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The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, Vol. 4 of 55 by Edited by E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson

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On the coast of Mindanao, two leagues, more or less, from the said
river, on the fourteenth day of the month of March, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious captain Grabiel de
Ribera ordered that the following instructions be imparted to all
those in charge of the warships taken by the said captain for the
conquest and pacification of the said river and island of Mindanao,
and that they should keep it in its entirety.

First, the fragata acting as flagship shall enter first, having on its
right the other fragata under command of Sergeant Lope de Catalaraga,
and on the left, the two vireys--in order that they may be at hand,
if it is necessary that any message be despatched.

Immediately shall enter successively the two Bornean galleys, in
charge, of Tome de la Ysla and Juan Rodriguez de Norvega, so that,
should it be necessary to fire their artillery, they may do it when the
fragatas discharge theirs, for which I shall have the trumpet sounded.

The two virocos shall form a rear-guard, preceding the other viroco,
which has a lack of men. All of them shall sail as closely together
as possible, and those which sail faster shall await the others,
so that we may all keep in order.

No arquebuse shall be fired unless it is necessary, and no one shall
disembark without my permission and order.

I order you to observe great care in all the above, and even more
in looking after the provisions in your vessels; for we do not know
how long we shall stay in the said river, nor do we know whether we
can procure provisions there, and because of the long distance from
this said river to the town of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus, where we
could find the articles necessary for the support of the said fleet. I
order you to observe and obey all the above, and not to violate these
provisions, under penalty of punishment. I order that all the above
instructions be read to each commander of the said vessels, so that
he may know it.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

By order of his Lordship:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

(On the said day, month, and year aforesaid, I, Diego Lopez Carreno,
notary of the fleet, certify that I read the entire instructions
of the other part of this present to all those commanding the
ships of the said fleet, to each one separately. They all answered
that they were ready to observe and obey the contents of the said
instructions. Witnesses are Tome de la Ysla and Sergeant Catalinaga,
who were present the entire time.

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the river of Mindanao, at the mouth of the said river, on the
fifteenth of the month of March, one thousand five hundred and
seventy-nine, the illustrious captain Grabiel de Ribera, after having
waited at the mouth of the said river, during the time which he had set
with the two messengers whom he sent to Limansancay, king of the said
river of Mindanao; and seeing that the above-mentioned persons did not
bring any reply to the message that his Grace had sent to the said king
(as is set forth in more detail in a certain writing in regard to this
matter executed before me the present notary, and to which I refer):
notifying and arranging all his fleet, he entered the said river. After
having ascended it for about a league or so, and reached the first
port in the said river which is settled, a chief called Dato Bandel,
accompanied by many Indians, came, bearing a white flag in his hand. He
told the said captain that he wished to make peace and alliance with
his Majesty, and with him in his royal name. That was his intention,
but he was hostile to Limancansay, king of Mindanao, who was settled up
the river. Therefore his Grace took with him the said chief, and after
arriving at the said village--where, he declared, the said Limasancay
lived--he found there certain Indians. He had them summoned, and when
they readied the flagship he embraced and regaled them, and made them
sit down near him. One of them was a chief, who said through Miguel
Godines, interpreter of their language, that his name was Sicuyrey,
and that he was a cousin to the said king Limasancay. His Grace set
this man next himself, and gave him ornaments and presents from among
his store, as well as to the others. His Grace told and informed them
that he was come in the name of King Don Ffelipe, our sovereign, and
by order of the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, of his
Majesty's council, and his governor and captain-general throughout
these islands, to make terms with Limasancay, king of this river of
Mindanao, for peace and alliance, and that they might become vassals
of his Majesty. He informed them of the great good that would accrue
to them all and to the said Limasancay in particular, if he made the
said peace and alliance with his Majesty, and with the said governor
in his royal name, at whose order his Grace, was come--principally that
they might recognize Jesus Christ, the Creator of the whole world, our
only salvation. This is his Majesty's principal purpose, and he will
entertain and protect them in all things, as is his custom among all
the other natives of these islands who are under his royal crown. In
order to impart this, and many other things, of advantage to the said
Limasancay and to all the natives of this river, it was necessary that
Limasancay come to his Grace. If he feared anything, the captain was
ready to give him whatever security he wished; for he had not come
to molest, but to favor him, according to the orders of the said
governor. Sicuyrey, having been informed of all the above matters by
the interpreter, answered that the said king, Limasancay, was not at
present in that town, but in another, two leagues distant. He said he
would go to him and confer with him in regard to everything that the
said captain had told him; and that he would bring him back with him,
in order that the captain might discuss all those matters. Then they
left, and the said captain said that he would await the answer given
to the, said Sicuyrey by the said Limasancay; and Sicuyrey went away,
together with the others who had come with him. Four hours later,
he returned to the said captain with the news that he had talked to
his cousin Limasancay, and had told him all his Grace's words. He
sent as answer that upon the following day he would come to talk with
him, and that he should await him. Upon receiving this reply the said
captain said he would wait until the following day. He ordered that no
soldier should go ashore or do any damage in the said port to any one,
until the plan and purpose of the said king Limasancay was evident,
and what he would do in regard to the said alliance and peace that
his Grace wished to make with him in accordance with his Majesty's
orders. In order that all the above, and the said captain's great
zeal and resolution in everything concerning these natives might be
properly recorded, he requested me, the present notary, to set it down
in writing, so that everything might stand in the records. I certify
thereto, for it occurred before me, in the presence of the witnesses,
Ensign Melchor de Torres and Pablo de Asequera.

_Graviel de Ribera_

It took place before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

After the above events, on this said day, month, and year above stated,
after all the above had happened in regard to the said chief, the
said captain, considering that the said Dato Bahande had come of his
own accord to make peace, inasmuch as he came with the said flag, his
Grace declared, in the name of his Majesty, and that of the governor
in his royal name, that he received him as his vassal, with all his
subjects--declaring that hereafter they will molest no Spaniard,
will not make war on the Spaniards, and will render assistance in
whatever the governor, or whosoever is authorized by him, shall
order. He said that he was ready to obey. I certify thereto, in the
presence of witnesses Sergeant Catalinaya and Ensign Artiaga.

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

While anchored in the river of Mindanao at the port reported to
belong to Limansancay, king of the said river, on the fifteenth of
the said month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine,
at about four o'clock in the afternoon, or a trifle later, certain
Indians of the small boats carried by the ships of the said fleet
went ashore at the said port, to look for wood with which to cook
their food. It appears that an Indian (from the fragata commanded by
Juan Rodriguez de Norvega) who was a native of the town of Cayut, of
Tome de la Ysla's encomienda, received five wounds from other natives
of the said river of Mindanao who were at the said town--one in the
abdomen, which caused his intestines to protrude, and the rest in his
arms and thighs. The natives of the said river and village inflicted
these wounds on the said Indian treacherously, giving him some buyo,
and while he was reaching for it, wounding him. He died as a result and
was buried in the said village. Although this injury was inflicted on
us, the captain, because he was awaiting the said Limasancay, for the
said peace, ordered all the soldiers and the other Indians of the fleet
not to harm the natives of the said village, until it was seen what
the said Limasancay would do regarding the agreement which he had made
with the said captain. In order that this, as well as the death of the
said Indian and the wounds he had received, might be evident, the said
captain requested me to give him the present writing as certification
and attestation in the manner above stated. Witnesses, Ensign Melchor
de Torres, Pedro de Esequera, and Diego de Artiaga Gamboa.

_Graviel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the river and village called Mindanao, on the sixteenth of the
month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the fleet
being anchored at the entrance of the said village, wherein it is said
Limasancay, petty king of the said river, usually lives and resides,
at about three o'clock or so in the afternoon, in the presence of me,
the notary, and the witnesses hereunto subscribed--the illustrious
captain, Grabiel de Ribera, being in his flagship--it appears that
Sicurey summoned him from the other side of the river. The said
captain had sent him, one or two days previously, to summon the
said Limasancay. To ascertain the reply of the above king and what
the said Sicurey asked from him, his Grace, accompanied by me, the
present notary and the witnesses, went to an uninhabited house in
the said village and ascended to its top, in order to be able to see
and talk with the said Sicurey--who as above stated was on the other
side of the river with certain Indians who came with him. Through
the interpreter whom his Grace carried he ordered the said Sicurey
to be interrogated concerning the reply that he brought to what the
said captain had sent him to tell his cousin Limasancay; and the said
captain told Sicurey that he should come from the other side of the
river in order that he might talk with him, and ascertain what message
the said Limasancay sent, what was the latter's intention and purpose,
and whether he desired to make the said peace that he had requested
in his Majesty's name. To all of this the said Sicurey answered,
without coming to his Grace, that he had talked to his cousin, the said
Limasancay, who was three days' journey up the river from where the
said captain was stationed; that the said village is called Busayen,
and that he had told the king everything that he had been ordered to
tell. But the king had answered that he was afraid that he would be
seized, and for that reason he would not come to see his Grace; but
he told Sicurey that he should return thanks to the said captain for
the presents which his Grace had given to him and to the others. He
would return to talk again with the said Limasancay, and would again
ask him to come. The said captain told him that, since he was willing
to do him that pleasure, and return again, he should tell the said
Limasancay that his Grace did not come to seize or annoy him; for,
had he wished to annoy him, he would not have asked as he had that the
king come to make peace. The intent of his Majesty, and that of the
very illustrious governor, by whose commission and mandate he comes,
is only to inform the people in that so great river where they are
and live, that they should become vassals of his Majesty, and of the
said governor in his royal name, as the natives of other islands have
done. If he and the other chiefs give obedience to his Majesty, to whom
all render obedience, and are willing to be his vassals and desire to
be protected under his royal crown and favor, his Grace would regale
them and would not molest or annoy them. They could remain in their
own lands and settlement. If they would, of their own volition and
without being forced, give some tribute, his Grace would receive it
in his Majesty's name, and only in token of obedience and so that it
might be understood that they wished peace and were obedient under his
royal crown; that they themselves should decide whatever they wished
to give for this purpose. If the said Limasancay feared, as he said,
that his Grace would seize him, he was prepared to give him any and
all security that he might desire, so that he might come to treat with
the said captain and that he might understand that the latter has no
intention of illtreating him; for if his intention were to molest the
king, his Grace had had occasion therefor already, and could have
seized the said Sicurey and other chiefs who came to discuss peace
with his Grace, as well as a chief called Dato Bahandie. This last
has come peacefully and has rendered obedience to his Majesty; and
in return therefor the said captain has regaled him and will protect
him on every occasion. If the said Limasancay purposes to attempt
treachery and deceit toward the said captain, and in short not to
come peacefully, he shall send word immediately as to his intention;
for, if he do not come peacefully, then his Grace will employ all
the correctives and artifices possible, until he leaves this land
pacified and its inhabitants as vassals of his Majesty. His Grace
has been informed, by natives and chiefs of the said river, that
the said Limasancay is preventing and hindering many chiefs from
surrendering themselves as vassals of his Majesty, by saying that,
if they did, he would persecute and destroy them. Since he prevents
this, and refuses to make friendship, as has been required of him,
and prevents others from doing so, his Grace, as above stated, will
proceed against the said Limasancay by all possible ways and methods,
as against a man who prevents the chiefs of the said river from making
peace and rendering obedience to his Majesty as they wish: his Grace
will also proceed against all his paniaguados, and against all those
who refuse peace and obedience to his Majesty. The said Sicurey having
heard all the above declaration, and other words to the same effect,
replied that he would repeat it all to the said Limasancay, and would
return within three days. Because the said village of Mindanao did
not contain food for the soldiers, the captain told the said Sicurey
that he would await him and his reply in Tampaca, six leagues up the
river above the said village of Mindanao. In order that this might
appear in the records, I attest and certify the same, which took
place before me. Witnesses, Pedro de Eseguera and Ensign Arteaga.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

At the river and village of Mindanao, on the seventeenth day of the
month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, after
the illustrious captain, Grabiel Ribera, had waited three days at his
anchorage for Limasancay to come, to make peace as he had requested
of him; and seeing that he did not come and that food was becoming
scarce, and, the said village being depopulated, he could find no food
there; and because his Grace had been told by natives of the said
river that the said Limasancay was retiring up river to one of his
villages, to make a fort there for his defense; and seeing that the
king was dealing treacherously, in order to gain time to build the
said fort: in order to avoid the possible great danger in allowing
the said Limasancay to fortify himself, and likewise because he had
heard that the village of Tapaca, about four leagues up the river,
contained food, from which the fleet (some vessels of which were in
want) might be reprovisioned; to look for and collect certain pieces
of artillery which were said to be in the said village, and which
were reported to have belonged to the lost Portuguese galley--his
Grace on this said day, ascended the river to the said village, for
the causes and reasons above stated. I attest the same. Witnesses,
Pedro de Eseguera, Ensign Melchor de Torres, and Ensign Arteaga.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Tapaca, on the nineteenth day of the month of March,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, in fulfilment of the order
given by the illustrious captain Grabiel de Ribera, after having
voyaged for three days up stream to the village of Tapaca, whither
his Grace shaped his course, it appears that, at the entrance of the
port, the said captain despatched a small barangay with certain Indians
and three soldiers. He ordered these to go ahead to notify the chiefs
of the said town that his Grace was coming, by order of his Majesty,
to pacify the said town and its vicinity; and that the said natives
should come peaceably. It appears that, at the entrance of the said
village, before talking to any of the natives, according to his Grace's
orders, certain culverins and many arrows were discharged at the said
barangay. As soon as the said captain learned of this, he ordered
immediately all the soldiers and men in the ships of his fleet, to set
in order for instant action the cannons, muskets, and other firearms,
so that if necessity demanded, they might be fired. When everything
was in order, he entered the said village. At the said entrance many
culverins and arrows were fired at the said fleet. Consequently his
Grace ordered all the soldiers to keep together and not to separate
at all. Thus the said captain went up the river to the said village,
where he disembarked. Accompanied by me, the present notary, certain
soldiers, a chief whom he took as interpreter, named Quilantan, and
other chiefs and interpreters, the said captain advanced, carrying a
white peace-flag; and he ordered the said chiefs to call out and summon
the Indians who were on the other side of the river. Thereupon these
latter summoned them, and some of those on the other side came, upon
which the said captain ordered his interpreters to ask the said natives
why they had fled and deserted the town, and why they had discharged
those arrows and culverins, inasmuch as his Grace had given them no
cause therefor. He informed them all that he did not come to harm or
offend them; he came to this river solely at the command of the very
illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, of his Majesty's Council, and
his governor for all these islands--who had sent his Grace to inform
them of the great error and delusion under which they live and labor,
and to make them vassals of his Majesty, and of the said governor in
his royal name. Being vassals, great gain and advantage would accrue
to them, and they would dwell in quiet and peace in their lands and
settlements, as at present. They would not be ousted or dispossessed
of them, and no person should annoy or molest them. On the contrary,
they would be protected, defended, and aided by his Majesty and
the very illustrious governor in his royal name. By his Grace also,
protection would be given, in whatever required it at present, as
he had promised to Dato Bahandie, a native of this village, who,
because he came peacefully and rendered obedience to his Majesty,
had been received under his royal protection. He and others of his
opinion would be protected in all necessities, and on all occasions,
as vassals of his Majesty. They should understand that the captain has
not come to plunder them or to seize, their possessions, but only for
the purpose above stated. If they had any food, his Grace had need of
it, and would pay them in full for it. They should return to their
houses and land and should not abandon their village. He did not
wish them to pay him tribute or other things. While summoning them
and notifying them of these and other things which his Grace tried
to make them understand, they sent a volley of arrows toward his
Grace, and by good luck missed killing one of the said interpreters
and chiefs there. And as soon as the said Indians on the other side
heard the said summons, they declared that the Castilians were rogues
and had come to deceive them. Thereupon the said captain returned
to the rest of his men. To all of the above, I, the present notary,
certify. Witnesses, Francisco Gomez, Sergeant Lope de Catalinaga,
and Juan Rodriguez de Norvega.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Tapaca on the twentieth day of the month of March,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, Captain Grabiel de Rivera,
seeing that he had had no intercourse with the natives nor was able to
secure it since his arrival in the said village, ordered that three
ambuscades be made inland. Thereupon a certain number of soldiers
and some friendly Indian rowers whom he had, penetrated inland about
one and one-half leagues. It appears that in four hours the said
soldiers returned with the report that it was utterly impossible to
advance farther, because of the numerous swamps and marshes, where
the water reached their knees and higher. Consequently, and because
the captain saw how the food was failing, and because he had been
informed by certain friendly Indians who had come in peace and by
Dato Bahandie, that the petty king Limasancay must be in the village
above Tampaca, he authorized Pedro Brizeno de Eseguera, a citizen
of the town of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus, a discreet and capable man
and one experienced in that land, to ascend the river in two vireys
and one small barangay, with twenty-six soldiers; for these vessels
were light and the current of the river strong and his Grace could
not ascend the said river with the other ships of the fleet. Indeed,
coming from the village of Mindanao to this village of Tapaca, it
had taken four days to make four leagues (the distance between the
two towns), and he had arrived after great effort, and being towed
by the Indians. He gave, for this reason, the said commission to the
said Pedro de Oseguera, and ordered him to obey and observe in every
particular, and not to exceed the tenor and order of what was commanded
him in the said commission given him by the captain. Thus he ordered
and affixed thereto his signature. Witnesses, Sergeant Catalinaga,
Juan Rodriguez de Norvega, and Francisco Velazquez.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

I, Grabiel de Ribera, captain of infantry for his Majesty in the
Filipinas islands of the West, who by order of the very illustrious
Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general of these
islands, come to pacify and explore the river of Mindanao, by virtue
of the commission and instructions given me by his Lordship to make
the said expedition: inasmuch as I have reached the village of Tapaca
in prosecution of my voyage, and after remaining here certain days,
summoning and notifying the natives--in the presence of a notary,
who attested the same--to come to make peace; and having informed
them that I came in his Majesty's name to pacify the said river,
and to make the natives and residents of that region vassals of his
Majesty--which was proclaimed through interpreters who understand
their language; and inasmuch as the natives of the said village,
although all the above information was proclaimed, have fled and
abandoned their houses and lands, and the fleet is suffering from
lack of provisions, for the food is all gone; and because it would
be extremely difficult for it to ascend the river farther, and would
require much time, because of the great strength of the current all
along the river, it having taken three days to tow the galleys and
fragatas by means of small oared vireys from the village of Mindanao
to this of Tapaca (a distance of four leagues), because of the said
current: therefore in the name of his Majesty, and for the proper
provision and despatch of the said fleet and men, and so that the
instructions of his Lordship may be observed and obeyed, he said
that he delegated, and he did delegate, all his power, as far as
he possesses it for the said purpose, to Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera,
a citizen of the town of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus--a deserving and
capable man, and experienced in that land--so that with two vireys and
one barangay, all oared boats, and accompanied by twenty-six soldiers,
he may ascend the said river.

When he has reached certain settlements on the river, and in especial
that of the village of Ybatel (where it is said the petty king
Limasancay is), he shall notify him and the chiefs of the said village,
and those of the village of Buayen, through the interpreters that
he shall take with him, that the said Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera goes
by my orders to the said villages, to inform them that I have come by
order of the said governor to execute and fulfil the above purpose; and
that I am awaiting, in this village of Tapaca, the said Limasancay and
the other chiefs to come to make peace and to acknowledge themselves
vassals of his Majesty, as Dato Bahandie, chief of this river, has
done. Likewise he shall inform them that his Majesty's purpose in
sending me to this said river is to pacify it and make it peaceful,
and to make them understand the great delusion in which all the natives
thereof live; that they shall become vassals of King Don Ffelipe, our
sovereign (whom may God preserve), as are all the natives of the island
of Panay, the Pintados islands, and those of the island of Lucon; and
that they may be instructed in the matters which pertain to our holy
Catholic faith. If they become vassals of his Majesty they will be
protected and guarded, whenever they have need and whenever occasion
requires. They shall return to their houses and towns as formerly,
for I have given them no occasion to abandon these. I do not come
to plunder their possessions or to harm them, or to require them
to give tribute, beyond what they give now of their own volition,
in token of recognition and obedience, so that it may be understood
that they desire peace and alliance. Furthermore he shall try to
ascertain and discover with all solicitude and care the whereabouts
of Limasancay, for I have heard that he is in the village of Buyayen
with his father-in-law, the chief of the said town, by name Seproa. He
shall try to confer and treat with Limasancay; and, that failing,
he shall send another person to tell him to come to this village of
Tapacan, where I am at present, and that he shall have no fear, or
be alarmed at anything; and that, if he comes, we shall treat for the
peace and friendship that I come to make with him and the other chiefs
of the said river in his Majesty's name. I am thoroughly aware that
the reason for the hostility of the natives of this entire river and
their abandonment of their houses and native places is his instigation
and command. If he does not intend to come to treat with me, he shall
not hinder or prevent the said chiefs who, as I have been informed,
desire to do so, from coming to make peace. For this reason he shall
not do it. Likewise he [Oseguera] shall inform the said Limasancay
and the said chiefs that, if they become his Majesty's vassals and
render him obedience, they shall be protected and aided, and live
quietly and peaceably in their lands and native places. No one shall
molest or annoy them in any way. If they do not do this, then there
will result many wanderings and anxieties, and many other troubles
and losses will come upon them. For all the above and for whatever
happens in the said summons, he shall appoint a notary before whom
declarations shall be made. I give him power and authority, in all
the fulness delegated to me by his Lordship for the said purpose. He
shall exercise great diligence and care therein. He shall not allow
the soldiers who take with them Indian rowers to molest or trouble
the natives of the said village, or their houses and possessions. He
shall take as many days as he deems necessary for this purpose, but
no more. Given at the said village of Tapacan, on the twentieth day
of the month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

By order of the captain:

_Diego Lopez_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Tapacan, on the river of Mindanao, on the
twenty-third day of the month of March, one thousand five hundred and
seventy-nine, before the illustrious Grabiel de Ribera, captain of
infantry for his Majesty in these islands, and before me, Diego Lopez
Carreno, notary of the fleet, appeared Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera. He
said that, in fulfilment of the commission and instructions given him
by the said captain, to ascend the river with the two vireys and one
barangay, accompanied by others, as declared in the said instructions,
he went, in prosecution of his voyage, and arrived at the village
of Buayen, about four leagues from this village of Tapacan, passing
some small uninhabited villages on the way. When he reached the said
village of Buayen carrying a white flag in token of peace, many shouts
were raised by his Indians, who called in their own language Siproa,
chief of the said town and father-in-law of Limasancay. Although they
shouted, as said, and tried to find some natives in order to confer
with them, they could see nothing of them. On this account they could
not inform the natives of the said village of their object. Therefore
he went on to the village of Ybalet, about three leagues from the
said town of Buayen. Carrying his said white flag, he looked for
Indians in the said village, and found certain Indians. He ordered
the interpreters with him to summon these Indians to him, declaring
that he would not harm them, for he came only to request their peace
and alliance, and that they become vassals of King Don Ffelipe, our
sovereign, as is Dato Bahandie, chief and native of this river. When
they were asked where the said Limasancay and other chiefs were, they
answered that they had left them behind in the village of Buayen and
that they had no chief in their village, for he too was hidden with
the said Limasancay. The said Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera also sought
provisions in both the villages of Buayen and Ybalet, for the support
of the said fleet, but found nothing in either one, for the natives
were all hostile, and all their houses had been abandoned. When the
said Indians were asked the above questions, and he saw how scanty was
the information derived from them, he [Oseguera] tried to lay certain
ambuscades, in order to capture some Indian to have speech with him
concerning the said river. Therefore the two ambuscades were laid,
but an Indian could be taken in neither one; for none appeared to be
captured, as all had fled, and were so afraid of the soldiers that
upon seeing Spaniards in their land they took to the mountains. Thus
retired the Indians who talked with the said Pedro de Oseguera,
refusing to come to him. Since he saw that these two villages--the most
important, so far as he knew, on all this river--contained no peaceful
Indian with whom to treat and from whom he could ascertain what was
happening; and that he could find no food, he decided to return to
the said captain to advise him of what he said had occurred. This
relation is true, and witnesses present were Ensign Melchor de Torres,
Francisco Rodriguez de Salamanca, and San Juan de Cavala. He affixed
his signature, jointly with Captain Grabiel de Ribera.

_Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Tapaca, located on the river above the village of
Mindanao, on the twenty-fifth day of the month of March, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious Captain Grabiel de
Ribera, after remaining seven days at the said village of Tapaca,
anchored there with his fleet and soldiers; and, having seen that the
natives of the said village and all its vicinity refused to come to
make peace--as is stated above more in detail and as appears by the
records made in regard to this matter, to which I refer--in order to
fulfil and observe the orders contained in the instructions given him
by the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, in consideration
of the fact that the location and settlement of the said village of
Tapaca is very unhealthful, and that some of his soldiers and many
Indian rowers had fallen ill, in order to avoid the danger that might
again occur for the above reason, ordered all the commanders of ships
to make ready to come to this village of Mindanao, where his Grace had
formerly been with the said fleet, without committing any depredations
in the said village; for the said village of Mindanao is a healthful
village and settlement, and its climate is excellent. Accordingly,
he left the said village of Tapaca on this said day to return to
this of Mindanao, where he arrived on the same day at five o'clock
in the afternoon. I attest the same. Witnesses, Pedro de Oseguera,
Tome de la Ysla, and Francisco Velazquez.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

By order of his Lordship:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Tapaca, on the twenty-fifth day of the month of
March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious
Captain Grabiel de Ribera, upon finding that he had been unable to
seize any Indians in the ambuscades which his Grace had ordered to
be made in the said village, in order to talk with them regarding
affairs of the said river, left, when about to depart, two ambuscades
of soldiers in the said village of Tapaca. Two Indians were taken
in this way by the soldiers, who were led before the said captain,
then anchored with the rest Of his men and boats in the village
of Lusa, one-half a league from Tanpaca. They were brought before
me, the present notary, and the interpreter Laquian--an Indian,
who understands the language of the natives of this river; and the
following questions were asked them.

One of them on being asked his name and whose slave he was, responded
that his name was Sidurman and that he was the slave of Batala, a
chief of the said village of Tapaca, and brother-in-law to Limasancay,
petty king of the said river.

Being interrogated by the said interpreter why he and his companion
came to the said village of Tanpaca, where the said captain was, since
the natives of the said village had hidden themselves and abandoned
the said village, he declared that the said Batala sent them both to
the said village in order to find out what the Castilians were doing
there. This was their reason for coming.

Being asked to tell where the said Batala was when he sent him and
his companion on the above-mentioned errand, he said that he was in
a village called Bulon, situated on the said river. The said captain
asked him what he [Sidurman] was doing in the said village, and why
Batala and all the other chiefs had abandoned their own village. He
said and answered that they had fled from fear and terror of the
Castilians, for Limasancay had sent word by a slave to his said
master to do this, and that he was doing the same to the village of
Buyen. Therefore the said Batala and the other chiefs went to the
said village, as above stated.

He was asked if there was a road by which his Grace might go to the
said village, where the said Batala was, in order to treat with him
for peace. If there is, his Grace said, he would loose them and give
them their liberty. This witness said that the creek by which he
came is navigable only with barotos, and he and his companion came
in one. It is quite impassable in one part and swampy in the other,
with water up to the breast, and higher. When the said Batala and
all his wives and the rest of the people went thither, they used very
small barotos, and then with difficulty. Therefore the Spaniards do
not dare go thither by way of the said swamps.

This witness being asked where his master Batala keeps his artillery,
said that he knew that he had two falcons that were brought from the
town of Zamboanga, when Batala was with Limasancay. These were taken
from the lost Portuguese galley. When he went away, he took these
pieces with him in a baroto, and has them, as well as other small
culverins, in his possession.

Being asked where the said Limasancay and the other people are, since
Limasancay sent word to his said master, Batala, to flee and abandon
his village, he said that he knows only what he has heard--namely,
that he is in the village of Buayen with his father-in-law, Siproa,
and that they are hidden in a marsh. Sidurman was also asked, as he
is a native of this river, if he knows where Limasancay keeps his
artillery, and that which he brought from Samboanga. He said that he
does not know. This he deposed through the said interpreter before
the said captain and in the presence of me, the said notary.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

On this said day, month, and year aforesaid, the said captain
summoned to his presence the Indian Laman, the companion of the said
Sidurman. The same questions and articles put to the said Sidurman were
asked of Laman through the interpreter. His answers were similar to
those declared by the same Sidurman in his deposition. I, the present
notary, attest the same.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

In the river of Mindanao, on the twenty-seventh day of the month of
March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, while the fleet was
anchored at the village of Limasancay, petty king of the said river,
the captain, considering that in the villages of Tapaca, Buayen, and
Balete (the most important villages of the said river), and in many
other villages of the river, he had endeavored to induce Limasancay
and the other chiefs to come to make peace (as is contained in the
reports, to which I refer), said that, in order that the natives of
the said river might understand that his Grace would not return,
or leave the said river until he left it pacified and tranquil,
under the protection of King Don Ffelipe, our sovereign (whom may
God preserve), be ordered for this purpose a fort to be commenced
in the said village of Mindanao, on a point made by two arms of the
river, near where the fleet is anchored. [37] He ordered palm-trees
and other wood needed for it to be cut. Therefore, on this said day,
and in presence of me, the said notary, certain palm-trees were cut,
and the said fort begun. I certify thereto. Witnesses, Sergeant
Catalinaga, Tome de la Ysla, and Pedro Brizeno de Eseguera.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Mindanao, on this said day, month, and year
aforesaid, the said captain ordered Aquilantan, a chief of Tanae,
who accompanied his Grace, to go to the town of Silanga, situated on
the said river, to summon its chief, Dato Bahandil, the one with whom
his Grace had made peace when he ascended the river. He was to tell
him to come immediately to his Grace, who wished to discuss certain
matters with him. The said Quilantan summoned the said Bahandil, and
he came on the same day. When he and the other chiefs who accompanied
him from the same village were brought before the captain, they
were informed through Laquian, the interpreter, that his Grace had
ascended the river to the town of Balete, displaying a white flag
all along the said river, as a peace token. He had summoned the
natives of the river to make peace, as he did not come to plunder
or harm them. Although he did his utmost to make peace with them,
he could not effect it. His Grace has understood that Limasancay is
responsible for this condition of affairs. Through his cunning and
by his order, all the people have been hostile to the Spaniards, and
have abandoned their villages. He requested Dato Bahandil, since he
is the vassal and ally of his Majesty, to go or send to the village
of Buayen, where the said Limasancay is, and tell him that the said
captain did not come to rob or harm him, but only to make alliance
and peace, and that he should place himself under the dominion of
King Don Ffelipe, our sovereign (whom may God preserve), From this
much advantage would accrue to him, and he and all the other chiefs
would be dispossessed of the error in which they all are, and would
recognize their Creator, who is the only true God. Although his Grace
had many excuses for putting him to death--inasmuch as they killed
one of his Grace's Indians in the said village of Mindanao and had
discharged many arrows at the Spaniards all along the river, both
by day and night--yet he had no desire to harm them, notwithstanding
his opportunities therefor; for he could have burned their villages,
cut down their palm-trees, and seized and killed many people, and
that whenever he wished. Consequently they should understand that he
bore express command from the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de
Sande, governor of all these islands, not to harm them in any way,
and hitherto he has not done so. Should the said Limasancay refuse to
come to make peace, he should not prevent the other chiefs and natives
of this river from coming to render obedience to his Majesty. His
Grace has heard that, because Limasancay will not consent to come,
no one else dares to come to make peace. The said Dato Bahandil
having heard and understood all of the foregoing, answered that,
having had war with Limasancay and having made peace but recently,
he did not dare to go to talk with him or any other of his village;
for, if he had any trouble with him, the latter would immediately
order him to be killed. Therefore he declined to go. The said captain
asked him, since he would not go, to find some one in his village
who would go to tell the said Limasancay all the above, saying that
he would pay this man. Likewise Limasancay should be told that his
Grace was building a fort in his said village, and that he did not
intend to leave until the king should make peace. Dato Bahandil went,
saying that he would return with the answer within two days and that
he would try to despatch the said Indian to the said Limasancay. The
payment for this man was given to the said Dato Bahandil. I certify
to all the above. Witnesses, Pedro Brizeno de Eseguera, Melchor de
Torres, and Pedro de Brito.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

On this said day, month, and year aforesaid, while the said captain,
in the said village of Mindanao, was holding a conference there with
the said Dato Bahandil and other chiefs of the said village--wherein
he discussed all the matters above stated, and declared--before the
said captain and in the presence of me, the said notary, and of the
greater part of the people of his fleet, a volley of poisoned arrows
was discharged from the other side of the river and fell near the said
captain and among the others. By great good fortune none of those with
the said captain were wounded. Thereupon the said chiefs, seeing this
shameless conduct of the Indians, begged and persuaded the said captain
to send men and soldiers to kill the said Indians. Persuaded by them,
he ordered some soldiers to fire a few arquebuses in the direction of
the firing of the said arrows, in order to stop further volleys. Yet
they refused to desist, and sent another volley of arrows. And
because of the excitement among the Indians engaged on the fort,
the captain ordered six soldiers and a few of his Indians to go to
the other side to try to capture an Indian, in order to ascertain
who they were and who sent them there. The said soldiers went to
execute this order, and the Indians who had fired the said arrows
began to defend themselves. Therefore the friendly Indians killed
three of them and took one prisoner. He was taken to the captain,
who ordered him to be imprisoned. I certify thereto. Witnesses,
Sergeant Catalinaga and Tome de la Ysla.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

After the above events, in the said village of Mindanao, on the
twenty-eighth of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine,
Atangata, an Indian slave of Limasancay, was summoned before the
illustrious captain Graviel de Ribera, and in the presence of me,
Diego Lopez Carreno, notary, that I might take down his confession
and deposition. Upon his appearance he was interrogated thus.

He was asked who were the people with him when he was captured, who
were shooting at the Spaniards, and at whose commission and command
they came to shoot those arrows. He said that they were fourteen
Indians who came to discharge those arrows; that some of them were
timaguas, and others slaves belonging to Limasancay, at whose order
they had come; and that they had left the town of Buayen, where the
said Limasancay is, two days ago, coming hither in barotos.

Being asked whether the said arrows that were shot were poisoned,
in order thereby to kill the Spaniards who were in the said village,
and who gave the poison, he said that they brought it from the said
town of Buayen, and that some arrows were poisoned when they came,
and others they themselves poisoned when they were ready to use
them. The herb used was poisonous, and if any Castilian should be
wounded, he would die therefrom.

Being asked, since he is a slave of the said Limasancay, where his
said master keeps the artillery that he brought from the village of
Samboanga (from that lost in the Portuguese galley), and that which
the said Limasancay has of his own, he declared that he knows that
he threw a large piece into the river in front and near to his house
(one brought from Samboanga), as well as another and smaller piece. The
rest of the artillery being small, he took it all with him when he
went away. These pieces consist of three very small culverins. As the
rest were large, he threw them into the river in front of his house.

Being asked where Limasancay was hiding and why he had fled, he said
that Limasancay had gone away, through fear of the Spaniards, to the
village of Buayen, where he is with his father-in-law. Beyond that
he does not know where he is hidden. This witness was not with him,
for they took the barotos in which they came hither from the village
of Ertala, where he lived. This is what he knows of the matter,
and nothing else.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez_, notary of the fleet

On the twenty-eighth of the said month of March, of the year above
stated, considering that, by his confession above given, Atagayta,
the slave of Limasancay, deposed that the said artillery was in
the river in front of the house where Limasancay lived and resided,
he ordered all his Indian rowers, and those of the other vessels,
that they should look for it in the river at low tide, at that point
where the said Indian signified that they were. His Grace ordered
them to look for it, saying that he who should find it would be
given and paid one-half tae of gold. Accordingly they began to look
for the said artillery, and found, in the said river in front of the
houses where the said Limasancay generally lives, one large piece,
from the artillery found in Samboanga; one small culverin, one small
grappling-iron, and three googings of the anchor, two of these broken
and one whole. His Grace ordered all these to be brought ashore,
giving the Indian who discovered them the one-half tae of gold. I,
the present notary, testify thereto. Witnesses, Ensign de Arteaga
and Pedro de Oseguera.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

On the twenty-ninth of the said month of March, the said captain
ordered the said Indians to search the said river for the other
pieces; and, as on the preceding day, his Grace said that he who
found any piece would be paid and rewarded. Accordingly many of the
Indian rowers searched throughout the whole river, but found no other
pieces, nor anything beyond what was found the previous day. I testify
thereto. Witnesses, Tome de la Ysla and Pedro de Brito.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Mindanao, on the thirtieth of the month of March,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious Captain
Grabiel de Ribera, captain of infantry for his Majesty and of the
fleet and troops who came to pacify this river and the villages of
this island and the island of Jolo, by order of the very illustrious
governor and captain-general of these islands, declared that, inasmuch
as his Grace has arrested Diego Lopez Carreno, notary, hitherto of
this fleet for necessary reasons, and as it is necessary to appoint
another person to exercise the said office and to act as notary of the
said fleet: in consideration of the ability and capacity of Benito
de Mediola, a soldier of this fleet, and as he has confidence that
he will perform his duty thoroughly and faithfully, said that he
appointed, and he did appoint him, as notary of the said fleet. He
ordered him to accept it with the formality and oath required by
law. I, the said Benito de Mendiola, being present, placed my hand
on a sign of the cross which the captain made with his right hand,
and swore before God and on the said cross, and promised to exercise
the said office of notary faithfully, legally, and diligently, under
pain of incurring the penalties incurred by those who do not exercise
their duties legally, and to keep secrets. I affix my signature,
together with the captain--who, when he saw my oath and formality,
said that he gave me complete power in form of law to exercise the said
office, and said that he would confirm by his authority and judicial
decree the acts that were executed before me, so that they should be
valid in court or out of it. Witnesses, Sergeant Lope de Catalinaga,
Juan de Avila, and Don Sebastian de Baeca, soldiers.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on the thirtieth day of the month of
March of the said year, Dato Bahandil, chief of the said village of
Silanga, appeared before the said captain, and said that, in obedience
to his Grace's orders in regard to the messenger that should be sent
to the said Limasancay, he sent yesterday, the twenty-ninth day of
this present month, an Indian timagua from his village accompanied
by four Indians, in a baroto. He gave these men the payment that
his Grace had given him for this purpose. He told and charged them
all that his Grace had ordered to be told to the said Limasancay and
other chiefs. He expects a reply within three days.

Being asked by the said Laquidan, interpreter, how it is that, being
hostile to the said Limasancay, as he says, he does not know where
he is and where he is living, Dato Bahandil answered that the said
Limasancay is fleeing with one virey and ten vancas. From fear of the
Spaniards he never remains in one town permanently but is in one swamp
today and another tomorrow. This he declared before the witnesses,
Sergeant Catalinaga and Juan Davila.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on the thirty-first day of the said
month of March, Sihauil, a friendly Indian of Dato Bahandil's town,
appeared before the said captain and in the presence of me, the present
notary. Through the said interpreter, Laquian, he told the said captain
that, if he would pay him, he would tell him where was the other
large piece of artillery brought by Limasancay from the said village
of Samboanga. He asked them not to tell Limasancay who had told them,
lest he order him to be killed. The captain bargained with the said
Indian in my presence to pay him three taes of ingot [_linguague_]
gold, which was proved with the touchstone, according to the said
law; and they were weighed out and given to him immediately. Then
many of the Indians and soldiers went to look for the said piece,
and dragged a small marsh, which is covered by the river at high tide,
quite near the fort built by order of the said captain. They found a
bronze piece of artillery bearing the arms of the king of Portugal,
apparently some seven or eight quintals in weight. The said captain
ordered it placed on one of the fragatas--that commanded by Lope de
Catalinaga. And although many people looked for other pieces throughout
that entire swamp, no more were found. I certify thereto. Witnesses,
Pedro Brizeno de Eseguera, Diego Nunez, and Ensign Melchor de Torres.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on this said day, the thirty-first
of March of the said year, the said captain, considering that, by
reason of the long voyage and bad weather, and the great lack of all
kinds of food in the fleet, because of his long stay; and seeing how
much was needed if he accomplish the purpose for which the governor
despatched him on this expedition, and the said hunger and want; and
that he could not by any method secure provisions in all this river:
therefore he ordered that certain of those captured Indians, natives
of this country, be set to making _landan_, [38] a food eaten in that
river. For this purpose he ordered a great quantity of palm-trees,
of the sort that produces the said landan, to be cut; and they began
to work it and to make the said landan, and it is being made for the
above-named purpose. He ordered me, the present notary, also to set
down the above in the proceedings; and he affixed his signature. I,
the present notary, attest the same. Witnesses, Lope de Catalinaga,
Pedro de Eseguera, and many other soldiers. Likewise I certify that
it takes four days to make the said landan.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on the thirty-first day of the month
of March of the said year, Sibandao, a chief of this village, said to
be a cousin of the petty king Limasancay, with Sinago, Siligan, a chief
of this said village, and many other timagua Indians, appeared before
the said captain and in the presence of me, the present notary, and of
witnesses. They told the said captain through the interpreter Laquian,
that they wished to become allies of the Castilians. They were received
by the captain with great display of affection. He regaled them,
embraced them, and showed them in every way kind treatment. Through
the said interpreter he told them of the advantage that would accrue
to them from becoming allies and vassals of King Don Ffelipe, our
sovereign, and how they would be protected and favored. He told
and informed them that they were deceived by their idols and that
they should believe in one all-powerful God, who created heaven and
earth--three persons but one sole and true God--in whom we all believe;
and they were very attentive to this. He told them that, as allies,
the governor of these islands would send them priests to instruct them
in the Catholic faith. He told them also, through the said interpreter,
that he was sorry that the said Limasancay had fled and was absent;
for his Grace came, not to rob or injure them, but to secure their
alliance and peace and to teach them the said Catholic faith. Such
were the orders of the said governor. He requested them urgently to
go to tell this to the king. They replied that they did not dare,
for the said Limasancay was evilly inclined; but if his father were
alive they would go. They were unable to pay any tribute in gold or
wax now, as their Indians had fled; but they would give some food
from their stores, equivalent to forty tributes. Then the above-named
chiefs departed, promising to bring this food within three days.

Witnesses, Pedro Brizeno de Eseguera, Tome de la Ysla, and Ensign
Melchor de Torres.

_Gabriel de Rivera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on the second day of the month of
April, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious
Gabriel de Ribera, captain of infantry and of the fleet and people who
came to pacify this river and that of Jolo by order of the governor
of these islands, said that, whereas the majority of the Spaniards of
this fleet have told him that many Spaniards and Indian rowers of this
fleet are daily becoming sick, and that he should provide the necessary
remedy therefor, in order to avoid the danger that might ensue,
as his Grace knows the nature of the land and its unhealthfulness:
therefore he ordered Sergeant Lope de Catalinaga, accompanied by the
present notary, to go to see and visit the said sick both Spaniards and
Indians. He ordered us to give him full information regarding it and to
make attestation regarding the sick, so that it might be evident that
his Grace has had and has exercised the requisite care and diligence
in everything. This he ordered and affixed his signature thereto.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Thereupon the said sergeant, Lope de Catalinaga, and I, the present
notary, went to the fragata of the said captain, where we visited, and
saw, in two beds, Francisco Gomez and Bartolome Ruiz, both soldiers,
and in another Ensign Diego de Arteaga. They complained of fever,
and their appearance bore out this statement. We found also in the
flagship, six Indian Moros, rowers, who were sick; and their appearance
showed it. As witnesses to all the above were Melchor de Medrano and
Juanes de Yracabal.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Thereupon the said sergeant Lope de Catalinaga and I, the
present notary, went to the vessel commanded by Juan Rodriguez de
Norvega. There we saw in one bed the said Juan Rodriguez de Norvega,
and in another Pedro de Brito. Both of them complained of sickness--the
said Juan Rodriguez of a very bad abscess in the leg, and the said
Pedro de Brito of a violent fever; and their appearance confirmed
their complaints. We saw also in the said vessel Juan de Leon,
a soldier and Anton Martin, a sailor sick with chills and fever,
as was evident from their appearance. Further in this same vessel,
Diego de Anaya, a soldier, is sick with fever, as is evident. In the
same vessel are nine sick Indians, from among the rowers. Witnesses
of this were Juan de Avila and Goncalo Ruiz, a soldier.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then the said sergeant Lope de Catalinaga and I, the present notary,
went to the ship commanded by Francisco Velasquez. There were the
said Francisco Velazquez and Miguel Nunez in one bed. They complained
of sickness, and their appearance proved it. Ten Indian rowers were
sick in this vessel, as their appearance proved. Witnesses to this
were Juan Lopez, Melchor de Medrano.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then we went immediately to the virey commanded by San Juan de
Cavala. We found there sick the said San Juan de Cavala and Gonzalo
de Villanueva, as their appearance proved. Eight Indian rowers are
sick in this vessel. Witnesses, Bernabe Cortes and Miguel Godines.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then we went to the virey commanded by Francisco Rodriguez de
Salamanca. We found sick there the said Francisco Rodriguez
de Salamanca and Miguel Romero, as was very evident from
their appearance. There are three Indian rowers sick on this
vessel. Witnesses, Bernabe Cortes and Miguel Godines.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then we went immediately to the viroco commanded by Alonso
Pimentel. There the said Pimentel, Juan Ortuno de Onate, and
Diego Carrion appeared to be sick, and such was evident from their
appearance. Eleven Indian rowers are sick in this vessel. To this
were witnesses, Diego Nunez and Tomas Dato.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then we went immediately to the vessel in command of Tome de la
Ysla. There were ten Indian rowers sick there, and their appearance
proved it. In this vessel Miguel Rodriguez has been sick more than
one week. Witnesses, Marcos Quenta [?] and Pedro de Arana.

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then we went immediately to the vessel used to carry provisions from
the flagship. There are four Indian rowers sick in it, besides Pedro
Lopez, a Spaniard, and their appearance proved it. Witnesses, Domingo
de Santurcio and Francisco Quenta [?].

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Then we went immediately to the fragata commanded by the said sergeant,
Lope de Catalinaga. In it appeared to be sick eight Indian rowers,
and their aspect proved it. Witnesses, Domingo de Santurcio and
Francisco Quenta [?].

_Lope de Catalinaga_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Mindanao, on the second day of the month of April,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the said captain, in the
presence of me, the present notary, and of witnesses, asked Dato
Bahandil, chief of the village of Silangan, how many people there
are in all this river, and in the lake and coast of this island;
and the names of the villages, and the number of inhabitants in each
one. The above Bahandil, through the said interpreters Laquian and
Miguel Godines, made the following declaration.

In his own village, Silangan, there are about two hundred Indians,
counting slaves and timaguas; in the village of Sinurey, two hundred;
in the village of Caracan, one hundred; in Catituan, one hundred
and fifty; Vindanao, seven hundred; Vitala, one hundred and thirty;
Vinuruan, four hundred; Lucon, one hundred and sixty; Tanpacan,
one thousand; Atalayan, seventy; Burruan, two hundred; Balabaca,
seventy; Caburundan, one hundred; Macapan, eighty; Corocoan, one
hundred and forty; Buayen, eight hundred; Tuoca, one hundred; Balete,
one thousand; Batunan, one hundred; Baluaquen, one hundred; Ybalen,
one hundred and eighty; Tolendin, six hundred; Salunbun, one hundred;
Quibaca, two hundred; Cacaren, two hundred and fifty; Matinguaguanen,
four hundred; Cabacan, one hundred and eighty; Bagaygaran, one hundred
and forty. Total, seven thousand nine hundred and fifty.

The said Dato Bahandil declared that all the above villages were on
the said river, swamps, and lake of this province of Mindanao. He said
that a river called Ytilurey flowed into this lake, [39] which comes
from the mountains of Butuan and Caragan, and it has places where
gold is washed. When he was asked how much gold each person could
wash daily, he said that he had not seen it, but he had heard that
they got sometimes one-half a tae, and from that down to six, four,
or two maes. This river contains six thousand men, and near by is
another branch of the river called Dumanen with about seven hundred
Indians. From the said river of Esirey is another branch called Sula
with about one thousand Indians living at its confluence with the large
river which flows into the lake. There is a settlement called Megatan,
under a chief Cacopi, with two thousand men. It is near the junction
of the three branches, which form a cross. This lake is about one-half
league wide. In summer it dries up and is then full of sedges. In the
rainy season it is quite full of water. From this river of Mindanao
to the tingues [mountains], whence flows the said river of Tirurey,
it is a twenty days' journey up the lake.

He was asked how many people the coast of this said river of Mindanao
contained. He said that a day's journey along the shore of this river
by which we came is a province called Tabungao. It has about three
thousand Indians, who harvest a great quantity of rice. They live
inland a distance of four leagues. Farther on and adjacent to this
province is another settlement, called the province of Picon. It has
one thousand five hundred Indians, who are well supplied with food.

Along the coast two days' journey eastward, is a settlement called
Bilan. It is a river with gold mines. He says that along the entire
river dwell ten thousand Ytingues [mountaineers] Indians who are not
settled, and that they are at peace with a village at the mouth of the
river, called Canipaan. With all others they are at war. The people
are very rich. All the rest of the coast is settled by Lutaos. [40]

The chief food of the river of Mindanao is landan, which is made from
certain palm-trees very abundant in that land, called buri. After
soaking this substance they make from it a sort of flour which is their
food. For this reason they do not sow much rice although they have
rice-fields. The rice harvest is in October and November. They have
exceedingly large palm-groves and abundance of cocoanuts both green
and dry; also many swine, which are as large as those in Castilla. The
bar is covered with three to four brazas of water, or four at full
tide. Upon entering there is a good depth of water all the way to
the lake, a distance of eighteen leagues. This is the deposition of
the said Dato Bahandil, and what he has seen hitherto. The captain
signed it; and Francisco Gomez, Lope de Catalinaga, and many other
soldiers were witnesses.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said river of Mindanao, on the second day of the month of April
of the said year, an Indian said to be a native of the village of Dato
Bahandil of this river, appeared before the said captain Gabriel de
Ribera, and before me, the present notary, and witnesses. Through
the interpreter Laquian, he said that his name was Simangary and
that he was one of the messengers despatched in accordance with the
captain's orders by the said Dato Bahandil, with the reward given him,
in order to confer and treat with Limasancay and his people, as is
contained in the above record. In regard to this, he deposed that
he went in a baroto with four Indians to the village of Tanpacan,
where he found Dato Sibatala, to whom he related the object of his
journey. The said Dato Sibatala told him that he did not care to
be the ally of the Castilians, even should they burn the natives'
houses and cut down their palm-trees. He told him also not to go
farther for the purpose of talking with the said Limasancay; for,
if he knew that Simangary was coming from the lord of the Castilians,
he would behead him. Upon this he returned to notify the captain. The
latter ordered it set down in the records and signed it. Witnesses,
Joan Lopez, Francisco Velazquez, and many other soldiers.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on this said day, month, and year, the
said Siligan, a chief, appeared before the said captain, and brought
as tribute, to apply on what he was to give, five tributes of rice,
two bundles of tortoise-shell; three dishes, and two _medrinaque_
robes, one green and the other white.

This same day Dato Bahandil brought to apply on the tributes
to be given by him, sixty _chicubetillos_ of landan, five hogs,
and six fowls. The captain took it all, and ordered the food to be
apportioned among the fleet. Witnesses, Alonso Pimentel, Francisco
Gomez, Francisco Velazquez.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on this said day, the second of
April, of the said year, the said captain, after receiving the answer
brought by the man who went to talk with Limasancay, ordered Pedro
Brizeno de Oseguera, in the presence of many Indians of this river
who have made peace, to embark in the virey commanded by Francisco
Rodriguez de Salamanca in order to go to the channel to look for food
for the fleet. To exchange therefor, he was given dishes, gold, and
_tacley_. He was to inform the said Indians through the interpreters
that his Grace was sending the above vessel and the Spaniards who
accompanied him to the town of Cubu for men to settle in this village,
and for food. He ordered it to be set down in the records. Witnesses,
Lope de Catalinaga, Juan Lopez de Queto, and others.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on the second day of the said
month of April of the said year, Simagao, an Indian chief of this
settlement of Mindanao, who claimed to be a relative of the petty
king Limasancay, together with many other timaguas and native Indians,
appeared before the said captain and in the presence of me, the notary,
and of witnesses. Through the said interpreter, Laquian, he said that
he wished to become the ally of the Castilians. The captain regaled
him and treated him hospitably. He told them what, advantage they
would derive in becoming vassals of his Majesty, informing him, as he
had hitherto told all the others, that he would be very glad to see
the said Limasancay. He told them that if the said Limasancay would
come, he would not be required to pay tribute for this year. He asked
Simagao what they would give as a token of recognition. They answered
that they had no gold, but would give provisions, such as they had,
to the value of fourteen tributes. Thereupon the said captain showed
them all hospitality and affection. Witnesses were Alonso Pimentel,
Tome de la Ysla, and other soldiers.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the said village of Mindanao, on this said second day of April of
this year, the said Simagao, chief of this river, appeared before the
said captain, and before me, the notary, and witnesses. The captain,
asked him why--since he was an ally of the Spaniards and was a chief,
and saw that so kind treatment was accorded to all who made peace and
placed themselves under the protection of his Majesty, as had been
done to himself and the others--he did not talk to the other chiefs
who had not come to do the same. The said Simagao answered, through
the said interpreter Silaquian, that he had talked to another chief
named Silitula, who had answered that he did not care for peace, as
he had no gold for tribute. He had told him that we desired gold. The
said captain told him, through the said interpreter, that he did not
come to levy tribute beyond what the chief himself should choose to
give as a token of putting himself under the protection of King Don
Ffelipe, our sovereign. This he did to all his allies. Thereupon the
said chief went away. Witnesses, Ensign Melchor de Torres, Juan Lopez,
and Francisco Velazquez.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Mindanao, on the fourth day of the said month of
April, of the said year, Taganchina, a chief, who claimed to be from
Catituan, a town of this river, came, and appeared before the said
captain and me, the present notary, and witnesses. Through Miguel
Godines, the interpreter, he said that he wished to become the ally
of the Castilians and to enroll himself under the protection of his
Majesty--himself and his Indians, both timaguas and slaves. Many
Indians from his village came with him. The said captain received him
very kindly and informed him of the great gain that would accrue to him
in becoming his Majesty's vassal, telling him among other things of the
[Catholic] faith, of which he had told the others. He listened with
attention and said that he would assemble his people and give what he
could in recognition and tribute. The said captain told him to give
what he pleased. He tried to induce him to confer with Limasancay to
persuade the latter to make peace, discussing in detail all that he
had told the other chiefs. These Indians went away, promising to return
tomorrow. Witnesses, Juan Lopez de Queto, Tome de la Ysla, and others.

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Miguel Godinez_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Mindanao, on the sixth day of the month of April
of the said year, Sibahandil, chief of the village of Silangay;
Simangao, of this village of Mindanao; Simaganchina, of Catiman; and
Sibandao, chief of this village, appeared before the captain and me,
the notary, and witnesses, The said Bahandil gave an account of the
tribute he had promised--two hundred _yrcuvitillos_ of landan, each
of them about one ganta; [41] and ten swine, large and small. The said
Sibandao brought two hogs, and twenty tributes in rice, and medrinaque
cloth, and two dishes from China, as tribute; for he gave nothing
else. The said Sibangao gave four tributes in rice, each tribute of
one _chicuvite_. The said Mahanchina gave twelve tributes in dishes as
above mentioned. They said, through the said interpreter, that their
reason for not coming before and not bringing tribute more fully was
because of the great poverty that they were undergoing--since all the
natives were in revolt and were suffering severely from famine, as
they were all unwilling to come for peace. They asked pardon for their
inability to do more. If they were at their own homes, they would pay
more. The captain ordered it put down thus in the records. Witnesses,
Francisco Velazquez, Ensign Melchor de Torres, Juan Lopez de Queto.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the village of Mindanao, on the sixth day of the month of April,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious Gabriel
de Ribera, captain of infantry and of the fleet and men sent to
pacify this island and that of Jolo by the very illustrious Doctor
Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general of these islands
for his Majesty, made the following declaration. Inasmuch as his
Grace has remained twenty-four days in this river and has done all
that is declared in the records above, during all of which time he
has striven to make peace and alliance with the petty king Limasancay
and his chiefs, exercising for this purpose the utmost possible care,
committing no injury--although indeed he has had much excuse therefor;
and has contrived to have messengers sent to the said Limasancay,
in order to confer with him, but the latter refused to talk, nor does
anyone care to take a message to him, for they assert that they would
be beheaded; and, besides, since Limasancay prevents his chiefs from
coming to make peace; and although some chiefs have come to make peace
and enroll themselves under his Majesty's protection (as, for instance,
the chiefs of Silangay of this village of Mindanao and of Catituan),
they do not pay us the tribute promised; and some of those who come
bring two or three tributes of articles of little value, or of no
importance, which is an ill way of amusing us, and of no advantage;
and having seen the great need and lack of food suffered by the entire
fleet, because of the long voyage and severe storms that they have
experienced; and because of the many sick--each day both Spaniards and
Indian rowers falling ill, because of the unhealthful climate of the
land, and the lack of all food, except rice--and very little of that,
on many days having only one ration a day, to all the people, both
Bisayans and Moros; and considering the long voyage ahead of them,
and the amount of work that must still be done in order to obey his
Lordship's commands; and having no certain assurance of provisions--as
this island is so short of them; and although his Grace sent Pedro
de Oseguera with gold and articles of barter six days ago to search
for food, still he is not sure that he has found it: therefore he
said that he ordered, and he did order, all the vessels of this
fleet to prepare to cross the bar, in order to make the voyage. His
Grace ordered that a copy of a letter written in the Moro tongue,
to the said Limasancay be placed in these records, so that it might
be manifest. He signed the above. Witnesses, Francisco Velazquez,
Tome de la Ysla, and Lope de Catalinaga

_Gabriel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In fulfilment of the above order of the said captain, I, the present
notary, caused to be made and did make, a copy of the letter written by
order of the said captain to Limasancay, which was first written in a
rough draft, so that the essentials of the said letter might therein
be set down. It was written in the Moro language by the interpreter
Laquian, an Indian Moro, who can write in the said tongue. In order
that the said Laquian might write the said letter, it was explained
to him by Miguel Godines, Spanish interpreter. Its tenor is as follows:

To Limasancay, the panguilan who is lord over this river and the
environs of Mindanao: I came to this river by order of the very
illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general
of the islands of Lucon, the Pintados, and the other islands, which he
governs and rules for King Don Ffelipe, our sovereign, king of Castilla
(whom may God preserve during many years). He ordered me to come to
treat with you for the alliance that your father Sulatan so earnestly
desired with the Castilians; to enroll you under the protection of the
said king, our sovereign; and to warn you of the great error under
which you and all the natives of this island are living because you
do not know your Creator--who is three persons yet the one and only
true God who created all men, the heavens, and the earth--so that,
believing on Him, you might merit the enjoyment of the heaven that He
created for those who believe and serve Him. At the entrance of this
river I met Umapas, a slave of yours, who told me that he was going
with a letter and message from you to the said governor, wherein
you say that you wish to be his ally. In acknowledgment, you were
sending two daggers and two cakes of wax. I ordered him to return to
you, in order to tell you that I was coming for the purposes above;
and that you should not flee or have any fear, for I was not coming,
nor had I commission, to molest you in any way. But the said Umapas
answered that he did not dare go upon this embassy for you would behead
him. Likewise I sent to you one day prior to this two of your slaves
(whom I seized on the sea in a ship), that they might advise you of
my coming and that you should have no fear. You refused however to
observe this; and not only have you fled and revolted, but you have
caused the entire district and its chiefs to revolt. They desire to
have peace with the Castilians and to be under the protection of
the said king, our sovereign. But you have counseled them evilly;
for, like a stripling, you do not know the blessings and advantages
which you are losing, and which would be yours if you became the
ally of the Castilians and placed yourself under the control of
the said governor, both for your own and your land's tranquillity,
and for your soul's salvation. Now this is the twenty-fourth day of
this my stay in this river, without having injured you in any way,
although I had good warrant therefor, and during which time I ascended
the river of Balete in search of you, and then returned to this your
village. Thence I sent messengers to tell you the above, none of whom
have returned with a reply from you or have dared to talk with you. Now
I am going to the island of Jolo to confer with its chief. I request
you urgently to consider well what I have said for it concerns you
much. I shall await your reply at Cavite and shall be able to receive
it within twelve days. May God give you grace to come to His knowledge.

Your friend, _Gabriel de Ribera_

By order of the captain:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

This said letter in the above form written in the Moro speech and
signed by the said captain before me, the said notary and before
witnesses, was given and delivered on this day, the sixth of April of
this year, to Sibandao, an Indian chief of this town, so that he might
give it to the said Limasancay. Sibandao, through the said interpreter,
offered to take it and deliver it to Limasancay. In order that it might
appear in the records, this copy was inserted. The said captain and
the said interpreter signed it. Witnesses were Francisco Velazquez,
Lope de Catalina, and Juan Lopez de Queto.

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Miguel Godines_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

This is a well and faithfully executed copy of a commission given to
Lope de Catalinaga by the illustrious captain, Gabriel de Ribera,
who comes to pacify these islands of Mindanao and Jolo, by order
of the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, of his Majesty's
council and governor and captain-general of these islands. Its tenor
is as follows:

I, Grabiel de Ribera, captain of infantry and of the fleet and people
who come to pacify the islands of Jolo and Bindanao, at the order
of the very illustrious governor and captain-general for his Majesty
of these islands: Inasmuch as the instructions of the said governor
ordered me to send some one from the town of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus
to pacify the river and tingues [mountains] of Butuan; and considering
how much we may shorten the long voyage by going from this district
of Cavite instead of from the said town, and that we have here ships
and rowers suitable for this undertaking--therefore in the name of his
Majesty I entrust the said expedition to Sergeant Lope de Catalinaga. I
order him to go as leader for the said pacification with fifteen
soldiers besides himself. I order him to go with the said soldiers
to the said river and tingues of Butuan to pacify the said people in
the tingues. He shall try to render them obedient to his Majesty,
making the best possible terms of peace by means of interpreters
whom he is taking. From the natives of the said tingues, when they
are pacified, he shall have power to collect such tribute as in all
fairness can be collected from them. As he has the matter in hand,
he shall do what is most convenient in this. Having collected the
tribute, he shall keep one-half of it very carefully, as it belongs
to his Majesty. The other half, according to his Lordship's orders,
shall be divided among his soldiers, according to custom. Everything
that shall be done upon this expedition shall be attested by notary;
and I authorize him to appoint one, before whom shall be transacted
all the proceedings necessary, so that an account may be rendered of
everything. I order all his soldiers to regard, consider, and obey
him as their leader, and observe his orders, under such penalties
as he may inflict. Given in Cavite on the fourteenth of April, one
thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

_Gabriel de Ribera_

By order of the captain:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Collated with the original:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the port of Cavite, on the fourteenth of April, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-nine, after his arrival at this port, the
illustrious Gabriel de Ribera, captain of infantry and of the fleet
and people who came to pacify the islands of Mindanao and Jolo,
by order of the very illustrious governor of these islands, saw in
this port three vessels manned with Joloans. These vessels contained
about fifty persons from the said island of Jolo. The said captain
summoned them to his presence, and through the said interpreters,
Laquian and Miguel Godines, asked them who they were. They replied
that, when the captain was going to the river of Mindanao, he had sent
a Boholan Indian to notify them to collect the tribute, as the said
captain would come for it on his return. Therefore they, as soon as
they heard this, went thither to confer with the said captain. The
said captain asked them why they had left their village, and [had
not] collected their tribute, since he had sent to tell them that
they should have it ready; whereupon they all answered with one
voice that the chief named Rasea had gone to Borney, four months
ago, with a galliot and four vireys full of people, to the number of
about three hundred. These had gone with the said chief to settle in
Borney. Those left were about two hundred men, who were all reduced
to despair through the great famine which they are suffering and have
suffered since Esteban Rodriguez was in their village, and because
of the damage inflicted upon them by the said Esteban Rodriguez. The
said Esteban Rodriguez had told them that they would not be assessed
tribute for two years. For this reason the people had gone to look for
food in other islands. They had collected fifty-seven tributes, which
they brought, with the request that his Grace would not go to the said
village of Jolo because of the severe famine there; if he did, they
must all abandon it. The said captain asked them if they had caught
the elephants as the said captain Esteban Rodriguez had ordered and
which they had promised to his Lordship. They said they knew nothing
of this and that if elephants had been promised, it was by Raja Yloi;
but he had gone to Borney and it was impossible for them to catch any
alive. The said captain went outside secretly, and informed himself,
through the said interpreters, from the Boholan who had been sent,
and from the people of this port of Cavite, regarding the famine from
which the said Indians asserted they were suffering. These declared
that it was very well known and true, and was current talk on this
coast, that the said Raja Ylo had gone to Borney with the people above
mentioned; and that, in the opinion of the people who came from the
island of Jolo, there will be much famine in the future. They are a
poor people and in need of food. All of them begged among the ships
of the fleet, and in the Spanish tongue, that, for the love of God,
_humay_ be given them for they are hungry. It was seen that they gave
their weapons and clothes in exchange for rice. Thereupon the captain
ordered the tributes brought by them, as they said, to be placed
before him. They brought some robes, daggers, dishes, and articles
of slight value and price, and cloth of their land, but no gold or
silver. When the said captain saw how slight was the tribute and that
it was in almost worthless articles, and as he had heard that there
was a large field-piece in the village of Jolo, taken from the lost
galley, he said that, since they did not have the tribute collected
and were so pressed by dire need, he would have pity and not take
the tribute, on condition that they would give the said piece. They
said they would all assemble and discuss this, and they asked the
said captain to await them there until they returned to Jolo. His
Grace told them that this would trouble him considerably because of
his great lack of food; but that he would send Pedro de Oseguera in
a fragata to bring back the said piece, and to ascertain whether they
had told him the truth. Thereupon that very night he ordered the said
Pedro de Oseguera to get ready and embark with ten soldiers in the
said fragata. He was to go to the said island of Jolo and examine
the people and their settlement and ascertain their need of food. He
was to take note of everything, charging his men to act cautiously,
and was not to land or molest the natives. The said Pedro de Oseguera
left that night to execute this commission, in order to take back
the tributes that the said natives had brought, and took them.

Witnesses, Francisco Velazquez, Juan Davila, Melchor de Torres,
and many other soldiers.

Before me:

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the port of Cavite, on the nineteenth day of the month of April of
the said year, Pagalugan and other chiefs and timaguas of the island
of Taguima [Basilan] appeared before the said captain in the presence
of me, the notary, and of witnesses. They said that they brought to
his Grace, in recognition of tribute (for they knew the fleet needed
food), twenty fowls, twenty pieces of colored medrinaque, three hogs,
and one _chivanta_ of wax in four pieces. They said that they had paid
their tribute to Juan Lopez de Aguirre in civet-cats, fowls, swine,
goats, and cloth. They came also to find out to whom they must pay the
tribute hereafter, and how much they must pay. The captain asked how
many people they were and how they could pay their tribute. Through
the said interpreters they replied that they could pay their tribute in
wax, civet-cats, tortoise-shell, and colored cloth. With the tinguianes
[mountaineers] they number about one thousand men more or less. Upon
this day the captain, seeing the fleet's need of food and the slight
prospects for getting any, ordered all the said vessels of this fleet
to return to the town of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus.

Witnesses, Melchor de Torres, Francisco Gomes,
and others.

Before me:

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the port called Dapitan, on the twenty-third day of the month of
April of the said year, Pedro de Osegura, whom his Grace had sent
to the island of Jolo, as above recorded, and who arrived at this
port today with the men and fragata that he had taken, appeared
before the said captain, and in the presence of me, the notary,
and of witnesses. He said that, in fulfilment of his Grace's orders,
he had gone to the said island of Jolo. He anchored at the mouth of
the river there, for four days. As soon as he arrived he summoned the
chiefs. They came, and through the said interpreter Laquian he learned
from them that Raja Ylo, with the Indians of the island--three hundred
men, and their women-with his wives, children, slaves, and all his
possessions, had gone to settle in Borney. He [Oseguera] tried also
to learn who had remained, whether they had a famine, as reported. He
was told that not more than one hundred and forty Indians remained
and that, they were suffering a most severe famine. He ordered them
to bring the piece that was said to be inland. In three hours they
brought one to him, and he brought it hither in his fragata. It
seems to be of about twelve or thirteen quintals' weight. Thinking
that they were lying in regard to the people and their poverty,
he insisted upon asking them for the tribute, telling them that
everyone who becomes his Majesty's vassal, pays that recognition,
as a return for his Majesty's expenses in his fleets. They showed
so great poverty, and were so little able to give anything, that,
although he had the chiefs on his vessel and sent them to notify all
the Indians of the land that they must bring tribute in three days,
not forty Indians came with tribute--and that was in dishes, cloth,
and articles of but little worth. The chiefs told him to go ashore
and see for himself that there were no more people. Consequently he
bargained with an Indian, a timagua of the said island (the one who
had owned the said cannon), as he learned that the Indian had traded
for it with others; and gave back to them the fifty-seven tributes
given them by the captain. Then he returned to the fleet. This was
his declaration, and he affixed his signature thereto. Witnesses,
Juan Davila and Francisco Gomez.

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

Thereupon, upon this said day, Pedro de Oseguera declared before
the said captain that the said Indians of Jolo had given, in token
of tribute, forty-three tributes, consisting of two tacs of gold,
nineteen pieces of colored medrinaque, and eight tributes in dishes,
a total of forty-three--besides the fifty-seven that were taken on
account for the piece. The full total is one hundred, and he delivered
them to the the captain. Witnesses, the above-named persons.

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Pedro Brizeno de Oseguera_

Before me:

_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the town of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus, on the eighth day of
the month of May, of the said year, the said captain said that,
inasmuch as his Lordship, the governor of these islands, ordered in
the instructions given him for the said expedition that one-half
of the tributes be given to his Grace's soldiers and the other
half to his Majesty; and having seen the small amount collected
and its little value, and the great lack in this town of food for
this fleet: therefore he ordered that all the tributes of cloth and
gold be delivered over and divided among the four ships commanded
by Francisco Velazquez, Tome de la Ysla, Juan Rodriguez de Norvega,
and Alonso Pimentel, respectively. He ordered that it be inspected in
order to make a note thereof. There were forty-four pieces of colored
medrinaque and forty maes of gold. Therefore each ship received
eleven pieces of cloth and ten maes of gold, which was delivered to
the above officers, and they gave receipts for it. Witnesses were
[Juan Lopez de] Queto, Francisco del Castillo [MS. illegible]. The
captain affixed his signature.

_Gabriel de Ribera_
_Benito de Mendiola_, notary of the fleet

In the city of Manila on the tenth day of the month of June, one
thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the very illustrious Doctor
Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general for his Majesty in
these islands of the West, after examining these records, ordered that
I, the said notary, make two copies of them all, signed and attested,
so that they may have authority. I was ordered to give and deliver
them to him, to be sent wherever was most fitting for his Majesty's
service. In each one of them he said that he would sanction them, and
he did thus sanction by his authority and judicial decree, so that
they may be valid and have credibility in court or out of court. He
affixed thereto his signature.

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

And I, Alonso Beltran, notary of his royal Majesty and of the
government of the Filipinas islands of the West, was present at the
above proceeding. I had him affix his signature and affixed my own
in testimony of truth.

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

_[Endorsed at beginning_: "Testimony and proceedings in regard to
the expeditions to Burney, Jolo, and Mindanao which were made during
the past year (seventy-eight) and this one (seventy-nine) by command
of the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and
captain-general of the Philipinas Islands of the West. These papers
are forwarded for his Majesty and his royal Council of the Indies."]

Appointments to Vacancies in Manila Cathedral

The king. [42] To our governor of the Filipinas islands. When we
heard that there were not sufficient tithes for the support of four
prebendaries in the cathedral church which is to be erected in those
islands, we ordered you in our decree of the thirteenth day of July
of the past year 1579, to give them from our treasury a competent
stipend, which was to be in proportion to the amount yielded by the
said tithes. Now the said bishop has reported that, in case the said
prebends or other benefices which were to be established in the said
church become vacant, it would be necessary to defer the appointment of
other persons thereto until orders could be despatched from here; and
thus the said church would remain without the divine service. In view
of this inconvenience, he petitions us to give orders that, whenever
dignities, canonries, and other benefices of the said church become
vacant, they shall immediately be filled by other worthy persons,
with the same stipends as those received by their predecessors;
or to order what else is our pleasure. With the approval of our
Council of the Indies, we favor this; and therefore order you that,
whenever the said dignities, canonries, and other benefices of the
cathedral church in those islands shall become vacant, you fill them
with competent persons of the required rank, who shall serve in the
place of those through whom the vacancy occurs, at the same stipend
as that received by their predecessors, until we make our appointments.

_I, The King_

By order of his Majesty:

_Antonio de Eraso_

Letter from Ronquillo de Penalosa to Felipe II

Royal Catholic Majesty:

This city has begged me to inform your Majesty about three things
solicited by the citizens. May your Majesty command accordingly by
a royal decree addressed to me, in order that I may inform them if
these things are fitting for the service of your Majesty.

First, that your Majesty may have me informed whether it is convenient
that this city be the capital of this government. At present it is the
largest city, has the largest population, and is the best governed in
this kingdom. It is well situated, so that from it the governor may
easily reach the settlements in these islands. Although the place is
unhealthful, it would nevertheless for the present be convenient that
this city be the capital of this government and the headquarters of
the governor.

As to whether the repartimientos of the Indians should be made
permanent, I will say that at present such a course would be by no
means beneficial to your royal service, as it would cause the soldiers
to lose the hope of being rewarded for their services. Those who are
now here would not serve and no others would come to this land.

Touching the granting of estates to this city, there is exceeding need
of them, as this city has none belonging to it by which any necessary
works may be carried out. Nevertheless I do not know whence the land
can be taken without causing much damage. The vacant repartimientos
are very necessary to reward the many persons who have served, and
who complain with reason that the royal estate is always increasing,
and yet it has many debts. May your Majesty provide for everything
according to your pleasure. May our Lord guard your royal Catholic
Majesty, and increase your Majesty's kingdoms, as we your servants
desire. Manila, July seventeenth, of the year 1581. Catholic Royal
Majesty, your Majesty's most humble servant, who kisses the royal
hands and feet,

_Don Goncillo Rronquillo de Penalosa_

[_Endorsed:_ "Seen. An answer is unnecessary."]

Ordinance Restricting Departure from the Islands

At the city of Manila, in the Filipinas, islands of the West, on the
second day of the month of March of the year one thousand five hundred
and eighty-two, the most illustrious Don Goncalo Ronquillo de Penalosa,
governor and captain-general for his Majesty of these said islands,
said that, inasmuch as he had been informed that about three years ago
Fray Pedro de Alfaro, custodian of the descalced religious of the order
of St. Francis, had left these islands secretly, taking with him other
religious, and that he went without order or license therefor from his
Majesty or the governor, to the kingdom of China, where he now is; [43]
and inasmuch as Fray Pablo de Jesus, a custodian, and other religious
did the same thing a few days ago, causing thereby much scandal and
talk in this commonwealth: in order to correct the aforesaid as is
very necessary and to inform your Majesty thereof, he declared that
he was ordering (and he did so order) that it be publicly proclaimed
in this city that no person of any quality or condition whatsoever
should dare to leave this said city or any other places where said
religious may be, accompanied by any persons whatsoever, by land or
sea, or in any other manner whatsoever, except with express permission
from the governor and captain-general of these islands. This shall
be under penalty of incurring confiscation of all property by the
exchequer of his Majesty, and proclamation as a traitor and rebel
against the royal crown. Moreover, proceedings will be instituted
against such person with all due severity. Thus he provided; and,
under the said penalties, no one shall dare to give such, persons
ships or conveyance by which they may leave, without said permission.

Given _ut supra_:

_Don Goncalo Ronquillo de Penalosa_

By command of his Lordship:

_Alonso Beltran_

Letter from Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa to Felipe II

Royal Catholic Majesty:

In another letter of greater length, I have informed your Majesty
regarding the affairs of this land, and have requested some things
desirable therefor. What is now presented is as follows:

On the twenty-fourth of the past month, there came to this port a
ship of about one hundred and twenty toneladas. It was sent by your
viceroy of Nueva Espana, but it contained no reenforcements, nor
has he yet despatched them. This country cannot make progress if a
year passes without reenforcements, since it depends upon colonists
for its settlement and growth. Moreover, the commerce cannot be
increased by sending, from year to year, a ship so small that after
the departure of two ships (and one of them more than four hundred
toneladas) this year, half of the goods remain in this city for lack
of a ship. Moreover, this settlement is not provided with a doctor
or apothecary, who are greatly needed on account of the insalubrious
nature of this country. There was a scarcity of everything except
provisions; this fact the royal Audiencia [of Mexico] sent against
me, with only false accounts and petty information obtained from
the followers of Doctor Francisco de Sande, my predecessor--whose
residencia I had taken, and, as a result thereof, had deprived him of
all royal office. Nevertheless, he was received in that royal Audiencia
as auditor; and, as a consequence, persons with grievances may well
lose hope of obtaining justice. It is just that complaints against
me as subjecting him to indignities, be heard, and that justice be
done in that tribunal; but I also believe that your Majesty will
be pleased to guard the dignity of an office as important as mine,
and the servant in whom your Majesty has placed so much confidence. I
say this because from Mexico they meddle with my government--giving me
orders as to the corregidors whom I am to keep, and addressing private
individuals in regard to the supplies, directing them to keep watch
over that matter. This gives much occasion for those who are here
to lose respect for me. The most serious thing is, that no matter
how small the affair may be, they do not listen to me, or to my side
of the story. They impose grave penalties upon me and threaten that
I will be obliged to defray the expenses of the judge. I send some
copies of the commands to your Majesty so that the royal council may
consider and provide what is most fitting for your royal service.

Moreover, I have heard news in regard to Captain Graviel de Ribera,
who was the attorney of this city; he was one of Doctor Sande's chief
enemies, and most accused him in his residencia, as will appear by
his own deposition therein. On the way from here to Mexico, he became
an ally and confederate of the said Doctor Sande; and together, with
false reports and some witnesses who were tools of the said doctor,
they preferred many charges against me in that royal Audiencia. With
these charges the said Grabiel de Ribera went to Espana, without a
hearing having been accorded to me or to anyone in my behalf. It is
just to believe that in that supreme tribunal, in the presence of your
Majesty, injustice will be done to no one--least of all to me, who
have served and am now serving your Majesty with so great integrity
and solicitude, and who have had so long an experience. I am sure
that your Majesty will first give me a hearing, and afterwards command
that amends be made for my wrongs, by punishing those who have tried
to stain my honor and my good reputation in life and character. This
I beseech your Majesty to do, in consideration of my services.

I have great need of an educated assistant, as there is much to be
done here in the business of war and government, as well as a great
amount of work that must be done in affairs of justice, both civil
and criminal. The trouble here is that the people are of such a nature
that, at the same time when justice is done to one, an enemy is made
of another person. I beseech your Majesty to command such provision
to be made as shall be fitting for the royal service.

The sub-lieutenant Francisco de Duenas, who, as I have explained in
another letter, was sent as envoy to Maluco, came to this city on the
twenty-second current. He brought very good returns, which have given
us all great satisfaction, as your Majesty will see by the letters of
the chief captain and other private persons, which I am sending through
your viceroy of Nueva Espana. There is also remitted an account of
the voyage and its events. That fortified place is now open for your
Majesty's advantage; [44] and although its chief captain sent me no
request for aid, I know that it is necessary to send the same, as well
as to pacify the king of Terrenate. It is very important to understand
how desirable it is for that stronghold to prosper, as it is of the
greatest advantage for all Nueva Espana. Consequently, I have been
exceedingly troubled by the non-arrival of reenforcements from Nueva
Espana during the past two years. A large number of troops I have
assigned to several settlements, as I have already written at greater
length. In the shortest time possible I will send aid to Maluco;
and from time to time I shall advise what is done in this respect.

Your Majesty has already been informed how the English pirate [45] set
out for Maluco and the Xabas [Java]. In Maluco he formed a friendship
with the king of Terrenate, to whom he promised to return in a short
time with more forces. Consequently, I have considered how much more
reason there is to believe that they cannot return by the strait of
Magallanes--since I know that that strait is well guarded, and because,
since they have gone through it, both Piru and Nueva Espana are warned;
they could gain nothing in the expedition, and it would certainly
be lost. No one but the pirate himself knows the route which he took
and the channel which he followed to Maluco; and therefore no efforts
were made to check him. If Maluco should be considered in England as
of great value, and as a stronghold which can be taken and held with a
few men, then they would feel bound to place a large force in it. Your
Majesty should do much for its defense. These considerations impress me
so strongly that, if I were supplied with more troops and artillery, I
could by no means imagine a more necessary task. I will do what I can,
however, in your royal service, although it is not under my charge.

In my opinion, the spices should be sent from Maluco to Panama,
a voyage very safe and not too long. In this way the ships which
conduct it to Panama may touch at Nueva Espana and leave there the
amount necessary for that kingdom, and in Panama, what is needed for
Piru, the kingdom of Tierra Firme and the new kingdom of Granada. From
the port of Panama, where the ships coming from Maluco anchor, it is
but five or six leagues' journey by land to the river of Chagre. From
there to Espana is nothing but water, and consequently the said spices
can be conveyed thereby very easily and at little cost. This I think
is the shortest, safest, and least expensive method. Your Majesty
will order what is most fitting for your service.

The artillery, which your Majesty orders me to send to the viceroy
of Peru, I am preparing with promptness. Nevertheless, that which
your Majesty has here at present is necessary for this stronghold,
and for the other islands, where I have distributed a number of cannon
for their greater security and prosperity.

I send the relation of the islands and their villages, and of their
inhabitants and industries, which was forwarded to me to send you. I
would send a longer account if more time had elapsed since the receipt

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