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The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, Vol. 4 of 55 by Edited by E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson

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of your Majesty's royal decree, which arrived the twenty-fifth of
the past month.

No papers whatever of Fray Martin de Rada [46] were left in this
country; nor have I been able to discover any, although most diligent
search has been made.

Among the other orders brought by this ship was one directing that
a considerable sum of money be paid to Doctor Francisco de Sande. He
says that this is due to him as salary; and for the payment of this
is designated the greater part of the villages which belong to the
royal crown of your Majesty. The fleets are maintained thereby, as
well as other expenses of your Majesty here. This order is received
with regret and sorrow, and the royal officials have sent a petition
to this effect; and I too beseech your Majesty to declare if it be
your royal pleasure that this man support himself at the expense of
the royal service. May it be provided that we be not constrained thus
in similar things.

In the ship that just arrived from Nueva Espana, there came eighteen
descalced friars, a class of people who do much good in this land,
on account of their mode of life and their poverty. Nevertheless,
they come so eager to pass on to China that it would not be right to
keep them here. Accordingly, in order to console them, I am now giving
permission to the commissary who accompanied them, and to four other
religious, both to go to Macau [Macao] to visit the house which they
have there, and to pass to the bordering kingdom of Cochinchin. News
is had that the king of the latter country asks for ministers to
teach him our holy faith. I hope to God that benefit may be derived
therefrom, for the salvation of those souls. I have also improved
the opportunity of the commissary's departure to send by him to the
Portuguese of Macau the news of the certainty of the late coronation
of your Majesty. [47] Therefore I expect that that stronghold will
be as peaceful as that of Maluco.

Through your viceroy of Nueva Espana I am sending a copy of the
residencia of the doctor Sande, as that sent a year ago was lost with
the ship to which it was entrusted.

Much pleasure was caused in the land by the arrival of the bishop, [48]
and I received him as well as I could. On account of the austerity
of his disposition and his wish to dominate, people do not like
him; and he has caused much discontent among both ecclesiastics and
laymen. His Christianity and zeal is worthy, and he will undoubtedly
prove to be true. As your Majesty is better informed, you may provide
accordingly. May our Lord guard your royal Catholic Majesty and
increase your kingdoms, as we your Majesty's vassals desire. Manila,
June 15, in the year 1582.

Royal Catholic Majesty, the most humble servant of your Majesty,
who kisses the royal feet and hands.

_Don Gonzalo Rronquillo de Penalosa_

Bibliographical Data

Most of the documents in this volume are obtained from the Archivo
general de Indias, Sevilla. The original MSS. (from copies of which
our translations are made) are there preserved in two patronatos,
as follows:

(a) "Simancas-Secular; Audiencia de Filipinas; cartas y expedientes
del gobernador de Filipinas, vistos en el consejo; anos 1567 a 1599;
est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 6." To this belong Sande's report of 1576,
his letters of July 29, 1578 and May 30, 1579, Penalosa's letter,
and the two documents of 1582.

(b) "Simancas-Filipinas; descubrimientos, descripciones y
poblaciones de las Yslas Filipinas; anos 1566 a 1586; est. 1, caj. 1,
leg. 2|24." From this patronato we obtain Sande's report of 1577 (in
ramo 40), and the record of his expedition to Borneo (no. 48). The
former lacks a signature, and may be a duplicate copy, sent (as already
explained) by another vessel to ensure the arrival of at least one copy
in Spain, the signature being perhaps forgotten through some clerical
oversight; but its date and composition show it to be Sande's report.

The bull erecting the diocese of Manila is taken from
_Doc. ined. Amer. y Oceania_, xxxiv, pp. 72-79. The grant of
indulgences is obtained from Fray Francisco de Santa Ines's _Cronica
de la provincia de San Gregorio Magno_ (Manila, 1892), pp. 215, 216.

The two royal decrees are translated from copies of the originals,
which are found in the "Cedulario Indico" in the Archivo Historico
Nacional at Madrid; their pressmarks are: for the decree of 1879,
"Tomo 31, F deg. 132b, n deg. 135;" for that of 1580, "Tomo 31, F deg. 193b, n deg.
184." The "Cedulario" contains forty MSS. volumes of these decrees,
with a calendar index of twenty-four volumes.


[1] The Spanish phrase here is _armas enastadas_, literally, "weapons
fastened to handles." See cuts of Chinese battle-axes (from specimens
in Musee d' Artillerie, Paris) in Auguste Demmin's _Arms and Armor_
(London, 1877), p. 442.

[2] The day of St. Andrew falls on November 30, according to the
church calendars.

[3] This narrative is given in Juan Gonzales de Mendoza's
_Hist. China,_ part ii, book i, ch. ix-xxix.

[4] Marco Polo, the noted Venetian traveler, was born about 1256,
and died in his native city in 1323. His father and uncle were also
travelers; they went to Tartary in 1255, returning to Europe in
1269, as envoys from the noted Kublai Khan. Two years later, they
returned to the court of that ruler, accompanied by the young Marco;
and they remained in the service of the Mongol emperor until 1292,
when they returned to Venice. Marco's account of his travels and
observations was written as early as 1307. A Latin version of it
was published in Antwerp, about 1485; and one in Italian at Venice,
in 1496. Many other editions and translations of it have since been
issued--perhaps the most notable being that by G. Pauthier (Paris,
1865). See this editor's account of Polo and of his work, in Hoefer's
_Nouvelle biographie generale_, t. xxxix, art. Polo; Pauthier shows
that this work must have been originally written in French. Kublai
Khan at that time had his capital at Pekin, not at Kingsze.

[5] The Great Wall of China was constructed during the reign of
Hoangti, the second emperor of the Tsin dynasty (about 244 to 210
B.C.); it was built to protect the Chinese land from the invasions
of the Tartar hordes on the west and north, among whom were those
later known as Huns.

[6] The oil extracted from sesame (_Sesamum indicum_); it is used by
the natives for the hair, and in medicine.

[7] Chichimecos (meaning "braves") was a term applied to all the wild
tribes of Mexico; it was also used specially to designate the hunting
and pastoral tribes in the northern provinces of the present country
of Mexico--who, according to Humboldt (_New Spain_, Black's trans.,
London, 1811, i, p. 133), came to that country about 1170. See also
G.P. Winship's _Coronado Expedition_ (Washington, 1896), p. 524.

[8] A Malayan tribe, living in the provinces of Abra and Ilocos,
in Luzon. See Sawyer's account of them, in his _Inhabitants of
Philippines_ (N.Y., 1900), pp. 275-280.

[9] The residencia is a Spanish institution, dating as far back as
the fourteenth century, although its beginnings may be traced to
the Visigothic codes. It required a judge or a governor, at the
end of a term of office, to reside for a certain time (usually
thirty or fifty days) at the chief place where he had exercised
his functions. During that time, complaints of his conduct might be
made by any person aggrieved, before an official appointed for that
purpose. The residencia was a prominent feature of Spanish colonial
administration. See Helps's _Spanish Conquest in America_, iii,
ch. iii, for an account of this institution.

[10] "In fortification, a work of extraordinary height, overlooking the
surrounding parts as a horseman overlooks foot-soldiers." (Webster's

[11] This decree may be found in _Recopilacion de leyes Indias_,
lib. iv, tit. iii, ley xix. It seems to have been a general regulation,
applied to any colonial possession as need might arise.

[12] Crawfurd says, in his _Dictionary of the Indian Islands_ (London,
1856), p. 144: "In the language of the Bugis, whose country produces
gold, we find a native word, _ulawang_, and this is again the case
in the languages of the Tagalas of the Philippines, where we have
the indigenous name _balituk_; while in the language of the volcanic
Bisaya Islands we find the word _bulawang_, most probably a corruption
of the Bugis word."

[13] There is some mistake in this calculation; for the Chinese tael is
equivalent to 1.1334 ounces, and the Spanish onza to 1.0161 ounces, in
English or U.S. avoirdupois. The mace is one-tenth of the tael. 8 onzas
= 1 marco; 2 marcos = 1 libra = 1.016097 U.S. pounds. The equivalent
of one libra, then, would be nearly 12 taels and 2 mace. By _texuela_
is apparently meant the sheet gold previously mentioned.

[14] In New Spain, the hot and fertile regions along the coast,
having an elevation of seldom more than 1,000 feet, are called
_Tierras calientes_ ("regions of heat"). On the declivity of the
Cordilleras, at an elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, there reigns
perpetually a soft spring temperature, which never varies more than 10 deg.
Fahr. The natives give to this region the name of _Tierras templadas_
("temperate country"), in which the mean heat of the whole year
is about 70 deg. Fahr. The plains elevated more than 7,000 feet above
the sea level are called _Tierras frias_ ("cold regions"), where
the mean temperature is under 62 deg. Fahr. See Humboldt's _New Spain_
(Black's trans.), i, pp. 64-67.

The name Tierra Firme was applied not only to the northern part of
the South American continent, but to a definite region which extended
from the middle of the Gulf of Darien to Cape Gracias a Dios. It was
at first called Darien, and Castilla del Oro.

[15] Span., _de no aver pies ni cabeza_, "as he had neither feet
nor head."

[16] Cauchi is a phonetic form of Kuchi, the Malay appellation of the
region known in recent years as Cochin-China, now a part of French
Indo-China. Camboja is a better form of the name usually written
Cambodia, also a part of French Indo-China; Sian is but a variant of
Siam. Patani and Pahang are Malayan states on the eastern side of the
Malay Peninsula. Jabas is a corruption of Jawa (now commonly written
Java), the name of the principal nation inhabiting the island--the
most civilized and moral of the Malayan peoples. Samatra is only a
variant of Sumatra--the largest island, next to Borneo, of the Malayan
archipelago. Achin (or Achen) and Manangkabo (Manancabo) are states
in the island of Sumatra; and Batachina evidently means "land of the
Bataks," a tribe of cannibals dwelling near Achin. See Crawfurd's
_Dictionary_ for valuable information regarding all these regions.

[17] The three great military orders then vested in the crown of
Spain--those of Santiago, Alcantara, and Calatrava.

[18] The order of Friars Minors (_Fratres Minores_), better known as
Franciscans, was founded (1208) by St. Francis of Assisi.

[19] _Mestizo_: the offspring of a white man and an Indian woman,
or of an Indian man and a white woman--of course, almost entirely
the former. See interesting notes on this subject by Retana, in his
_Zuniga_, ii, pp. 525*, 526*.

[20] Herrera says (_Descripcion de las Indias_, cap. 26), that:
"The West Indies [_Indias del Poniente_] comprise all the islands and
mainland [_Tierra firme_] beyond the line of demarcation of Castilla
and Leon, as far as the western bounds of that said demarcation, the
line whereof passes around the other side of the world, through the
city of Malacca." This is conformable with the law of February 22,
1632 (_Recop. leyes Indias_, lib. i, tit. xiv, ley xxxiii), which
locates Japan and the Philippine Islands in the West Indies; it also
corresponds with the Constitution (_Onerosa_) of Clement VIII, issued
December 12, 1600, to be found in section 4, wherein the Philippines
are located, it seems, in the West Indies, or what are considered
as such. However, what really is the dividing line has not yet been
decided.--_Rev. T.C. Middleton_, O.S.A.

[21] The missionaries who effected the conversion [of the Malaysian
tribes] were not, for the most part, genuine Arabs, but the mixed
descendants of Arab and Persian traders from the Persian and Arabian
gulfs--parties who, by their intimate acquaintance with the manners and
languages of the islanders, were far more effectual instruments. The
earliest recorded conversion was that of the people of Achin in
Sumatra (A.D. 1206). The Malays of Malacca adopted Mahometanism in
1276; the Javanese, in 1478; the inhabitants of the Moluccas, about
the middle of the fifteenth century. This doctrine has been received
by all the more civilized peoples of the Indian archipelago. See
Crawfurd's _Dictionary_, pp. 236, 237, 284.

[22] Throughout this document, the attestations and other legal
procedures of notaries are enclosed within parentheses.

[23] The name _fragata_ (from which is derived the English word
"frigate") is here used to designate merely a light sailing-vessel
which could navigate among the islands.

[24] Evidently one of the so-called "hand cannon," which were often
used at this period, both by cavalry and by infantry--portable
fire-arms, loaded sometimes at the breech and sometimes by a movable
chamber. See illustrations and descriptions of these weapons in
Demmin's _Arms and Armor_ (Black's trans.), pp. 59-74, 485, 511-517.

[25] The arms of Portugal, consisting of five scutcheons, in memory
of the five wounds of Christ.

[26] One of the numerous appellations of small cannon.

[27] The _banca_ was a sort of canoe made from a hollowed tree-trunk
(like the American "dug-out"), sometimes provided with outriggers,
to prevent it from upsetting, and sometimes with a roof of bamboo. The
_barangay_ is the most primitive and most characteristic boat in the
Philippines; it is described as a sharp and slender craft, pointed
at both ends, and put together with wooden nails and pegs. It is
this boat which has given name to the primitive groups of the social
organization; see Bourne's mention of these, _Vol_. I of this series,
p. 56.--_Editors_.]

"The people were divided or grouped into families, known as
_barangayes_ (the name of a small ship or vessel), thus preserving
the remembrance of the conveyance by which their forefathers reached
the islands. As the various families came hither, each in its own
barangay--all, during the voyage, being under the command of a _cabeza_
(a head captain, or pilot)--the land was partitioned among them, so
much for each family; while all continued, on the land, subject to the
cabezas who had directed them on the sea. These in time were known as
_datos_, or _maguinoos_. See the _Cronica_ of Francisco de Santa Ines
(Manila, 1892), i, p. 57; Noceda and Sanlucar's _Vocabulario Tagala_
(3rd ed., Manila, 1860); Diego Bergano's _Vocabulario Pampanga_
(Manila, 1860); and Andres Carro's _Vocabulario Iloco-Espanol_
(Manila, 1888)."--_Rev. T. C. Middleton_, O.S.A.

[28] Meaning some plant used as an antidote for poison.

[29] Apparently a phonetic variant of _pangeran_ (a Javanese word
adopted in Borneo), meaning "prince."

[30] In this connection may be cited Rajah James Brooke's statement,
as given by Captain Henry Keppel in his _Expedition to Borneo_
(American edition, New York, 1846), p. 305: "The most detestable
part of this traffic is Seriff Houseman ["a half-bred Arab" pirate in
Borneo] selling, in cold blood, such of these slaves as are Borneans,
to Pangeran Usop, of Bruni, for 100 rupees for each slave, and Pangeran
Usop re-selling each for 200 rupees to their relations in Bruni."

[31] Apparently a sort of "dug-out," used mainly as a lighter, for
unloading larger vessels.

[32] _Pulo_ (incorrectly made _polo_ in the text) is a term used
throughout the Malayan archipelago referring to a small island or
islet; this name means, then, "the small island Celemin."

[33] The habit of chewing _buyo_ is common through the Malaysian
archipelago. It is prepared by wrapping a leaf of the betel (_Piper
betel_) around a piece of the bonga-nut (the product of a palm, _Areca
catechu_) and a small piece of lime. It is thought to stimulate the
nerves, especially in the digestion of food; and is a notable feature
on ceremonious and social occasions.

[34] Fine East Indian muslin.

[35] Probably referring to the island now known as Boeton or Butung,
lying southeast of Celebes.

[36] Evidently the old port in Mindanao so called.

[37] Probably referring to the island now known as Boeton or Buntung,
lying S.E. of Celebes.

[38] Reference is here made to the starchy food procured from the
sago-palm, called by the natives _buri (Corypha umbraculifera)_. This
tree gives name to the island of Burias, where it grows abundantly. By
tapping the tree, as is done with the American maple, the sweet
sap (called by the natives _tuba_ or "water-honey") is obtained,
from which are made a syrup and a dark sugar; also the natives
manufacture from it wine and brandy. The young shoots or buds are
edible, as is the entire inner part or pith of the tree. This pith
is placed in troughs, wherein it is soaked in water, which washes
out certain bitter substances; it is then pounded, which causes
the starchy grains to separate from the tissues of the pith. These
grains are collected and dried, and made into a flour called sago
(or sagu), which furnishes a nutritious and healthful food; in the
islands where this tree abounds, the sago takes the place of rice. The
leaves of the sago-palm are used as a covering for houses, sails for
vessels, and many other purposes. See Delgado's _Hist. de Filipinas_
(Manila, 1892--but written in 1753-54), pp. 660-662, for a long and
detailed description of this tree and its uses; also Blanco's _Flora
de Filipinas_, p. 160, and _U.S. Philippine Gazetteer,_ p. 74.

[39] The lagoon of Liguasan, the waters of which are discharged into
those of the Pulangui River at its "great bend," thus forming the
Rio Grande. The Pulangui rises in the northern part of the island,
about half-way between the present towns of Cagayan and Butuan. The
Tirurey or Ytilurey River of our text apparently indicates a southern
tributary of the Rio Grande, flowing from Mt. Tiruray.

[40] A tribe inhabiting the western part of Mindanao, but mainly
located on other islands--Basilan, Sulu, Piragua, and others; they
were Mahometan Malays.

[41] The ganta contains 3 litros, a little more than 1/3 of a peck

[42] At the top of the sheet is written, on the original MS.,
"Guadalupe, March 26, 1580," which apparently indicates that the
decree was sent to New Spain, and promulgated by the viceroy there.

[43] "A fleet on which were some Franciscan missionaries being at
Sevilla in 1576, ready to sail for the Solomon Islands, Felipe II
obtained permission from Pope Gregory XIII that they should be sent
to evangelize the Philippine Islands--where they arrived on June 24,
1577. They were received in Manila with enthusiastic demonstrations
of joy, and soon founded a religious province, which they named San
Gregorio Magno ["St. Gregory the Great"--named in honor of Pope Gregory
I (A.D. 590-604)]. The marshal, Don Gabriel de Rivera, built for
them the convent of San Francisco in that same year, 1577."--_Algue_
(_Archipielago filipino_, i, p. 250).

On June 24, 1577, fifteen religious of St. Francis arrived at Manila,
under the orders of Fray Pedro de Alfaro, the father custodian of the
province. On June 15, 1579, Alfaro left Luzon (secretly, as our text
declares, because Sande refused to permit him to go), to establish
a mission in China; he was accompanied by the friars Juan Bautista,
Sebastian de San Francisco, and Agustin de Tordesillas. The last-named
wrote a detailed account of their journey and their experiences in
China up to November 15 of that year; this relation is published in
Mendoca's _Hist. China,_ part ii, book ii.

[44] Maluco, the Portuguese post on Ternate, was taken over by Spain
with other colonial possessions of Portugal, when Felipe II seized
the government of the latter country (September, 1580), after the
death of its king, the cardinal Henrique. This union lasted during
sixty years. The possession of the Moluccas of course gave to Spain
the control of the spice trade.

[45] Apparently a reference to the visit of Sir Francis Drake to
Ternate, in November, 1578. A full account of this visit, the friendly
reception of the English by the Malay ruler, and the expulsion of
the Portuguese from the island, may be found in Francis Fletcher's
_World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake_ (Hakluyt Soc. pubs. no. xvii,
London, 1854), pp. 137-148.

[46] Rada had died at sea, in June, 1578.

[47] Felipe II was crowned at Lisbon in April, 1581.

[48] The first bishop of Manila, and of the Philippines, Domingo de
Salazar (a Dominican) arrived at Manila in March, 1581. With him came
Fray Christoval de Salvatierra, of his own order; twenty Augustinians,
and eight Franciscans; and two Jesuit priests, Antonio Sedeno and
Alonso Sanchez, with the lay brother Nicolas Gallardo. See Juan de
la Concepcion's _Hist. Phil_., ii, pp. 44, 45.

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