost continually
they all of them gaue vs and Duke Ieroslaus the vpper hand, when we were
abroad in their companie.

Qualiter in imperium sublimatus fuit. Cap. 27.

[Sidenote: Imperij Cuyna primitia.] Et quidem, si bene meminimus ibidem per
septimanas circiter quatuor fuimus. Credimusque quod ibi fuit electio
celebrata, non tamen ibidem fuit publicata. Propter hoc autem id maxime
credebatur, quia semper, quando Cuyne tentorio exibat, eidem cantabatur, et
cum virgis speciosis, in summitate lanam coccineam habentibus,
inclinabatur, quod alteri Ducum nulli fiebat, quousque exterius morabatur.
[Sidenote: Syra orda.] Hac autem statio siue Curia nominatur ab eis Syra
orda. [Sidenote: Aurea orda.] Hac exeuntes, vnanimiter omnes equitauimus
per tres aut quaruor leucas ad alium locum, vbi erat in quadam pulchra
planicie iuxta riuum inter montes aliud tentorium, quod apud ipsos
appellatur Orda aurea, praparatum. Ibi enim Cuyne debebat poni in sede in
die Assumptionis Domina nostra [Sidenote: Augusti 15.]. Sed propter
grandinem nuniam, qua tunc, vt supra dictum est, cecidit, res dilata fuit.
Eratque tentorium in columnis positum, qua laminis aureis erant tecta, et
clauis aureis cum alijs lignis fixa. Porro de Baldakino erat tectum
superius, sed alij erant panni exterius. Fuimus autem ibi vsque ad festum
Beati Bartholomai, in quo maxima multitudo conuenit, et contra mendiem
versis vultibus stetit. [Sidenote: Preces solemnes.] Et quidam ad iactum
lapidis longe a cateris erant, semperque orationes faciendo, ac genua
flectendo, contra meridiem longius et longius procedebant. Nos autem virum
incantationes facerunt, aut genua Deo vel alteri flecterent, nescientes,
nolebamus facere genu flexiones. Cumque diu ita fecissent, ad tentorium
reuersi sunt, et Cuyne in sede imperiali posuerunt, Ducesque coram eo genua
flexerunt. Post hoc idem fecit vniuersus populus, exceptis nobis, qui eis
subditi non eramus.

The same in English.

How he was exalted to his Empire. Chap. 27.

[Sidenote: The beginnings of Cuyne his empire.] And to our remembrance, we
remained there, about the space of foure weekes. The election was to our
thinking there celebrated, but it was not published and proclaimed there.
And it was greatly suspected so to be, because alwayes when Cuyne came
forth out of the tent, he had a noyse of musicke, and was bowed vnto, or
honoured with faire wands, hauing purple wooll vpon the tops of them, and
that, so long as he remained abroad: which seruice was performed to none of
the other Dukes. [Sidenote: Syra Orda.] The foresaid tent or court is
called by them Syra Orda. [Sidenote: The golden Orda.] Departing thence,
wee all with one accord rode 3 or 4 leagues vnto another place, where, in a
goodly plaine, by a riuers side, betweene certaine mountaines, there was
another tent erected, which was called the golden Orda. For there was Cuyne
to be placed in the throne Emperiall, vpon the day of the Assumption of our
Ladie [Sidenote: The 15th of August.]. But, for the abundance of haile
which fell at the same time, as is aboue said, the matter was deferred.
There was also a tent erected vpon pillars, which were couered with plates
of golde, and were ioyned vnto other timber with golden nailes. [Sidenote:
Wollen cloth.] It was couered aboue with Baldakin cloth, but there was
other cloth spread ouer that, next vnto the ayre. Wee abode there vnto the
feast of Saint Bartholomew, what time there was assembled an huge multitude
standing with their faces towards the South. And a certaine number of them
beeing a stones cast distant from the residue, making continuall prayers,
and kneeling vpon their knees, proceeded farther and farther towards the
South. Howbeit wee, not knowing whether they vsed inchantments, or whether
they bowed their knees to God or to some other, woulde not kneele vpon the
grounde with them. And hauing done so a long time, they returned to the
tent, and placed Cuyne in his throne imperiall, and his Dukes bowed their
knees before him. Afterwarde the whole multitude kneeled downe in like
maner, except our selues, for wee were none of his subiects.

De atate ac moribus ac sigillo ipsius. Cap. 28.

[Sidenote: Cuyna atas et mores.] Hic autem Imperator quando sublimatus est
in regnum videbatur esse circiter xl. vel xlv. annorum. Mediocris erat
statura, prudens valde, nimis astutus multumque seriosus, et grauis in
moribus. Nec vnquam videbat eum homo de facili ridere, vel aliquam
leuitatem facere, sicut dicebant Christiani, qui cum ipso morabantur
continue. Dicebant etiam nobis asserendo firmiter Christiani, qui erant de
familia eius, quod deberet fieri Christianus. [Sidenote: Studium
Christianismi.] Cuius signum erat, quod ipse Clericos Christianos tenebat,
et expensas eis dabat. Habebat etiam semper capellam Christianorum ante
maius, tentorium suum, vbi cantant Clerici publice et aperte, ac pulsant ad
horas, vt cateri Christiani secundum mores Gracorum, quantacunque sit ibi
multitudo Tartarorum, vel etiam aliorum hominum. Hoc tamen non faciunt alij
Duces ipsorum. [Sidenote: Maiestas.] Est autem mos Imperatoris ipsius, vt
nunquam ore proprio loquatur cum extraneo, quantumcunque magnus sit, sed
audit et respondet per interpositam personam, et quandocunque negotium
proponunt, vel Imperatoris responsionem audiunt illi, qui sub eo sunt,
quantumcunque sint magni, flexis genibus vsque ad finem verborum
persistunt. Nec alicui de consuetudine super aliquo negotio loqui licitum
est, postquam ab Imperatore definitum est. Habet autem Imperator pradictus
procuratorem et protonotarios, atque scriptores, omnesque officiales in
negotijs tam publicis quam priuatis, excepris Aduocatis. [Sidenote:
Potestas ex lex.] Nam sine litium vel iudiciorum strepitu secundum
arbitrium Imperatoris omnia fiunt. Alij quoque Principes Tartarorum de his,
qua ad illos pertinent, idem faciunt. [Sideote: Bellum in Christianos
cogitatum.] Hoc autem nouerint vniuersi, quia nobis tunc existentibus in
solenni curia, iam ex pluribus annis indicia, idem Cuyne Imperator, de nouo
electus, cum omnibus suis Principibus erexit vexillum contra Ecclesiam Dei,
ac Romanum Imperium, et contra omnia regna Christianorum et populos
Occidentis, nisi fortasse, quod absit, facerent ea, qua mandabat Domino
Papa, atque potentibus, et omnibus Christianorum populis, videlicet vt ipsi
subdantur eis. Nam excepta Christianitate, nulla est terra in orbe, quam
timeant, et idcirco contra nos ad pugnam se praparant. Huius siquidem
Imperatoris pater, scilicet Occoday, necatus fuerat veneno, et ob hoc a
bellis quieuerant tempore pauco. Intentio autem eorum, vt dictum est supra,
est, sibi totum subijcere mundum, sicut a Chingischam habent mandatum. Vnde
et ipse Imperator in literis suis ita scribit: Dei fortitudo, hominum
Imperator. In superscriptione quoque sigilli eius est hoc: Deus in coelo,
et Cuyne Cham super terram, Dei fortitudo: omnium hominum Imperatoris

+ Et praclare Aristoteles Politic. lib. 3. cap. 12. in hanc sententiam: Qui
legem praesse vult, is velle videtur Deum ac leges imperare: qui autem
vult hominem, is etiam belluam adiungit, cum prasertim tale quid sit
cupiditas et iracundia: et magistratus et optimus quisque a recta via
detorqueantur &c. Adde qua e Chrysippo adducuntur ff. li. i. tit. 3. 1.

The same in English.

Of his age and demeanour, and of his seale. Chap. 28.

This Emperour, when hee was exalted vnto his gouernment, seemed to bee
about the age of fourty or fourty fiue yeeres. He was of a meane stature,
very wise and politike, and passing serious and graue in all his demeanour.
A rare thing it was, for a man to see him laugh or behaue himself lightly,
as those Christians report, which abode continually with him. [Sidenote:
His inclination to Christianitie.] Certaine Christians of his familie
earnestly and strongly affirmed vnto vs, that he himselfe was about to
become a Christian. A token and argument whereof was, that hee reteined
diuers Cleargie men of the Christians. Hee had likewise at all times a
Chappell of Christians, neere vnto his great Tent, where the Clearkes (like
vnto other Christians, and according to the custome of the Gracians) doe
sing publiquely and openly, and ring belles at certaine houres, bee there
neuer so great a multitude of Tartars, or of other people in presence. And
yet none of their Dukes doe the like. [Sidenote: His maiestie.] It is the
manner of the Emperour neuer to talke his owne selfe with a stranger,
though he be neuer so great, but heareth and answeareth by a speaker. And
when any of his subiects (howe great soeuer they bee) are in propounding
anie matter of importaunce vnto him, or in hearing his answeare, they
continue kneeling vpon their knees vnto the ende of their conference.
Neither is it lawfull for any man to speake of any affaires, after they
haue beene determined of by the Emperour. The sayde Emperour, hath in his
affaires both publike and priuate, an Agent, and Secretary of estate, with
Scribes and all other Officials, except aduocates. [Sidenote: A lawlesse
authoritie.] For, without the noyse of pleading, or sentence giuing, all
things are done according to the Emperours will and pleasure. Other
Tartarian princes do the like in those things which belong vnto them.
[Sidenote: Warre intended against all Christians.] But, be it known vnto al
men, that whilest we remained at the said Emperours court, which hath bin
ordained and kept for these many yeeres, the sayde Cuyne being Emperour new
elect, together with al his princes, erected a flag of defiance against the
Church of God, and Romane empire, and against al Christian kingdomes and
nationes of the West, vnlesse peraduenture (which God forbid) they will
condescend vnto those things, which he hath inioined vnto our lord the
pope, and to all potentates and people of the Christians, namely, that they
wil become obedient vnto him. For, except Christendom, there is no land
vnder heauen, which they stande in feare of, and for that cause they
prepare themselues to battel against vs. This Emperors father, namely
Occoday, was poisoned to death, which is the cause why they haue for a
short space absteined from warre. But their intent and purpose is (as I
haue aboue said) to subdue the whole world vnto themselues, as they were
commanded by Chingis Can. Hence it is that the Emperor in his letters
writeth after this maner: The power of God, and Emperour of all men. Also,
vpon his seale, there is this posie ingrauen: God in heauen, and Cuyne Can
vpon earth, the power of God: the seale of the Emperour of all men.

De admissione Fratrum et nuncioram ad Imperatorem. Cap. 29.

[Sidenote: Cuyne audit legatos.] In loco illo, vbi positus est Imperator in
throno, vocati fuimus coram ipso. Cumque Chingay protonotarius eius nomina
nostra scripsisset, illorumque a quibus missi eramus, et Ducis Solangorum
et aliorum, clamauit alta voce, recitans illa coram Imperatore ac Ducum
vniuersitate. Quo facto, flexit vnusquisque nostrum quater genu sinistrum,
et monuerunt, ne tangeremus limen deorsum. Cumque pro cultellis nos
diligentissime scrutati fuissent, et nullatenus inuenissent, intrauimus
ostium ab Orientale parte: quia nullus ab Occidente, nisi solus imperator,
audet intrare. Similiter et Dux ab illa parte ingreditur solus, si est
tentorium eius. Minores autem non multum curant de talibus. Tunc ergo
primum in eius prasentia suam intrauimus stationem, videlicet postquam
factus est Imperator ibidem. [Sidenote: Munera eidem oblata.] Omnes quoque
nuncij tunc ab eo recepti sunt, sed paucissimi tentorium eius intrauerunt.
Ibi vero tanta donaria ab ipsis nuncijs fuerunt ei prasentata, quod quasi
videbantur infinita, videlicet in samitis ac purpureis et baldakinis ac
cingulis sericis cum auro praparatis, pellibus etiam nobilibus, caterisque
muneribus. Quoddam etiam Solinum, siue tentoriolum, quod super caput
Imperatoris portatur, fuit eidem prasentatum, quod totum erat cum gemmis
praparatum. Quidam vero preafectus vnius prouincia adduxit ei Camelos
multos cum Baldakinis tectos. Similiter sella posita cum instrumentis
quibusdam erant, in quibus homines interius sedere valebant. Equos etiam
multos et mulos adducebant eidem phaleratos et armatos, quosdam quidem de
corio, et quosdam de ferro. Nos etiam requisiti fuimus, an ei munera dare
vellemus: sed iam facultas non erat, quoniam omnia fere nostra
consumpseramus. [Sidenote: Currus.] Ibidem longe a stationibus super montem
erant positi currus plusquam quingenti, qui omnes auro et argento ac
sericis vestibus erant pleni. Cunctique inter imperatorem et Duces diuisi
fuerunt, singulique Duces inter homines suos partes suas, vt eis placuit,

The same in English.

Of the admission of the Friers and Ambassadours vnto the Emperour. Chap.

[Sidenote: Cuyne heareth the Legates.] In the same place where the Emperour
was established into his throne, we were summoned before him. And Chirigay,
his chiefe secretary hauing written down our names, and the names of them
that sent vs, with the name of the Duke of Solangi, and of others, cried
out with a loude voice, rehearsing the said names before the Emperour, and
the assembly of his Dukes. Which beeing done, ech one of vs bowed his left
knee foure times, and they gaue vs warning not to touch the threshold. And
after they had searched vs most diligently for kniues, and could not find
any about vs, we entred in at the doore vpon the East side: because no man
dare presume to enter at the West Doore, but the Emperour onely. In like
maner, euery Tartarian Duke entreth on the West side into his tent. Howbeit
the inferiour sort doe not greatly regard such ceremonies. This therefore
was the first time, when we entred into the Emperours tent in his presence,
after he was created Emperour. Likewise all other ambassadours were there
receiued by him, but very fewe were admitted into his tent. [Sidenote:
Gifts presented vnto him.] And there were presented vnto him such abundance
of gifts by the saide Ambassadours, that they seemed to be infinite, namely
in Samites, robes of purple, and of Baldakin cloth, silke girdles wrought
with golde, and costly skinnes, with other gifts also. Likewise there was a
certaine Sun Canopie, or small tent (which was to bee carried ouer the
Emperours head) presented vnto him, being set full of precious stones. And
a gouernour of one Prouince brought vnto him a companie of camels couered
with Baldakins. They had saddles also vpon their backs, with certaine other
instruments, within the which were places for men to sitte vpon. Also they
brought many horses and mules vnto him furnished with trappes and
caparisons, some being made of leather, and some of iron. And we were
demanded whether we would bestow any gifts vpon him or no? But wee were not
of abilitie so to doe, hauing in a maner spent all our prouision.
[Sidenote: 500 Carts ful of treasure.] There were also vpon an hill
standing a good distance from the tents, more than 500. carts, which were
all ful of siluer and of gold, and silke garments. And they were all
diuided betweene the Emperour and his Dukes, and euery Duke bestowed vpon
his owne followers what pleased him.

De loco diuisionis Imperatoris et matris sua, et morte Ieroslai, Ducis
Russia. Cap. 30.

[Sidenote: Tentorium purpureum.] Inde recedentes, venimus ad alium locum,
vbi tentorium mirabile, totum de purpura rufa, quod Kitay dederant, erat
positum. Illic interius introducti fuimus, et semper cum intrabamus nobis
dabatur ad bibendum cereuisia vel vinum, et etiam carnes cocta, si
volebamus, ad edendum. [Sidenote: Solium churnum.] Eratque solariolum vnum,
de tabulis alte praparatum, vbi thronus Imperatoris erat positus, ex ebore
mirabiliter sculptus, in quo etiam erat aurum, et lapides preciosi, si bene
meminimus, et illuc ascendebatur per gradus. Eratque rotundum superius.
Banci vero erant positi in circuitu sedis, vbi domina sedebant a parte
sinistra in scamnis, a dextris autem nemo sedebat superius, sed Duces
sedebant in Bancis inferius, et hoc in medio. Alij vero sedebant, post eos,
et quolibet die veniebat dominarum maxima multitudo. Ista vero tria
tentoria, de quibus supra diximus, erant valde magna, aliaque habebant
vxores eius de filtro albo satis magna et pulchra. Ibidem Imperator diuisus
est a matre sua, qua iuit in vnam terra partem, et Imperator in aliam ad
iudicia facienda. Capta siquidem erat amica Imperatoris istius, qua veneno
interfecerat patrem eius, eo tempore, quo exercitus eoram in Hungaria fuit.
Propter quod etiam exercitus eorum, qui erat in partibus illis, recessit.
[Sidenote: Nex Occoday vindicata. Ieroslaus Dux Russia.] De qua cum alijs
pluribus factum fuit iudicium, et occisi fuerunt. Eodem tempore mortuus
fuit Ierozlaus, Dux magnus Soldal, qua est quadam Russia pars. Vocatus enim
ad matrem Imperatoris quasi pro honore, vt manducaret ac biberet de manu
ipsius, in continenti ad hospitum est reuersus, infirmatusque mortuus est
post septem dies, totumque corpus eius miro modo glaucum effectum est,
dicebaturque ab omnibus, quod ibidem, vt terram eius libere ac plenarie
possiderent, fuisset impotionatus.

The same in English.

Of the place where the Emperour and his mother tooke their leaues one of
another, and of Ieroslaus Duke of Russia. Chap. 30.

[Sidenote: A tent of purple.] Departing thence, we came vnto another place,
where a wonderfull braue tent, all of red purple, giuen by the Kythayans,
was pitched. Wee were admitted into that also, and alwaies when we entred,
there was giuen vnto vs ale and wine to drinke, and sodden fleshe (when we
would) to eate. [Sidenote: A throne of Iuorie.] There was also a loftie
stage built of boords, where the Emperour's throne was placed, being verie
curiously wrought out of iuorie, wherein also there was golde and precious
stones, and (as we remember) there were certain degrees or staires to
ascend vnto it. And it was round vpon the top. There were benches placed
about the saide throne, whereon the ladies sate towarde the left hand of
the Emperour vpon stooles, (but none sate aloft on the right hand) and the
Dukes sate vpon benches below, the said throne being in the midst. Certaine
others sate behind the Dukes, and euery day there resorted great companie
of Ladies thither. The three tents whereof we spake before, were very
large, but the Emperour his wiues had other great and faire tentes made of
white felt. This was the place where the Emperour parted companie with his
mother: for she went into one part of the land; and the Emperour into
another to execute iustice. For there was taken a certaine Concubine of
this Emperour, which had poysoned his father to death, at the same time
when the Tartars armie was in Hungarie, which, for the same cause returned
home. [Sidenote: The death of Occoday reuenged.] Moreouer, vpon the
foresaide Concubine, and many other of her confederats sentence of
iudgement was pronounced, and they were put to death. At the same time
Ieroslaus the great Duke of Soldal, which is a part of Russia, deceased.
For being (as it were for honours sake) inuited to eate and drinke with the
Emperours mother, and immediately after the banquet, returning vnto his
lodging, he fel sicke, and within seuen dayes, died. And after his death,
his body was of a strange blew colour, and it was commonly reported, that
the said Duke was poisoned, to the ende that the Tartars might free and
totally possess his Dukedome.

Qualiter tandem Fratres ad Imperatorem accedentes, literas dederunt &
acceperunt. Cap. 31.

[Sidenote: Cuyne cum legatis dissimulanter agit.] Denique Tartari nostri
nos ad Imperatorem duxerunt: qui cum audisset per illos, nos ad eum
venisse, iussit nos ad matrem redire. Volebat enim secundo die, sicut
superius dictum est, contra totam Occidentis terram vexillum erigere, quod

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