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The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2) by Dean C. Worcester

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[177] _Ibid_., p. 23.

[178] _Ibid_., p. 26.

[179] Senate Document No. 208, p. 24.

[180] Pio del Pilar.

[181] Report of the War Department, 1899, Vol. I, part IV, pp. 5-10.

[182] See Buencamino's letter to Jaudines, p. 108.

[183] Taylor 36 AJ. _et seq_.

[184] See p. 41.

[185] P.I.R., 427. 1.

[186] "The insolent commentary of the American Consul here, if it is
true, clearly shows the intention of America to impose her will upon us
by force. In this case, the conflict will come sooner or later. Would
it not be better for us to provoke the conflict while the Americans
have not as yet concentrated their troops there? Or would it be better
to wait for the results of the Congress of Paris? This question should
be answered immediately by the committee on foreign relations of the
Congress of representatives and the decision should be sent at once
to us so that we can proceed according to your instructions."--P.I.R.,
453. 11.

[187] "I gave an order long ago not to permit our line to be passed,
and to say frankly that it was by my order. To be prepared to defend
our rights you are ordered to place troops in front of American
position at Sampaloc and to tell them plainly to leave, to warn
the Sandatahan [bolo men.--D. C. W.] and get everything ready; you
must warn the commanders of the zones about Manila. Do not forget,
whenever in doubt."--P.I.R., 849.

[188] P.I.R., 88. 9.

[189] P.I.R., 88. 9.

[190] _Ibid._

[191] P.I.R., 88. 9.

[192] _Ibid_., 849.

[193] "Until the decision of the Paris Congress is known, all of us
here are of the opinion that you should maintain a defensive attitude
regarding the Americans, giving way to them with regard to Manila and
its suburbs or in anything they may wish, although apparently only,
and not show them your teeth. After the decision of the Congress
is known, you may take the offensive if advisable, and according to
the information we may have of the American soldiers it should not be
difficult for you and your army to settle accounts with them."--P.I.R.,
398. 6.

[194] "If you and the Americans should happen to come in conflict
before the departure of the Spanish soldiers, it might happen that
the Yankees would enter into an alliance with them to combat the
Filipinos. Think well over this."--P.I.R., 398. 6.

[195] "It is also of urgent necessity, Senor President, to reestablish
committees in all the suburbs and that the masons and the Katipunan be
reorganized, and it is advisable that all be provided with knives ready
for any event, but it is proper that these arms be hidden."--P.I.R.,
466. 9.

[196] "Our soldiers are always desirous of fighting in order to
bring affairs to an end, as they are very resentful with regard to
the evacuation of the suburbs mentioned."--P.I.R., Books C-1.

[197] "Most urgent. Have received telegraphic order from War Dept.,
which says: 'Prevent American troops from disembarking.' In case they
insist what am I to do? May I begin firing?"

This telegram was indorsed by Aguinaldo:--

"Answered affirmatively December 1, 1898."--P.I.R., 849.

[198] "Most urgent. According to despatch from Captain detached at
Batangas, American divers are working unceasingly. He says that he
ordered them to be fired on in case they try to land. Await your

Aguinaldo's reply ran as follows:--

"I do not mind their working at sea, but you must under no conditions
allow them to land troops; be brave for the sake of your Tagalog
heart. Approve your action."--P.I.R., 1179. 2.

[199] P.I.R., 849.

[200] _Ibid_.

[201] _Ibid_.

[202] 56 AJ.

[203] "We are constantly alarmed here by American troops who wish
to come within the military line. To-day received word from second
chief, second zone, Manila, that as soon as they opened fire against
the American troops I assist by entering Manila. I have no orders in
this matter; I await your directions."--P.I.R., 849.

[204] P.I.R., 849.

[205] Taylor, 70 AJ.

[206] "It is absolutely necessary that an order be received here
permitting the uprising of those in prison before the movement is
begun anywhere else; in the prison the word shall be given at the
moment the bugle sounds retreat; it is indispensable that some of our
party be prepared in the vicinity of the Iris bridge, San Pedro street
and Dulumbrayan bridge, in order to prevent the Americans quartered
in the Pennsylvania barracks (Zorilla theatre) from aiding those in
the prison."--P.I.R., 73. 3.

[207] P.I.R., 40. 8.

[208] _Ibid_., Books C-1.

[209] _Ibid_., 1141. 3.

[210] P.I.R., 1186. 10.

[211] _Ibid_., 849.

[212] See p. 733.

[213] Taylor, 68-69 AJ.

[214] P.I.R., 206-207.

[215] "Above all I expect that you will respect the persons and goods
of private persons of all nationalities, including the Chinese; that
you will treat well the prisoners and grant life to those of the
enemy who surrender. And that you be on the sharp lookout for those
traitors and enemies who, by robbery, will seek to mar our victory."

[216] P.I.R., 849.

[217] _Ibid_.

[218] For the document on which this statement is based see p. 733.

[219] P.I.R., 849.

[220] Taylor, 81 AJ.

[221] "In reply to your telegram concerning your dream of entering
Manila after four hours of combat. I have the honour to inform you
for myself and the officers and soldiers under my command that your
dream will come true as soon as the conflict with the Americans begins,
since we shall advance at any cost."--P.I.R., 849.

[222] On January 21, 1899, the commander of the fourth zone, Caloocan,
wired Aguinaldo that:

"Julian Santo, commander of the territorial militia of Trozo, informs
me that 400 native soldiers of the Spanish army to-day incorporated
in his militia. He lives in the walled city, and he wants to know
your opinion upon the present situation, since the Americans want to
hold them as prisoners or confine them in Bilibid prison."

(Indorsed, handwriting of Aguinaldo:) "Tell the Filipino soldiers
in the walled city affiliated to our cause that they must keep
on good terms with the Americans, in order to deceive them, and
prevent their confining them, since the hoped-for moment has not yet
arrived."--P.I.R., 849.

[223] On January 20, 1899, a correspondent wrote to one of the
Insurgents abroad:

"In some places (in Manila) there have been fights with bolos between
Filipinos and Americans who wanted to tear down the proclamation of
our president while the people defended it with their bolos. They
say that it amuses them to see the Americans run when they draw their
knives. It is said that some 10,000 servants have gone on strike. Some
Americans have already disappeared by the method of 'dukut' but it
will not be proper to publish this in my opinion."--P.I.R., 980. 82.

[224] Taylor, AJ. 73.

[225] (Telegram received by E. Aguinaldo:)

"To the President of the Republic, Malolos, from the Provincial
Governor of Manila, San Juan del Monte, Jan. 29, 1899, 10.25 A.M.:
I yesterday visited the military road in process of construction,
Santa Ana to Pineda. Tomorrow it will be sufficiently completed to
permit passage, and in two days after it will be finished. Considering
opening another military road direct from Caloocan to San Juan. Desire

(Endorsed, handwriting of Aguinaldo:) "Telegram received. I am very
much satisfied, and in the name of the government I congratulate you
and the presidents of Santa Ana and Pineda with their inhabitants
for their efforts for the public good. You are authorized to open
another military road from Caloocan to San Juan del Monte, and I
want you to endeavor to finish it this week, as I am certain you
will."--P.I.R., 849.

(Telegram received by E. Aguinaldo:)

"To the Secretary of the Interior, Malolos, from Sah Juan del
Monte--Received Feb. 3, 1899 from the Provincial Governor Manila:
Road marked out; work began Wednesday. I shall put forth every effort
to finish by middle of the coming week."--P.I.R., 849.

[226] Taylor, 73 AJ.

[227] Taylor, 73 AJ.

[228] P.I.R., 2018.

[229] _Ibid_., 1090. 5.

[230] P.I.R., 453. 4.

[231] P.I.R., 453. 2.

[232] P.I.R., 493. 12.

[233] Blount, p. 190.

[234] Taylor, 86 AJ.

[235] Blount, p. 175.

[236] Blount, p. 98.

[237] The constitution used was most certainly not patterned after
our own. See p. 265.

[238] Blount, p. 111.

[239] "The light Messrs. Sargent and Wilcox throw on the then universal
acknowledgment of the authority of the Aguinaldo government and the
perfect tranquillity and public order maintained under it, in the
Cagayan valley."--Blount, pp. 114-115.

[240] "The country in fact, as Aguinaldo always claimed in his
proclamations of that period seeking recognition of his government
by the Powers, in a state of profound peace and tranquillity--free
from brigandage and the like."--Blount, p. 115.

[241] P.I.R., 958. 11.

[242] P.I.R., 849.

[243] Blount, p. 108.

[244] _Ibid_., p. 109.

[245] "With a view to showing every one and especially foreigners
travelling through the territory of the Republic, that we are not
opposed to a good such as a refined and civilized people should have,
the fronts of buildings should be whitewashed, streets should be
cleaned and fences repaired."--P.I.R., 292. 3.

[246] "It would be a great satisfaction to me to aid you with all
my strength; and the only thing that I see to object to is that the
Commanders and Generals in this province are getting pretty abusive
toward our brethren and allow themselves to be bribed by the Tagalog
merchants so as to allow them to enter Manila with their goods,
which is of great assistance to our enemies.

"Concerning the contributions which I have collected from the Chinamen,
it amounts to more than P2,000 here in Tambobong, Meycauayan and
Polo alone; and those from the other pueblos have not yet come to
see me. Furthermore, I would like an order from you prohibiting the
outrages that are being committed against such merchants as are not
our enemies; and when the contributions from the Chinamen of all the
pueblos shall have been completed, I wish to publish a proclamation
forbidding any injury to the Chinamen and any interference with their
small business enterprises; since this is a disgrace to our government
and to your name; for the natives of hereabouts themselves are the
people who are committing said abuses, and in hopes of putting a
stop to them, I await your decision at the earliest possible moment
concerning the proclamation referred to."--P.I.R., 355. 11.

[247] "Last night in the place known as Santo Cristo (Manila?) the
store of J. Ricafort, a Chinaman, was entered by five soldiers of our
army under an unknown commander supposed to be Colonel Paua. They
tried to kidnap the wife of Ricafort. At the request of P. Garcia
they desisted upon payment of 20 pesos and the agreement that 100
pesos would be paid later. If this was not done they would return
and hang them. To quiet these people I gave them a pass to assure
their personal safety, and exacted at the same time a promise that
they should not report the matter to the Americans. Pauline Garcia
is now at Pedro Macati."--P.I.R., 1187.4.

[248] P.I.R., 223.

[249] "Early in the war we had availed ourselves of a certain tribe,
or clan, known as the Maccabebes, who look nowise different from all
other Filipinos, but who had, under the Spanish government, by reason
of long-standing feuds with their more rebellious neighbours, come
to be absolutely loyal to the Spanish authorities. When we came they
had transferred that loyalty to us, and had now become a recognized
and valuable part of our military force."--Blount, pp. 333-334.

[250] "On July 28, 1898, the head of the province of Pampanga wrote
that the punishment of beating people in the plaza and tying them
up so that they would be exposed to the full rays of the sun should
be stopped. He complained that these methods had been carried so far
that even people of good social position had been so punished. It was
especially undesirable to employ such punishments, as the people of
other nations weeing them would not believe that the reign of liberty,
equality, and fraternity had begun in the Philippines."--P.I.R., 196.3.

[251] Taylor, 47 AJ.

[252] P.I.R., 944.

[253] "I have the honour to inform you that I have been in this town
since yesterday afternoon issuing, in a proclamation, conciliatory
orders to the populace that the people comprised in the uprising
must present themselves and express aversion and repudiation of
it, promising them consideration and pardon as long as they lay
aside arms. In compliance with and following the earlier published
proclamation, they presented two guns and innumerable bolos. I hope
soon for tranquillity among the people there through these efforts. I
ask dispense with assembly of the Junta. _Camilin_, November 30,
1898."--P.I.R., 849.

[254] P.I.R., 849.

[255] _Ibid._

[256] P.I.R. 849.

[257] _Ibid._

[258] _Ibid._

[259] Gregorio Aglipay, an Ilocano Catholic priest who became an
active Insurgent leader. Later he abandoned the Catholic faith and
set up a new church which gained many adherents in the Philippines.

[260] P.I.R., 849.

[261] _Ibid._

[262] _Ibid._

[263] P.I.R., 1231. 2.

[264] Taylor, 62 AJ.

[265] P.I.R., 77.

[266] P.I.R., 47.7.

[267] _Ibid_., 951.3.

[268] Blount, p. 109.

[269] P.I.R., 1006.

[270] P.I.R., 870. 4.

[271] Blount, p. 113.

[272] _Ibid_., p. 111

[273] At Carig, Isabela.

[274] Taylor, 43 AJ.

[275] See p. 731.

[276] The parsonage, or residence of the priest.

[277] Insurgent officers.

[278] Their on commander so reported. See p. 202.

[279] Shortly afterward "elected" governor.

[280] This form of torture is commonly referred to in the Philippines
as the "water cure."

[281] Major Delfin commanded the expedition which took Nueva Vizcaya.

[282] P.I.R., 246. 3.

[283] Dimas Guzman.

[284] Blount, p. 112.

[285] Blount, p. 114.

[286] Blount, p. 113

[287] Blount, p. 114.

[288] A distance of 120 miles.

[289] "The former Spanish Governor of the Province was of course a
prisoner in Villa's custody. Villa had the ex-Governor brought in,
for the travellers to see him, and remarked, in his presence to them,
'This is the man who robbed this province of twenty-five thousand
dollars during the last year of his office.'"--Blount, p. 115.

[290] _La Compania General de Tabacos de Filipinas_, a very strong
commercial organization.

[291] "I call your attention to the fact that the only terms to
the surrender were to respect life, and it was for this reason that
I seized all the money they [i.e. the friars,--D.C.W.] had hidden
away, which was accomplished by applying the stick. In this capital
I found thirty-four thousand dollars in silver and a draft on the
Compania General de Tabacos for twenty thousand dollars which can be
collected here...

"The bearer can give you more details concerning the abuses
committed in this province of Vizcayana by the forces of Mayor Duflin
Esquizel. Also, I wish to inform you that we have done nothing to the
Compania General de Tabacos, for we have learned from their records
that much of their stock is held by Frenchmen, and consequently we fear
a conflict. For this reason we await your orders on this matter. We
took all the arms we found in their possession, however."--P.I.R.,

[292] P.I.R. 192.4.

[293] "I was in that town, for a similar purpose, with Governor Taft in
1901, after a bloody war which almost certainly would not have occurred
had the Paris Peace Commission known the conditions then existing, just
like this, all over Luzon and the Visayan Islands."--Blount, p. 116.

[294] "On account of this the vulgar people doubted the legality of
our actions in the collection of taxes, and accordingly it became
difficult; and this, coupled with the inveterate abuses of the heads
of the towns, which the head of the province was not able to perceive
in time to check, caused a tumult in Echague, which, owing to wise
councils and efforts at pacification, was appeased without it being
followed by serious consequences; but I have no doubt that this tumult
was due only to the suggestions of ungovernable and passionate persons
animated by the spirit of faction, since those who took part in it
were all Ilocanos, no native of Echague having any hand in it. The
same thing occurred in Naguilian, where the disorders were also
quieted. Not only did I make no report of all this to the government of
the republic on account of the abnormality of the present conditions,
but I also succeeded in concealing them from the foreigners here so
that they should not succeed in discovering the truth, which would
be to the prejudice of our cause."--Taylor, 42 AJ.

[295] "I may add that as judge of that district in 1901-2 there came
before me a number of cases in the trial of which the fact would be
brought out of this or that difference among the local authorities
having been referred to the Malolos Government for settlement. And
they always awaited until they heard from it,"--Blount, p 112.

[296] "General Otis's reports are full of the most inexcusable
blounders about how 'the Tagals' took possession of the various
provinces and just about those of a New Yorker or a Bostonian sent up
to Vermont in the days of the American Revolution to help organize
the resistance there, in conjunction with one of the local leaders
of the patriot cause in the Green Mountain State."--Blount, p. 112.

[297] Blount, p. 114.

[298] Taylor, 42 AJ.

[299] Blount, p. 111.

[300] P.I.R., 974. 3.

[301] "December 20, 1898.

"_To the Honorable President of the Revolutionary Government_.

"The undersigned residents of the _barangay_ of D. Francisco Querubin
and D. Melchor Balueg, of Bucay, of the province of Abra, appeal to
you with the utmost subjection from their place of residence and state:
That their heads or representatives, D. Francisco Querubin and Melchor
Balueg, respectively, force them to pay two _pesos_ each as a war tax,
your humble vassals above cited being hardly able to earn their own
livelihood and support their families, and, notwithstanding their
labor, some of them cannot get anything to eat without appealing to
the charity of their richer neighbours; but notwithstanding this sad
situation, they offer a _peseta_ each as a mark of gratitude to the
mother country, Filipinas, but said gentlemen, the representatives
mentioned, have not the slightest pity and worry us to the extent
of having kept us in our houses a day and a night without anything
to eat, not even permitting us to go out to get a drink.

"We must inform you that the head of the _barangay_, D. Melchor Balueg,
when he gathers the supplies for the troops stationed in his town, said
supplies consisting of rice, pigs, chickens and eggs, uses one-half
of what is gathered, and then again orders his assistants to save."

"In fact, the undersigned request you to direct that the _peseta_
which they offer be accepted and that the said Don Francisco Querubin
and Don Melchor Balueg be relieved of their duties, in order to put
a stop to the abuses constantly committed by them; and if this be
not done, the petitioners will be obliged to leave their homes and
property in the town and take up their residences in the mountains
with the Negritos and Igorots, in order that the others may remain
in the town and live tranquilly.

"This is a grace which we do not doubt we will receive from you,
whose life may God preserve for many years.

"_Bucay_, November 12, 1898." (26 signatures)

(In blue pencil in the handwriting of Aguinaldo:) "It will be approved.

"Dec. 20, 1898.

"E. A."

--P.I.R., 991. 4.

[302] P.I.R., 849.

[303] Blount, p. 130.

[304] _Ibid_., pp. 130-131.

[305] P.I.R., 1142. 4.

[306] _Ibid_., 2002. 3.

[307] P.I.R., 964. 3.

[308] On November 30, 1898, the commander in Alaminos, Zambales
Province, telegraphed that his soldiers were all about to desert as
the head of the town would not furnish rations or pay without orders
from the governor."--P.I.R., 2002.3.

[309] "On December 22, Aguinaldo, in accordance with a request from
the governor of Zambales Province, ordered the heads of the provinces
of Pangasinan, Tarlac, Bataan, and Pampanga to prohibit the people
of their provinces from going to Zambales without passports signed by
them, stating the route they were to take in going and returning and
the length of time to be spent in the journey. The governor of Zambales
had asked for this regulation in order to prevent the commission of
robberies in Zambales and to distinguish persons justly subject to
suspicion from those of good conduct."--P.I.R., 266. 3.

[310] "On January 9, the governor of Zambales found it impossible
to continue the inspection of certain towns of his province and to
continue holding elections, as many of the officials had fled to escape
the exactions and abuses of the military commanders."--P.I.R., 988. 2.

[311] "The Governor of Cavite reports two drunken Americans have been
killed by our soldiers. I tell him to have an investigation immediately
and report the fact to the American commander."--P.I.R., 849.

[312] "Most urgent. Gen. Anderson informs me in a letter that,
'in order to avoid the very serious misfortune of an encounter
between our troops, I demand your immediate withdrawal with your
guard from Cavite. One of my men has been killed and three wounded
by your people.' This is positive and does not admit of explanation
or delay. I ask you to inform me of your decision."--P.I.R., 849.

[313] "_Gen. Riego de Dios, Cavite_: Telegram received. Do not
leave the post, and say that you cannot abandon the city without
my orders, and say that he was not killed by our soldiers, but by
them themselves [the Americans.--D. C. W.], since they were drunk,
according to your telegram. Give up your life before abandoning that
place, and investigate matters."--P.I.R., 849.

[314] "Urgent. Gen. Alvarez telegraphed that Riego de Dios informed him
that the town of Maragondong had risen in arms on account of abuses
committed by the local President against Salvador Riego. This is the
reason the town took up arms. Will go there to-morrow."--P.I.R., 849.

[315] Taylor, 19 AJ.

[316] P.I.R., 1057. 4.

[317] Taylor, 95 HS.

[318] The name applied to the Filipinos of Ambos Camarines, Albay
and Sorsogon.

[319] P.I.R., 262. 3.

[320] Taylor, 48 AJ.

[321] Blount, p. 116.

[322] Accepting the 1903 census figures.

[323] Aguinaldo considered Mindanao important enough to form one of the
three federal states into which he proposed to divide the Philippines.

[324] Blount, p. 228.

[325] _Ibid_., p. 229.

[326] Bandits, or organized robbers.

[327] The old Spanish name for Palawan.

[328] Blount, p. 228.

[329] P.I.R., 944. 10.

[330] Blount, p. 116.

[331] Blount, p. 229.

[332] According to the census of 1903, 154,706.

[333] See table on p. 651.

[334] (Contemporary copy in Spanish.--P.I.R., Books C-L:)

"January 19, 1899.

"The President of the Philippine Republic very cordially greets his
great and powerful brother, the Sultan of Jolo, and makes known:--

"That the Filipinos, after having thrown off the yoke of foreign
domination cannot forget their brothers of Jolo to whom they are
bound by the ties of race, interests, security and defense in this
region of the Far East.

"The Philippine Republic has resolved to respect absolutely the
beliefs and traditions of each island in order to establish on solid
bases the bonds of fraternal unity demanded by our mutual interests.

"I therefore in the name of all the Filipinos very gladly offer to
the powerful Sultan of Jolo and to all brothers who acknowledge his
great authority, the highest assurance of friendship, consideration
and esteem.

"_Malolos_, January 18, 1899."

(No signature.)

[335] P.I.R., 76. 1.

[336] From an official document on file at Manila.

[337] "Being brothers, the descendants of the same race and of one
soul, the same sun shines upon us and we breathe the same air, so
that our sentiments are also one, and we aspire to the independence
and liberty of our country in order to secure its progress and place
it on a level with other civilized nations; and with this assurance I
have taken the liberty to address you this letter, begging of you to
accept the commission which in the name of our government I have the
honour to confer upon you. You are authorized thereunder to establish
in all the 'Rancherias' of Mindanao and Jolo, a civil and military
economic-administrative organization, in accordance with the decrees
which I enclose herewith, and after having established the same,
I request that you make a report to our Honourable President of the
Philippine Republic, Sr. Emilio Aguinaldo, of the result thereof
and of the number of the force with their arms and ammunition, in
order to ascertain whether they would be sufficient to prevent the
invasion of the enemy and whether there is any necessity of sending
reinforcements of arms to said Islands for this purpose. If in this
war, which I consider to be the last, we secure our independence, and
with the opposition of our brothers in that region, with yourself at
their head, we are successful in preventing the enemy from gaining a
foothold, the grateful country will always render a tribute of homage
and gratitude to your memory.

"God preserve you many years.

"May 31, 1899. "_Baldomero Aguinaldo_,

"Lieut. Gen. Superior P. M. Commander of Southern Region.

"To _The Honourable Sultan Raha Halon_"

--P.I.R., 810-4.

[338] Spanish for "mountain people."

[339] P.I.R., 512. A 5.

[340] Extract from a letter to Apacible of the Hongkong junta dated
February 26, 1899:--

"It is also said that the Cantonal Government of Negros has wished
to make a treaty with the Americans, some members of that government
having come in American transports to confer with General Otis. We
are not aware of the conditions of the arrangement, because the Negros
people have thus far not wished to put themselves in communication with
us; we only know by news more or loss reliable that the capital of that
island has been occupied by the American forces without opposition.

"Of Mindanao we know absolutely nothing; we also are ignorant of what
has been the lot of our agents in America."

[341] "Of the Visayas and Mindanao we know nothing positive as yet, it
is whispered that the Americans have succeeded in occupying Negros and
Cebu against the will of the inhabitants. Iloilo continues the struggle
energetically. It does not matter that they occupy temporarily those
beautiful islands, because Luzon will know how to fight for herself
and the rest of the islands, and will not lay down arms without the
independence of the Philippine Archipelago."

[342] Blount, p. 140.

[343] P.I.R., 62. 2.

[344] _Ibid_., 144. 1.

[345] "The second reason for my resignation is the pain caused me by
having still to read among the reports of our military associates that
in some of the chiefs, besides odious favouritism, is clearly seen a
desire to enrich themselves, accepting bribes, making even prisoners
a means of gain, and others there are, above all the commissaries,
who dare to decrease the allowance of the soldier, little enough
already;--I throw the blame of all this upon those who taught us such
a custom; consequently I have reason to hope that they will change
their methods.

"The same cause of complaint I have concerning some companions who
are discharging civil offices, especially those who are far from
the oversight of the government, who put their own welfare before
the common good, and devise a thousand means to further their own
ends, even to the extent of gambling. Where are the police? Are they,
perchance, also bribed? Pity money is so ill spent! However, every one
is obliged to know that falsehood will never prevail against truth,
and as evidence hereof many soldiers have confessed to the government
as to having received certain sums in the share of the booty, and
if we consider that the latter who receive their share have told the
truth, why should those who are present during the partition of the
money and receive nothing, not do so? In this way the eyes of some
that were blinded are gradually opened; I confess, moreover, that
the latter are to be blamed less than those in authority who are so
attached to the methods of the past administration, who, we may hope,
will change their mode of conduct and exhibit true patriotism.

* * * * *

"I certify to the truth of all the above-mentioned evils, which must
be eradicated. I retain the evidence for presentation when called on,
so that if any of the readers hereof should consider themselves
to and should resent it, I am ready to beg their pardon."--P.I.R., 8.2.

[346] Blount, p. 108.

[347] Senate Documents, Vol. 25, pp. 2928-2941.

[348] P.I.R., 838-2.

[349] In this connection note Blount's statement:--

"But we are considering how much of a government the Filipinos had
in 1898, because the answer is pertinent to what sort of a government
they could run if permitted now or at any time in the future."--Blount,
p. 73.

[350] Blount refers to

"The death-warrant of the Philippine republic signed by Mr. McKinley
on September 16th."--Blount, p. 99.

Speaking of Mr. Roosevelt's opinion of the practicability of granting
independence to the Filipinos, he says--

"Yet it represented then one of the many current misapprehensions
about the Filipinos which moved this great nation to destroy a young
republic set up in a spirit of intelligent and generous emulation of
our own."--Blount, p. 230.

[351] "Here was a man claiming to be President of a newly established
republic based on the principles set forth in our Declaration of
Independence, which republic had just issued a like Declaration, and he
was invited to come and hear our declaration read, and declined because
we would not recognize his right to assert the same truths."--Blount,
p. 59.

[352] "The war satisfied us all that Aguinaldo would have
been a small edition of Porfirio Diaz, and that the Filipino
republic-that-might-have-been would have been, very decidedly,
'a going concern,' although Aguinaldo probably would have been able
to say with a degree of accuracy, as Diaz might have said in Mexico
for so many years, 'The Republic? I am the Republic.'"--Blount, p. 292.

[353] "The war demonstrated to the army, to a Q. E. D., that the
Filipinos are 'capable of self-government,' unless the kind which
happens to suit the genius of the American people is the only kind of
government on earth that is respectable, and the one panacea for all
the ills of government among men without regard to their temperament or
historical antecedents. The educated patriotic Filipinos can control
the masses of the people in their several districts as completely as
a captain ever controlled a company."--Blount, p. 292.

[354] "Even to-day the presidente of a pueblo is as absolute boss
of his town as Charles F. Murphy is in Tammany Hall. And a town or
pueblo in the Philippines is more than an area covered by more or
less contiguous buildings and grounds. It is more like a township
in Massachusetts, so that when you account governmentally for the
pueblos of a given province, you account for every square foot of
that province and for every man in it."

[355] "In there reviewing the Samar and other insurrections of 1905
in the Philippines, you find him (_i.e._ Roosevelt) dealing with
the real root of the evil with perfect honesty, though adopting the
view that the Filipino people were to blame therefor, because we
had placed too much power in the hands of an ignorant electorate,
which had elected rascally officials."--Blount, p. 297.


"But we proceeded to ram down their throats a preconceived theory that
the only road to self-government was for an alien people to step in
and make the ignorant masses the _sine qua non_."--Blount, p. 546.


"Of course the ignorant elecorate we perpetrated on Samar as an
'expression of our theoretical views' proved that we had 'gone too
fast' in conferring self-government, or to quote Mr. Roosevelt, had
been 'reposing too much confidence in the self-governing power of
a people,' if to begin with the rankest material for constructing a
government that there was at hand was to offer a fair test of capacity
for self-government."--Blount, p. 546.

[356] P.I.R., 499. 1 Ex. 134.

[357] Ibid., 206. 1.

[358] Ibid., 1124. 2.

[359] Ibid., 204. 6.

[360] P.I.R., 206. 6.

[361] P.I.R., 674. 1.

[362] _Ibid._, 206. 3.

[363] P.I.R., 206. 3.

[364] On July 7, 1898, the secretary of the revolutionary junta
in Mindanao, in writing to Aguinaldo, closed his letter with the
following formula: "Command this, your vassal, at all hours at the
orders of his respected chief, on whom he will never turn his back,
and whom he will never forswear. God preserve you, Captain General,
many years." P.I.R., 1080. 1. Every now and then we find a queer use
of the term "royal family." This seems to have been common among the
mass of the people. Heads of towns and men of position often used
the expression "royal orders" in speaking of the orders and decrees
issued by Aguinaldo. For example, the officials of Tayug, a town of
19,000 people in Pangasinan Province, certified, on October 9, 1898,
that they had carried out the instructions for "the establishment of
the popular government in accordance with the royal decree of June 18,
1898."--P.I.R., 1188. 1.

In October certain of Aguinaldo's adherents in Tondo wrote to him and
protested against the acts of the local presidente, who, they held,
had not been duly elected in accordance with the provisions of the
"royal order" of June 18, 1898. They closed their respectful protest
by requesting that said royal order should be obeyed.--Taylor, AJ., 63.

In 1899 an officer of the army in Union Province wrote: "In accordance
with the orders of the secretary of war of our republican government
of these islands, issued in compliance with royal decree, article 5,
published on March 8." On September 1, 1898, the local presidente
of the town of Mangatarem, writing to the head of the province,
said that he had not furnished the estimates required because the
elections provided for in "article 7 of the royal decree of the
superior government, dated June 18 last," had not been approved. A
young son of a member of Aguinaldo's cabinet, writing to his father in
September, 1899, spoke of the "royal decree of June 18, 1898."--P.I.R.,
1188. 3. In Romblon, in August, 1898, elections were held in compliance
with the prescription of the "royal decree of June 18, 1898," and
Aguinaldo approved them, apparently without considering that this
was an anomalous way of describing a decree of the dictator of the
so-called republic. On March 7, 1899, a general in the revolutionary
service stated that an officer had been released from arrest by a
"royal order." The attitude of mind which made men speak of Aguinaldo's
"royal orders" in 1898 did not change when he fled before the advance
of the United States army. His orders remained royal orders. They
were again and again referred to in this way.

[365] P.I.R., Books C-1.

[366] P.I.R., 1216. 1.

[367] P.I.R., 1216. 1.

[368] P.I.R., 223.

[369] P.I.R. 1133. 1.

[370] P.I.R., 1137. 4.

[371] _Ibid.,_ R., 1165. 2.

[372] P.I.R., 319. 1.

[373] _Ibid.,_ 3. 33.

[374] _Ibid.,_ 1022. 3.

[375] P.I.R., 1200.

[376] P.I.R., 907. 6.

[377] P.I.R., 39. 7.

[378] The following memorandum to accompany a letter from Senor Don
Sixto Lopez, Secretary of Senor Don Felipe Agoncillo, to the Honorable
the Secretary of State, written January 5, 1899, clearly sets forth
this claim:--

"Pursuant to the action of said congress a detailed system of
government has been provided for and is actually maintained in all the
portions of the Philippine Islands, except so much of the provinces of
Manila and Cavite as is now in the actual possession of the American
Army, such excepted part containing only about 3 per cent. of the
population of the entire islands and an infinitely smaller proportion
of their area.

"From the foregoing it will appear that the Philippine government is
now, as it has been practically ever since the 16th of June, 1898,
in substantially full possession of the territory of the people it
represents."--Taylor Ex. 530 57 KU., Congressional Record, June 3,
1902, Vol. 35, part 6, p. 6217.

[379] Blount, p. 70.

[380] "September, 1898.


"Although article 11, Chapter 2, of the Organic Decree of June
23 (1898) last, prescribes that the appointment of provisional
representatives of Congress be given to persons who have been born
or have resided in the provinces which they are to represent; taking
into consideration the urgent necessity that said body enter upon
its functions immediately, I hereby decree the following:--

"1. The following are appointed provisional Representatives ...

"2. A meeting of Congress is called for the 15th instant, to be held
in the town of Malolos, province of Bulacan.

"3. The Secretary of the Interior shall take steps to notify the
persons appointed and those elected by the popular commanders in the
provinces already occupied by the Revolution, of the call as soon
as possible.

"Giv ...."

(Attached hereto is the following, with the names written in Mabini's

"September, 1898.

"Provinces not subject to the Revolutionary Government of the

Names Classes
Albay Highest class 2. Salvador V. del Rosario and Felipe
Ilocos Norte do 2. Jose, Antonio Luna
Ilocos Sur do 2. Ignacio Villamor, Jose Aleji
Isabela de Luzon Third class 1. Ariston Bautista
Sorsogon do 1. Jose Albert
Cagayan do 1. Pablo Tecson

Abra Pol.-Mil. Govt. 1. Isidro Paredes
Nueva Viscaya do 1. Enrique Mendiola
Corregidor do
Catanduanes do
Batanes do
Masbate and Ticao Pol.-Mil. 1. Alberto Barreto
Amburayan do
Apayaos do
Benguet do 1. Joaquin Luna
Binatanga do
Bontoc do 1. Fernando Canon
Burias do
Cayapa do
Itaves do
Lepanto do 1. Leon Apacible
Principe do 1. Mariano Ocampo
Quiangan do
Tiagan do
Cabugauan do
Island of Cebu Pol.-Mil. Govt. 2. Cayetano Arellano and
of highest Pardo de Tavera
Iloilo, Panay do 2. Gregorio Araneta and Melecio
Island of Leyte do 1. Leon Guerrero
Negros Occidental do 1. Jose Maria de la Vina
Island of Samar do Pablo Ocampo
Island of Panay do 1. Hipolito Magsalin
Capiz Lowest class 1. Miguel Zaragoza
Negros Oriental do 1. Aguedo Velarde
Island of Bohol do 1. Juan Manday Gabriel
Romblon Pol.-Mil. 1. Vicente Gonzalez Maninang
Concepion do 1. Mariano V. del Rosario
Zamboanga 1st Dist. 1. Pedro A. Paterno
Pol.-Mil. Govt.
Misamis 2d Dist. do 1. Maximino Paterno
Surigao 3d Dist. do 1. Benito Valdes
Davao 4th Dist. do 1. Telesforo Chuidian
Cotabato 5th Dist. do 1. Enrique Mercaida
Basilan 6th Dist. do 1. Juan Tuason

Lanao 7th Dist. do 1. Gonzalo Tuason
Dapitan Pol.-Mil. 1. Gonzalo Tuason
Butuan do
Baras is under Pol.-Mil. Govt. of Bahia Illana
Levac is under Pol.-Mil. Comandancia of Cottabatto
Matti Pol.-Mil. Comandancia
Malabang. This Comandancia is under the Military
Comandancia of Bahia Illana.
Reina Regente. This Comandancia is under the Pol.-Mil.
Govt. of Cottabato
Bay of Sarangani Pol.-Mil. Comandancia
and adjacent
Tucuran Pol.-Mil. Govt.
Island of Jolo do 1. Benito Legarda
Siassi Pol.-Mil. Com.
Tataan do
Bongao do
Island of Paragua Pol.-Mil. Govt. 1. Felipe Calderon.
Balabac do 1. Manuel Jerez
Calamianes do 1. Manuel Genato
Marianas Islands do
Oriental Carolines do
North and South Don Tomas del Rosario and
Don Cecilio Hilario

Exhibit 226, 76 MG, E, Extract from original in Spanish, A. L. S.,
P.I.R., 416. 1."

[381] P.I.R., 38. 3.

[382] The 1903 census returns are here used for each of the several

[383] P.I.R., 485. 1.

[384] P.I.R., 40. 1.

[385] P.I.R., 377. 13.

[386] _Ibid_., 472. 9.

[387] _Ibid_., 40. 8.

[388] _Ibid_., 849. See p. 143.

[389] A general term covering education, public works, agriculture
and commerce.

[390] P.I.R., 512. A 5.

[391] P.I.R., 485. 5.

[392] Senate Document 138, Fifty-sixth Congress, First Session.

[393] P.I.R., Books B-6.

[394] P.I.R., 472. 8.

[395] "To the Military Chiefs of the towns mentioned in the margin

[there is nothing in the margin.--TR.]:--

"As there are still many soldiers paying no notice to the order
forbidding the waste of cartridges, you are required to give a certain
amount of ammunition to each soldier and to see every day if there
is any cartridge missing, and if so, inquire into the reason. In
order that this may be successfully carried out, I have deemed it
proper to prescribe the punishment for such offence, of which you
will inform the soldiers under your command, and post this circular
in a prominent place. Said punishments are as follows:--

"_Art_. 1. A soldier found wasting ammunition shall be punished with 12
lashes; in case he commits the same offence again he shall be punished
with 24 lashes; and on a further offence of like character by the
same soldier, he shall be court-martialled and severely punished.

"_Art_. 2. A soldier who has been found short of even one cartridge out
of the ammunition assigned to him, shall be punished with 12 lashes,
provided that he has not previously been in any engagement.

"_Art_. 3. A soldier who has been found with no cartridges by reason
of throwing them away during an engagement, shall be court-martialled,
and severely punished.

"I most earnestly recommend you to carefully look after your soldiers
and see that every one is complying with the foregoing order.

"This order should be transmitted from one town to another mentioned in
the margin, and the last one should return it to this office with the
information that the same has been received and complied with by all.

"May God guard you many years.

"_E. Aguinaldo_, Dictator.

"_Cavite_, June 17th, 1898."

--P.I.R., 1124. 2.

[396] "November 16, 1900.

(Stamp) "_Lacuna Brigade. Headquarters_.

"_Major Thomas Tagunton_: Advise all officers of this brigade that
he who allows his soldiers to load their rifles without being before
the enemy, shall be liable to capital punishment. If the soldiers
intentionally or otherwise fire their pieces, whether in the air
or at any determined or undetermined person, said soldiers and the
officers to whose command they belong shall also be liable to the same
punishment as above, without further proceedings, for the reason that
we are almost in front of the enemy, and all the more if the shots
take effect upon any of the soldiers or chiefs.

"Sergeants and corporals shall also take heed of the present warnings,
as they will also be given the same punishment if they by abandoning
their squads allow them to commit certain outrages.

"You will report receipt of and compliance with this order.

"God preserve you many years.

"General Headquarters, November 16, 1900.

(Signed) "_Lacuna_, General, Political-Military Governor and Chief
of Operations."--P.I.R., 643. 1.

[397] Taylor, AJ. 85.

[398] "_Kabatuan_, Oct. 14th, 1899.


"_Martin F. Delgado, General and Politico-Military Governor of the
Province of Iloilo_.

"As a consequence of the frequent assaults and robberies committed
by persons wearing military uniforms, and with the determination to
correct, with a firm hand, such scandalous conduct, which, besides
causing such deeds to be laid at the door of the military, also
makes it easier for evil-doers to commit their misdeeds, I have,
at the suggestion of the Councillor of Police, ordered the following:--

"1. From this date forward all private citizens are absolutely
prohibited from wearing military uniforms.

"2. All authorities, both civil and military, under this Government,
are obliged to see to the strict enforcements of this edict.

"3. All persons who, not being in the military service, are, after
the publication of this edict, found wearing military uniforms,
and who cannot show that they are in the military service, will be
suspected as evil-doers and will be sent to this Government to be
subjected to the corresponding corrective measures.

* * * * *

(Signed) " _Martin Delgado_,


--P.I.R., 881. 4.

[399] "On April 10, 1899, General Delgado wrote that, benignity having
failed, rigorous methods would be used to enforce collections and
that if the people did not pay--

"'I shall, with great pain, see myself under the necessity of
withdrawing all my forces to the mountains and leaving them [the
pueblos] to the fate which God will decide upon,' which of course
meant that he would leave them to the mercy of the bandits who stood
ready to descend upon them."--P.I.R., B., 4.

"This threat was not an idle one."--Taylor, 67 HS. E-L.

[400] "_Santa Cruz, Laguna_, July, 1899.

"_Hon. Sr. Emilio Aguinaldo_....

"There was a notorious bandit here who was the terror of the
province with his gang; I had him arrested and shot and the robberies
ceased. Murders were being committed; I had the murderers caught, shot
one of them, and there were no more murders; officers of the reserve
would consider themselves kings in their towns, they would shoot
the local _presidentes_ and commit other unlawful acts; I disarmed
them, and tried the most celebrated one, called Arcadio Castillo,
alias Bancucane, who attempted to escape and was killed. With the
death of these persons order has been completely reestablished in
this province. Several had rifles that were used only for robbery
and after two or three trials all turned over their rifles, and the
arming of the battalion was completed.

* * * * *

(Signed) "_Juan Cailles_."

--P.I.R., 7 & 8.

[401] "_Regional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas_.

"_Office of the President_.

"_Kabatuan_, March 16, 1899.

"_To the Honourable President of the Philippine Republic_,

"_Senor Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy_,

"_Most Distinguished President_:

* * * * *

"In order to avoid the distress which the knowledge of the abuses
which are already unbearable, daily committed by the troops of Senor
Diocno, will cause you, this government has hesitated to communicate
them to you, but, as there is almost a reign of terror here, it feels
that it must inform you of them in order to remedy them. The death
of private individuals and assaults committed in the towns are daily
reported as having been committed by the troops of General Diocno. Of
the numerous companies of Senor Diocno, only two under the orders of
General Araneta fight against the enemy, the remainder are the terror
of the town and it is a week since Sr. Diocno went to Capiz without
telling any one what he was going to do.

"In view of the facts pointed out, the soldiers of this General
constituting a constant danger to the town, this government asks you to
order General Diocno to turn over his rifles to us to kill Americans
with and to enable the towns to recover their former tranquillity;
this government asks this of you, relying upon the well-known justice
with which you act and it wishes for you many years of life for our
liberty and our independence.

"_Kabatuan_, March 16, 1899.

(Signed) "_Jovito Yusay_,

"_Temporary President._

(Signed) "_Francisco Soriano_,

"_General Secretary._"

--P.I.R., 52. 5.

[402] "Martin Delgado y Bermejo, lieutenant general and general in
chief of the republican army of the Visayan Islands.

"_General Headquarters of Santa Barbara_,

"April 20, 1899.

"The existence of a state of war, and the trying circumstances through
which the country is now passing have brought about a complete
change in the order of nearly all the pueblos; and I have noticed
with profound regret that sacking, robbery, sequestrations, and
other crimes highly dishonourable to our noble cause, are of daily
occurrence. With a view to preventing such conduct in the future,
and in order to guarantee to the inhabitants of the military district
under my command the most complete tranquillity, I hereby decree:

"1. That any person or persons who commit acts of brigandage,
sequestration, incendiarism, rape, or other disturbances of a public
nature calculated to excite the public, or which infringe individual
or property rights, shall be severely punished in accordance with
military law.

"2. That all offenders who present themselves to the Local or Military
Authorities within the 30 days immediately following this date, and
who turn over their arms and join our forces and help to fight other
outlaws and to defend the nation, will be pardoned for the crimes
they have committed.

"3. That when the period of 30 days above mentioned has passed, any
person taken in the act of committing robbery, or who attempts to rob
with an organized band of outlaws, or who steals, rapes, or performs
acts of incendiarism, or any other criminal act, will be summarily
condemned to death by a military tribunal.

"The Local Juntas of the various towns in conjunction with citizens
of standing and the military authorities will organize a vigilance
service to maintain public order and the authority of the law.

"_M. Delgado_."

--P.I.R., Books B 4.

[403] "February 13, 1899.

(In the margin: A stamp which says:) "Philippine Republic--Headquarters
of operations of the provinces of Southern Luzon.

"It is with great regret that I have learned that robberies, assaults,
kidnapping, and other crimes which are committed only by barbarous
and savage tribes, are taking place in our towns, without taking
into consideration that the purpose of the insurrection which has
given origin to our social regeneration is true justice, for the
reestablishment of which the lives and property are being sacrificed
of all who are proud of being called Filipinos. These acts are being
committed without restriction by civilians as well as soldiers perhaps
with the cooeperation of their respective chiefs, to the shame of
the authority vested in them and to the prejudice of the society to
which they unworthily belong, and even to the integrity itself of
the Republic. And in order that these barbarous and savage acts may
disappear and that rigorous and exemplary punishment be meted out,
I have deemed it proper to forward to you for general information
the proclamation of these Headquarters of February 12th last, which
is as follows":

* * * * *

(Signed) "_Mariano Trias_.


"_To the Politico-Military Chief of Infanta_."--P.I.R., 896-9.

[404] "There does not seem to have been the faintest conception that
there was any reason for not using the white flag to deceive people
who were foolish enough to believe that Aguinaldo was going to adhere
to the rules prescribed for its use. The writer in the early spring
of 1899 once watched an insurgent party advance under a white flag
upon an American line of trenches. When an officer and a bugler went
forward to receive them they threw down the flag and immediately
opened fire with the rifles which they were then seen to be dragging
behind them."--_Taylor_, 48 HS.

[405] "Such ammunition was not effective unless fired from very
close quarters, but even its possession made the guerrillas stronger
than the people of the country and undoubtedly had much to do with
securing their cooeperation, not only as bolomen but also in the
digging of the pits which were placed in the trails and also set
about the towns. These were required to be constructed by the local
authorities. In the bottom was set a sharp spike of bamboo, sometimes
poisoned; and the pit was covered with leaves and soil upon a fragile
framework; so that if a man stood upon it he would fall through upon
the spike. Bows were set in the jungle with a string set across the
trail so that any one stumbling over it would discharge a sharp bamboo
shaft with a poisoned head. On September 18, 1900, Lukban congratulated
the people of the town of Katubig upon the efficient use they had made
of arrows with the heads dipped in 'dita,' a native poison. (P.I.R.,
502. 8.)"

--_Taylor_, 83 HS.

[406] See also the chapter entitled "Murder as a Governmental

[407] See p. 313.

[408] The following newspaper supplement printed in Tagalog for the
benefit of the common people, is typical of this class of literature,
with which the country was kept flooded:

(Circular printed in Tagalog. P.I.R., 17-6. Supplement to _Heraldo

"Friday, 24th February, 1899.


"We must consider ourselves fortunate that the bad intentions of
North America were found out early. If we had not found them out by
this time we should have been entrapped. And we should thank God that
they commenced the war.

"You ought to know by this time that these people can teach us
nothing good. What we can learn from them is all evil. You must
admit the truth of what they are reported to do to our brothers in
Manila where they rob the houses when the dwellers in them are out
or busy. Their evil inclinations prevail over them to such an extent
that the houses most worthy of consideration are not safe. They are
worse than the wild people who live in the woods, they have not the
slightest idea of looking at things from the point of view of a man
of honour nor have they the slightest respect for reason, for this
does not control their actions in the least. Without the slightest
attention to civility they rush into houses and if they find the
people eating, without saying a word, they take what they want from
the table, put it into their mouths and go as they came.

"If they find people sleeping or resting, taking the siesta, it makes
no difference to them; they go into the most private parts of the
house as though they were walking in the street.

"In the shops they take what pleases them and if the owner wants
payment they threaten him with their rifles.

"One can hardly believe and my pen refuses to write all of the
perversity, and evil and bad habits of these people.

"Their habits and manners are a disgrace to the country where they
were born. In no history have such customs and manners been described
even in that of the most ignorant people.

"They search women who pass, feeling all over their bodies, taking
from them money and whatever else they carry and if they come on them
in a lonely place they strip them naked after violating them and do
not leave a rag on them.

"Are these those honest men of whom we have heard? Are these the
people who were going to teach us good habits? Are these the people who
were going to guide us? The race which does these things is the most
hated one in the world, it is the race which commits most cruelties,
it is the race which does not treat its mother with respect; in this
race there is not the slightest idea of personal dignity, it is a
race which does not know what honour is, which does not possess the
slightest vestige of regard for good manners. Are these the people
who are going to protect us? It is better for us to die at once than
fall into the power of these unequalled malefactors.

"iDown with the bad men!

"iKill the Americans!!

"iLet the people of the United States be exterminated!!!

"iNotice.--This sheet is distributed gratis."

[409] "A light upon the treatment of women by these people is given
by the fact that after an American detachment had captured Lukban's
papers and family on August 18, and came so close to taking him that
he was able to recognize their guide, one of his correspondents wrote
to him that to their surprise the women, who had fully expected to
be abused, had been treated with respect and given a house to live
in. (P.I.R., 1143.4.)"--_Taylor_, 84 HS.

[410] In a letter to General Ambrosio Moxica from ------ dated March 2,
1900, occurs the following:--

"The guerillas quartered in the neighbourhood must render mutual
assistance and keep up communication, so as to get the news as to where
the enemy comes or goes, and the time at which they will pass certain
points, endeavouring also to arrange that all the guerilla bands should
have regular couriers, with you or with general headquarters, giving
advice daily of any occurrence and carrying correspondence. They must
select trustworthy women to carry correspondence, charging them to
hide the letters underneath their skirts, bearing in mind that the
Americans do not search them; and in sending to the towns for arms
or food, the orders must be sent by women and for small quantities,
so as not to attract attention."--P.I.R., 2035. 3.

[411] Simeon Villa, who accompanied Aguinaldo on his long flight,
kept a somowhat detailed account of events in the form of a diary.

[412] P.I.R., 869.

[413] _Ibid._

[414] P.I.R., 2035. 3.

[415] P.I.R., 886. 13.

[416] Exhibit 1233

(Original in Spanish. Contemporary copy. P.I.R., Books B. 4.)

"_General Headquarters, Santa Barbara_, Feb. 28th, 1899."

(Literal copy of telegram.)

* * * * *

"Casualties, Americans, on 6th, 2000 Colonels dead, one General;
all churches converted into hospitals full American wounded; total
American casualties 7000 confirmed by General Fullon just arrived
from Malolos; says also Iloilo quiet and not taken.

* * * * *

"A true copy

"By order of Chief of Staff.

"_Juan Beloso_."

[417] (Supplement to the _Filipino Herald_.)

"Thursday, Feb. 23rd, 1899.--4 P.M.

"The Filipino Army occupies the suburbs of Manila.

* * * * *

"The three columns commanded by Generals Pio del Pilar and Licerio
and Col. Hizon now occupy the suburbs of Sampaloc, San Miguel, San
Sebastian, Binondo, San Nicholas and Tondo.

"The Cavite battalion has possession of the Cuartel de Meisic and
our flag is now flying there.

"_Six Thousand Americans Besieged!!!_

"The American troops now in Caloocan and La Loma to the number of over
six thousand are besieged by the columns commanded by Generals Luna,
Llanera and Garcia.

"_The Honourable President_

"This very moment the special train carrying the Honourable President
has left for Caloocan.

"Viva the independent Philippines!!!

"Viva the unconquerable Philippine Army!!!

"Notice. This sheet is distributed gratis."--P.I.R., 70-6.

[418] (News.) The American General, MacArthur, with his entire staff,
was taken prisoner by our troops in Northern Luzon. Another American
general died on the 5th of January last in the North, who was seriously
wounded in an ambush or fight. When shot he was a colonel, but on
account of said fight he was promoted to the rank of a general, so that
later when he died, he had the benefit of that rank."--P.I.R., 2035. 3.

[419] (Telegrams)

"_Washington_, January 15, 1900, 10 A.M.

"(Received, Cebu, January 16, 1900, 11 A.M.)

"Owing to a new disaster of the Union Army, MacKinley has tendered
his resignation as President, Mr. Bryan succeeding him.

"Peace promulgated in the Philippines. Basis of the protectorate is
being discussed.

"Philippine independence will be proclaimed February the 4th.

"Remark.--The basis of a protectorate has been published in

"_Manila_, January 20, 1900, 10 A.M.

"(Received at Cebu on the same day, at 11 A.M.)

"Otis' successor, John Waterly, of the democratic party, has just
arrived. He brings with him papers and instructions in regard to
proclamation of the Philippine Republic.

"It is believed that Rev. Martin, Bishop of Cebu, will be transferred
to the Archbishopric of Manila, and Rev. Nozaleda to Spain."--P.I.R.,
Books B-10.

[420] P.I.R., 1193. 2.

[421] _Ibid.,_ 2025.

[422] Taylor, 47 HS.

[423] Beginning on page 730.

[424] Taylor, 36 GV, Exhibit 1017.

[425] Taylor, 28 HS.

[426] P.I.R., 1021.6.

[427] Unhusked rice.

[428] Village.

[429] 153, according to Blount himself.

[430] "Nor can the ultimate responsibility before the bar of history
for the awful fact that, according to the United States Coast and
Geodetic Survey Atlas of the Philippines of 1899, the population of
Batangas province was 312,192, and according to the American Census
of the Philippines of 1903, it was 257,715, rest entirely on military
shoulders."--Blount, pp. 383-384.

[431] Blount, p. 597.

[432] See Chapters XI and XII.

[433] Taylor, 13 KK, E.

[434] Taylor, 15 and 16 KK, E.

[435] "Pope" Isio was the last of a series of bandit leaders, claiming
for themselves miraculous powers, who long infested the mountains
of Negros.

[436] P.I.R., 970. 7.

[437] P.I.R., 1134-1.

[438] P.I.R., 17. 9.

[439] For the full text of these instructions, see appendix.

[440] "Mr. McKinley sent Mr. Taft out, in the spring preceding
the election of 1900, to help General MacArthur run the
war."--_Blount_. The Taft Commission was sent out, to 'aid'
General MacArthur, as the Schurman Commission had 'aided' General

[441] "In February, 1899, the dogs of war being already let loose,
President McKinley had resumed his now wholly impossible Benevolent
Assimilation programme, by sending out the Schurman Commission,
which was the prototype of the Taft Commission, to yearningly
explain our intentions to the insurgents, and to make clear to them
how unqualifiedly benevolent those intentions were. The scheme was
like trying to put salt on a bird's tail after you have flushed

[442] P.I.R., 1300. 2.

[443] A brand of whiskey then much in use.

[444] For the text of this document see the Appendix, p. 977.

[445] In view of the alleged attitude of General Otis toward the work
of the Commission, the following statement by him as to the effect
of this proclamation is of interest:--

General Otis said: "It was unanimously decided to print, publish,
post, and disseminate as much as possible among the inhabitants under
insurgent domination this address, printing the same in the English,
Spanish, and Tagalog languages. This was done, but scarcely had it been
posted in Manila twenty-four hours before it was so torn and mutilated
as to be unrecognizable. It suffered the same fate as the proclamation
of January 4, set out in pages 113 and 114 of this report, but it
produced a marked beneficial influence on the people, especially those
outside our lines, as it carried with it a conviction of the United
States' intentions, on account of the source from which it emanated,
it being an expression from a committee of gentlemen especially
appointed to proclaim the policy which the United States would pursue."

--_Taylor_, 90 AJ.

Taylor adds: "The commander of one of the regiments of sandatahan in
Manila reported that he had forced the people of the city to destroy
the proclamations issued by the commission (P.I.R., 73. 9). As he
found this necessary, the action of the people could hardly have
reflected their real feelings in the matter."

[446] Taylor, 96 AJ.

[447] _Ibid._

[448] Taylor, 97 AJ.

[449] Taylor, 97 AJ.

[450] _Ibid._

[451] Nominally they were named by Aguinaldo.

[452] Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, Vol. I,
1900, p. 9.

[453] Now chief justice of the Philippine Supreme Court.

[454] Blount, p. 235.

[455] Blount, p. 105.

[456] Report Philippine Commission, Vol. I, p. 183.

[457] P. 981.

[458] September 15, 1913.

[459] The building where the executive offices of the insular
government have been located since the American occupation.

[460] Taylor, 18 HS.

[461] This name is applied to certain provinces organized
under special acts because the majority of their inhabitants are

[462] Tayabas, Romblon, Masbate, Iloilo, Antique, Capiz, Cebu, Bohol,
Occidental Negros, Oriental Negros, Leyte, Albay, Ambos, Camarines,
Sorsogon, Marinduque, Batangas, Surigao, and Misamis.

[463] Obviously a misprint, perhaps, for "perusal of."

[464] Blount, p. 380.

[465] For further details see pp. 746; 753.

[466] A native surf boat.

[467] See Chapters XXI-XXIV.

[468] Chap. XV.

[469] Chap. XIV.

[470] Chap. XVI.

[471] Chap. XVII.

[472] Chap. XVIII.

[473] See Chapter XIX.

[474] Chap. XXX.

[475] Chap. XXX.

[476] Chap. XXXI.

[477] Chap. XXXII.

[478] Chapter XXVII.

[479] Chapters XIV, XXII, XXIII and XXIV.

[480] Reply to Jones, Pamphlet, Manila, 1913.

[481] See pp. 375-77.

[482] See pp. 357-77.

[483] Under the new regime these figures have been reversed.

[484] See Chapters XX-XXIV.

[485] "The merit system has received renewed support from President
Roosevelt in his administration, and by the extension of civil
service throughout the nation, as well as in our new possessions. The
Philippine service is reported to be very satisfactory, and efforts
are being made for the extension and larger development of regulations
in Porto Rico."

[486] "From the President down, every official charged with a
duty touching the government of our dependencies is imbued with a
profound sense of duty, and adequate realization of the situation
and the imperative necessity of an unselfish, patriotic execution of
the laws and regulations in the interest of the highest welfare of
the inhabitants of the dependencies. With this state of affairs, the
establishment of the merit system in them on an enduring basis should
follow as a matter of course. It will be the aim of this Committee to
aid in every possible way in extending and improving the system, and
to that end to give to the whole subject careful and detailed study."

[487] No data for 1906 available.

[488] Eight passed last year.

[489] He now receives $9000.

[490] Male servant.

[491] Two weeks at Christmas and ten weeks in April, May and June.

[492] Blount, p. 425.

[493] Blount, p.430.

[494] Native dugouts.

[495] See p. 998.

[496] Female servant.

[497] Men appointed to assist the judge in deciding questions of
fact. Their decision is not binding on him.

[498] Here [_i.e._ in me] you have a new servant.

[499] Malaria.

[500] A strong alcoholic drink commonly made by diluting low-grade
alcohol with water and flavouring it.

[501] There was one stray case in March.

[502] "To the Editor of El Soberania Nacional, Manila, P.I.

"_Sir_: In your issue of the 7th of July there appeared a paragraph
embodying a shameful libel of the administration of the San Lazaro
Hospital, which reads as follows:

"'_Un cuadro verdaderamente aterrador es el que prezenta el patio del
Hospital de San Lazaro. Los fallecidos por la enfermedad del colera,
son expuestos desnudos en el atrio de dicho Hospital con un cartel
atado en los pies con la inscripcion de sus respectivos nombres._'

"This statement was so grossly and ridiculously false and at the same
time so extremely harmful in its effect as to bring you fairly and
squarely within the reach of the law.

"Yesterday morning I sent you a courteous letter requesting you to
come to my office, purposing to discuss the affair with you in a
friendly manner, and hoping to find that the statement referred to
had been prepared by some irresponsible subordinate and published
through oversight.

"As, however, you have neither acceded to my request for a conference
nor had the courtesy to reply to my letter, I now have the honour
to forward you herewith a communication which embodies a reply to
the false statement above referred to and at the same time conveys
information as to what is actually being done at the San Lazaro
Hospital. I request that you give this letter immediate publicity
through your paper, and in the editorial columns or elsewhere in
some conspicuous place retract immediately and fully the libellous
statement relative to the exposure of the dead, above referred to.

"Kindly advise me of your intention in the matter. The bearer of
this communication has instructions to wait for your reply. I shall
interpret failure to hear from you by return messenger as refusal
to retract this slander and to publish the enclosed communication,
and shall act accordingly.

"Very respectfully,

"Dean C. Worcester,

"_Secretary of the Interior._"

[503] Just before I left Manila in October, 1913, cholera reappeared

[504] Sept. 15, 1913.

[505] The first organization of American physicians in the Philippines
was the Manila Medical Association, from which the Philippine Island
Medical Association ultimately developed.

[506] Now a major-general.

[507] About 28.7 miles.

[508] May 1, 1913.

[509] Captain Meade.

[510] He had the volunteer rank of colonel, but was a major in the
regular army.

[511] Report of the Philippine Commission, Part 1, 1903, p. 58.

[512] May 1, 1913.

[513] April 15, 1913.

[514] May 1, 1913.

[515] This rate, for the fiscal year 1913, was 3.33 per thousand for
Filipinos and 2.49 per thousand for Americans.

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