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The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, Vol. 4 of 55 by Edited by E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson

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here, marching in battle-array, he disembarked, and went hither and
thither in various parts, had many branches cut from trees there,
and entered the mosque of the said town, and a large house which was
among others in the settlement; here he ordered his lodging to be
prepared and at present is lodged there. All this he declared that he
did in sign of possession, and for the possession which he was taking
and did take of the said settlement and of all the island of Borney
with intention to hold and defend it in the name of his Majesty from
whomsoever might try to oppose him. For defense of the troops in the
said settlement, he ordered a stockade to be built, like a fort, where
his Lordship and all the other Spaniards are lodged. He ordered me,
the said notary, to testify to this; and I, the said notary, certify
to all the abovesaid, for these events took place before me, as one
coming upon the said conquest-witnesses thereto being Pero Lucas,
Luis de Garnica, Francisco Chacon, and many others.

_Alonso Beltran_, notary of his Majesty

And after the above events, in the said village on the river of Borney,
on the twenty-fourth day of the month of April of the above year,
the said governor summoned an Indian before him who, through the
interpreter Juan Ochoa Ttabudo, declared himself to be one Sinagua,
a native of the town of Balayan, one of the six Moros who left
the flagship at his Lordship's order with Simagat and Simagachina,
with two letters for the king of Borney. He was advised (but without
administering the oath, because he was a Moro) to tell truly what he
knew and had seen, and the injuries and ill-treatment inflicted upon
him and the others. He said that what he knows and what occurred is
the following. As before declared, this witness is one of the six Moros
whom the said Simagat and Simagachina took with them when they carried
the letters to the king of Borney at the order of his Lordship. When
they reached the fleet of the king of Borney, stationed in the port
of an islet to forbid the entrance there of the Spaniards, and when
the said Borneans saw them, these envoys were seized and each one
placed in a separate galley--except this witness and one other Moro,
one Sungayan, who were imprisoned together and put in fetters under
the deck. This witness does not know what was done with the others. The
next morning they took this witness and his above-mentioned companion
and led them before a captain, whose name he does not know. This
captain ordered them to be freed and food to be given them. Then he
ordered them to be placed in the said galley without this witness
seeing any of the others who had gone with them. Because he was below
in the said galley, this witness did not see the fight between the
said Moros and Spaniards, except that the vessels of the said Borneans
took flight, and that the galley in which this witness was fled up
the river of Borney, until its captain and crew landed. Taking this
witness and his companion with them, they marched inland one and
one-half days, without this witness knowing whither they were taking
them. Finally, for fear of the said Borneans, they hid themselves;
for the said Borneans were fleeing across country. This witness and
his said companion fled and returned, until they found a small boat
in which they embarked to look for the Spaniards (keeping hidden
in order not to meet any Borneans), until they met certain Spanish
vessels, which they accompanied to the village, where the governor
and Spaniards now are. Here they found alive the said Simagat, who
told them how he had been ill-treated, his gold taken from him, and
himself threatened with death; and that the said Borneans had killed
the said Simagachina. This witness is convinced of his death, for he
has never appeared nor have they had any news of him. As he does not
understand the language of Borney, he cannot tell what passed among
the said Borneans, when he was captured; he knows this and naught else.

And he declares it true, and affirms and ratifies the same. He is
about twenty-five years of age. He did not sign the above, but the
interpreter Juan Ochoa Ttabudo, did so.

Before me:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

[The deposition of the above native's companion follows. It is of
similar tenor to the above.]

And after the above events in the said settlement and river of
Borney, on the said day, month, and year above mentioned, the very
illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general
of the islands of the West for his Majesty, said that, because there
was no fort where he could store and place the artillery, ammunition,
and other material here at present, and in order that all might be
kept safe and securely, he had ordered a fort to be constructed for
the defense of his Majesty's camp, and of the Spaniards stationed
in this settlement and river of Borney with his Lordship, where the
said Spaniards might gather. He ordered a house to be built within
it where the powder and ammunition now here may be kept; likewise a
hospital, where the sick may be cured, and a house in which to store
the provisions for the said camp. In order that his Majesty and the
members of the royal Council might know of all this, he ordered me,
the said notary, to testify thereto. I, the said Alonso Beltran, his
Majesty's notary, certify by order of the said governor that after
he took possession in the name of his Majesty, of the settlement on
the said river of Borney, where at present he is lodged, he ordered
the said fort and other buildings above mentioned to be constructed,
and it has been finished with great despatch, with the assistance,
in all the work, of the men of his camp. In order that all this may
be evident, he ordered me, the said notary, to make one copy, or
two or three, or as many more as are required, of the said records,
in which all and singular he interposed, and he did interpose, his
authority and judicial decree, in order that they should be valid and
lawful in court and out of court; and he signed the same with his name.

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

I certify thereto:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

The following is an exact and faithful copy of a letter missive written
on paper in Portuguese, dated at Evora, March seven, one thousand five
hundred and seventy-three, and bearing a signature, namely "El Rey"
["The King"], which was found among certain papers in the house of
the old king of Borney. The tenor of this letter is as follows.

_Letter from the king of Portugal_

Noble and honored king of Borneo: I, Don Sebastian, by the grace of God
King of Portugal and of the Argarves, on this side and on the other
side of the sea in Africa, seignior of Guinea, and of the conquest,
navigation, and commerce of Etiopil [Ethiopia], Arabia, Persia,
and India, inform you that Juao Guago de Andrado wrote me that,
while passing your kingdom on his way to Maluco, as captain of his
galleon, you sent to confer with him about certain things touching my
service. Upon his entering, you communicated to him what I am very
glad to know and for which I give you many thanks and express my
appreciation. I beg that you will do, in regard to the matters that
you discussed with the said Juao Guago, and in regard to other things,
whatever offers itself for my service, and that you send to petition
in my name my governor of Malaca and the southern district, whatever
you may be able to request; and he shall give it to you without delay
and protect your affairs, as is fitting. Given at Evora, March seven,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-three.

_The King_

(This copy was made and copied from the said letter of the said king,
which was found on the river of Borney on the twenty-fourth of the
month of April, one thousand five hundred and seventy-eight. Witnesses,
who saw it compared and collated, were Francisco Pacheco and Alonso

I certify thereto:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary)

That which you, Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa shall observe
on the expedition which you are about to make, God our Lord helping,
is as follows:

From this city and island of Borney, God willing, you shall go to the
islands of Xolo, where you shall endeavor to reduce that chief and
his people to the obedience of his Majesty. You shall bargain with
them as to what tribute they shall pay, which shall be in pearls, as
they are wont to give to the king of Borney. You shall exercise great
care and, if possible, much mildness; for it is of importance that
those islands should not become depopulated; therefore, in case they
receive you peaceably, you shall treat them well. And, in addition to
the above, you must order that, besides the tribute that they are to
pay in pearls, they shall obtain as many of them as possible, so that
we, the Spaniards or Castilians, may buy them; that they must trade
with us from now on; that every year Castilians will go to their lands
with cloths and merchandise from China, of whatever they shall declare
that they may need. You shall inform yourself of their needs; and if
they wish to come to our settlements you shall give them permission
to go freely to Manila and to come to Borney, although not to steal.

_Item_: You shall find out from them the whereabouts of the artillery
and anchors of a ship lost there some three years ago; and you shall
seek it and see that it be brought you with all haste. You shall
keep close watch over the artillery, ammunition, vessels, sails,
and other like things pertaining to the armed fleet; and you shall
deprive them of those supplies, for it is notorious that those people
are common marauders.

And because of my information that the chief who calls himself lord
of Xolo is a Bornean, and owns houses in this city of Borney; that
he fought against us in the naval battle, and that he fled to Xolo,
where he is now; and since I am told that he took two galleys and
three small vessels, artillery, and ammunition--you shall exercise
the utmost despatch to obtain the said galleys, vessels, artillery,
and ammunition. If he acquiesce, you shall give him a passport. You
shall see whether he has any children; and, if so, you shall take one,
and tell him that he must come to see me in Borney in February.

And, as I have said, this must be done if possible gently, in order
that no people may be killed. You shall tell them that it will be
to their advantage to be vassals of his Majesty, and our allies. If
they do not act respectfully, and it shall be necessary to punish
them in another manner, you shall do so. And inasmuch as the Joloans,
as is well known, are open pirates, whose only ambition is to steal,
and to assault men in order to sell them elsewhere--especially as
they go annually for plunder among all the Pintados Islands, which
are under his Majesty's dominion--you shall try to ascertain the
Pintados slaves among them, in order to return such to their homes,
especially those who are Christians. And, as I have said, you shall
deprive them of such vessels as seem to be used for raids, leaving
them their fishing-vessels, so that if the said lord of Jolo so desire,
he can come to confer reasonably with me. Thus you shall ascertain who
has vessels, and who can inflict injuries; and you shall command them
expressly to settle down in their land, to cultivate, sow, and harvest,
develop the pearl industry, and cease to be pirates. You shall order
them to raise fowls and cattle. You shall try to ascertain their
number, and bring it to me in writing, in order that I may see it,
together with the distance from these islands to the Jolo Islands,
information regarding the food, water, and healthfulness of that land,
and other things that may occur to you. And you shall tell the people,
in my name, that they shall tame for me a couple of elephants; and
that I shall send for those animals and pay for them.

After having finished affairs in Xolo, if time permits you shall,
God willing, go to the island of Mindanao. There you shall try,
by the most convenient methods and with friendliness, to reduce the
chief of the river of Bindinao, and the other chiefs of that island,
and of those near by, to the obedience of his Majesty--giving him to
understand what they will gain in becoming his Majesty's vassals and
our allies, and in having trade with us.

And, in order that the tribute may not prevent them from making
peace with us, you shall not ask them for any tribute; but you shall
take what they give freely, and nothing more, and in such form as
they are willing to give. Thus you shall suit their convenience
in everything pertaining to them, and cause them to understand the
great expenses of his Majesty in this land. You shall also tell them
that the gain therefrom affects them chiefly, since we come to teach
them our civilization, and most of all the service of God, our Lord,
who created and redeemed them, and of whom they are ignorant; and how
to live in accord with natural law, as is their obligation. For this
purpose you shall tell them that you are going to their land for two
principal reasons.

The first is that they should cease to be pirates, who rob and harry
the weak, and enslave wherever and whomsoever they can--selling
their captives outside of their own island, and separating them from
their wives and children; and that they must cease to commit other
like cruelties and thefts, and must become good and virtuous men,
who shall grow to merit the second and principal reason for going to
their lands. You shall give them to understand that they are ignorant
of God, our Lord, who created and redeemed them, so that when they know
him they may serve him and become good. It is quite evident that they
will gain very much in these things, and therefore it is right that
they aid us and give us something. This shall be at their own will,
as above said.

_Item_: You shall order them not to admit any more preachers of
the doctrine of Mahoma, since it is evil and false, and that of the
Christians alone is good. And because we have been in these regions so
short a time, the lord of Bindanao has been deceived by the preachers
of Borney, and the people have become Moros. You shall tell him that
our object is that he be converted to Christianity; and that he must
allow us freely to preach the law of the Christians, and the natives
must be allowed to go to hear the preaching and to be converted,
without receiving any harm from the chiefs.

And you shall try to ascertain who are the preachers of the sect of
Mahoma, and shall seize and bring them before me. And you shall burn
or destroy the house where that accursed doctrine has been preached,
and you shall order that it be not rebuilt.

_Item_: You shall order that the Indians shall not go outside of
their island to trade; and you shall seize those vessels used for
plundering excursions, leaving them those which, in your judgment,
are used for trade and fishing. You shall take also what artillery
and ammunition they have.

You shall ascertain the harvest, seasons, and products of the land;
the gold mines, and the places where they wash gold; the number
of inhabitants, and their settlements; and their customs. You
must especially secure information regarding cinnamon, in order to
ascertain if it is found along the river, or if one must go to Cabite
for it, and why it is not as good as that which the Portuguese take to
Castilla. You shall ascertain how they cut and strip it from the tree,
and if it be of importance that it dry on the tree, or in what other
manner it should be treated; for I have been told that that obtained
from these districts in the past has not been good, and has not a
good sale in Espana.

And, since it might happen that the people will not make peace, and
may offer fight, and show disrespect, then you shall punish them as
you deem best, taking special care not to trust them for it is evident
that before all else they will, if possible, commit some treachery. You
must not await such an occasion, for we know already their treachery
against his Majesty's fleet commanded by Villalobos, certain of whose
men they killed under assurances of safety; and they seized a boat. In
that treachery all the inhabitants of the islands were participants;
for four or five thousand of the said natives attacked one small
boat, which contained four or five Spaniards. Likewise many people
took part in the killing of the said Villalobos's master-of-camp,
and other soldiers, in that same year. You shall remind them of these
things, and warn them; for, from now on, we shall destroy them and
their generation.

And since it might happen that, without any occasion of war or peace,
the said natives flee to the mountains, you shall order that certain
of the said natives summon them; and, when they have come, you shall
discuss the matter with them. If they refuse to come, you shall,
in conformity with your orders, remain there a given time. And if
they continue to refuse to come down, you shall leave them, and
shall return, without permitting their houses to be burned or their
palm-trees to be cut down. Neither shall anything be stolen from them;
but you shall take only what is absolutely necessary for food, and
the food and other things necessary to provision your vessels for
the return trip.

You shall try to secure information of the island of Linboton,
as well as of Batachina and Celebes, so as to advise me thereof;
and you shall do this in accord with the time-limit I have set for
you to make this exploration, and you shall observe the same rule as
in that of Mindanao.

In order that we may allot in encomiendas whatever people are found
in these districts, you shall bring me a signed notarial writ. Thus,
as those lands have no other owner, the natives thereof may be reduced
to the obedience of his Majesty, according to his will--and by war,
if the natives begin it, so that war on our part may be just, and that
the same justice may continue, so that we can compel them to obey,
and impose tributes upon them. You shall exercise much diligence
in this and see to it that these orders be carried out carefully
and intelligently.

God willing, I shall be in Borney by the end of the month of January
next--or, at the latest, by the eighth of February--with the fleet and
all the necessaries that must be brought from Manila, and that which
is here. And at that time your Grace shall come to Borney with the
fleet that you have, and with all the people that you have or shall
have in the Pintados, so that we may do here whatever is proper for
the service of his Majesty, to which we are bound. These instructions
must not be disregarded in any point, unless I advise you to the
contrary by letter. And to this end you shall see that all who live
and dwell there be commissioned for the above, in addition to their
other duties. Given at Borney, May twenty-three, one thousand five
hundred and seventy-eight.

If the natives of Mindanao or of any other place shall give tribute
according to the above, you shall act according to the usual custom
in these islands--namely, you shall take one-half and place it to
the account of his Majesty, while the other half shall be distributed
among the soldiers. Given _ut supra_.

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

Before me:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

(I delivered a copy of these instructions to Captain Esteban Rodriguez
de Figueroa, so that he should observe and keep the orders therein
set forth. I certify thereto at this time. Father Fray Martin de Rada,
to whom his Lordship communicated it, said that it was well arranged.

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary)

In the city of Manila, on the fifth day of the month of March,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the said governor,
in order to verify the above, summoned to his presence an Indian,
who through the interpreter Juan Vicente declared himself to be one
Matelin Magat Buxa Amat, a native of Bayan. Without taking the oath,
he promised to tell the truth as far as he knew it, and in what was
asked him. Being asked that he tell and declare who killed Martin,
an Indian who was taking some letters to the king of Borney the past
year, seventy-eight, and the reason therefor, he made the following
declaration and deposition. This witness has resided in the said
island of Borney from childhood, more than forty years. When the said
governor was near the port of the bay of Borney with a fleet, this
witness and many other Moros went, at command of the king of Borney,
to fight with the Spaniards. He noticed that the battle was waged
for some time, for this witness was one of those taken as captain
of a vessel, until he and the other Moros fled. But this witness
did not see the said Martin, who was carrying the said letters,
killed. He knows, however, that a Moro named Sidata killed him with a
dagger-thrust in the neck by order of the said king of Borney. The wife
of this witness buried the said Martin, for he was a relative of this
witness. She buried him in front of the house of this witness where
their relatives are buried. When this witness returned to Borney,
he learned of the said Martin's death, and that he was buried, and
who had killed him. Also this witness found in the prison of the king
of Borney, in the middle of the said river, the other Indian, Magat,
the companion of the said Martin, who had been entrusted with the
said letters. He was a prisoner in the said prison, and had a chain
about his neck, and his hands bound with reeds; and they had taken
from him the gold chains that he wore on his neck. This witness knows
that this said gold was taken by Panguilan Salalila, and afterward the
king took it. The said Panguilan Salalila is the uncle of the king of
Borney. The said Salalila and many other Moros fought in the fleet of
the said king of Borney, in defense of the said port--for instance,
Tumango, the said king's brother, Bandahala, the said king's nephew,
and each man in his own vessel. Being asked what was done to eight
[_sic_] Indians who accompanied the said Indians entrusted with
the said letters, this witness said that he did not know, for he
was always in the fleet, fighting with the Spaniards. Afterward,
inasmuch as the said Magat, who was imprisoned, was his relative,
he went to the said prison to free him, and gave his jailer, by name
Patimuhaurat, a large culverin weighing fifteen arrobas, and pledged
himself to give him four slaves and two taes of gold. Thereupon the
said jailer released the said Magat, and this witness accompanied
him to a Spanish vessel. The said jailer and the other Bornean Moros
fled. Afterward the said jailer returned to Borney, where this witness
saw him deliver the said culverin to the flagship of his Majesty,
by order of his Lordship. After a certain period this witness saw
that the said governor with his fleet went to Manila, whereupon, in
fear lest the said Moros should kill him, he came to this city. This
is what he knows, and his deposition, and contains true answers to
what he has been asked. He knows naught else, and has affirmed and
ratified the above. He appears to be some fifty or so years old. He
did not sign his name.

_Juan Vicente_

Before me:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

[Likewise the deposition of one Amiguicon, a native of Luzon, was
taken. Its essential parts are as follows:]

Being asked how long he had lived in Borney and what he was doing
there, he said, as above, that he is a native of this island of
Lucon and that about fourteen years ago he went to trade in Borney
with property and merchandise. The king of Borney would not let him
come to this city, and refused him permission therefor. Thus he made
cloth for him and served him in war and did whatever offered until
his Lordship came to Borney.

Asked what he was doing in Borney when the said governor went there,
this witness said that, when the said governor arrived at the bay
of Borney, he went out by command of the king of Borney in a galley
with artillery, to fight with his Lordship's vessels. Other galleys
and many soldiers went also. In the galley in charge of this witness
were fifty-four fighting men, and more than thirty rowers. There were
six pieces of artillery, two large ones at the bow and four culverins
at the sides. In the vessel commanded by the son of the old king who
reigns in Borney, by name Soltan Lijar, were twenty pieces, three
large ones in the bow, and the others at the sides. All the said
galleys and other vessels were about fifty in number, and all went
out to fight with the fleet of the said governor. These fifty-four
vessels consisted of galleys and large ships, besides many other
small boats that sailed--sail-boats, _bancas_, and _barangayes_
[27]--all of which fleet was seen by this witness as he set out
for the port where the battle was fought. The said king of Borney
remained in his galley at the mouth of the river, anchored at an islet
called Polocharami. After the Borneans were conquered, they all fled,
as did this witness. After two or three days, this witness and other
Bornean Moros came to the said governor, and begged him to pardon them;
accordingly the said governor granted them pardon.

When this witness was asked whether he had seen an Indian, named
Martin, and another, Magat, a chief of this island, and some six
or seven other Indians who served them as oarsmen, whom the said
governor was sending to the said king of Borney with letters of peace,
and what the said king did, he responded that he did not see the
said messengers, but that he knew that they had gone with letters
from the said governor for the king. This witness knew one of them,
namely, Magat. Because this witness was with the said fleet at the
entrance of the said port, he did not see what passed with the king,
but it is well known that the said king had the said Martin killed,
and the said Magat imprisoned, as well as the other Indians who served
as oarsmen. They brought one of the said Indians, who served as oarsman
(who were from the port of this city [Manila]) to this witness, to be
cured of a wound in the arm that had been inflicted upon him. This
Indian is a slave of Don Agustin, chief of Tondo. The slayer of the
said chief Martin was a Bornean Moro, named Siparardal. The said
Magat was imprisoned, and his gold taken from him, and they wished
to kill him. This witness knows that the said Borneans commenced
the fight first with the Spaniards, firing many artillery-shots at
them. They refused any alliance with the Spaniards; on the contrary,
he saw that they mocked the Spaniards, and told them that they would
all be killed and their fleet seized. Thus this witness saw that they
set about the execution of this; for he was ordered by the said king
of Borney to go out in the said galley to fight with the Spaniards. As
soon as the said Moros were defeated they broke and fled.

_Instructions as to what Captain Don Juan Arce de Sadornil is to
observe in this present expedition to the island and city of Borney,
which belongs to his Majesty_:

The route and navigation, both going and coming, are known, and you
have a pilot. Therefore I shall say nothing more than to warn you not
to disembark on any of the islands, unless forced to by necessity, and
then with a force of men, so that the natives may commit no treason.

When you reach the island of Borney in the district of [illegible
words in MS.]--the place to which Captain Esteban Rodriguez went
for _contrayerva,_ [28] and the people engaged in trade and gave
information as to the condition of Borney--where, they tell me, is
the _panguilan_ [29] Maraxa de Raxa, you shall halt at that coast to
see if he is there, which you will ascertain from such Moro vessels
as you will meet before reaching that place. And finding him there,
you will give him my letter. You will ascertain from him the condition
of affairs in Borney; the whereabouts of Soltan Lijar, and what he
intends to do; whether Portuguese have gone thither, and if they are
still there; and other things which may seem proper to you.

You are already aware that I left as commander in Borney the
panguilan Maraxa de Raxa, and that I gave him a letter of assurance
and friendship, and another to the panguilan Salalila; you must
observe all friendship toward them.

As soon as you have arrived, you must confer with the panguinals
[_sc._ panguilans]; you shall ascertain from some Indians whether
the king of Borney has returned, and his condition, and that of the
settlement. If these panguilans tell your Grace that you should not
go to [the port of] Borney, but should remain where you are, and
that they are going to talk to the king--or whatever other reasons
they may adduce, your Grace will tell them that you are ordered to
anchor at the island of Mohala, where the battle occurred, and that
your Grace will await them there for conference; and your Grace will
tell them that they should read my letters to the king. And, if it
seems advisable to your Grace, you shall write to the king, briefly,
telling him of the firm friendship that he will receive from me, and
the great advantage that will undoubtedly accrue to him in becoming
a vassal of his Majesty, the king, our sovereign.

If the said panguilans do not appear, then your Grace will continue
your voyage and anchor at the above-named place. You shall send
my letters to Borney, with the following order. If either one of
the panguilans is dead or absent, the letters shall be given to the
other. If neither is found there, the letters shall be given to the
king; if he is not there, then to the most influential man; and your
Grace shall write him that he advise you speedily, and assign him
a certain limit of time for the answer. Should you be informed that
Raxayro, king of Xolo, is there, you shall write him also, observing
the same order as the above.

You shall request from the king of Borney that he render obedience
to his Majesty, King Don Ffelipe, our sovereign, king of Castilla
and Leon; that he promise to observe it faithfully, as his vassal,
and that he serve him in peace and in war in this land wherever his
Majesty commands. If he does this, then I shall pardon him for his want
of respect and his crime of last year, when he killed my ambassador,
and commenced to wage war upon us, although we offered him good terms
of peace.

_Item_: In acknowledgment of this subjection, he shall pay tribute
to his Majesty, to consist of camphor, galleys, or other products
of that land, and in the quantity not agreed upon with him, but
to his pleasure--until his Majesty and I, in his royal name, order
the contrary.

He shall promise not to receive pirates in that land, and that he will
not despatch plundering expeditions anywhere, nor permit any slaves to
be taken from among the natives to China, or to the Portuguese, or to
any other place, telling him that that island is depopulated thereby.

_Item_: That each year the king of Borney and his successors send
one or two vessels to this city to bring the tribute and to trade.

_Item_: That when I agree to settle in that island, he shall go to
the place selected, with his people, or send there, and build houses
and whatever else is necessary for the settlement, those who work at
this to receive pay. In exchange for this, you will tell him the great
advantages that will accrue to him from our alliance: that his Majesty
will show him favor; and that, if he has any enemy who undertakes to
war upon him, I shall defend him, and shall send thither the fleet
of his Majesty, if he advise me of such need.

_Item_. If the said king declares that he will flee to the mountains,
and refuses to come to confer with you, and shall not render obedience,
then you shall try to remove his fear. If he shall persist in this,
then you shall leave him without doing him any harm, telling him to
send to me here, with letters, a Moro chief for conference with me.

If the king do not appear, and the city is inhabited, you shall treat
concerning these matters with the most influential person there,
in accordance with the above.

In order to send this message, you are taking Bornean Moros, to
despatch them two by two. Everything that passes must be in writing
and attested by a notary. You likewise have a letter from the daughter
of the panguilan Salalila, telling the Borneans what good treatment
I have accorded to the captives here, and how happy she is.

After having despatched what pertains to the above, you shall
investigate the river of Tamaran. Without doing them any hurt, you
shall summon that people, and examine the location of their land, and
ascertain whether we can settle there; also the depth of the river,
and the number of inhabitants. You shall decide with them about the
tribute they are to pay; and, even if they do not pay any, or pay but
little, you shall do them no harm. After examining the river of Baran,
you shall return to this city as soon as possible.

If there are any Portuguese in Borney, or any should come while your
Grace is there, your Grace shall give them a hospitable reception. You
shall ascertain from them both the condition of their affairs and as
much else as you are able. If they commence to show any disrespect
or hostility, then your Grace will try with the utmost diligence to
secure the victory. In no other circumstances shall you wage war with
them. And should you come to hostilities with them, your Grace shall
bring what they have to this city.

Even if the king of Borney should be fortified and have repaired
his forts in Polocharami and Panigaran, your Grace will take
no notice of that, but transact your business in accordance with
your orders. Therefore your Grace shall in no wise fight, unless he
commences it, as upon the other occasion. Then your Grace shall take
what steps are necessary, since the thing is forced on you.

Your Grace shall see to it that your fleet of vessels remain together;
and if any of them become separated in crossing the wide expanses of
water in your course, you shall give orders where it shall meet you,
so that all may be kept in order. In case you have to fight, you shall
put the ship from Castilla in the front, and the others shall aid it,
and, being lighter, can be used better for pursuit.

You shall exercise great care in regard to the musketeers, and put
them in charge of an experienced man, and let opportunity be given
them to advance.

_Item_: You shall exercise care, so that, if the Bornean galleys take
the lead, they shall not separate from the Castilian galley and the
Neapolitan fragata; likewise that the latter does not separate from
the Castilian galley.

_Item_: You shall see to it that the Spaniards do not kill or steal
any cow (for there are but few), so that the king of Borney make
no complaint.

There are cows in Borney and in Mohala, in the island of
Bencoraco. Notice shall be given among your people, so that these
beasts may be preserved; in the river of Tabaron, where I have said
that you must go, the men may kill swine and deer, if necessity arise,
for there are many of these animals there.

_Item_: You shall not allow any slave, male or female, to be taken. You
shall exercise great care in this, imposing the penalty of death
on whomsoever shall steal them; and even should the natives wish
to sell slaves [30] the Spaniards shall not buy them, if they are
natives of the same island. Given at Manila, February twenty-eight,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

By order of his Lordship:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

In the flagship "Espiritu Santo," on the fourth day of the month of
March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious
Captain Don Juan Arce de Sadornil said that, inasmuch as he is not
taking a notary of his Majesty or a notary-public for the negotiations
and legal proceedings that may arise in this voyage in the said galley
and the other vessels of the said fleet despatched this year to the
kingdom of Borney, before whom the said proceedings and negotiations
may be executed, in order that they may attest what happens; and
inasmuch as it is necessary for his Majesty's service to appoint a
skilful person to the said office: therefore, with entire confidence in
the character and capability of Manuel de Caceres, and feeling certain
that he will therefore fill the said office faithfully, in that manner
and form most suitable to the requirements of the law, he appointed,
and he did appoint, as notary of this said fleet the said Manuel de
Caceres before whom shall pass the legal proceedings, suits, and other
negotiations that shall occur, and he shall attest them as notary. I,
the said Manuel de Caceres, being present, accept it, and swear before
God, our Lord, and on the sign of the cross--which I do with my right
hand--to exercise precisely, faithfully, and legally, the said office
of notary in the negotiations and proceedings which shall take place
before me, and to keep secret whatever is necessary, under penalty
of falling into the lowest infamy and perjury, and of being punished
according to law. Witnesses are Andres de la Tubilla, Juan de Yepes,
Sergeant Cristoval de Arqueta, and Don Juan Arce. Before me:

_Manuel Caceres_, notary-elect

In the galley "Espiritu Santo," belonging to his Majesty, while it
was anchored at the port of Mohala, in the island and kingdom of
Borney, on the twentieth of March, one thousand five hundred and
seventy-nine, in the presence of me, the notary, and the undersigned
witnesses, the illustrious captain Juan de Arce Sadornil declared that,
inasmuch as his Grace came by order of the very illustrious Doctor
Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general for his Majesty in
these Western Islands, to this said river, to see whether the said
natives of the said river and city of Borney were settled, as they
were when subdued by force of arms by the said governor, and when he
left them for the city of Manila; and to see whether Soltan Lixar,
king of Borneo, had returned to his former village, and what was
become of him, and what persons might be present in his stead; and
that by all good methods he [Sadornil] should calm and pacify them,
and give them the governor's letters; and do other things set down
clearly and ordered by the instructions given by his Lordship; and,
inasmuch as the said captain had come to this said port of Mohala, but
has been unable to have any intercourse in regard to the above matters,
as the said governor orders, although he has tried and done his utmost,
and in the manner which his Lordship orders by his instruction;
and inasmuch as, having arrived at this said port on this said day,
and having seen many vessels leave the said port of Borney--which,
although he awaited them and cast anchor for this purpose, never came
to him so that he could hold communication with them, in order that the
said Bornean Moros might become quiet and learn his Majesty's purpose,
and that of his Lordship and of his captain in his royal name--to wit,
that I am not to do them harm or annoy them, but on the contrary to
protect and defend them; and that they might know the true God and the
true pathway of salvation: therefore the said captain summoned to his
presence Sipopat and Esin, Bornean Moros, whom his Lordship took to
Manila last year. The said captain has brought them for this purpose,
and given them to understand the above through the said Francisco
Magat; and he delivered to them two letters from the said governor,
written in our language and translated into the Bornean language, and
signed with his name--one for the panguilan Marraxa de Raxa, and the
other for the panguilan Salalila. He also gave them two other letters
in the Bornean tongue for the said Salalila, which were written by
his daughter and son-in-law in the city of Manila. The said Sipopat
and Esin went to the said captain to take the said letters and to
hear the message imparted to them by the said captain. They were
to return with the answer that would be given them in the river of
Borney. All of which, I, the said notary, attest, together with the
witnesses present, to wit, Father Baltasar de Miranda, ecclesiastical
presbyter, Ensign Salvador de Sequera, Sergeant Cristoval de Arqueta,
Luis Briceno, Bartolome de Tapia. And the said captain signed it.

_Don Juan de Arce_

Before me:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

In the port of Mohala, in the kingdom of Borney, on the twenty-first
day of the month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine,
the illustrious Don Juan de Arce summoned to his presence the captain
and pilot of a Chinese ship, which was anchored in the said port, each
one of them alone; and before me, the said notary, through the Moro
Simagat, an interpreter of the Sangley [_i.e._, Chinese] and Spanish
tongues, questioned them on the condition of affairs in the land, and
whether the king Soltan Lixar had returned to his former settlement;
and in regard to the panguilans Maraxa de Raxa and Salalila, and other
matters pertaining to the service of his Majesty. They answered that
they had entered the said port three days ago; that upon this said
day the king and his people had received news of the coming of the
Spaniards; and that the king of Borney had ordered them to enter the
said river with another Chinese vessel there. But they refused because
they did not know what would happen to them. From that time, when night
came they began to annoy them with their small boats and conpites. They
said that the king Soltan Lijar was in Borney, and that the panguilan
Salalila had died by some disease. They had heard, from the fishermen
who came to their boat to sell fish, that the king had a fort up the
river where he had placed the women and the food-supplies of the city
when he heard of our coming. The said fishermen told them that the
king had ordered a quantity of poison to be thrown into the water,
in order to kill the people. They had heard even that the death of the
said Salalila happened thus. They knew naught else, for they were come
hither but recently. This is the truth, and they know naught else. I,
the present notary, attest the same; and the said interpreter Simagat,
as well as the said captain, signed it.

_Don Juan de Arce_

Before me:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

And after the above events, on the twenty-second day of the month
of March, of the said year, in the presence of me, the said notary,
and the witnesses who here signed, appeared the said Moros Sipopat
and Esin, whom his Grace had sent to the said city of Borney. They
brought a paper written in Bornean, which they said was given them
by the king, Soltan Lijar. They declared that the said king had
received the letters addressed to the said panguilans Maraxa de Raxa
and Salalila, as the said Salalila was dead, and Maraxa de Raxa had
gone to the river of Saragua. The king said that he wished alliance
with the said captain, and therefore sent that written letter,
in which he says the same thing. He wrote it so that the Spaniards
might believe it. Likewise he had sent two caracoas, which came in
care of the above-named envoys. And I, the said notary, and many
others saw these boats. They came flying white flags, and anchored
near our fleet. From there they sent the said Moros, our messengers,
in a _baroto_. [31] All of the above was interpreted by Simaguat, Moro
interpreter of the said language. The said captain having seen this,
and because he had no one who could read the letter, gave a verbal
response to the said Moros, through Simagat, ordering them to tell
the king that he had no one who knew how to read and write the said
Bornean language, and for this reason he did not write to him. He said
that the wish of the said governor, and his own through the former's
order, was that the king should become our ally, and recognize as
seignior the king of Castilla, our sovereign; and that he should come
to treat with the said captain, or send one of his chiefs, so that the
latter might discuss the matter, since this was so desirable for his
tranquillity and his honor. Thereupon he ordered the messengers to be
despatched. The witnesses present were Luis Briseno, Alonso Locano,
Bartolome de Tapia, and many other persons.

_Don Juan Arce_

I attest the above:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

Thereupon on this said day, month, and year abovementioned, a Moro
whom the said captain said he knew last year as a slave of the
panguilan Salalila, appeared then before the said captain Don Juan
de Arce. The said Moro said that he was the abovementioned person,
and that he had come into the possession of the king through the
death of his master. The king treated him badly; and, as soon as
he knew that the Spaniards were in this port, he came to them. Then
the said captain, through the said Simagat, ordered the said Moro to
be questioned about the death of the said Salalila, his master; the
whereabouts of the panguilan Maraja de Raxa; whether the king, Soltan
Lijar, was in Borney; where he had hidden when the very illustrious
Doctor Francisco de Sande, the governor, was here last year; whether
the said king was fortified; what artillery and provisions he had;
and what he was now doing. This witness replied that his name was
Sisian, and that he was a native of Sian. He came to this kingdom of
Borney with his mother, and had always been the slave of the panguilan
Maraxa de Raxa, and served the said Salalila likewise when occasion
offered. After the said governor went to Manila, this Indian served
the said Salalila the entire time. He saw that, some days after the
said Maraxa de Raxa had despatched advice that the Spaniards had gone,
King Soltan Lijar came to his settlement of Borney with about fifty
vessels, large and small--among them being a galley of Manrijar in
which was the body of the old king, his father, who had died at Baran,
a few days before, from a disease. They buried him with solemnity in
the river of Borney. With the said Soltan Lijar came the _vandaran_,
who serves as steward and treasurer, and the _tumangan_, or chief
justice, the panguilan Salam, and others. As soon as he entered the
river, the other persons and panguilans who were fugitives outside
the city began to return. The king began to collect all his artillery,
and has collected by this time about two hundred pieces. He summoned
all his Bisayan and Moro allies in order to build a fort, which he
has built up the river, from palm-trees four brazas high. He placed
there all his artillery, wives, food, and provisions, as soon as he
heard of our coming. Only the men stayed on the river, keeping close
watch. As to the death of his master, as soon as the king had come,
he asked Salalila why he had married his daughter to Don Agustin,
chief of Tondo in the city of Manila, who had come to this said river
with the said governor. He said that Salalila replied that he had
done it for fear, and to please the Spaniards. Thereupon the king
dissimulated until, after a month, there came a large galleon and a
galley of Portuguese, who negotiated by letters and in person with
the king, and went up to the city and traded about a hundred slaves,
wax, and other goods. At the end of ten days the Portuguese left for
Maluco; and three days after Salalila was dead, from a sickness that
lasted less than half a day. It was a sudden looseness of the bowels,
which proved so severe that, on getting up to ease himself, he fell
dead. It was rumored among the people that the king had ordered him
to be poisoned; but so great was the fear of the said king that no
one dared to discuss it. It is now five months since the said Maraxa
de Raxa left the city of Borney with two caracoas. This witness has
heard it said that the king sent him to Tolobaran, and to all the
other rivers as far as Saragua, in order to look for a good location in
which to settle with all his people in a strong and well-provisioned
place; and he has not returned. He knows nothing more of this. After
the death of the said Salalila, the king took all his property and
slaves, among the latter this witness. Because he was very tired and
worn out in making the fort which he has mentioned, and in cutting
wood for another fort, which the king intended to build on the site
where the said governor had settled near the mosque, this witness
resolved to flee to the Spaniards, in order to go to the city of
Manila to the daughter of the panguilan Salalila, his master. When
asked how many Portuguese vessels came, and if this witness saw them,
and if he went to them, he answered that he had gone to them many times
with his master; that they were in a ship of deep draught and a large
Castilian galley; that the galley was much larger than this flagship;
that it carried ninety men and three large pieces at the bow, and
falcons at the stern. The large ship carried one hundred Portuguese,
eight large pieces, and many culverins. The crew of the galley,
or rowers, were chained, and the galley was in poor condition from
storms that it had suffered. In this port a mast and other equipment
were made. And in regard to what he knows touching the hiding-place
of the king during his Lordship's stay in this river, he says that
it was well-known that he was in a river of Bisayas in the province
of Malanao, near to Saragua. This is all that he can tell and no
more. This his deposition being read, he declared it true. By his
appearance his age must be about forty years. The said captain signed
the above in the presence of many witnesses.

_Don Juan Arce_ Before me:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

After the above events, in the said port, this said day, month, and
year aforesaid, the illustrious Captain Don Juan Arce de Sadornil
ordered certain soldiers, before me, the present notary, and the
witnesses here signed, to go in the Neapolitan frigate in pursuit of
a Bornean sail which passed near the flagship, flying a white flag
of peace, to take the Indians who were in the said vessel, and bring
them before his Grace, in order that they might talk with them, and
learn what had happened in the city of Borney, so that he might take
action more intelligently. In obedience to the said captain's order,
the said soldiers went and executed the above-mentioned command, and
captured a tapaque, with seven Indians. These men, when asked of what
place they were native, and whether they were _amaguas_ and slaves,
and whence they were coming, answered through the said Simagat that
they were natives of Borney and slaves of King Soltan Lijar, and that
they were coming from the river of Baran to buy food. Questioned
about the panguilans Salalila and Maraxa de Raxa, and the others,
they said that the said Salalila had died from his illness, and
that the said Maraxa de Raxa had gone to the said river of Saragua,
they knew not why. Questioned as to where the king was, what he was
doing, and where he was living, and if he had a fortress, and where
they said that at the river above Borney he had built a fort of tall
palm-trees; that he was trying to build another in the city, near the
mosque; that he was in the city, and was living in the houses there,
which are usually of straw. They had heard that the said king had
collected two hundred pieces of artillery, counting large and small
pieces, but that he lacked ammunition. He had repaired a vessel--the
one brought by the said captain from Saragua last year--to send it
to the kingdom of Sian for artillery. Not long after the departure
hence of the governor, they had seen a deep-draught vessel and a
large galley at the said city and river of Borney, with people and
artillery. They had learned from others that they were Portuguese, and
that they conferred with the king of Borney, and then went away. They
knew nothing else. When questioned whether any among them knew how
to write, they answered that two of them knew how. Each one of them
singly interpreted the paper sent by the said King Soltan to the
said captain. Translated into our language through the interpreters,
the said Simagat and Sitales, this letter was as follows.

_Letter of King Soltan_

I, Soltan Lijar, King of Borney, received the letters from Captain
Don Juan to Maraxa de Raxa and the panguilan Salalila, because of the
absence of the panguilan Maraxa de Raxa, and the death of Salalila,
who died from illness. If Captain Don Juan wishes my friendship,
I will be his friend, for I am willing to be such.

Then the said captain wrote a letter, which through the agency of
Alonso Buytrago and the said interpreters was translated into the
Bornean language and characters. After treating the said Indians
hospitably, he ordered them to give the letter to the said king, and
despatched them. I, the said notary, attest all the above. Witnesses
are Ensign Salvador de Sequera, Sergeant Cristoval de Arqueta,
Bartolome de Tapia, and others.

_Don Juan Arce_

Before me:

_Manuel Caceres_, notary

On this said day, he immediately sent this letter to the said king, by
means of the said Indians, in the presence of me, the notary, and the
witnesses herein signed. The tenor of this letter is as follows, and
was translated, as above said, into their language, by the aforesaid.

Noble and honorable king of Borney:

I, Captain Juan, received a letter from your Majesty, by which I was
informed that the letters which I had sent to the panguilan Salalila
and Maraxa de Raxa had been received by your Majesty, because of
the death of Salalila, and the absence of the other. I was very glad
thereat, and to learn, as I did, that your Majesty was in this kingdom,
rebuilding your so ancient and noble city, which is a token that you
wish to live in tranquillity and honor, as now is shown. Your Majesty
wished to take up arms last year, and, like a man without common sense,
to make war on one who did not make war. The governor, Don Francisco
de Sande, captain-general of our people, and of all these islands,
on the contrary, had only a desire for the friendship of your Majesty
and your people. It was God's will, therefore, that you be conquered;
and, contrary to our intention, your town was destroyed. This was very
little damage compared to the advantage that you would derive from
becoming vassals of his Majesty, the king of Castilla, our sovereign,
and the ally of the Castilians in this land; and from your people
trading in peace throughout all this land, both with Spaniards and
with the Moros of Manila, Balayan, Bonbon, Mindoro, Cubu, and any
other district, so that the Borneans will become very rich and make
great profits. If your Majesty makes an alliance with us, it is quite
certain that you will find good friends in us--and so much so, that
if any other king should molest you and you should have need of aid,
the said governor will send his galleys and fleet to protect your
Majesty, as if he were offering aid to our own Spaniards. If your
Majesty refuses our alliance, then will ensue much harm, for you
will never sleep secure in your bed. Neither will your vassals live
in ease. The Spaniards are so brave and so daring that they regard
fighting and dangers as a repast. Instead of thus offending them,
I request you urgently that you should take good counsel as to what
you should do, and quickly; so that, if you wish to make peace with
me here, we may confer any time tomorrow. Or you may appoint a chief
who will bear your letter of credit and authorization to treat, in
your name, concerning what is necessary. If not, then I shall not be
able to prevent certain damage that my people will commit, although my
governor orders me not to commit any damage; and, to obey his order,
I anchored in this port of Mohala. I shall stay here until I receive
word as to your intentions, until the said time expires. And now,
because I am told that your Majesty is a sensible man, and will study
my reasons carefully, as is fitting, I shall say no more. May God give
you much health, and grace that you may know Him. Written at Mohala,
in his Majesty's flagship.

(This said letter was translated, and sent in the form and manner
abovesaid, witnesses being Luis Briceno, Alonso Locano, Bartolome
Tapia, and other persons. I, the above-named notary, attest the same,
which is drawn in the said galley in the said port, on the twenty-third
day of the month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

I attest it:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

In the said port, on the said day, the twenty-third of March, of
the said year, the Indians Sipopot and Esin returned before the
said captain and in their keeping were the said two caracoas. They
anchored near by, and stated, through the said interpreters, that the
said king declared that he would come next day to confer with the said
captain. He would not come to his fleet, however, but on the coast of
this said island, where each one would land with five or ten men, an
equal number of Borneans and of Spaniards. They would treat for peace
and of whatever else was fitting. The said Spaniards should not come
in coats-of-mail, since they were to treat of peace. The said captain
answered that he would be very glad to meet him as he proposed, and
that he should come next morning. And if he did not come that day,
then he would know that his reasons were only pretense, and that he
was putting him off with words. Thereupon he sent the said Indians
together with those who took the letter above set forth; and I,
the said notary, testified thereto. Witnesses were Pablo Granado,
Andres de la Tubilla, Alonso Lozano, and many others.

_Don Juan Arce_

I certify thereto:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

And after all the above events in the said port of Mohala, in the said
galley "Espiritu Santo," on the twenty-fifth day of the month of March,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious Captain
Don Juan Arce summoned to his presence Ensign Francisco Rodriguez,
Ensign Salvador de Sequera, Ensign Pedro de Salasar, and Sergeants
Bartolome de Tapia, Cristoval de Arqueta, Antonio Canedo, Francisco
de Ribera, Melchior de Villanueva, Alonso Locano, Juan de Chavarria,
Luis Briceno, Cristoval Xuares, Baltasar de Bustamente, Juan de la
Feria, Juan de Yepes, and Antonio Sanchez, for this purpose having
ordered the rally sounded by trumpet. When these had come and with
them the other persons and soldiers whom he wished to be present,
the said captain took the instructions for this expedition given
him by the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and
captain-general for his Majesty in these Western Islands, and auditor
of his royal Audiencia of Mexico, and ordered it to be read publicly
in the presence of the above-named persons. When it had been read
and heard publicly by all, the said captain told them his reason for
summoning them together to hear the said instructions--namely, that
they might know that King Soltan had broken his word given two or
three days previously. He said that he would come to treat with the
said captain; and he had not sent messengers to excuse his inability
to come, nor had he done anything else. Therefore it was proved that
he had entertained them with promises, in order that he might collect
and place in his fort the rest of his property. Especially was this
proved more conclusively, for on this said day no fishermen had come,
as was their usual custom, to the fleet to trade their fish. However
they had come near to get their nets and a sort of weir with which they
are wont to catch fish. And although the captain wished to enter the
city and river of Borney, he did not dare to do so, in order not to
violate the order of the said governor; for he had heard that they
would not neglect to station some scout-boats in Borney with some
culverins and artillery, and that they would fire at us, and then take
flight to the fort which was reported to have been built. Not being
able to pursue them or attack them, because of having no commission
for it, meant that he would suffer in estimation and lose reputation
among them. This did not appear desirable to him, so he resolved to
send some soldiers in a light vessel next day, with orders only to
see whether they had the said fort, or had commenced to build it,
in the islets of Polocelemin [32] and Pangaran, in order to advise
his Lordship concerning it. He resolved to wait several days, in order
to make other inquiries, as he should consider best. The captain told
all those present that they should examine this resolve to see whether
it was proper. If any other thing could be done or ought to be done,
more befitting his Majesty's service and that of the said governor in
his royal name, he requested them to tell him; for if their advice was
good he would accept and act upon it willingly. All of the above-named
answered--not excepting any point--that nothing better could be done;
that it was very well considered and ordained; that he should carry
out his plan for the examination of the said islets in order to
give his Lordship an account of them; and that, with this and the
inquiries made by his Grace, he would have done everything to which
his commission obliged him. And it was not at all fitting to give the
Moros any opportunity to say that we came back to make war upon them,
especially without the orders of his Lordship. I, the present notary,
attest all the above, which occurred as set down above, witnesses
being Father Baltasar de Miranda, Juan de Santiago, Pedro Granado,
the above-named. The said captain and the other witnesses signed the
same with their names.

_Don Juan de Arce_
_Pedro Granado de Aguero_

_Baltasar de Miranda_
_Juan de Santiago_

Before me, and I attest the same:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

I, Manuel de Caceres, notary, appointed by the illustrious Captain
Juan de Arce Sadornil in this expedition made this present year to
the kingdom of Borney, hereby attest to all that see this present,
that from certain enclosures with nets, that are wont to be set near
this fleet, certain Moros with their boats were wont to come hither
to trade their fish. As we paid them and gave them good treatment,
they returned, and thus they were wont to do. On this day more boats
coming to the said enclosures, they drew up their nets, went away
and did not bring us any fish, nor did they appear, nor do we know
why they do not come. This argues the suspicion that their king or
some one else has summoned them. At the request of the said captain,
I give this present, so that what is done in the galley "Espiritu
Santo," in the said port of Mohala, on the twenty-fifth day of the
month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, may
be evident. Witnesses of the above are Anton Sanchez, Baltasar de
Bustamente, Juan de Santiago, and other persons.

I attest the same:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

In the port of Mohala, on the twenty-sixth day of the month of March,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the said captain, in
observance of the above decision, in the presence of me, the notary,
and the witnesses hereunto signed, ordered Ensign Salvador de Sequera,
accompanied by the men assigned to him, to embark in the Neapolitan
fragata belonging to this fleet, in order to go to the islets of
Polocelemin and Paingaran, in order to see whether the natives had
constructed any fort, after the departure of the said governor to
the city of Manila. When this was done, he should return without
going elsewhere; and if he met Moro bancas and vessels, he should
fly white flags in token of peace. He was ordered to try to open
conversation with them; and, even if the said vessels were to fire
some artillery, the said ensign and his companions were not to answer
them. On the contrary, they were to fly the said white flag of peace,
and to return to this fleet. Father Baltasar de Miranda and Alonso
Cornejo were witnesses to the above, and the said captain signed it.

_Don Juan Arce_

Before me:

_Manuel Caceres_, notary

After the above events, in the said month and year abovesaid, in the
said galley, the said captain having ordered three soldiers in a light
boat, one hour before dawn, to try to talk with some Indians, and,
if possible, obtain information regarding the king, of the condition
of his affairs, and other necessary things; and having brought the
Bornean Indians prisoners, the said captain summoned each of them
to his presence. Through the agency of the interpreter Sitahel, they
were asked where the king and his people were, and what was decided
upon. The first said his name was Usman, and that he was a native of
this island of Mohala. The second day after the arrival of our fleet
at this port, some of the king's slaves came in bancas, with orders
that all the people should assemble up the river. This witness asked
a slave of the said king where the latter was, to which the slave
answered that on that day he was going to retire to the fort, where
already were the women, artillery, provisions, and other things. He
was to leave the tumangan and bandara in the city, so that these men
might have ordinarily two or three scout-boats with artillery at the
bar; if the Spaniards resolved upon going up the river or to enter it,
they should flee to the fort. This witness went also the next day to
the settlement of Borney, and found that the king had gone to the
said fort, and that the said tumangan and the bandara were in the
city. When asked why he did not go to the fort as did the others, he
replied that, because he did not find his mantelin who is a person
holding the office of captain and sergeant, with forty men under
him--in Borney, and learned that he was outside of the bar, he was
coming in search of him. When asked how many Portuguese vessels had
passed there during the last vendabals, and what forts King Soltan has
built or intends to build, he said that two vessels had passed--one
of deep draught and a galley--and that they had traded as usual with
the Borneans. The Portuguese went to the settlement, and the Borneans
went to the vessels. In regard to the forts, the king had built one
up the river where the people are gathered. It is named Talin, and
is made of palm-trees three or four estados high. They are now busy
constructing a mosque. This witness had heard that as soon as the said
mosque was completed, galleys would be begun in the ship-yard. There
was no fort at Paingaran. There is nothing else; and, the same being
read, he declared it true. He appeared to be about thirty-three or
thirty-four years of age. The said captain signed the above.

_Don Juan Arce_

Before me:
_Manuel Caceres_, notary

[The deposition of another Moro follows, being in substance the same
as the above, with a slight addition in regard to the panguilans
Maraxa de Raxa and Salalila, which is similar to other testimonies
concerning them.]

Then immediately, upon this said day, month, and year aforesaid, the
said ensign, Salvador de Sequera, the ensign, Francisco Rodriguez,
and the others who went in the said fragata as above said, to the said
islets of Polocelemin and Paingaran, returned to the said captain. They
said that, as they went upon this errand in accordance with his Grace's
orders, they met nine ships and some caracoas. As soon as these saw
these vessels, they flew their white flag as a token of friendship,
in order that the others should come to talk with them. But these
ships refused to come, and fired some artillery at them. The said
ensigns having witnessed this, the said Salvador de Sequera requested
me, the present notary, to attest it, so that if might appear in the
records. In response to his request I gave the present signed with my
name. Then the said ensigns returned, without doing anything else than
to make the said signs of peace. The natives refusing, as above said,
to come, but on the contrary persisting in discharging their artillery,
they returned, and declared this before the said captain and myself,
the present notary. They signed the above with their names, as did
also the said captain.

_Don Juan de Arce_

_Francisco de Rodriguez_

_Salvador de Sequera_

Before me, and I certify thereto:
_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

Then in the said galley on this said day, month, and year above
stated, the said captain, before me, the undersigned notary, summoned
before his Grace, the said Usman, Amat, and two other youths, all
Borneans. Through the mouth of the above-mentioned Sitahel, they
were instructed that they should tell King Soltan, the tumangan, the
vandara, and the other chiefs, that the said captain did not intend
to enter the river, nor begin hostilities against him--although he
had not kept his word and had tried to injure his men--because the
said governor did not wish any harm to be done them, nor that they
and their town should be destroyed, but desired his friendship. For
this reason he ordered that he [Sadornil] should not attack them,
or enter his settlement, or do them any injury, under pain of being
beheaded. Although the men brought by the said captain had seen
his rudeness, and were desirous to retaliate, he had not consented
thereto; nor had his Grace desired such a thing, that he might not
exceed the orders of the said governor. Likewise they were to tell
the said king and the others that, since peace with the said governor
was so advisable, they should send a ship to confer and a person to
treat concerning the said peace. If they would come, the said captain
would wait two more days for them. Then returning to these men their
weapons and vanca, and presenting them gifts and food, and showing
them other good treatment, he let them go freely. They left, and I,
the present notary, certify thereto--Juan de Santiago, Pedro Granado,
and Sergeant Cristoval de Arqueta, being witnesses.

_Don Juan de Arce_

Before me:

_Manuel Caceres_, notary

In the said galley, "Espiritu Santo," on the twenty-eighth day of the
month of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the said
captain--having seen that the last Borneans sent as messengers by his
Grace, on the twenty-third of this present month, did not return,
but that, on the contrary, the above affair of Ensign Sequera had
happened, who went to reconnoiter the island of Polocelemin; and that
also no answer had been returned by the Indians despatched on the
twenty-fifth of the same month; and that the said Borneans, yesterday,
the twenty-seventh of this said month, came with ten or eleven vessels
very near this fleet, and when Ensign Francisco Rodriguez met them with
a white flag and without arms, the said Borneans without any shame came
leisurely to him, beckoning him with the hand, and then forced him
to retreat. He gave an account of this to the said captain--when his
Grace saw this, and that he could not make war upon the said Borneans,
because of his Lordship's orders to the contrary and because their fort
had been built up the river, where no galley or galleot could sail;
and seeing that some of the reputation until then enjoyed by the
Spaniards might be lost, and that no advantage was accruing to the
service of his Majesty from his stay in this said island of Mohala;
and that the people ran risk of becoming sick, not only from the waters
of that land, but from the rains, the heat of the sun, poor food,
want of exercise, and others difficulties: he ordered sail to be set
in order to return to the city of Manila, and to give an account of
the expedition to his Lordship, the governor. Thus he decreed, and
ordered, and signed it with his name. Witnesses were Father Baltasar
de Miranda, Luis Briceno, Alonso Locano, and many others.

_Don Juan de Arce Sadornil_

Before me:
_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

Most illustrious sire:

In a clause of the instructions given me by your Lordship, you order
me on my return from the river and settlement of Borney, to visit the
river of Taguaran. But because I was informed that the said river
is not navigable by galleys unless at extremely high tide, and to
anchor near the shore meant some risk--for at the present season occur
nightly heavy showers brought by the vendaval--and because the king
is not peaceably inclined, and considering that all the land would
revolt, I concluded that it would be useless for me to go thither,
since the said river of Taguaran is on the way to Borney, so that
any one may very easily ascertain what he wishes. In my opinion,
if we effect a colony in Borney, the Spaniards must live where the
king and the Moros are, in order to keep them under control. In any
other way they will be always unmanageable. Whenever your Lordship
wishes, I shall tell you some reasons that should induce us to make a
settlement in no other place but where the Moros live. Given in this
galley "Espiritu Santo," belonging to his Majesty, on the twenty-ninth
of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

_Don Juan Darce_

By order of his Lordship:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

The order which we must regard and observe in the voyage and navigation
from here to Borney is as follows.

The galleys shall follow the flagship, without preceding it, and at
night they shall be vigilant, both in following the lantern, and
in watching for certain shoals such as are wont to be in the sea,
and for strange ships, as well as all else advisable.

When any galley encounters any danger, and needs help, it shall
discharge a cannon as sign of distress; and all the other ships shall
go to its assistance, to see what has happened.

The Neapolitan vessel shall go as much as possible in advance of the
flagship; and, in case it should come upon any shoal or promontory
that juts out too far, if it be daytime it shall return to give
advice thereof; but if at night, besides turning to give advice,
it shall fire a small piece of its artillery so that we may stop and
take the necessary steps.

If perchance any galley should lose the route through either bad
weather or any other cause not malicious, it shall continue its
voyage to the island of Malaca, where the one arriving first will
await the other.

Should any enemy attack us at sea, with intent to annoy us, the two
Bornean galleys shall go to the flagship--that in charge of Ensign
Francisco Rodriguez on the right, and that in charge of Antonio
Canedo on the left. The Neapolitan ship shall take up a position at
the stern of the flagship, in order to assist in what is ordered.

The vessels shall take care always to anchor near the flagship,
keeping watch over their oars. They shall be alert. From Malaca each
afternoon they shall ask for a watchword, so that, if they meet any
hostile ship, it may be known. A copy of these instructions shall be
given to the other galleys, so that they may keep them. Given on the
seventh of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

_Don Juan Arce_

Before me:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary

The order to be observed at present by the soldiers in this fleet,
while anchored in the port of Mohala, or wherever else, is as follows.

First, although the natives of the river of Borney are peaceful,
they shall buy no slaves who are natives of the island of Borney,
even if the natives wish to sell them. If they wish to buy any slaves
not natives of the said island, they shall not do so, except in my
presence, in order that I may find out his native place, and whether
or no he can be bought.

_Item_: No soldier shall dare to kill any cattle here or in any other
part where they have them, so that the king of Borney and the other
natives may see that we do not come to harass them, but that we wish
their friendship.

_Item_: No soldier shall disembark or go from his ship to take water
or any other thing, except when the flagship takes in water, and
he is summoned. Then the landing shall be effected with great care,
and the commanders of the galleys shall signify what soldiers are to
disembark. They shall be advised not to take any water that is not in a
newly-made well, so that the water may not be poisoned by the natives.

_Item_: All the galleys shall keep close sentinel guard at night, and
shall keep their arms ready. Each night they shall assign a watchword,
and the galleys shall not fire any shot unless compelled by necessity.

_Item_: No one shall dare go to the Sangley ship anchored at this
port, in order to avoid the insults and damage that the soldiers are
wont to inflict on the said Sangleyes. If they need anything, they
shall send their slaves to buy it. They shall in no point infringe
the above regulation, under penalty of punishment to him who shall
act contrary to this, with all the severity allowed by law. In order
that this paper may be manifest to everyone, it shall be read and
proclaimed in all the ships of the fleet, in the presence of the
commanders. Given on the galley "Espiritu Santo," on the twenty-first
of March, one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine.

_Don Juan Arce de Sadornil_

By order of the captain:

_Manuel de Caceres_

(Thereupon, on the said day, month, and year above stated, I, the said
notary, read and proclaimed the decree above set forth, by order of
the captain, to the soldiers of the said galleys, in the presence of
the commanders. They said that they heard and would obey it. Witnesses
were Francisco de la Mesquita, Juan de Santiago, and Pedro Granado.

I attest the same:

_Manuel de Caceres_, notary)

I, Gonzalo de Santiago, notary elect, certify to all who may see
this present, that, on the fourteenth day of the month of June,
one thousand five hundred and seventy-eight, Rahayro, panguilan of
Borney, who calls himself king of Xolo, surrendered himself as a
vassal to his Majesty, King Don Phelipe, king of Castilla and Leon,
for himself and his descendants. In token of recognition and vassalage,
he gave twelve pearls and thirty-five taes of gold for himself and
his vassals, which are the islands of Xolo, Treguima, Camboanga,
Cavite, and Tavitavi, his subjects and vassals. The said Rahayro
bound himself and his descendants from this day to recognize King Don
Felipe, our sovereign, king of Castilla and Leon, and to be subject
to the crown of Castilla and Leon; and as such, he, the above-named,
will give the yearly recognition and tribute which shall be assigned
to him. This said vassalage was made by the said Rahayro, in virtue
of an act of war. The illustrious Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa,
captain of infantry for his Majesty, justified the war on his part. He
had two engagements with the above king, one in the town of Xolo,
and the other at the foot of a large rock in the open field. Having
conquered them, just as he was about to enter their fort the said king
of Xolo came out peacefully and rendered obedience to his Majesty,
as above stated. Therefore I gave the present, so that the above
declaration may stand in the records. Witnesses were Ensign Alonso
Osorio, Sergeant Mateo Sanchez, Alvaro de Angulo, Rodrigo Sanchez,
Luis de Santacruz, Juan Lorenco, Juan Lope de Leon, and many other
soldiers. Therefore I affix here my signature and accustomed flourish,
in testimony of truth. The said captain signed it with his name.

_Esteban Rodriguez_

I certify thereto:

_Gonzalo de Santiago_, notary by appointment

In the city of Manila, on the nineteenth day of the month of April, one
thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, the very illustrious Doctor
Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general for his Majesty
in these Western Islands, and his auditor in the royal Audiencia of
Mexico in Nueva Espana, declared that he has heard that a war-galley
of the king of Portugal was lost on the coast of Mindanao, and in
order to ascertain where it was going, and whose it was, he ordered
to be made, and did make, the following inquiries.

In verification of the abovesaid, the said governor summoned to his
presence a man, who declared his name to be Bartolome Fernandez,
a native of the city of Goa in Yndia. He said that he was there
a freeman, serving as page a Portuguese named Luis Fragoso; and
that he is a baptized Christian. The oath was taken and received
from him before God and the blessed Mary, and on the sign of the
cross, in the form prescribed by law; under which obligation,
being questioned, this witness said that he left the city of Goa,
in Yndia, about a year or so ago, in a galleon called "San Jhosef,"
under Captain Martin Lopez de Sossa, a nobleman. With the said ship
was a merchant ship from Cochin. The said ship "San Jhosef," had
one hundred old Portuguese soldiers, and one hundred others, young
mestizos of that land. It was equipped with twelve large pieces and
certain culverins. The soldiers were armd with arquebuses and other
weapons. This said vessel was despatched to Maluco, by order of the
governor of Yndia, Don Diego de Meneses, and the said Martin Lopez
de Sossa was captain. In Malaca, more of the mestizos of Yndia,
sons of Portuguese, were shipped, to the number of three hundred
men. These with the mestizos brought from Yndia, made somewhere
about five hundred men in the said galleon. A galley of twenty-four
benches accompanied it, each oar being manned with three men. They
carried lead. The galley was old and was given to them in Malaca by
the captain of Malaca, named Arias de Saldeva, who is captain of the
fortress. The captain of the sea is Matias de Alburquerque. Because
of the said Martin Lopez de Sossa falling sick, he remained in Malaca,
very sick; and one of his brothers, Pedro Lopez de Sossa, came in his
place as captain of the said galleon. Another nobleman, Tome de Sossa,
a former page of the said Matias de Alburquerque, captain of the sea,
was made captain of the said galley. This witness was aboard this
galley, in the service of the said Tome de Sossa, who brought this
witness from Yndia to Malaca. Thus the said galleon and galley, with
the people above mentioned (of whom some fifty soldiers were aboard
the galley and the rest aboard the galleon), set sail for Maluco in
the month of August of last year seventy-eight. After sailing for
a week, they anchored at Borney, near the island of Mohala. When
they were there together, a banca with certain Bornean fishermen
came to talk with the people of the ship and the galley. They asked
who they were, and were answered that they were Portuguese. Then the
said Bornean Moros said "We thought that you were Castilians, for we
are expecting them daily to come for tribute." Thereupon they told
them that a fleet of Castilians with many vessels and a multitude of
people had gone there, and fought with them, and had plundered them.

It was current talk among the Portuguese, that they marveled that
the Spaniards would have plundered the Borneans, for they considered
that people as valiant, since they are accustomed to go to Malaca,
Pegu, and other places for the sake of plunder, and Borney was very
strong. Therefore they were surprised that the Castilians had taken
them. They began a song sung by the rowers, which runs: "Borney, peak
above peak in salt water; there you go to eat buyo." [33] This song
they sang because they formerly regarded the Moros as valiant men,
and in jest. The said captain-in-chief sent this witness in this said
fishing-boat, to talk with the king of Borney, because he knew the
Bornean language. With this witness went an inhabitant of Malaca,
one Quenana, a native of Malavar. They took a present to the said
king of Borney; this was a carpet from Conbaya [Camboja]; which was
given to this witness to give to the king of Borney. He found him in
a large house which belonged to the old king. This witness knew this,
for he formerly knew the said old king of that land. The old king is
dead and the said king is his son. He is a tall, fat man, and quite
black. He was seated with many of his relatives, called panguilans,
and his children and brothers. This witness saw and knew the tumango
and mandahala, the panguilan Salalila, and many others. The said
king of Borney was playing chess, seated in a hall with the said
panguilans. This witness bowed low and made the usual obeisance,
gave him the said carpet, and sat down. One of the king's sons said
to this witness, in his own language, that he talked excellently, and
asked him his nationality. This witness told him, and the said king's
son gave him some buyo to chew. He remained with them some time. The
king asked him what the Portuguese wished. This witness replied that
they were on their way to Maluco, and were looking for some slaves
for their galley, and for food. Thereupon the said king of Borney
ordered the vandahala to go to talk with the captain-in-chief in the
galleon. The vandahala went in a small boat with thirty rowers and
two culverins. When he left the king's house for the said vessel, the
said people showed this witness some vireys, saying that they had taken
them in battle from the Spaniards. They said that they had hanged one
Spaniard, and threatened them. They said that the Spaniards had come
in large vessels and with a numerous fleet, whereat they had fled to
the mountains. They did not tell that the Spaniards had seized any
galleys and artillery. The said bandahala went to the said galleon
to talk with the said captain, Pedro Lopez de Sossa. He asked him,
in the name of the king of Borney, to help him fight the Castilians,
who were about to return there for the tribute; and desired them to
remain in the island. If he would winter there, the king of Borney
would pay him as much as he would gain in Maluco. The said Captain
Pedro Lopez answered him that he was about to make investigations in
Maluco, which was in bad condition, and could not remain in Borney. It
was likewise impossible for him to fight with the Castilians, for they
were brothers. If he wished to ask for help, he must send to request
it from the captain of Malaca. Likewise this witness saw two ships
that they were about to send to Malaca. The said bandahala, thereupon,
went to talk with the king. That night a Cafre blacksmith, a Christian,
one Luis, fled from Borney to the Portuguese. He told the said captain,
Pedro Lopez, that the king of Borney had ordered that the Portuguese
who were in Borney at the arrival of the Castilian fleet should be
killed; that the king had robbed them of their possessions, and that
some sailors had fled with the vessel. When the said captain Pedro
Lopez heard this, he was angry at the Borneans, and sent the small
boats to bring men from the galleon (for he was in the galley), saying
that he intended to enter the river to fight the said Borneans. The
next morning the said bandahala tua, that is to say, "old man," came
in a ship. The Borneans brought fowls, sugar, fruits, _tampo_, and
other things, to sell. They brought no presents. The said captain,
Pedro Lopez, seized the said vandahala and about thirty rowers with
him, and put them in the said galley, with the intention of keeping
them prisoners. The said vandahala asserted that they had not killed
the Portuguese, nor robbed them at all. The said captain, Pedro Lopez,
sent the said trader Quenenia to talk to the king, and to ask him why
they had killed those Portuguese. The said king replied that he knew
of no such thing, and that the tanguilans of the mountain had killed
them. Afterward the said captain, Pedro Lopez, said, "Who is deceiving
me in these things among these Moros?" He then set free the Moros,
and left the said trader Quenena, in Borney with a pack containing
seven or eight hundred pieces of cloth, so that he might trade it for
camphor, wax, and tortoise-shell, and then go to Malaca with it in one
of the two ships that I said were about to sail to Malaca. The said
captain bought eight Javanese slaves, and the king presented to him two
more, making a total of ten. Each slave cost ten pieces of _caniqui_
[34] which we valued at three _vardagos_, each _vardago_ being worth
one _patagon_, which this witness thinks is about equivalent to two
Manila tostones. Then weighing anchor they proceeded on their way
to Maluco. The galley anchored at the river of Tabaran to look for
food. They bought there swine and fowls, receiving five fowls for
one piece of _caniqui_. From there they sailed near a large island,
called by them island of Xordan. There a storm with a vendabal
struck them and destroyed the said galley, which was old. It sprang
a leak under the keel, and was driven upon some rocks near Cabite,
at an island near Canboanga. There the said galley was lost with all
its food, artillery, and ammunition. Five Portuguese were drowned,
and two others were killed by the Moros of that land. All the Cafres
and slaves who were chained were drowned. About forty Portuguese
and twelve Cafres escaped. They scattered into different parties,
so that the natives should not kill them. This witness fell into the
power of some natives of Camboanga, who made him prisoner. A Spaniard
brought this witness and others recently, when they came with his
Majesty's spice. However, this witness did not see what became of the
said Spaniards, nor what became of the galleon, except that he heard
that the galleon collected the men in its small boats and finished
its voyage, by taking another tack, as he heard from the natives of
Camboanga. Therefore this witness never saw the said galleon again. He
heard also that the said galleon had broken its mainmast. This is
what he knows, and his deposition. It is the truth, on the oath that
he took. He affirmed and ratified it. When this witness was asked if
he had been in Maluco, and requested to tell what he knew of matters
there, and why so many Portuguese should go there, he declared that
he had heard it stated publicly and openly in Yndia and in Malaca,
and that he heard Diego de Sanbucho, a noble inhabitant of Malaca,
now there, say that the fortress of Maluco, which the Portuguese held
in Terrenate, was lost to them three years ago. For after the death of
Gonzalo Pereyra, who had gone with the Portuguese to fight at Cubu,
and who had died at Maluco after his return there, the noble above
named, Diego de Sanbucho, was captain of Maluco. He found that certain
of the married men had gone to live at Anbon and others to Malaca,
and that they had taken all their cattle and artillery with them in
two galliots, which they now have at Anbon. The cause of the loss of
the said Maluco was the revolt of the said natives and a war because
a Portuguese had killed their king. Immediately the people revolted,
and besieged the Portuguese. They died from hunger, until the survivors
abandoned the fort, going to Anbon, as I have said; only two Dominican
fathers remained. The said inhabitants of Maluco refused to give
cloves to the Portuguese, and sold them to the Javanese, who in turn
sold them at Malaca. The only cloves brought were those of Anbon,
and only one ship-load at that. The Portuguese go to Anbon by way of
Jaba, across from Borney, since Maluco was lost; the present fleet
came by way of Borney. On account of these troubles, it is sailing
straight for Maluco, in order to construct a fort to fight with the
natives. Another galleon, the "San Juan," under Captain Martin Alfonso,
a noble, is in Malaca, and is about to go to Anbon; and it must go
by way of Jaba, opposite the coast of Borney. With the few men whom
it can take, and those whom it can secure at Anbon, it must go with
them all to Maluco to aid the said captain Pedro Lopez to oppose the
inhabitants of Maluco. This witness knows, too, that the Portuguese
captured a son of the king of Maluco, named Don Francisco, whom they
took to Yndia. This witness saw him lately at Malaca. He has heard
that the people of Maluco begged that he be given up, as he is their
king, and that if he is restored they will make peace and surrender
the fortress. With the said Don Francisco are three of his relatives,
one Don Enrique, one Pablo Desa, and the third Jordan de Fletes. Don
Enrique is undahala at Malaca, which is the office of judge among
the natives. The vessel which is going by way of the coast of Jaba to
Anbon must lay in a good supply of food from Xaba. This witness knows
further that a queen of Xaba is at war with the Portuguese; she is
the queen of Xapara. Consequently the Javanese refuse to take food
to Malaca, which is furnished by the king of Pegu. This witness has
heard that the king of Pegu has made dependents of the kings of Sian
and Patan. The Portuguese have war likewise with the king of Bintan,
for the latter married a daughter of the king of Achen who is hostile
to the Portuguese. This witness has been twice in Maluco, and has seen
what he has described. At the entrance to the port is a rampart, and,
farther in, the fort where the said Portuguese live. They have a vault
there in the middle of the court; and, even if the fort be burned,
the court inside is not burned.

When asked what became of the artillery of the galley which was lost
on the coast, he said that the king of Mindanao, who is an old man,
heard of the loss of the said galley there, and went there with forty
vessels, and that the people of Samboanga seized the said artillery,
which they had taken from the galley and took it ashore at the river of
Mindanao. He said that the people of Samboanga burst one piece; and the
Spaniards took it, along with two grappling hooks, and brought it to
this city. All the above is the truth. This witness said also that the
said galley that was lost carried nine pieces of artillery--amidships
a large round swivel-gun; at the bow and along the sides, two large
chambered falcons; at the stern two more; and at the sides four
culverins, two on each side. The chief of Taguima took two culverins,
and the king of Mindanao took all the rest. This is the truth, on the
oath that he has taken; and he affirmed and ratified the same, but
did not sign it. He is about thirty years old, a little more or less.

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

Before me:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

_Captain Ribera's Instructions_

The instructions that Captain Grabiel de Rivera must observe in the
expedition that he is about to make, at my command, to the island
and river of Mindanao, are as follows.

First, you shall go to the port of Cubu, where are the artillery and
ships of his Majesty brought from Borney by Captain Esteban Rodriguez,
and the other supplies left there by him. You shall take all of these
supplies that you may need for your expedition as well as the necessary
soldiers and food. The soldiers shall be taken from the inhabitants
of the said city, and from the soldiers taken for the said expedition
by Captain Juan Lopez de Aguirre. This latter shall deliver his men
to the magistrate there. You shall choose from them such men as you
desire, since you have the affair in hand. You shall try to take
some men belonging to the captain and chief named Quilantan, as,
they tell me, he is acquainted in the river of Bindanao.

As you know, Captain Esteban Rodriguez went last year by my orders
to pacify the river of Mindanao. Because of the lack of provisions,
the current of the river, and other causes, he did not carry out my
wishes--namely, to explore that river and all its environs personally,
and to wait there some little time to try to get them to make peace. I
ordered him to represent to the natives how advantageous it would be
for them to become his Majesty's vassals and our allies. He was ordered
to treat them well, and to use kind methods and persuasion with them;
and not to use force, or plunder them, burn their houses, or do any
other damage to them. And that they might become friends, he was not to
ask tribute from them, and should exercise no force in this regard. He
was merely to tell them of his Majesty's heavy expenses in this land,
and the many hardships endured by the Spaniards in going to civilize
them, and to teach them how to live in accordance with the law of
nature, so that they might understand the chief requirements--namely,
to become Christians and recognize the true God, who created and
redeemed them; and in order that they might cease to do evil to their
neighbors, and to commit other cruelties and robberies. And it is just
that, since so much is spent by his Majesty, and by the Christians who
go there, that the natives should on their side aid somewhat, since
they benefit thereby. But the said captain was ordered that whatever
they gave should be decided by the natives themselves. In observance
of this the said Esteban Rodriguez did them no injury whatever;
but they fled. And because, when the Spaniards went to attempt to
pacify them, as I have heard, the natives killed those who went as
ambassadors to them (among whom was a vassal of his Majesty from
the island of Jolo), you will investigate this matter in the city
of Nombre de Jesus among the soldiers who went on that expedition,
in order that you may have the necessary foreknowledge. And if they
really killed those who went on an embassy to them--a barbarous and
cruel act--and if they are wont to display such treachery, then you
shall punish them as you deem best. I leave this to your own judgment
advising you that in his Majesty's fleet, commanded by Villalobos,
they killed certain men, under promise of security, and seized one of
his boats. In this treachery they all shared, for one boat containing
three or four men was attacked by three or four thousand natives. They
killed also the master-of-camp of the said fleet. This will warn you
not to put any trust in them, or to allow them time or opportunity
to enable them to commit any treachery. You will keep strict watch
over your ships and men.

Although you have the said information and you understand clearly
that they are evilly inclined and have committed the said crimes,
you must begin by trying to make them peaceable by kind methods,
as above stated. If they are unruly and it becomes necessary to
punish them, you shall do it. And if they give no occasion for
either peace or war but flee to the mountains, then you shall wait
for them with all the prudence possible, and such as I expect from
you. You shall endeavor always to see that the soldiers and troops
commit no depredations. If the said Indians come peaceably and with
friendliness, you shall receive from them what they offer, as above
stated. And you shall give testimony, before a notary appointed by
yourself as to the way in which the natives of those regions place
themselves under the obedience of his Majesty--by their own wish,
or by act of war, if they commence it; so that, as far as you are
concerned, you may have permanent and just authority to compel them
to obey and pay tribute. In this matter you must exercise care and
diligence, for it is an affair which needs accuracy, so that the land
may be allotted according to the instructions of his Majesty. And in
such case you shall agree with the natives upon the season when the
Spaniards shall return thither next year; and tell them that they shall
come here freely, if they wish, for intercourse and trade with us.

You shall bring in writing a memorandum of the times of harvest and
the products of the land; the gold-mines and places where gold is
washed; the number of inhabitants, their settlements and customs;
whether that river yields cinnamon, and how it should be treated in
order to make it good.

_Item:_ You shall obtain information regarding the islands of Limboton
[35] and Celebes, the course thither, their products, and bring me
a clear statement thereof.

_Item_: You shall order that no Indian be sold outside the island,
representing to them how cruel it is to sell the men of their own land,
and that by such an act they offend God and depopulate the land.

_Item_: You shall order that they cease to rob, within or without
the island, warning them that such is an offense to God, our Lord.

And because I have heard that one of the ships of Villalobos was lost
for want of a small boat, and in it two large anchors and one half
sacre (weighing fourteen quintals, and named "San Marcos"), twelve
culverins, and certain pieces of iron ordnance, you shall try to get
hold of them all, employing therein much diligence.

You shall try to ascertain where their artillery is, and to secure it,
for it is very material that they remain at peace.

And inasmuch as the chief of Mindanao has been deceived for some
time by preachers from Borney who preach the doctrine of Mahoma,
and it is said that there are preachers there endeavoring to convert
them all into Moros; and since our main intention is to convert
them to Christianity: you shall order them to admit no more such
preachers of the sect of Mahoma. And if you can ascertain who they
are, you shall try, to the best of your ability, to bring them here;
and shall burn the edifice wherein the accursed doctrine was read
and taught, and shall order that none other like it be built. You
shall tell the said natives that I will send Christian fathers there,
who will instruct them; that already the mosque at Borney is burned,
and that there are now no more Bornean preachers. You shall also tell
them what occurred in Borney last year.

You shall examine the entrance and port in the river and the ships
of the natives; for it will be allowable to take from them those used
for piracy, leaving them their fishing and trading vessels.

If the said natives pay tribute, it shall be disposed of in accordance
with the custom of that land--namely, one half shall be reserved for
his Majesty, and the other half shall be divided among the soldiers,
as an aid in their necessity.

And since all the importance of this expedition lies in patience and
comfort (because the Indians, having seen that they would soon have to
yield, refuse to come down from the mountains), you shall try to make
yourself as comfortable as possible, paying special attention to the
health and welfare of your troops. And you shall carefully study the
country in general, and its water and food-products, so that you may
inform yourself better, in order if possible, to preserve health,
which is the principal desideratum. In order to guard the health
of your men, I charge you specially that you take good care of your
sick. You shall put a soldier of good temper in charge of them who
shall minister to them. From whatever gold or other property of
his Majesty's you may have, the sick shall be provided with fowls
or whatever is necessary. You shall especially forbid the soldiers
to eat bananas or sugar-cane, or other harmful things, and see that
they live decently.

You shall find out from the Indians of that land whether they sail
or go to Maluco. You shall ask them whether there are any Christians
there; and if there is any Cafre or Christian in Bindanao, you shall
secure him.

Having completed matters at Bindanao, you shall return to the port
of Cavite. [36] Thence, with what men you deem advisable and with
interpreters from Taguima, you shall go to the island of Jolo,
where Captain Esteban made an agreement with the king of that place
to pay tribute to his Majesty. You shall tell that king that I left
Borney for certain reasons, and that I send this other fleet there
for the purpose of telling him that he should abide by his obedience,
in order not to receive more harm.

You shall ask tribute from the lord of Jolo, but this shall be paid at
his pleasure and be very light, inasmuch as he has rendered obedience
to his Majesty but recently, and because of the good will he has
shown in his Majesty's service, in sending a letter and returning
eight slaves that he had there who were taken from the island of Cubu,
who were vassals of his Majesty. However, in return for that, Pedro
de Oseguera wrote me that two men from Jolo, who had been captured
by the men of Cubu, had been given up. If there are any more Joloans
there, you may take them, first seeing whether they are Christians
and whether they go of their own free will. The priest at Cubu shall
declare what it will be right to do in this. You shall tell the said
lord of Xolo also that, if he wishes to ask anything else of me,
he shall despatch ships hither. They shall be secure from injury,
for I have ordered that none molest them; and you shall give him my
letter that you have with you. You shall give him a written permit,
so that his people may pass freely through our territory, if they
show the said letter to the people of this land.

Captain Esteban Rodriguez told me that the lord of Xolo had told him
that he would have two or three tame elephants for his Majesty's
tribute. You shall ask for them, and if he gives them, you shall
bring them here with the utmost care. For that purpose you shall take,
wherever you find it, such ship as is most suitable. If he has no tame
ones to give you, you shall tell him to have them, at all hazards,
next time the Castilians go thither. You shall ascertain the time
and manner in which they can be brought here.

You shall likewise show yourself very affable to the lord of Xolo. You
shall urge him to persevere in the pearl industry. Both from him and
from the inhabitants of Mindanao, you shall ascertain what things
they need from China, so that other methods failing, those articles
may be taken to them from here.

Inasmuch as Captain Esteban Rodriguez brought certain anchors and
pieces of artillery from that island, and did not sound the place where
a ship was lost in a storm from the north, if you have opportunity,
you shall be careful to do so, taking care to return before the season
for sailing is past. On your return you shall see whether Captain
Juan Lopez de Aguirre left any cinnamon because unable to bring it
in the vessels of his fleet.

_Item_: When you return by way of Cubu, you shall bring back all his
Majesty's vessels there, as well as all the artillery left there by
Esteban Rodriguez. You shall bring also a relation of present and
past occurrences there.

You shall try to ascertain whether there is any cinnamon in the
river of Mindanao. If so, you shall try to bring some of it. You
shall try to find out how to treat it, so that it may be of as good
quality as that in Castilla; for his Majesty has had us notified
that that sent from these districts has not been good. On your way
to Cubu, you shall send some one to pacify the tingues [hill-people]
of Butuan and to examine the towns reported by Juan Gutierres Cortes,
in order to discover the people and ascertain their number and their
location. You shall send a cautious man for this, who shall investigate
such matters as are necessary. When you leave Cubu, you shall order
Pedro Navarro to send to this city all his Majesty's ships in that
place, and the artillery taken there by Captain Esteban Rodriguez,
as well as whatever else he has there in his keeping, in charge, of a
careful man. This must be accomplished by the bonancas of April, for
the artillery can be brought more securely then. If any soldier or any
one else should die, you shall make an inventory of his possessions,
and keep the same. You shall note his name and his birthplace, so
that there may be a good account and relation of everything.

Given at Manila, January fifteen, one thousand five hundred and

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

Before me:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

In the city of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus, in the Filipinas islands of
the West, on the eighteenth day of the month of February, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious captain Grabiel de
Rivera--a person who by order and authorization of the very illustrious
Doctor Francisco de Sande, of his Majesty's council, auditor of his
royal Audiencia established in the City of Mexico, and his governor
and captain-general in these islands, is about to go to pacify and
explore the river and island of Mindanao--said that, inasmuch as it is
necessary to appoint a notary for the said expedition, in order that
he may handle and despatch the business that will arise during it;
and inasmuch as Diego Lopez Carreno is a skilful man and qualified
to take charge of this: therefore he appointed, and he did appoint,
him as notary of the fleet and expedition. He authorized him fully,
in so far as he himself is authorized by his Lordship, to enjoy and
exercise this power. He ordered him to take the oath and execute the
formalities required by law, for the exercise of this power. Then the
said Diego Lopez Carreno, who was present, accepted it, according to
the order of the said captain. He took the oath before God and the
blessed Mary, and on a sign of the cross, upon which he placed his
right hand, to exercise the office well and faithfully to the best of
his knowledge and understanding, and to commit no fraud, equivocation,
or deceit; and, if he did thus, may God so reward him; but if not,
then may he be proceeded against.

He affixed his name thereto. Witnesses were Tome de la Ysla, Pedro
Navarro, Grabiel de Ribera.

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary

Off the coast of the river of Mindanao, when sailing toward the said
river, on the thirteenth day of the month of March, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious captain, Grabiel de
Ribera, met off the coast of the said river, a small boat. His Grace
ordered it brought to the side of the flagship, in order to find
out whence it was coming and whither bound. When it was brought, it
appeared that certain Indians were aboard; through the interpreter,
Miguel Godines, who understands the language of the said Indians,
they said that they were slaves of Limansacay, king of the said river
of Mindanao. The said captain feasted them, gave them some articles
that he had brought in his galley, and ordered the said interpreter to
inform them that he had come by order and authorization of the very
illustrious governor of these islands; that he came in his Majesty's
name to pacify the said land, to pacify and quiet the said natives,
and to make them friends, vassals, and servants of his Majesty, as
are the natives of the other islands. As vassals of King Don Ffelipe,
our sovereign, they would be greatly profited, would be protected and
aided by the said governor, and his Grace would now protect them in
whatever arose and in what they most desired. The reason why he wished
to have peace with him, and with the other chiefs of the said river,
was because his Majesty wished them to understand the great error
and delusion that they labored under, and to recognize their Creator
and Lord, who is the only true God. And because they were Indians who
could not write and slaves of limited understanding, the captain did
not discuss with them more fully his Grace's reason for coming. He
asked them to tell the said Limansacay all the above things, and told
them that they should have no fear or suspicion of any thing, for
his Grace had no authorization to injure or molest them in any way,
but only to entertain and protect the said Limansacay and the other
chiefs of the said river, as had been done in many other districts,
and as is done with all the natives of all the islands. Thereupon the
said Indians went away, without any harm or insult being offered them;
on the contrary they were feasted.

To all of the above I attest, for it occurred in my presence. Witnesses
are Pedro de Oseguerre, Tome de la Ysla, Ensign Melchor de Torres.

_Grabiel de Ribera_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary-elect

Off the coast of the river of Mindanao, four leagues from the said
river, on the fourteenth day of the month of March, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-nine, the illustrious captain Grabiel de
Ribera, sailing toward the said river met a small boat, and in
order to take in water and ascertain their position, ordered it
brought to the flagship. When it was brought, it appeared that it
contained a Boholan Indian, named Umapas, married in the said island
of Mindanao. Two of his brothers-in-law, natives of the said river,
accompanied him. Through the interpreter, Miguel Godines, they were
asked whence they came and whither they were bound. Through the said
interpreter they answered that they were bound for the city of Manila,
at the order of Limansacay, king of Mindanao; and that they were
taking to his Lordship, the governor, two gold-emblazoned daggers,
and two great loaves of wax. Furthermore, the said king ordered them
to collect five taes of gold owed him by some Indians. All this, they
said, was to be given to the said governor in token of recognition and
peace, which they were going, in the name of the said king Limansacay,
to ask from the said governor. Upon hearing this, the said captain
informed the above-named persons that his Grace was going in the name
of his Majesty and by order of his Lordship, in his royal name, to
pacify all that region, and to make peace with all the natives thereof.

Therefore his Grace took them with him to the very mouth of the said
river, and from there despatched the two brothers-in-law of the said
Umapas, who are natives of the said river, in order that they might
advise the said Limansacay, king of the said river, that his Grace
was commissioned by the said governor to treat with him for peace
and alliance, which his father Asututan, now defunct, had requested
from King Don Ffelipe, our sovereign. In consideration of Umapas's
fear and premonition that the king would behead him if he returned,
his Grace despatched the two said brothers-in-law. He ordered them
to tell Limasancay, king of the said river, when they reached his
presence, of the good resolution that his father had taken, and his
great zeal in making peace with his Majesty, and with the governor
in his royal name; that his Grace was ready and prepared to receive
them as vassals of his Majesty, in whose royal name he was come;
and that the king would take them under his royal crown and give
them his royal aid. They would be protected and aided on every
occasion that might arise, and whenever they needed it. In order to
ascertain what were King Limasancay's purposes, and what he intended
to do, his Grace would await a reply to it all, for one natural day
[_i.e.,_ twenty-four hours], anchored at the mouth of the said river
of Mindanao. He ordered all the above to be set down in writing,
that it might stand in the records, and affixed thereto his signature.

_Grabiel de Ribera_
_Miguel Godines_

Before me:

_Diego Lopez Carreno_, notary of the fleet

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