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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 by Emma Helen Blair

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Anna of Austria. Married Margaret of Austria, Nov. 13, 1598, two
months after his accession to the throne. Died at Madrid, March 31,
1621. Surnamed "el Piadoso," "the Pious."

_Felipe IV_.--Born at Valladolid, April 8, 1605; son of Felipe III
and Margaret. Married Isabel of Bourbon, in 1615; Mariana of Austria,
in 1649. Succeeded his father as king, and died at Madrid, Sept. 17,
1665. The sovereignty of Spain over Portugal ceased Dec. 1, 1640.

_Carlos II_.--Born Nov. 6, 1661; son of Felipe IV and Mariana. Married
Marie Louise of Orleans, in 1679; Mariana of Bavaria, in 1690. Died
Nov. 1, 1700, the last Spanish ruler of the house of Austria. During
his minority his mother was regent (Sept. 17, 1665 to Nov. 16,
1675). Surnamed "el Hechizado," "the Bewitched."

House of Bourbon

_Felipe V_ (Philip of Anjou).--Born at Versailles, Dec. 19, 1683;
son of Louis, dauphin of France, and Mariana of Bavaria. Proclaimed
king Nov. 24, 1700. Married Maria Louisa of Savoy, Sept. 11, 1701;
Isabel Farnese, Sept. 16, 1714. Abdicated in favor of his son Luis
I, Jan. 10, 1724; but resumed the government on Sept. 6 following,
in consequence of Luis's death. Died at Madrid, July 9, 1746. The
Spanish crown was bequeathed to him by Carlos II.

_Luis I_.--Born Aug. 5, 1707; son of Felipe V and Maria Louisa. Married
Louise Elisabeth of Orleans, Nov. 16, 1721. By his father's abdication
of the throne Luis was nominally king from Jan. 19, 1724 until his
death, Aug. 31 following.

_Fernando VI_.--Born Sept. 23, 1713; son of Felipe V and Maria
Louisa. Married Maria Teresa Barbara of Braganza, Jan. 19, 1729. Died
at Villaviciosa de Odon (Madrid), Aug. 10, 1759.

_Carlos III_.--Born at Madrid, Jan. 20, 1716; son of Felipe V and
Isabel Farnese. Married Maria Amalia of Saxony. Died at Madrid,
Dec. 14, 1788.

_Carlos IV_.--Born Nov. 11, 1748; son of Carlos III. Married Maria
Louisa of Parma. Proclaimed king, Jan. 17, 1789; abdicated the throne
March 18, 1808; died at Naples, Jan. 19, 1819.

List of the Rulers of Portugal

House of Aviz

_Joao II_.--Born at Lisbon, May 3, 1455; son of Affonso V. Married
Leonor de Lancaster, Jan. 22, 1471. Reigned from Aug. 31, 1481 until
his death. Died at Villa de Alvor, Oct. 25, 1495. Styled "the Perfect
Prince," also "the Great," and "the Severe."

_Manoel_.--Born May 31, 1469; cousin of Joao II. Married Isabel of
Castilla (eldest daughter of Fernando and Isabel), in 1497; Maria,
her sister, Oct. 30, 1500; Leonora, sister of Charles V of Germany
in 1518. Died Dec. 13, 1521. Styled "the Fortunate."

_Joao III_.--Born at Lisbon, June 6, 1502; son of Manoel and
Maria. Reigned from Dec. 19, 1521, until his death, June 11,
1557. Married Catarina sister of Charles V of Germany.

_Sebastiao_.--Born Jan. 20, 1554; grandson of Joao III. Slain in
battle, Aug. 4, 1578. His grandmother Catarina acted as regent during
his minority (1557-68).

_Henrique_.--Born at Lisbon, Jan. 31, 1512; son of Manoel; became a
cardinal in the Roman church. Reigned from Aug. 29, 1578 until Jan. 31,
1580; had been associated with Catarina in the regency.

_Antonio_.--Born in 1531; grandson (but regarded by most writers as
illegitimate) of Manoel. Reigned from June 19 to Sept. 2, 1580.

House of Austria (Spain)

_Filippe I_.--Reigned from Sept. 2, 1580 (taking oath at Lisbon in
April, 1581), to Sept. 13, 1598. See Felipe II of Spain.

_Filippe II_.--Reigned from Sept. 13, 1598 to Mar 31, 1621. See Felipe
III of Spain.

_Filippe III_.--Reigned from Mar. 31, 1621 to Nov. 31, 1640. See
Felipe IV of Spain.

House of Braganza

_Joao IV_.--Born March 19, 1604; son of Theodosio II, duke of
Braganza, and Ana de Velasco. Married Luiza de Guzman, Jan. 13,
1633. Reigned from Dec. 1, 1640 until his death, Nov. 6, 1656. Styled
"the Fortunate."

_Affonso VI_.--Born Aug. 21, 1643; son of Joao IV and Luiza. Married
Maria Francesca Isabel of Savoy, in 1666. Compelled to renounce
the throne, as incompetent, Nov. 23, 1667. Died at Cintra, Sept. 12,
1683. During his minority, his mother acted as regent (Nov. 6, 1656 to
June 22, 1662); during the latter part of his reign, his brother Pedro.

_Pedro II_.--Born April 26, 1648; son of Joao IV. Married Maria
Francesca Isabel of Savoy, March 27, 1668; Maria Sophia Elizabeth of
Bavaria, in 1687. Died Dec. 9, 1706. Regent for Affonso, from Nov. 23,
1667 until the latter's death; king, from Sept. 12, 1683 to Dec. 9,

_Joao V_.--Born at Lisbon, Oct. 22, 1689; son of Pedro II. Married
Maria Anna of Austria, July 9, 1708. Reigned from Jan. 1, 1707 until
his death, July 31, 1750.

_Jose I_.--Born June 6, 1714; son of Joao V. Married Mariana Victoria,
Dec. 27, 1727. Reigned from his father's death until his own,
Feb. 24, 1777.

_Maria I_.--Born in 1734; daughter of Jose I. Married Pedro, younger
brother of Jose (and her uncle), in 1760. Died at Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, in 1816. Reigned jointly with her husband, Feb. 24, 1777 until
his death (1786); but as she became insane, her son Joao VI acted as
regent until her death.

_Pedro III_.--Reigned jointly with his wife, Maria I, until his death

_Joao VI_.--Born at Lisbon, May 13, 1769; son of Maria I and Pedro
III. Married Carlotta of Spain. Reigned from Mar. 16, 1816 to March
10, 1826; but had been regent for Maria since 1799, and had been in
charge of the government from March 10, 1792.


[1] Documents marked with an asterisk are printed in both the original
language and English translation.

[2] _The Philippine Islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China
at the close of the Sixteenth Century_, by Antonio de Morga, Hakluyt
Society, London, 1868, p. 265. This will be cited usually as Morga.

[3] "The crown and sceptre of Spain has come to extend itself over
all that the sun looks on, from its rising to its setting." Morga, p
6. Down to the end of the year 1844 the Manilan calendar was reckoned
after that of Spain, that is, Manila time was about sixteen hours
slower than Madrid time. Finally, with the approval of the Archbishop
in 1844, the thirty-first of December was dropped and the Philippines
transferred, so to speak, into the Eastern Hemisphere. Thenceforward
Manila time was about eight hours ahead of Madrid time. Jagor:
_Reisen in den Philippinen,_ pp. 1-2.

[4] For a fuller account of the negotiations relating to these bulls
and the Treaty of Tordesillas see Harrisse: _Diplomatic History of
America_, 1452-1494, S.E. Dawson: _The Lines of Demarcation of Pope
Alexander VI and the Treaty of Tordesillas_, or E.G. Bourne: _Essays
in Historical Criticism_. The texts are printed in this volume.

[5] The names used by Columbus in his interview with the King of
Portugal. Ruy de Pina: _Chronica d'el rey Joao II, Collecao de Livros
Ineditos de Historia Portugueze_, ii, p. 177.

[6] This is also Harrisse's view, _Diplomatic History of America_,
p. 74.

[7] "Sabese la concession del Papa Alexandro; la division del
mundo como una naranja." Letter of Alonso de Zuazo to Charles V,
January 22, 1518. _Docs. Ined. de Indias_, i, p. 296 (From Harrisse,
p. 174). Cf. also Maximilianus Transylvanus in _First Voyage Round
the World by Magellan_. Hakluyt Society, p. 185.

[8] The question is fully discussed in Guillemard's _Life of Ferdinand
Magellan,_ pp. 68-69.

[9] Guillemard, _Magellan_, p. 71.

[10] _First Voyage Round the World by Magellan_, p. 187.

[11] Navarrete, _Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos_, etc.,
iv, p. 117.

[12] Las Casas: _Historia de las Indias. Col. de Docs. Ined. para
la Historia de Espana_, lxv, pp. 376-377. This account by Las Casas
apparently has been overlooked by English writers on Magellan. It
is noticed by Peschel, _Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen,_
p. 488.

[13] See Guillemard's comparison between the voyages of Columbus and
Magellan in _Life of Magellan_, p. 258.

[14] See Pigafetta's account in _The First Voyage Round the World by
Magellan_, p. 74.

[15] Pigafetta, _ibid_., p. 76.

[16] The description of the Philippines and their inhabitants which we
owe to the Italian Pigafetta who accompanied Magellan is especially
noteworthy not only as the first European account of them, but also
as affording a gauge by which to estimate the changes wrought by the
Spanish conquest and the missions.

[17] See E. G. Bourne: _Essays in Historical Criticism_, pp. 209-211
for an account of the Badajos Junta which attempted to settle the
question of the rights to the Moluccas. The documents are in Navarrete,
iv, pp. 333-370, a somewhat abridged translation of which is presented
in this volume. Sandoval attributes the sale of the Moluccas to
Charles's financial straits. Navarrete, iv, xx. The treaty of sale
is in Navarrete, iv, pp. 389-406.

[18] Navarrete, iv, p. 394.

[19] Navarrete, iv, p. 396.

[20] See the correspondence in _Col. de Doc. Ineditos de Ultramar_,
vol. ii (vol. i of subdivision _de las Islas Filipinas_), p. 66.

[21] _Relacion del Viaje que hizo desde la Nueva-Espana a las
Islas del Poniente Ruy Gomez de Villalobos_, written by Garcia
Descalante Alvarado. _Coleccion de Docs. Ined. del Archivo de Indias_
v, p. 127. The name was first given in July or August 1543 to some
of the smaller islands in the group. On page 122, Alvarado writes
"chinos que vienen a Mindanao y a las Philipinas." Montero y Vidal says
that the island first to receive the name was Leyte. _Hist. Gen. de
Filipinas_, i, p. 27, In 1561, Urdaneta uses "las islas Filipinas"
in the ordinary way; see his "Derrotero" prepared for the
expedition. _Col. Docs. Ined_. vol. i, p. 130 ff.

[22] _Col. de Docs. Ined. de Ultramar_, vol. ii, pp. 95-96.

[23] _Ibid.,_ pp. 109-111.

[24] In September, 1568, a Portuguese squadron despatched by the
Governor of the Moluccas appeared off Cebu to drive the Spaniards out
of the Visayan Islands. The commander satisfied himself with diplomatic
protests. Montero y Vidal: _Hist. Gen. de Filipinas_, i, p. 34.

[25] Montero y Vidal, i, pp. 41-42.

[26] Juan de Grijalva. From W.E. Retana's extracts from his _Cronica
de la Orden de N.P.S. Augustin en las provincias de la Nueva Espana,
etc_. (1533-1592) in Retana's edition of Zuniga's _Estadismo de las
Islas Filipinas_, ii. p. 219 ff. Juan de Salcedo after being promoted
to the high rank of _Maestre de Campo_ (an independent command) died
suddenly in 1576 at the age of twenty-seven. Far from amassing wealth
in his career he died poor. In his will he provided that after the
payment of his debts the residue of his property should be given to
certain Indians of his _encomienda. Ibid.,_ p. 615.

[27] This account of the conversion is based on Grijalva's contemporary
narrative; see Retana's _Zuniga_, ii, pp. 219-220.

[28] Montero y Vidal, i, p. 59.

[29] Retana's _Zuniga_, ii, p. 222; Morga, Hakluyt Society edition,
pp. 307-308; Montero y Vidal, i, p. 60.

[30] He was lieutenant to the Governor and the first justice to be
appointed to the supreme court (Audiencia) on its reorganization. His
_Sucesos de la islas Philipinas--Mexici ad Indos, anno 1609_, is
a work of great rarity. It was reprinted in Paris in 1890 with
annotations by the Filipino author and patriot, Dr. Jose Rizal
and with an Introduction by Blumentritt. Rizal tries to show that
the Filipinos have retrograded in civilization under Spanish rule;
cf. Retana's comments in his Zuniga, ii, p. 277. The references to
Morga to follow are to the Hakluyt Society edition.

[31] A natural transference of the familiar name in Spain for

[32] Morga, pp. 296-297.

[33] Footnote 32: Morga. p. 323.

[34] _Relacion de las Encomiendas existentes en Filipinas el dia 31
de Mayo de 1591_. in Retana: _Archivo del Bibliofilo Filipino_, iv,
pp. 39-112.

[35] Mendoza, _The History of the Great and Mighty Kingdom of
China_. Hakluyt Society edition, ii, p. 263.

[36] Printed in Retana's _Archivo_, iii, pp. 3-45.

[37] "Of little avail would have been the valor and constancy with
which Legaspi and his worthy companions overcame the natives of the
islands, if the apostolic zeal of the missionaries had not seconded
their exertions, and aided to consolidate the enterprise. The
latter were the real conquerors; they who without any other arms
than their virtues, gained over the good will of the islanders,
caused the Spanish name to be beloved, and gave the king, as it
were by a miracle, two millions more of submissive and Christian
subjects." Tomas de Comyn, _State of the Philippine Islands, etc.,_
translated by William Walton, London, 1821, p. 209. Comyn was the
general manager of the Royal Philippine Company for eight years in
Manila and is described by his latest editor, Senor del Pan, editor of
the _Revista de Filipinas_, as a man of "extensive knowledge especially
in the social sciences." Retana characterizes his book as "un libro
de merito extraordinario," Zuniga, ii, pp. 175-76. Mallat says:
"C'est par la seule influence de la religion que l'on a conquis les
Philippines, et cette influence pourra seule les conserver." _Les
Philippines, histoire, geographie, moeurs, agriculture, industrie
et commerce des Colonies espagnoles dans l'oceanie._ Par J. Mallat,
Paris, 1846, i, p. 40. I may say that this work seems to me the best
of all the modern works on the Philippines. The author was a man of
scientific training who went to the islands to study them after a
preparatory residence in Spain for two years.

[38] Morga, p. 325.

[39] Mallat, i, p. 389.

[40] Morga, p. 320.

[41] Mallat, i, pp. 382-385.

[42] Morga, p. 312. Mallat, ii, p. 240.

[43] Morga, p. 313. Mallat, ii, p. 244.

[44] The first regular hospital in the thirteen colonies was
the Pennsylvania Hospital, incorporated in 1751. Patients were
first admitted in 1752. Cornell, _History of Pennsylvania_,
pp. 409-411. There are references to a hospital in New Amsterdam
in 1658, but the New York hospital was the first institution of the
kind of any importance. It was founded in 1771, but patients were not
admitted till 1791. _Memorial History of New York_, iv, p. 407. There
was no hospital for the treatment of general diseases in Boston
until the nineteenth century. The Massachusetts General Hospital was
chartered in 1811. _Memorial History of Boston_, iv, p. 548.

[45] Morga, p. 350.

[46] Morga, p. 314.

[47] Friar Juan Francisco de San Antonio who went to the Philippines
in 1724, says that "up to the present time there has not been found
a scrap of writing relating to religion, ceremonial, or the ancient
political institutions." _Chronicas de la Apostolica Provincia de
San Gregorio, etc._ (Sampoloc, near Manila, 1735), i, pp. 149-150
(cited from Retana's _Zuniga_, ii, p. 294.

[48] They used palm leaves for paper and an iron stylus for a
pen. "L'escriture ne leur sert que pour s'escrire les uns aux autres,
car ils n'ont point d'histoires ny de Livres d'aucune Science;
nos Religieux ont imprime des livres en la langue des Isles des
choses de nostre Religion." _Relation des Isles Philippines, Faite
par un Religieux qui y a demeure 18 ans_, in Thevenot's _Voyages
Curieux_. Paris 1663, ii (p. 5, of the "Relation"). This narrative
is one of the earliest to contain a reproduction of the old Tagal
alphabet. Retana ascribes it to a Jesuit and dates it about 1640:
p. 13 of the catalogue of his library appended to _Archivo del
Bibliofilo Filipino_, i. The earliest printed data on the Tagal
language according to Retana are those given in Chirino's _Relacion
de las Islas Filipinas_, Rome, 1604.

[49] Mendoza's _Historie of the Kingdome of China_, volume ii, p. 263.

[50] _Ibid_., p. 264.

[51] Morga, p. 319.

[52] _Relation d'un Religieux_, Thevenot, volume ii, (p. 7 of the

[53] On the powers of the Governor, see Morga, pp. 344-345.

[54] Throughout this Introduction the Spanish "peso" is rendered by
"dollar." The reader will bear in mind the varying purchasing power
of the dollar. To arrive at an approximate equivalent ten may be used
as a multiplier for the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries,
and five for the middle of the eighteenth century.

[55] It may be remembered that the official conscience in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was not so sensitive in
regard to "tips" as it is expected to be today. Le Gentil writes:
"Les Gouverneurs de Manille corrompent journellement leurs graces,
et les Manillois ne les abordent guere pour leur en demander, sans
se precautioner auparavant du rameau d'or; seul et unique moyen de
se les rendre favorables. Un soir etant alle voir le Gouverneur,
in 1767, a peine m'eut-il demande des nouvelles de ma sente qu'il
alla me chercher une bouteille de verre de chopine, mesure de Paris,
(half-pint) pleine de paillettes d'or, il me la fit voir en me disant
que c'etoit un present dont on I'avoit _regale_ ce jour-la meme; _Oi_,
me dit-il, _me regalaron de este_." _Voyage dans Les Mers de L'Inde_,
Paris, 1781, ii, pp. 152-153. Le Gentil was in the Philippines about
eighteen months in 1766-67 on a scientific mission. His account of
conditions there is one of the most thorough and valuable that we
have for the eighteenth century. As a layman and man of science his
views are a useful offset against those of the clerical historians.

[56] _Voyage_, ii, p. 153. "The Royal Audience was established to
restrain the despotism of the Governors, which it has never prevented;
for the gentlemen of the gown are always weak-kneed and the Governor
can send them under guard to Spain, pack them oft to the provinces
to take a census of the Indians or imprison them, which has been done
several times without any serious consequences." Zuniga: _Estadismo de
las Islas Filipinos o mis Viages por este Pais_, ed. Retana, i, p. 244.

[57] "Cuando se pusieren edictos, publicaren, y pregonaren las
residencias, sea de forma que vengan a noticia de los Indios, para
que puedan pedir justicia de sus agravios con entera libertad." _Law
of 1556_, lib. v, tit. xv, ley xxviii of the _Recopilacion de Leyes
de los Reinos de las Indias_.

[58] _Recopilacion_, lib. v, tit. xv, ley vii.

[59] Churchill's _Voyages_, iv, pp. 427-428.

[60] "I request the reader not to infer from my opinion of the
tribunals of residence, my confidence in their efficacy. My homage is
immediately and solely addressed to the wisdom of the law. I resign all
criticism on its operation, to those who know the seductive influence
of Plutus over the feeble and pliant Themis." De Pons: _Voyage to the
Eastern Part of Terra Firma or the Spanish Main in South America during
the years 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804_. New York, 1806, ii, p. 25.

[61] "Une loi tres-sage, mais malheureusement sans effet, qui devrait
moderer cette autorite excessive, est celle qui permet a chaque
citoyen de poursuivre le gouverneur veteran devant son successeur;
mais celui-ci est interesse a excuser tout ce qu'on reproche a son
predecesseur; et le citoyen assez temeraire pour se plaindre, est
expose a de nouvelles et a de plus fortes vexations." _Voyage de La
Perouse autour du Monde_. Paris, 1797, ii, p. 350.

[62] His comments on the kind of officials needed are not without
interest today: "A governor must understand war but he must not be
over confident of his abilities. Let him give ear to the advice of
those who know the country where things are managed very differently
from what they are in Europe. Those who have tried to carry on war in
the islands as it is carried on in Flanders and elsewhere in Europe
have fallen into irreparable mistakes. The main thing, however, is to
aim at the welfare of the people, to treat them kindly, to be friendly
toward foreigners, to take pains to have the ships for New Spain sail
promptly and in good order, to promote trade with neighboring people
and to encourage ship-building. In a word, to live with the Indians
rather like a father than like a governor." _Relation et Memorial de
l'etat des Isles Philippines, et des Isles Moluques_ by Ferdinand de
los Rios Coronel, Prestre et Procureur General des Isles Philippines,
etc. _Thevenot_, ii (p. 23 of the Relation).

[63] Morga, p. 345. _Recopilacion_, lib. ii, tit. xv, ley xi.

[64] _Ibid_., ley lviii. Le Gentil, ii, pp. 159, 161.

[65] _Recopilacion_, lib. ii, tit. xv, ley xi.

[66] Mallat, i, pp. 349-50. For a historical summary of the variations
in the names of the provinces see Retana's Zuniga's _Estadismo,_ ii,
p. 376 ff.

[67] They received the tribute in kind in fixed amounts and made money
out of the fluctuations of the market prices. At times of scarcity
and consequent high prices this procedure doubled or trebled the
burden of the tribute. See _State of the Philippine Islands,_ by
Tomas de Comyn, translated by William Walton, p. 197. Mallat says:
"Rien n'est plus funeste au pays que la permission qui est accordee
aux alcaldes de faire le commerce pour leur compte." i, p. 351. See
also Retana's note, Zuniga, _Estadismo,_ ii, p. 530. This right to
trade was abolished in 1844.

[68] "It is a fact common enough to see a hair-dresser or a lackey
converted into a governor; a sailor or a deserter, transformed into
a district magistrate, collector, or military commander of a populous
province, without other counsellor than his own crude understanding,
or any other guide than his passions. Such a metamorphosis would
excite laughter in a comedy or farce; but, realized in the theatre
of human life, it must give rise to sensations of a very different
nature. Who is there that does not feel horror-struck, and tremble
for the innocent, when he sees a being of this kind transferred from
the yard-arm to the seat of justice, deciding in the first instance
on the honor, lives, and property of a hundred thousand persons, and
haughtily exacting the homage and incense of the spiritual ministers
of the towns under his jurisdiction, as well as of the parish curates,
respectable for their acquirements and benevolence, and who in their
own native places, would possibly have rejected as a servant the very
man whom in the Philippines they are compelled to court, and obey as
a sovereign." _State of the Philippine Islands_, London, 1821, p. 194.

[69] Morga, p. 323.

[70] Jagor describes an election which he saw in the town of Lauane,
of four thousand five hundred inhabitants, in the little island of
the same name which lies just off the north shore of Samar. As it is
the only description of such a local election that I recall I quote
it in full. "It took place in the town house. At the table sits the
Governor or his proxy, on his right the pastor and on his left the
secretary who is the interpreter. All the Cabezas de Barangay, the
Gobernadorcillo and those who have formerly been such have taken their
places on the benches. In the first place six of the Cabezas, and six
of the ex-Gobernadorcillos respectively are chosen by lot to serve
as electors. The Gobernadorcillo in office makes the thirteenth. The
rest now leave the room. After the chairman has read the rules and
exhorted the electors to fulfil their duty conscientiously, they go
one by one to the table and write three names on a ballot. Whoever
receives the largest number of votes is forthwith nominated for
Gobernadorcillo for the ensuing year, if the pastor or the electors
make no well-founded objections subject to the confirmation of the
superior court in Manila, which is a matter of course since the
influence of the pastor would prevent an unsuitable choice. The same
process was followed in the election of the other local officials
except that the new Gobernadorcillo was called in that he might make
any objections to the selections. The whole transaction was very quiet
and dignified." _Reisen in den Philippinen_, Berlin, 1873, pp. 189-190.

Sir John Bowring's account of this system of local administration is
the clearest of those I have found in English books. _A Visit to the
Philippine Islands_, London, 1859, pp. 89-93.

[71] The Gobernadorcillo in council with the other Cabezas presented
a name to the superior authority for appointment Bowring, p. 90.

[72] Zuniga, _Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas_, i, p. 245. Cf. Mallat,
i, p. 358.

[73] Comyn: _State of the Philippine Islands_, ch. vii.

[74] Mallat, i, pp. 40, 386. Jagor, pp. 95-97.

[75] Mallat, i, p. 380 ff. Comyn, p. 212 ff.

[76] Mallat, i, p. 365.

[77] Morga, p. 333.

[78] Delgado: _Historia de Filipinas_, Biblioteca Histories Filipina,
Manila, 1892, pp. 155-156. Delgado wrote in 1750-51. Somewhat different
figures are given by Le Gentil on the basis of the official records
in 1735, ii, p. 182. His total is 705,903 persons.

[79] Le Gentil, i, p. 186.

[80] _Recopilacion_, lib. vi, tit iii, ley xxi. Morga, p. 330.

"Avec toutes les recommandations possible, il arrive encore que
le moine charge de la peuplade par ou vous voyagez, vous laisse
rarement parler seul aux Indiens. Lorsque vous parlez en sa presence a
quelque Indien qui entend un peu le Castillan, si ce Religieux trouve
mauvais que vous conversiez trop long-temps avec ce Naturel, il lui
fait entendre dans la langue du pays, de ne vous point repondre en
Castillan, mais dans sa langue: l'Indien obeit." Le Gentil, ii, p. 185.

[81] _State of the Philippine Islands_, pp. 216-217. These
responsibilities and the isolation from Europeans together with the
climate frequently brought on insanity. Le Gentil, ii, p. 129. Mallat,
i, p. 388.

[82] _Ibid_., p. 214.

[83] In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of
one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty
Indians. _Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General
de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Ineditos del Archivo de Indias_, vi,
p. 425. In 1787 the garrison at Manila consisted of one regiment of
Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery
companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men
each. La Perouse, ii, p. 368.

[84] _Apuntes Interesantes sobre Las Islas Filipinas, etc., escritos
por un Espanol de larga esperiencia en el pais y amante del progresso_,
Madrid, 1869, p. 13. This very interesting and valuable work was
written in the main by Vicente Barrantes, who was a member of the
Governor's council and his secretary. On the authorship see Retana's
_Archivo ii, Biblioteca Gen_., p. 25, which corrects his conjecture
published in his Zuniga, ii, p. 135.

[85] _Apuntes Interesantes_, pp. 42-43.

[86] Zuniga, _Estadismo_, i, p. 246; Le Gentil, ii, p. 172.

[87] Le Gentil, ii, p. 172.

[88] Morga, p. 336.

[89] Morga, _ibid_.

[90] _Memorial dado al Rey por D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurado
General de las Islas Filipinas. Docs. Ineditos del Archivo de Indias_,
vi, p. 444.

[91] _Recopilacion_, lib. ix, tit. xxxv, ley vi and ley xv. As will
be seen there was usually only one ship.

[92] _Ibid_., ley xxxiv.

[93] _Ibid_., ley lxviii.

[94] _Ibid_., ley lxxviii.

[95] _Ibid.,_ ley xlv.

[96] Morga, p. 344. Zuniga, i, pp. 271-274. "El barco de Acapulco
ha sido la causa de que los espanoles hayan abandonado las riquezas
naturales e industriales de las Islas." _Ibid_., p. 443.

[97] Le Gentil, ii, pp. 203-230; Zuniga, i, p. 266 ff.

[98] Le Gentil, ii, p. 205; Careri, _Voyage Round the World_,
Churchill's _Voyages_, iv, p. 477.

[99] Zuniga, i, p. 267.

[100] Le Gentil, ii, p. 205.

[101] Le Gentil, ii, p. 207.

[102] Zuniga, i, p. 268.

[103] Churchill's _Voyages_, iv, p. 491. I am aware that grave
doubts as to the reality of Gemelli Careri's travels existed in the
eighteenth century. Robertson says "it seems now to be a received
opinion (founded as far as I know, on no good evidence) that Careri
was never out of Italy, and that his famous _Giro del Mondo_ is an
account of a fictitious voyage." Note 150, _History of America_. The
most specific charges against Careri relate to his account of his
experiences in China. See Prevost's _Histoire des Voyages_, v,
pp. 469-70. His description of the Philippines and of the voyage
to Acapulco is full of details that have every appearance of being
the result of personal observation. In fact, I do not see how it
is possible that this part of his book is not authentic. The only
book of travels which contains a detailed account of the voyage from
Manila to Acapulco written before Careri published that is described
in Medina's _Bibliografia Espanola de Filipinas_ is the _Peregrinacion
del Mundo del Doctor D. Pedro Cubero Sebastian_, of which an edition
was published in 1682 in Naples, Careri's own home; but Careri's
account is no more like Cubero's than any two descriptions of the
same voyage are bound to be; nor is it clear that Careri ever saw
Cubero Sebastian's narrative.

[104] Zuniga, i, p. 268. Careri mentions the case of a Dominican who
paid five hundred dollars for the eastern passage. _Op. cit_. p. 478;
on page 423 he says the usual fare for cabin and diet was five hundred
to six hundred dollars.

[105] Churchill's _Voyages_, iv, p. 499.

[106] _Op. cit_. p. 491. Yet Careri had no such experience as
befell Cubero Sebastian in his voyage. When they were nearing the
end of the voyage a very fatal disease, "el berben, o mal de Loanda"
(probably the same as beri-beri), broke out, as well as dysentery,
from which few escaped who were attacked. There were ninety-two deaths
in fifteen days. Out of four hundred persons on board, two hundred
and eight died before Acapulco was reached. _Peregrination del Mundo
de D. Pedro Cubero Sebastian_, Zaragoza, 1688, p. 268.

[107] Careri: _Op. cit_. p. 503.

[108] Montero y Vidal: _Hist. Gen. de Filipinas_, i, pp. 458,
463. On page 461 is a brief bibliography of the history of Philippine
commerce. According to Montero y Vidal, the best modern history
of Philippine commerce is _La Libertad de comercio en las islas
Filipinas,_ by D. Manuel de Azcarraga y Palmero, Madrid, 1872.

[109] Montero y Vidal, ii, p. 122.

[110] _Ibid_., ii, p. 297.

[111] Comyn: _State of the Philippine Islands_, pp. 83-97.

[112] _Estadismo_, i, p. 272.

[113] Zuniga, i, p. 274.

Le Gentil remarked that as the Spaniards in Manila had no landed
estates to give them an assured and permanent income, they were
dependent upon the Acapulco trade, and had no resources to fall back
upon if the galleon were lost. Money left in trust was often lost
or embezzled by executors or guardians, and it was rare that wealth
was retained three generations in the same family. _Voyage_, ii,
pp. 110-112.

[114] Of the commerce with China it is not necessary to speak at
length, as a full account of it is given in Morga. It was entirely in
the hands of the Chinese and Mestizos and brought to Manila oriental
textiles of all kinds, objects of art, jewelry, metal work and metals,
nails, grain, preserves, fruit, pork, fowls, domestic animals, pets,
"and a thousand other gewgaws and ornaments of little cost and price
which are valued among the Spaniards." (Morga, p. 339.) Besides the
Chinese, that with Japan, Borneo, the Moluccas, Siam, and India was
so considerable that in spite of the obstructions upon the commerce
with America, Manila seemed to the traveler Careri (p. 444) "one of
the greatest places of trade in the world."

[115] _Documentos Ineditos del Archivo de Indias_, v, pp. 475-77.

[116] It would be vain to guess how many hundred people there are who
are familiar with the denunciations of Las Casas to one who knows
anything of the more than six hundred laws defining the status and
aiming, at the protection of the Indians in the _Recopilacion_.

[117] Cf. Jagor: _Reisen in den Philippinen_, p. 31.

[118] _Voyage de La Perouse autour du Monde_, Paris, 1797, ii, p. 347.

[119] _History of the Indian Archipelago, etc_., by John Crawfurd,
F. R. S. Edinburgh, 1820, vol. ii, pp. 447-48.

[120] That I take to be his meaning. His words are: "Ces institutions
(i. e., the local administration) si sages et si paternelles ont valu a
l'Espagne la conservation d'une colonie dont les habitants jouissent,
a notre avis, de plus de liberte, de bonheur et de tranquillete
que-ceux d'aucune autre nation." i, p. 357. Cf. also his final chapter:
"L'idigene des Philippines est l'homme plus heureux du monde. Malgre
son tribut, il n'est pas d'etre vivant en societe qui paye moins
d'impot que lui. Il est libre, il est heureux et ne pense nullement
a se soulever." ii, p. 369.

[121] _A Visit to the Philippine Islands_, London, 1859, p. 18. Cf. the
recent opinion of the English engineer, Frederic H. Sawyer, who lived
in Luzon for fourteen years. "The islands were badly governed by Spain,
yet Spaniards and natives lived together in great harmony, and I do
not know where I could find a colony in which Europeans mixed as much
socially with the natives. Not in Java, where a native of position
must dismount to salute the humblest Dutchman. Not in British India,
where the Englishwoman has now made the gulf between British and
native into a bottomless pit." _The Inhabitants of the Philippines_,
New York, 1900. p. 125.

[122] _Reisen in den Philippinen_, p. 287.

[123] _Cornhill Magazine_, 1878, pp. 161, 167. This article is
reprinted in Palgrave's _Ulysses, or Scenes in Many Lands_.

[124] _The Inhabitants of the Philippines_, pp. vi, viii.

[125] "Ils font voir beaucoup d'inclination et d'empressement pour
aller a l'eglise lesjours de Fetes et Solemnites; mais pour ouir
la Messe les jours de preceptes, pour se confesser et communier
lorsque la Sainte Eglise l'ordonne, il faut employer le fouet, et
les traiter comme des enfans a l'ecole." Quoted by Le Gentil, ii,
p. 61, from Friar Juan Francisco de San Antonio's _Chronicas de la
Apostolica Provincia de San Gregorio, etc_., commonly known as the
_Franciscan History._ It will be remembered that in our own country
in the eighteenth century college discipline was still enforced by
corporal punishment; and that attendance upon church was compulsory,
where there was an established church, as in New England.

[126] _Voyage_, ii, p. 62.

[127] _Voyage_, ii, p. 350.

[128] _Voyage_, ii, pp. 95, 97.

[129] Le Gentil says the lassitude of the body reacts upon the
mind. "In this scorching region one can only vegetate. Insanity is
commonly the result of hard study and excessive application." _Voyage_,
ii, p. 94.

[130] _La Imprenta en Manila desde sus origenes hasta 1810_, Santiago
de Chile, 1896.

[131] _Adiciones y Observaciones a La Imprenta en Manila_, Madrid,

[132] For representative lists of these, see Blumentritt's privately
printed _Bibliotheca Philippina_, Theile i and ii.

[133] It is, all things considered, a singular fact that in all that
list there is no translation of parts of the Bible, except of course
the fragmentary paraphrases in the catechism and doctrinals. The only
item indicating first-hand Biblical study in the Philippines under
the old regime that has come to my notice in the bibliographies of
Medina and Retana is this, that Juan de la Concepcion the historian
left in manuscript a translation of the Holy Bible into Spanish. _La
Imprenta en Manila_, p. 221. This failure to translate the Bible
into the native languages was not peculiar to Spanish rule in the
Philippines. Protestant Holland, far behind Spain in providing
for native education, was equally opposed to the circulation of
the Bible. "Even as late as the second or third decade of this
century the New Testament was considered a revolutionary work,
and Herr Bruckner, who translated it, had his edition destroyed by
Government." Guillemard, _Malaysia and the Pacific Archipelagoes_,
p. 129.

[134] Mallat says that the elements were more generally taught than
in most of the country districts of Europe (i, p. 386) and quotes the
assertion of the Archbishop of Manila: "There are many villages such as
Argas, Dalaguete, Bolohon, Cebu, and several in the province of Iloilo,
where not a single boy or girl can be found who cannot read and write,
an advantage of which few places in Europe can boast." _Ibid._, p. 388.

[135] _Estadismo_, i, p. 300.

[136] _Estadismo_, i, p. 63.

[137] Zuniga, i, pp. 73-75

[138] _Voyage_, ii, p. 131.

[139] _Ibid_., p. 132, and Zuniga, i, p. 76. A modern work on this
drama is _El Teatro tagalo_ by Vicente Barrantes, Madrid, 1889.

[140] Number 877 in Retana's _Biblioteca Filipina_. This novel was
published in Manila in 1885. Friar Bustamente was a Franciscan.

[141] _Estadismo_, i, pp. 60-61. Commodore Alava was on his way to
make scientific observations of the volcano of Taal.

Le Gentil writes: "Selon une Ordonnance du Roi, renouvelee peut-etre
cent fois, il est ordonne aux Religieux d'enseigner le castillan
aux jeunes Indiens; mais Sa Majeste, m'ont unanimement assure
les Espagnoles a Manille, n'a point encore ete obeie jusqu'a ce
jour." _Voyage_, ii, p. 184. Cf. Zuniga. _Estadismo_, i, pp. 299-300.

For some of these ordinances see Retana's notes to Zuniga, ii,
p. 57 ff.

[142] Cf. Retana's views expressed ten years ago upon the
impracticability of supplanting to any extent the Tagal language
by the Spanish. The same considerations apply equally well to
English. _Estadismo_, ii, p. 59 ff.

[143] _Estadismo_, i, pp. 12-13.

[144] Retana's _Zuniga_, ii, p. 527.

[145] _Estadismo_, i, p. 174. I cannot take leave of Zuniga's book
without recording my opinion that it is the finest flower of the
Philippine literature. Zuniga did for the island of Luzon what Arthur
Young did for France a few years earlier, or to take an apter parallel,
what President Dwight did for New England. His careful observations,
relieved of tedium by a rare charm of style, his sweetness of temper,
quiet humor, his love of nature and of man all combine to make his
"Travels" a work that would be accorded a conspicuous place in the
literature of any country. An English translation will appear in the
present series.

[146] Referring to the fort built by Columbus (December, 1492) at
La Navidad, a port on the northern coast of Hispaniola (Hayti). Upon
the admiral's return, a year later, he found that the garrison whom
he had left in this fort had been destroyed by hostile Indians.

[147] That is, by some act so clear or manifest that no formal sentence
of excommunication is requisite.

[148] The Gold Coast of Africa, named by its Portuguese discoverers
(about 1471) _Oro de la Mina_ (this is the _Minere Auri_ of our text).

[149] Our text reads "commissario mayor;" Navarrete reads "Comendador

[150] Our text reads "vos damos todo nuestro poder conplido en aquella
mas abta forma que podemos;" Navarrete reads "vos damosnuestro poder
cumplido en aquella manera e forma que podemos."

[151] In Navarrete the words "& subcessores & de todos nuestros reynos
& senorios" are omitted.

[152] Our text reads "qualqujer concierto, asiento, limjtacion,
demarcacion, & concordia sobre lo que dicho es, por los vientos &
grados de norte & del sol, & por aquellas partes divivisiones [sic]
& lugares del caelo & de la mar & de la tierra;" Navarrete reads
"cualquier concierto e limitacion del mar Oceano, o concordia sobre lo
que dicho es, por los vientos y grados de Norte y Sur, y por aquellas
partes, divisiones y lugares de seco y mar y de la tierra."

[153] Our text reads "& asi vos damos el dicho poder pera que
podays dexar al dicho Rey de Portugal & a sus reynos & subcesores
todos los mares, yslas, & tieras que fueren & estovieren dentro de
qualqujer limitacion & demarcacion, que con el fincaren & quedaren;"
Navarrete reads the same (with allowances for modem typography) up to
"demarcacion," and then adds "de costas, mares, islas y tierras que
fincaren y quedaren."

[154] Our text reads "que todos los mares, yslas & tierras, que fueren
& escovjeren dentrode la limjtacion & demarcacion de costas, mares
& yslas & tierras, que quedaren & fincaren con nos, & con nuestros
subcesores, para que sean nuestros, & de nuestro senorio & conqujsta, &
asi de nuestros reynos & subcesores dellos, con aquellas limjtacjones
& exebciones;" Navarrete reads "que todos las mares, islas y tierras
que fueren o estuvieren dentro el limite y demarcation de las costas,
mares y islas y tierras que quedaren por Nos y por nuestros subcesores,
y de nuestro Senorio y conquista, sean de nuestros Reinos y subcesores
de ellos, con aquellas limitaciones y exenciones."

[155] Our text reads "contrato de las pases;" Navarrete reads "contrato
de las partes."

[156] Navarrete reads "Sagres"

[157] Our text reads "& constituymos a todos juntamente & a dos de
vos, & a uno yn soljdun;" Navarrete reads "y constituimos a todos
juntamente y a cada uno de vos _in solidum_."

[158] See p. 116 and note 149.

[159] See p. 117, and note 151, where the language is almost identical.

[160] Our text reads "la qual raya olinea se aya;" Navarrete reads
"la cual reya o lineo e senal se haya."

[161] This paragraph reads differently in Navarrete, but its sense
is the same.

[162] Our text reads "grados del sol e norte;" Navarrete reads
"grados de Sur y Norte."

[163] Navarrete is very faulty in this section. He omits entirely
the following: "& por sus gentes, o in otra qualqujer manera dentro
de las otras ciento y veynte leguas, que quedan para cunplimjento de
las trezientas & setenta leguas, en que ha de acabar la dicha raya
que se ha de faser de polo a polo, como dicho es, en qualqujer parte
de las dichas ciento & veyte [_sic_] leguas para los dichos polos,
que sean alladas fasta el dicho dia, queden, & finquen para los dichos
senores Rey & Reyna de Castilla, & de Aragon, etc., &." This omission
quite obscures the sense.

[164] This confirmation was given by Pope Julius II in a bull
promulgated January 24, 1506. See _Alguns documentos_, pp. 142-143;
and Bourne's _Essays in Historical Criticism_, p. 203.

[165] Another dispatch of like tenor was issued in Madrid on May 7
of the same year.--_Navarrete_.

[166] The original of this bull is in Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, bearing
pressmark "Col. de Bullas, maco 29, n_o_. 6." It occupies pp. 276-279
of _Corpo diplomatico Portuguez_. The synopsis from which the above
is translated is in _Alguns documentos_, p. 14., but the date as there
given is wrong, "Quarto Decimo Kalendae Julii," being June 18 and not
17. See also Bourne, _Essays in Historical Criticism_, pp. 194, 195.

[167] See Bourne, _ut supra_, p. 195, from which this synopsis is
taken. The original of this bull exists in Torre do Tombo, its
pressmark being "Coll. de Bullas, maco 7 deg., n deg.. 29." It occupies
pp. 279-286 of _Corpo diplomatico Portuguez_, and is printed also in
_Alguns documentus_, pp. 14-20.

[168] This military order was founded (August 14, 1318) by the
Portuguese king Dionisio; its knights served against the Moors,
also in Africa and India. Pope Calixtus III invested its grand prior
with the spiritual powers conferred on a bishop. In 1522, Joao III
became grand-master of the order; and in 1551 this dignity passed
to the crown _in perpetuo_. In 1789, this order had four hundred and
thirty-four commanderies, and twenty-six villages and estates. It is
now only a civil and honorary order.

[169] See Bourne _ut supra_, p. 195. The original is in Torre do Tombo,
bearing pressmark "Coll. de Bullas, maco 29, n deg.. 6. Inserta." This
bull occupies pp. 286-296 of _Corpo diplomatico Portuguez_. It is
printed also in _Alguns documentos_, pp. 47-55.

[170] See _Corpo diplomatico Portuguez_, p. 296.

[171] Cape Noon (Naon, Non, Nun) is situated near the south-west
extremity of the coast of Morocco; Cape Bojador (Bogiador) projects
into the Atlantic at a point two degrees thirty-eight minutes farther
south than Noon.

[172] See _Corpo diplomatico Portuguez_, p. 297, and _Alguns
documentos_, p. 366.

[173] One of the great military orders of Spain, named for its
patron St. James, and founded to protect his shrine at Compostella
from incursions by the Moors. It received papal sanction in 1175;
in 1476 Ferdinand of Castile became its grand master; thus uniting
the order to the crown of Spain.

[174] The letter here mentioned (see Navarrete's _Col. de viages,
_ iv, p. 312) expresses Carlos's regret that his negotiations with
the Portuguese ambassadors regarding the ownership of the Malucos
have been fruitless, and his desire that the difficulties should be
amicably adjusted; he refers Joao to Zuniga for full details.

[175] Navarrete omits this section. It will be found in the Treaty
of Tordesillas.

[176] The Spanish monarch was at this time engaged in his quarrels
with Francois I of France.

[177] In another letter of the same date the Emperor complains to
the King of Portugal that the latter's ambassadors have not been
willing to abide by the treaty of Tordesillas in their conferences
with the Castilian plenipotentiaries, "although our right to those
regions discovered and taken possession of by our fleet is fully
apparent from the treaties and compacts negotiated over the division
of lands and the line of demarcation, and confirmed in the name of
each one of us." Neither would they discuss the new propositions
submitted to them--"although with some prejudice to our right;"
nor would they themselves submit new propositions; consequently they
are returning to Portugal without reaching any decision. The letter
closes by saying that the Emperor is about to write about the whole
affair to his representative, "Juan de Zuniga, knight of the order of
Santiago, residing there [at Lisbon] in our behalf;" and King Joao
is earnestly requested to rest assured of the love and affection of
the Spanish monarch.

[178] This was an ancient office in the royal house of Castile.

[179] Bartulo was an Italian jurisconsult, born (1313) at
Sasso-Ferrato, in Umbria; he died at Perusa in 1356. He was entrusted
with several important political commissions and wrote upon various
points of civil law; some of his works were used as text books in
the most famous universities. He has been styled "the first and most
thorough of the interpreters of law."

Baldo is evidently one of the two brothers Pietro and Angelo Baldo de
Ubaldis, both eminent Italian jurisconsults. The former was born at
Perusa, in 1324, and died at Pavia, April 28, 1406. He was a man of
vast erudition, and held many important posts--his influence extending
so far that Charles VI of France implored his aid at the Roman court
for convening a general council. He was the author of a number of
commentaries and other works. Angelo was born in 1328, and died in
1407; he was (at the same time with his brother) professor of civil
law at Perusa, and wrote several commentaries and monographs.

[180] Original in folio bound in parchment. It has forty-three good
sheets.--Note by Munoz. (Cited by Navarrete).

[181] The matter in brackets in these proceedings is evidently notes
made by Munoz, although they may have been made by the Castilian

[182] The number acting for Portugal was not greater than for Spain,
as Gomara points out and whom Herrera copies, but the same on either
side, only while Portugal had two attorneys, Spain had one attorney
and one advocate.--_Navarrete_.

[183] This date should be June 7, 1494. The Spanish letter of
authorization was dated June 5.

[184] Original in handwriting of Don Hernando Colon. (Navarrete,
tomo iv, no. xxvii, pp. 343-355.

[185] Of these navigators, Aloysius (Luigi) da Ca da Mosto made
a voyage to Cape Verde and Senegal, in 1454-55; Antonio de Noly,
to the Cape Verde Islands, in 1462; Pedro de Cintra (Italianized as
Piero d'Sinzia), to Senegal, in 1462; Diego Cano, to the Congo River
and inland, in 1484; Bartolome Diaz discovered the Cape of Good Hope
in 1486; and Vasco da Gama made several voyages to India, the first
in 1497.

[186] This is a Latin translation of _Paesi nouamente retronati_
(Vicenza, 1507)--the earliest known collection of voyages. It is
supposed to have been compiled by Alessandro Zorzi, a Venetian
cosmographer (according to Bartlett); but Fracanzio di Montalboddo,
according to Quaritch (_Catalogue_ No. 362, 1885). Facsimiles of the
titles of both books are given in Bartlett's _Bibliotheca Americana_,
part i, p. 40.

[187] This is the book called today "the first book of the Kings."

[188] The original is in folio bound in parchment, with ninety-five
good sheets.--Note by Munoz (cited by Navarrete).

[189] The original is "Ambrosio y Teodosio y Macrobio." The same error
was made by Jaime Ferrer, who likewise gives these names as those
of three distinct men instead of one, his true name being "Aurelius
Theodosius Macrobius." See Dawson's _Lines of Demarcation_, 1899,
p. 510.

[190] Referring to the _Ymago Mundi_ (1483?) of Pierre d'Ailly,
archbishop of Cambray, and cardinal; regarding this book, see
Bartlett's _Bibl. Americana_, part i, pp. 3-5.

[191] This was the title conferred on Christopher Columbus by the
Catholic sovereigns.

[192] The individuals of the municipal governing body upon whom
devolves the economic government of a city.--_Novisimo diccionario de
la lengua castellana_ (Paris and Mexico, 1899). See also _Diccionario
enciclopedico hispano-americano_ (Barcelona, 1887-1899), tomo xvii,
pp. 302-303.

[193] The Consejo de las Ordenes [Council of the Military Orders]
was created by Charles V, from the separate councils of the various
military orders. This council consisted of a president and six or eight
knights, and both temporal and ecclesiastical powers were conferred
upon it. Clement VI approved it, extending its jurisdiction to tithes,
benefices, marriages, and other matters of ordinary authority, and
both Paul III and Saint Pius V confirmed it. Two important tribunals
were created, one called the Tribunal of the Churches, and the other
the Apostolic Tribunal. The first was created by Charles V, and was
under the charge of a Judge protector, and had charge of the repairs,
building, and adornment of the churches of the military orders. The
second was created by Philip II, in virtue of the bull of Gregory
XIII, of October 20, 1584,--this bull having as its object the
amicable adjustment of the disputes between the military orders
and the prelates in regard to jurisdiction, tithes, etc. In 1714
the jurisdiction of the council was limited by Felipe IV, to the
ecclesiastical and temporal affairs of their own institution. In 1836
the council was reorganized under the name of tribunal. The tribunal of
the churches was suppressed, as were also the offices of comptroller
and the remaining fiscal officials, and the funds diverted into the
national treasury. Jurisdiction in ecclesiastical matters was limited
to the four military orders of Santiago, Calatrava, Alcantara, and
Montesa. See _Dic.-encic. hisp-amer.,_ tomo v, pp. 821, 822.

[194] Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (House of Commerce of
the Indies). A tribunal, having as its object the investigation
and determination of matters pertaining to the commerce and trade
of the Indies. It consisted of a president and several executive
officials,--both professional and unprofessional men--and a togated
fiscal agent. It was formerly in Seville, but removed later to
Cadiz.--_Dic. encic. hisp.-amer.,_ iv, p. 844. The documents relating
to the affairs of this house were kept formerly in a special archives,
but are housed at present in the Archivo general de Indias in Seville.

[195] The _corregidor_ was the representative of the royal person,
and combined both judicial and executive functions; in some large
cities he was made president of the city council, with administrative
functions--an office nearly equivalent to that of mayor in American

[196] See this document at p. 139, _ante_.

[197] Garcia de Loaisa, a noted Spanish prelate, was born at Talavera
(Toledo) in 1479; at the age of sixteen, he entered the Dominican
order, of which he became provincial for Spain (1518), and finally
general of the order. He was greatly esteemed by the emperor Charles
V, who chose Loasia as his confessor; and he soon afterward became
bishop of Osma, and president of the Council of the Indies. Later, he
was made a cardinal, and elevated to the archbishopric of Seville. He
acted as Charles's representative at the court of Rome, and was, less
than a year before his death, appointed general of the Inquisition;
even in that short time one hundred and twenty persons were burned
at the stake, and six hundred more punished in various ways. Loaisa
died April 21, 1546.

[198] The military order of Calatrava was formed to hold the town
of that name against the Moors, and was organized in 1164; it was
annexed to the Castilian crown during the reign of Carlos I.

[199] It is said that this fair at Medina del Campo is still held
(in May and October of each year); and that money was lent by the
crown to persons who desired loans--hence the allusion in the text.

[200] Ordinarily the tithes in each diocese were divided into
four equal parts--of which one was set aside for the bishop,
and one for the chapter. Then the other two were divided into
nine portions (_novenii_), whereof one and one-half were for the
_fabrica_ of the church (the corporate body who administered its
temporalities, consisting of the _cura_ and churchwardens), four for
the _parrocos_ (parish priests) and lower clergy, one and one-half
for the hospitals, and two for the King--all but this last being
variable. See Baluffi's _America en tempo Spagnuola_ (Ancona, 1844)
ii, p. 41.--_Rev_. T. C. _Middleton_, O. S. A.

[201] The documents published by Navarrete in full, or in copious
extracts, are the most valuable; and they are usually such as are
otherwise comparatively or wholly unknown. It is to be regretted
that Navarrete has modernized the spelling, and otherwise "improved"
the text; but the originals are presented in all essential features,
and form a valuable collection of early documentary material.

[202] An extract from Magalhaes's first will (December 17, 1504)
and the whole of his second (August 24, 1519) are given in English
translation in Guillemard's _Life of Magellan_, London, 1890, appendix
ii, pp. 316-326.

[203] He therein petitions that the sum of twelve thousand five hundred
maravedis, allowed him for his services, be paid to the convent of
Vitoria at Triana.

[204] Fernao de Magalhaes was a native of Oporto, and of noble
lineage. In early life he entered the Portuguese army, in which he
rendered distinguished service; from 1505 until probably 1511 he was in
India. Finding no opportunity for promotion in Portugal, he transferred
his allegiance (1518) to the King of Castile, and promised the latter
that he would discover a new route to Moluccas. Magalhaes set out on
this expedition September 20, 1519, with five ships, and discovered
the strait which bears his name; he also discovered and explored
partially the Philippine Archipelago. He was slain in a fight with
the natives in the island of Matan, April 27, 1521.

[205] Navarrete presents only an analysis of this letter.

[206] An itemized account (condensed) of the expenses involved in the
preparation and equipment of the fleet is given by Navarrete, no. xvii,
pp. 162-182. An English translation is presented in Guillemard's _Life
of Magellan_, appendix iv, pp. 329-336. From a comparison of the two,
it appears that the latter had access to the original documents at
Seville. Few slight differences occur between them. The figures as
given by Navarrete show several errors. The student will do well to
examine both of these lists. No. xviii in Navarrete, pp. 182-188, shows
the amounts and distribution of the food and other stores carried.

[207] Navarrete says, _ut supra_, p. xiii, that the officials of
the House of Trade were always hostile to Magallanes. The Portuguese
machinations to cause the defeat and ruin of the expedition and the
efforts put forth to induce Magallanes to return to his allegiance
are well shown in two documents. The first is a letter written the
Portuguese king by Alvaro da Costa, September 28, 1518. Navarrete,
no. vi, pp. 123, 124, gives a Spanish extract made by Munoz from
the original in Portugal, and Guillemard, _ut supra_, pp. 114-116
(see also note, p. 116), gives in part an English translation. The
second document is a letter written from Seville, July 18, 1519, by the
Portuguese factor Sebastian Alvarez to the King of Portugal. Navarrete,
no. xv, pp. 153-155, gives a Spanish extract made by Munoz. The
Portuguese of the entire letter is published in _Alguns Documentos_,
pp. 431-435. Guillemard, _ut supra_, pp. 130-134, gives an English
translation of its essential portions, which is borrowed, in part,
by Butterworth in _Story of Magellan_, pp. 46-48, New York, 1899.

[208] All these are synopses of the documents.

[209] _Ibid_.

[210] More than this number actually sailed; see Guillemard, _Life
of Magellan_, p. 336.

[211] The matter in brackets is evidently by Navarrete.

[212] This document opens with a list of the various dignities of the
King and Queen of Spain, which is omitted here, as being similar to
that already given in the Treaty of Tordesillas.

[213] Reference is here made to Juana, Carlos I's mother, the daughter
and nominally the successor of Isabella, and later of Ferdinand. Juana
being inflicted with insanity from 1503 until her death in 1555,
Ferdinand acted as regent until his death (1516), when Cardinal Ximenes
succeeded him in that capacity, acting until Carlos I attained his
majority. (1518)--Juana still being queen of Castile and Aragon.

[214] The original is defective here, and these readings are

[215] The title given formerly to the governor of a province.

[216] The Portuguese transcriber was unable to decipher the original
of the bracketed words. Navarrete, who prints these instructions to
Magalhaes and Falero, (_Col. de Viages_, tomo iv, pp. 116-121) reads
this passage thus "quien se pase" and continues "e se asiente." _Alguns
Documentos_ reads "que ..." and continues "& se entregue." The MS. in
Torre do Tombo from which the Portuguese transcript was made read
"q enpase," continuing as does the Portuguese version. It must be
remembered that Navarrete took his copy from the original document
(existing in Seville) of the agreement made with Magalhaes and Falero,
made March 22, 1518; this was included in the instructions given
to Juan de Cartagena, the recipient of the present letter, and was
doubtless copied from the original in Seville.

[217] A metal found by Columbus in the Isla Espanola. It is composed
of 18 parts gold, 6 of silver, and 8 of copper.--_Dic. de la Lengua

[218] This must have been the Strait of Magellan.

[219] The Spanish reads literally, "They gave him a blow on the head
with a mallet."

[220] The original is defective here, and this reading is only

[221] Juan Sebastian del Cano.--_Stevens_.

[222] Pietro Martire d'Anghiera (commonly known as Peter Martyr) was
an Italian priest and historian, who was born in 1455. At the age of
thirty-two years he went to the Castilian court; at various times,
he served in the army (during two campaigns), maintained a school
for boys, was sent as an ambassador to other courts, and in many ways
occupied a prominent place in the affairs of the Spanish Kingdom. He
died in 1526. His most noted work was _De orbe nouo Decades_ (Alcala,
1516); it had numerous editions, and was translated into several other
languages. An English translation of the first three Decades was made
by Richard Eden (London, 1555); this was reprinted in Arber's _First
Three English Books on America_ (Birmingham, 1885).

[223] The name Bacallaos (according to early French writers a Basque
appellation of the codfish) was also applied, by a natural extension,
to the region afterward known as Canada. According to Peter Martyr, the
name Bacallaos was given to those lands by Sebastian Cabot, "because
of the great multitudes of fishes found in the seas thereabout." See
_Jesuit Relations_ (Cleveland reissue), i, p. 308, and ii, p. 295.

[224] Fifty-six degrees west of the Canaries would be about
seventy-four degrees west of Greenwich--Magellan was some ten or
twelve degrees out.--_Stevens_.

[225] Among whom was Esteven Gomez; this ship was the "San

[226] The measure of length known as a mile varies greatly in different
countries. The geographical or nautical mile (one-sixtieth of a degree
of the equator, and equal to 1.153 English statute miles) is used
by mariners of all nations. The _milha_ of Portugal is equivalent
to 1.2786 English miles; the Italian _miglio_ varies from O.6214 to
1.3835 English miles; the _legua_ (league) of Spain amounts to 4.2151
English miles.

[227] San Pablo and Tiburones. Cf. Droysen and Andree's _Historischer
Hand Atlas_, 1884, Karte 83; also Admiralty Chart, Sec. xv,

[228] Inarajan, now confined to the port on the southeast coast of
Guajan, the southermost of the Ladrones.--_Stevens_.

[229] Acacan,_i.e._ _Sosan_-jaya, the watering place at the west end
of Rota Island, north of Guajan.--_Stevens_.

[230] The Caylon of Magellan, now confined to the port on the southwest
side of the island of Leyte, Philippines.--_Stevens_.

[231] The Maasin of Coello, or Masin of Admiralty Chart, Sec. xiii,
943; at south end of island of Leyte, the Selani of text.--_Stevens_.

[232] In the museum of the Colegio de Agustinos Filipinos at
Valladolid, Spain, is a tablet bearing the following inscription (in
English translation): "On the twenty-sixth of April, 1521, died on this
spot, while fighting valiantly, Don Hernando Magallanes, general of
the Spanish fleet, whose name alone is his greatest eulogy. Desiring
that the memory of the place where so famous and fatal an event
took place should not perish, and circumstances not permitting us
at this time to erect a monument worthy of the heroic discoverer,
this present inscription is religiously and humbly consecrated,
as a memorial, by the parochial priest of the island, the reverend
father Fray Benito Perez, on the twenty-ninth of February, 1843." This
tablet is about three feet by one and one-half feet in size, and is
made of molave wood; the letters (capitals) are neatly carved in the
wood--the work being done, in all probability, by some native under
the priest's supervision. Attached to the tablet is a card, bearing
the following inscription: "This inscription, cut in molave wood, was
accidentally found by the very reverend father Fray Jorge Romanillos,
the present parish priest of Opong, in the island of Mactang, where it
stood beside a cross, before the erection of the monument. He sends
it as a memento to the royal college of the Augustinian Fathers of
the Filipinas, at Valladolid, in the year 1887."

[233] Or Quipit, the port of this name on the northwest part of
Mindanao, applied in error to the whole island.--_Stevens_.

[234] Probably Yolo, certainly one of the Sulu islands.--_Stevens_.

[235] _I.e._ Ternate, Moter, Tidore, Maru, Mutjan.--_Stevens_.

[236] "They did not find Cattigara" is as true today as when
Maximilian wrote in 1522. For various conflicting authorities upon
its site _north_ of the equator, cf. ante p.312, and McCrindle's
_Ancient India_, 1885, p.10. Ptolemy however places it (Asia Tab. xi)
nine degrees _south_ of the equator. For a curious chapter upon this
point see Manoel Godinho de Eredia's _Malacca_, edited by Janssen,
Brussels, 1883. 4to, part 3. Why not Kota-Radja at the north end
of Sumatra?--_Stevens_.

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