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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, Volume II, 1521-1569 by Emma Helen Blair

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lib. xx, cap. v-xiii).

[5] Hernan Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, was born in 1485, at
Badajoz, Spain. When a mere boy, he resolved upon a military career,
and in 1504 went to the West Indies, where he took part in various
expeditions, and held some official posts of importance. During
1519-27, Cortes effected the conquest of Mexico and subjugation of
its people. Returning to Spain in triumph (1528), he received from
the emperor titles and lands, and was made captain-general of New
Spain, an office which he held from 1530 to 1541. He sent Saavedra to
search for Loaisa (1527); and in 1533 and, 1539 sent out expeditions
of discovery--the latter, under Ulloa, ascending the western coast of
America to thirty-two degrees north latitude. Cortes died at Seville,
December 2, 1547.

[6] Andres de Urdaneta was born in 1498, at Villafranca de
Guipuzcoa. He received a liberal education, but, his parents dying, he
chose a military career; and he won distinction in the wars of Germany
and Italy, attaining the rank of captain. Returning to Spain, he
devoted himself to the study of mathematics and astronomy, and became
proficient in navigation. Joining Loaisa's expedition, he remained in
the Moluccas, contending with the Portuguese there, until 1535, when
he went back to Spain. Going thence to Mexico (about 1540), he was
offered command of the expedition then fitting out for the Moluccas,
"but on terms which he could not accept." Villalobos was given command
of the fleet in his stead, and Urdaneta later (1552) became a friar,
entering the Augustinian order, in which he made his profession on
March 20, 1553, in the City of Mexico. There he remained until the
fleet of Legazpi departed (November 21, 1564) from La Navidad, Mexico,
for the Philippine Islands; Urdaneta accompanied this expedition,
with four other friars of his order. He was appointed prelate of
those new lands, with the title of "protector of the Indians;"
he also acted as pilot of the fleet. In the following year he was
despatched to Spain, to give an account to the government of what
Legazpi had accomplished. This mission fulfilled, he desired to return
to the Philippines, but was dissuaded from this step by his friends;
he came back to Mexico, where he died (June 3, 1568), aged seventy
years. Urdaneta was endowed with a keen intellect, and held to his
opinions and convictions with great tenacity. To his abilities and
sagacity are ascribed much of Legazpi's success in the conquest of
the Philippines. For sketches of his life, see Retana's edition of
Martinez de Zuniga's _Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas_ (Madrid,
1893), ii, appendix, pp. 621, 622; and _Dic.-Encic. Hisp.-Amer._

[7] The "zebra" was the guanaco or South American camel
(_Auchenia_). The feathers were those of the South American ostrich
(_Rhea rhea_), also called "nandu" and "avestruz" by the natives,
or possibly of the smaller species _R. darwinii_; both are found as
far south as the Strait of Magellan.

[8] It was the custom of many of the writers of these early documents
to give in dates only the last two or three figures of the year.

[9] His name was Alvaro de Loaisa.

[10] This was the flagship of Magalhaes, which remained at Tidore after
the departure of the "Victoria." The "Trinidad" set out for Panama on
April 6, 1522, but was compelled by sickness and unfavorable winds to
return to the islands. She was then captured by the Portuguese; the
ship was wrecked in a heavy storm at Ternate, and her crew detained as
prisoners by the Portuguese. Hardships, disease, and shipwreck carried
away all of them except four, who did not reach Spain until 1526.

[11] Sebastian Cabot (Caboto) was born about 1473--probably at
Venice, although some claim Bristol, England, as his birthplace; he
was the son of the noted explorer John Cabot, whom he accompanied on
the famous voyage (1494) in which they discovered and explored the
eastern coasts of Canada. A second voyage thither (1498), in which
Sebastian was commander, proved a failure; and no more is heard of
him until 1512, when he entered the service of Fernando V of Spain,
who paid him a liberal salary. In 1515 he was a member of a commission
charged with revising and correcting all the maps and charts used
in Spanish navigation. About this time, he was preparing to make
a voyage of discovery; but the project was defeated by Fernando's
death (January 23, 1516). In the same year Cabot led an English
expedition which coasted. Labrador and entered Hudson Strait; he
then returned to Spain, and was appointed (February 5, 1518) royal
pilot-major, an office of great importance and authority. He was
one of the Spanish commissioners at Badajoz in 1524; and in 1526
commanded a Spanish expedition to the Moluccas, which sailed from
Spain on April 3 of that year. Arriving at the River de la Plata,
Cabot decided to explore that region instead of proceeding to the
Moluccas--induced to take this step by a mutiny among his officers,
sickness among his crews, and the loss of his flag-ship. Misfortunes
followed him, and he returned to Spain in 1530. Upon the accession
of Edward VI to the English throne, Cabot was induced to reenter the
English service, which he did in 1548, receiving from Edward promotion
and rewards. Nothing is heard of him after 1557; and no work of his
is known to be extant save a map of the world, made in 1544. and
preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. Regarding his life
and achievements, see Nicholls's _Sebastian Cabot_ (London, 1869);
Henry Stevens's _Sebastian Cabot_ (Boston, 1870); Harrisse's _Jean
et Sebastian Cabot_ (Paris, 1882); F. Tarducci's _John and Sebastian
Cabot_ (Brownson's translation, Detroit, 1893); Dawson's "Voyages of
the Cabots," in _Canad. Roy. Soc. Trans., 1894,_ pp. 51-112, 1896,
pp. 3-30, 1897, pp. 139-268; Dionne's _John and Sebastian Cabot_
(Quebec, 1898); Winship's _Cabot Bibliography_ (London, 1900).

[12] Joao Serrao, one of Magalhaes's captains, was elected, after the
latter's death, to the command of the fleet. On May 1, 1521, he was
murdered by natives on the island of Cebu, having been treacherously
abandoned there by his own companions.

[13] The "Santiago," in which was the priest Areizaga (see note 3).

[14] Saavedra died at sea in the month of December, 1529. See
Navarrete's _Col. de viages_, v, p. 422.

[15] Lib. xx of Oviedo's _Hist. de Indias_ is devoted to the relation
of these early expeditions to the Philippines of Magalhaes, Loaisa,
and Saavedra.

[16] Ruy Lopez de Villalobos is said to have been a man of letters,
licentiate in law, and born of a distinguished family in Malaga; he was
brother-in-law of Antonio de Mendoza, who (then viceroy of New Spain)
appointed him commander of the expedition here described. Departing
from Navidad, Mexico (November 1, 1542), he reached Mindanao on
February 2 of the following year; he was the first to make explorations
in that island. It was he who bestowed upon those islands the name
Filipinas (Philippine), in honor of the crown-prince Don Felipe of
Spain, afterward known as Felipe II; he conferred this appellation
probably in 1543. The Portuguese, then established in the Moluccas,
opposed any attempt of Spaniards to settle in the neighboring islands,
and treated Villalobos as an enemy. After two years of hardships
and struggles, he was obliged to place himself in their hands; and,
departing for Spain in one of their ships, was seized by a malignant
fever, which terminated his life at Amboina, on Good Friday, 1546. In
his last hours he was spiritually assisted by St. Francis Xavier
(styled "the Apostle of the Indies"). For biographical material
regarding Villalobos, see _Dic.-Encic. Hisp.-Amer.,_ article: "Lopez
de Villalobos;" Galvano's _Discoveries of the World_ (Hakluyt Society
edition), pp. 231-238; and Buzeta and Bravo's _Diccionario Filipinas_;
Retana's sketch, in his edition of Zuniga's _Estadismo_, ii, p. 593*.

[17] Pedro de Alvarado was, after Hernan Cortes, the most notable of
the early Spanish conquerors of New Spain. He was born at Badajoz,
about 1485, and came to America in 1510. He served with distinction
in many wars and expeditions during the conquest, and received from
Cortes various important commands. Among these was the post of governor
and captain-general of Guatemala (1523); in the following year he
founded the old city of Guatemala, which later was destroyed by the
eruption of a volcano. In 1534 he planned to send an expedition to the
Pacific islands; but news of the discovery of Peru and the conquests
of Pizarro caused him to defer this enterprise, and he sent instead
troops to Peru, fitted out through his extortions on the inhabitants
of his province. Afterward he planned, with Mendoza, the expedition
conducted by Villalobos, but never knew its outcome; he died on July 4,
1541, from wounds received while attacking an Indian village.

[18] Antonio de Mendoza belonged to a family of distinction, and was
born at Granada, toward the close of the fifteenth century. He was the
first viceroy of New Spain, being appointed April 17, 1535. He was
beloved by the people for his good government; he made wise laws,
opened and worked mines, coined money, founded a university and
several colleges, and introduced printing into Mexico. He despatched
two maritime expeditions of discovery--that of Villalobos, and another
to California; and made explorations by land as far as New Mexico. In
1550 he was sent as viceroy to Peru, and administered that office
until his death, which occurred July 21, 1552, at Lima.

[19] The title of Marquis del Valle de Oaxaca was conferred upon Hernan
Cortes, July 6, 1529. He had taken great interest in the exploration
of the Pacific Ocean and its coasts; and had spent on expeditions sent
out with that object no less sum than three hundred thousand pesos
(Helps's _Life of Cortes_, p. 282.)

[20] This compares favorably with the homestead law of the United
States. The institution mentioned in the next sentence apparently was
peculiar to Spanish colonial administration in America. Its origin
was in the _repartimiento_, which at first (1497) meant a grant of
lands in a conquered country; it was soon extended to include the
natives dwelling thereon, who were compelled to till the land for the
conqueror's benefit. In 1503 _encomiendas_ were granted, composed of
a certain number of natives, who were compelled to work. The word
_encomienda_ is a term belonging to the military orders (from the
ranks of which came many officials appointed for the colonies),
and corresponds to our word "commandery." It is defined by Helps
(practically using the language of Solorzano, the eminent Spanish
jurist), as "a right conceded by royal bounty, to well-deserving
persons in the Indies, to receive and enjoy for themselves the
tributes of the Indians who should be assigned to them, with a charge
of providing for the good of those Indians in spiritual and temporal
matters, and of inhabiting and defending the provinces where these
_encomiendas_ should be granted to them." Helps has done good service
to historical students in recognizing the great importance, social
and economic, of the _encomienda_ system in the Spanish colonies, and
its far-reaching results; and in embodying the fruits of his studies
thereon in his _Spanish Conquest in America_ (London, 1855-61), to
which the reader is referred for full information on this subject;
see especially vols. iii, iv.

[21] See the Treaty of Zaragoza, vol. i, p. 222.

[22] This was the dust or residue of the filings from the various
assays and operations in the founding of metals, and was usually
applied to the benefit of hospitals and houses of charity. It belonged
to the king, and was placed under lock and key, one key in possession
of the founder and the other of the king's factor.--Note by editor
of _Col. doc. ined_.

[23] This name is variously spelled Labezaris, Labezares, Labezarii,
Lavezarii, and in other ways. This man occupied an important place
in Legazpi's expedition, and was later governor of the Philippine
Islands. Several documents by him will appear in this series.

[24] A note by the editor of _Doc. ined._ says that the religious
sent in this expedition were Fray Jeronimo de San Estevan, prior of
the Augustinians; Fray Nicolas de Perea, Fray Alonso de Alvarado,
and Fray Sebastian de Reina.

[25] A small vessel with lateen sails.

[26] This was the Portuguese governor of Ternate and the Moluccas. The
correspondence may be found in the archives of Torre do Tombo.

[27] Apparently a reference to the islands Sarangani and Balut, off the
southern point of Mindanao. Regarding Mazaua (Massava, Mazagua) Stanley
cites--in _First Voyage by Magellan_ (Hakluyt Society Publications,
no. 52), p. 79--a note in Milan edition of Pigafetta's relation,
locating Massaua between Mindanao and Samar. It is doubtless the
Limasaua of the present day, off the south point of Leyte.

[28] A map by Nicolaus Visscher, entitled _Indiae Orientalis nova
descriptio_ (undated, but probably late in the seventeenth century)
shows "Philippina al Tandaya," apparently, intended for the present
Samar; but Legazpi's relation of 1565 (_post_) would indicate that
Tandaya was the modern Leyte. Ortelius (1570) locates the Talao
Islands about half-way from Mindanao to Gilolo they are apparently
the Tulour or Salibabo Islands of today.

[29] The names in brackets are the modern appellations (see
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ ii, pp. xvi, xvii).

[30] Antonio Galvano explains this by declaring that he had in 1538
(being then the Portuguese governor of the Moluccas) sent Francisco
de Castro to convert the natives of the Philippines to the Catholic
faith. On the island of Mindanao he was sponsor at the baptism of
six kings, with their wives, children, and subjects. See Galvano's
_Tratado_ (Hakluyt Society reprint of Hakluyt's translation,
_Discoveries of the World_, pp. 208, 233).

[31] See _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, ii, p. xvii.

[32] On old maps Abuyo; the aboriginal appellation of the island of
Leyte (Retana-edition of Combes's _Mindanao_, p. 749).

[33] Probably the cannon belonging to Magalhaes's ship "Trinidad,"
which the Portuguese seized in October, 1522; they had built a
fortified post on the island of Ternate in the preceding summer,
their first settlement in the Moluccas. Ternate, Tidore, Mutir, and
two others, are small islands lying along the western coast of Gilolo;
on them cloves grew most abundantly when Europeans first discovered
the Moluccas.

[34] Bisayas or Visayas is the present appellation of the islands
which lie between Luzon and Mindanao.

[35] This document is printed in both the original text and English

[36] Luis de Velasco succeeded Antonio de Mendoza as viceroy of New
Spain, taking his office in November, 1550, and holding it until his
death (July 31, 1564). He was of an illustrious family of Castile and
had held several military appointments before he became viceroy. He
exercised this latter office with great ability, and favored the
Indians to such an extent that he was called "the father of the
Indians." He died poor and in debt, and was buried with solemnity in
the Dominican monastery at the City of Mexico.

[37] A small vessel used as a tender, to carry messages between larger
vessels, etc.

[38] The Treaty of Zaragoza, _q.v._ vol. i, p. 222.

[39] This opinion is correct, referring as it does to the five islands
lying along the coast of Gilolo.

[40] Miguel Lopez de Legazpi who, with Andres de Urdaneta, rediscovered
and conquered the Philippine Islands, was born in Zubarraja in
Guipuzcoa in the early part of the sixteenth century, of an old
and noble family. He went to Mexico in 1545, where he became chief
clerk of the _cabildo_ of the City of Mexico. Being selected to take
charge of the expedition of 1564, he succeeded by his great wisdom,
patience, and forbearance, in gaining the good will of the natives. He
founded Manila, where he died of apoplexy August 20, 1572. He was much
lamented by all. He was succeeded as governor of the Philippines by
Guido de Lavezaris.

[41] Navarrete says (_Bibl. Marit_., tomo ii, p. 492), that
Legazpi was fifty-nine years old when the fleet set sail in 1564,
which makes him six years older than the age given above. See
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ tomo ii, p. 116, note.

[42] The Ladrones or Marianas number in all sixteen islands, and are
divided into two groups of five and eleven islands respectively. They
extend north and south about nine hundred and fifty kilometers, lying
between thirteen degrees and twenty-one degrees north latitude, and
one hundred and forty-eight degrees and one hundred and forty-nine
degrees forty minutes longitude east of Madrid. They are but thinly
populated; their flora resembles that of the Philippines. The largest
and most important of these islands, Guam, is now the property of
the United States.

[43] Although this allusion cannot well be identified, it indicates
some episode of the great eagerness and readiness for western
discovery then prevalent in France. Cartier's explorations (1534-36,
and 1540-43), and later those of Jean Allefonsce, had already been
published to the world; and maps of the eastern coast of North America
showed, as early as 1544, the great St. Lawrence River, which afforded
an easy entrance to the interior, and might readily be supposed to
form a waterway for passage to the "Western Sea"--especially as New
France was then generally imagined to be a part of Asia; Japan and
China being not very far west of the newly-discovered coast.

[44] These two vessels were rechristened "San Pedro" and "San Pablo"
before actually sailing. The admiral of the fleet was to have been
Juan de Carrion; but he was left behind because of his dissensions
with Urdaneta, and Mateo del Saz fulfilled his duties.

[45] The Theatins were a religious congregation founded in Italy (1524)
by Gaetano de Tiene and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, archbishop of Theato
(the modern Chieti)--who afterward became pontiff of Rome, under the
title of Paul IV. Their object was to reform the disorders that had
crept into the Roman church, and restore the zeal, self-sacrifice,
and charity of apostolic days. They would neither own property nor
ask alms, but worked at various trades and were thus maintained,
with voluntary offerings from the faithful. During the next century
they spread into other European countries (where they still have many
houses), and undertook missions in Asia.

[46] The total cost of the preparation of Legazpi's fleet was 382,468
pesos, 7 tomines, 5 grains of common gold; and 27,400 pesos, 3 tomines,
1 grain of gold dust. These expenses cover the period from December
13, 1557, until March 2, 1565. See _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ iii,
no. 36, pp. 461-463.

The gold dust here mentioned (Spanish _oro de minas_) means gold in
the form of "gravel" or small nuggets, obtained usually from placers,
or the washings of river-sands. The "common" gold (_oro comun_)
is refined gold, or bullion, ready for coinage.

[47] This vessel, after trying to find--or at least making such a
claim--the fleet in Mindanao and other islands, returned to New Spain,
anchoring at Puerto de la Navidad August 9, 1565. A relation by its
captain Alonso de Arellano, gives an account of this voyage (published
in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ iii, no. 37, pp. 1-76). Testimony as
to the truth of this relation is given under oath by its author, his
pilot Lope Martin, and others. It is quite evident throughout that it
was written with the hope of explaining satisfactorily the "San Lucas's
" sudden disappearance and failure to rejoin the flagship. Accounts of
islands passed by the vessel are given and the various and frequent
mishaps of wind and wave detailed at length. On January 8 an island
was reached where the people "were afraid of our ship and of us and
our weapons. They are well proportioned, tall of stature, and bearded,
their beards reaching to their waists. The men wear their hair long
like women, neatly combed and tied behind in a knot. They are greedy,
very treacherous, and thoroughly unprincipled.... They are Caribs, and,
I understand, eat human flesh. They are warlike, as it seemed to us,
for they were always prepared, and they must carry on war with other
islands. Their weapons are spears pointed with fish bones, and masanas
[a wooden weapon, generally edged with sharp flint, used by the early
Mexican and Peruvian aborigines.].... They are much given to hurling
stones from slings, and with very accurate aim. They are excellent
swimmers and sailors. We called this island Nadadores [Swimmers],
because they swam out to us when we were more than a league from
the island." A mutiny sprang up after reaching the Philippines, but
was checked. Arellano claims that he left the prescribed tokens of
his visit in Mindanao. The _patache_ reached Puerto de la Navidad
on August 9, after its crew had suffered many hardships and much
sickness. Legazpi, quite naturally, was much displeased at the evident
desertion of the "San Lucas" and caused action to be taken against
Arellano and Lope Martin, by Gabriel Diaz of the Mexican mint. This
latter presented various petitions before the _Audiencia_ of Mexico,
detailing the charges and asking investigation. The charges were
desertion,--"in which the loss he occasioned cannot be overestimated,"
because this vessel was intended for a close navigation of the islands
and their rivers and estuaries, which the larger vessels could not
attempt,--assuming to himself powers of jurisdiction that belonged to
Legazpi as general of the expedition,--executing summary justice on two
men (causing them to be thrown overboard),--cruelty, and "many other
grave and serious offenses;" which "he had committed in company with
the pilot and others." Diaz asked that Arellano be made to render an
account to Legazpi and to serve for his pay, as he had served in the
expedition but ten days. However just the demand for an investigation,
it was never made, which was probably due to Arellano's influence
with the court in Spain. The only notice that appeared to be taken
of the petitions was a request from the _Audiencia_ that Diaz show
his authority to act in the case, which he had showed already in the
petitions. The voyage of the "San Lucas" is called by the editor of
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ "one of the boldest registered in the
history of navigation." See the above series, tomo ii, pp. 222, 223;
and tomo iii, pp. v-xviii, and 1-76.

[48] See the notarial attestation of the taking of possession of
Barbudos in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ iii, pp. 76-79. This was
apparently one of the Marshall Islands.

[49] On January 26, 1565, Legazpi in person took possession of the
Ladrones, for the Spanish crown. This possession was made in the
island of Guam, before Hernando Riquel, government notary, and with
all the necessary formalities. The witnesses were "Fray Andres de
Urdaneta, prior; the master-of-camp, Mateo del Sanz; the accountant,
Andres Cauchela; the factor, Andres de Mirandaola; the chief ensign,
Andres de Ybarra; Geronimo de Moncon, and many others." See the record
of possession, _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ iii, pp. 79-81.

[50] Cf. with this the thievishness, and dexterity therein, of the
Huron Indians, in _Jesuit Relations_ (Cleveland reissue), v, pp. 123,
241, 243, and elsewhere.

[51] This island is styled variously Guam, Goam, Guan, and Boan (see
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, ii, p. 243). The United States government
now uses it as a coaling station.

[52] From an official document drawn up by Hernando Riquel, it appears
that the fleet reached the Philippines in very poor condition, due
to insufficient and careless preparation. In response to a petition
signed by the royal officials "Guido de la Vacares [Lavezaris],
Andres Cauchela, and Andres de Mirandaola," that testimonies be
received from certain officers and pilots of the fleet, in regard
to its poor condition, Legazpi ordered such depositions to be taken,
which was done on May 23, 1565. These testimonies show that the fleet
left Puerto de la Navidad with insufficient crews, marine equipment,
artillery, and food, in consequence of which great sufferings had been
and were still being endured. It was testified "that the provisions
of meat, lard, cheese, beans and peas, and fish lasted but a short
time, because of putrefying and spoiling by reason of having been
laid in many days before sailing." See _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_
iii, pp. 305-318.

[53] The notarial testimony of this taking of possession will be
given in this volume, p. 167.

[54] Probably the island of Leyte. See _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_,
ii, p. 258.

[55] This ceremony of blood friendship will be explained in later
documents. It was characteristic of Malayan peoples. The present
Cabalian is in the extreme S.E. part of Leyte.

[56] Camiguin, north of Mindanao, and north by west from Butuan Bay.

[57] The testimonies of the "wrongs inflicted on the natives in
certain of the Philippines, under cover of friendship and under
pretext of a desire to trade," by Portuguese from the Moluccas, and
the injuries resulting therefrom to the Spaniards, are recounted in
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, iii, pp. 284-305.

[58] Probably in pique because Urdaneta's advice to colonize New
Guinea had been disregarded, and because these islands were, as
Urdaneta declared, in Portugal's demarcation.

[59] The notarial memorandum of the finding of the Nino Jesus will
be found in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, iii, pp. 277-284. It gives
Legazpi's testimony concerning the discovery, and his appointment
of the date of finding as an annual religious holiday, as well
as the testimonies of the finder, Juan de Camuz, and of Esteban
Rodriguez, to whom Camuz first showed the image (which is described
in detail). Pigafetta relates _{First Voyage of Magellan,_ pp. 93,
94) that he gave an image of the Infant Jesus to the queen of Cebu,
April 14, 1521--evidently the same as that found by Legazpi's men.

[60] On this day Legazpi took formal possession of the island of Cebu
and adjacent islands for Spain. The testimony of Hernando Riquel,
government notary, of this act appears in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_
iii, pp. 89, 90.

[61] This image is still preserved in the Augustinian convent at Cebu;
a view of it is presented in this volume.

[62] The preceding relation says three hours.

[63] Probably the casava root.

[64] The native race inhabiting Guam is called Chamorro.

[65] This was the island of Negros (_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, ii,
p. 410).

[66] The pilot makes use of the familiar second person singular forms
throughout this relation.

[67] His relation of this voyage, continued until a few days before his
death), is preserved in the Archivo general de Indias, at Seville. See
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, ii, p. 456.

[68] His full name. He was a brother of Captain Juan de la Isla. See
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ vol. ii, p. 458.

[69] The number in the printed document is one thousand three hundred
and seventy. This must be an error for one thousand eight hundred
and seventy, as so great a difference between the three maps would
hardly be likely to occur.

[70] This relation may be considered as the continuation of that
which records the voyage from New Spain, until the departure of die
"San Pedro" from Cebu. Neither is signed, but the former seems to
have been written by a military officer, as he speaks in one place of
"the men of my company."

[71] Cf. the Chinese belief, and the reverence of the American Indian
for his ancestors.

[72] Cf. the burial rites of North American tribes, as described in
the _Jesuit Relations_ (see Index, article: Indians).

[73] This chief's name is also spelled in this relation Mahomat.

[74] The _fanega_ is a measure of capacity that was extensively used
throughout Spain and the Spanish colonies, and in the Spanish-American
republics; but it is now largely superseded by the measures of the
metric system. Its value varied in different provinces or colonies. Its
equivalents in United States (Winchester) bushels are as follows:
Aragon, O.64021; Teruel (Aragon), I.23217; Castile, 1.59914; Asturias,
2.07358; Buenos Aires, 3.74988; Canary Islands, 1.77679 (struck), 2.5
(heaped). The _fanega_ of Castile is equivalent to 5.63 decaliters. The
name was also applied to the portion of ground which might be sown
with a _fanega_ of grain.

[75] A detailed relation of the voyage of the "San Geronimo"
was written by Juan Martinez, a soldier, being dated Cebu, July
25, 1567. It is given in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar,_ ii, no. 47,
pp. 371-475. From the very first the insubordination of the pilot
Lope Martin was manifest, who said to the easy-going captain. "If you
think you are going to take me to Cebu, you are very much mistaken;
for as soon as he saw me there, the governor would hang me."

[76] In regard to this use of precious gums, see _East Africa and
Malabar_ (Hakluyt Society Publications, no. 35), pp. 31, 230; in that
text _yncenso_ is incorrectly translated "wormwood."

[77] Document no. xli, pp. 244-276, tomo iii, consists of memoranda
made by Hernando Riquel, notary of the expedition. These were drawn
up by order of Legazpi, and relate to occurrences after the fleet
reached Cabalian (March, 1565), until the resolution to colonize in
Cebu. They are mainly concerned with negotiations with the natives,
and are fully attested; but contain nothing additional to the matter
in the relations.

[78] A tax paid to the monarch by those not belonging to the nobility.

[79] See note 18, _ante_, on _repartimientos_ and _encomiendas_.

[80] Counselors of the provincial or other high official, whose advice
was considered by him in all important affairs.

[81] Ours: a familiar term in use by members of a religious order,
referring to their fellows therein.

[82] This island is called by the French pilot Pierres Plun,
in his relation, Zibaban, Zibao, and Zibaba. La Concepcion calls
it (_Historia,_ vol. i, p. 331) Ybabao. The editor of _Cartas de
Indias_ conjectures this to be the island of Libagas (near Mindoro);
but that would not agree with the statements made about it in
various documents. Retana (_Zuniga,_ vol. ii, p. 383*) says that
Cibabao is Samar, which is, however, not an altogether satisfactory

[83] This name is given at Arrezun in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_.

[84] In _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, this name it given as Francisco
Escudero de la Portolla.

[85] In another document, dated February 20, 1565 (published in
_Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, iii, pp. 81, 82), Legazpi personally
verified the possession taken by Ybarra, Andres de Urdaneta being
witness thereto. On that day Legaspi took possession not only of
Cibabao but of the adjacent islands.

[86] In _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_ (p. 336), this name is given as
"ypolito atanbor."

[87] Many of these names are signed with a _rubrica_ or flourish,
which, like the French _paraphe_, was customary as a protection
against forgery.

[88] Apparently referring to the president of the _Audiencia_ of New
Spain, although the formal address is to that body as a whole.

[89] This list does not accompany the letter, either in the Sevilla
archives or in _Doc. ined;_ but see Bibliographical Data for this
document, at end of this volume.

[90] The Spanish _quintal_ varied in different provinces and colonies
as follows (equivalents given in U.S. pounds): Aragon, 109.738476;
Castile (and Chile), 101.6097; Asturias, 152.281185; Catalonia, 87.281;
Valencia (old measure), 109.728476; Buenos Aires, 101.4178. This unit
of weight has been generally replaced by those of the metric system.

[91] Evidently this word is used in its early sense, of one who
practiced blood-letting, etc., as the barber often performed duties
now strictly pertaining to the physician.

[92] The _arroba_ was equal to four _quintals_.

[93] The _braza_ was a measure of length, equivalent to 16.718
decimeters, or 1.82636 yards (U.S.) The name originated (like the
French _brasse_) in the primitive use of the human arm as a measure of
length. The _braza_ (square) was used in the Philippines as a measure
of surface, being equivalent to 36 Spanish, or 30.9168 English,
square feet.

[94] A short dagger with a broad blade.

[95] In the relation published in _Col. doc. ined. Ultramar_, ii,
pp. 265-277, where these transactions are recounted in greater detail,
these names are spelled Camutrian (Camutuan, Camotuan), and Maletec,

[96] Apparently the same as the Massaua of earlier documents.

[97] In the relation cited above, note 92, the name of this island
is spelled (p. 277) Camiguinin.

[98] The second ship of the fleet, "San Pablo." The "San Pedro"
or flagship was spoken of as the _capitana_.

[99] A veil of thin gauze worn by the Moors. Evidently the term is
used in this connection, as the Mohammedans of these islands were
called Moros (Moors) by the Spaniards.

[100] Apparently referring to the island of Negros.

[101] The word is _escaupiles_, which was a species of ancient
Mexican armor.

[102] An equestrian exercise with reed spears.

[103] The actual date of departure was the twenty-first.

[104] See note 43, _ante_, as to the cost of the fleet. The reference
in the text is apparently to some Mexican mint or mine.

[105] This vessel was the "San Lucas," commanded by Alonso de Arellano;
see account of its adventures in "Expedition of Legazpi."

[106] A reference to the relation sent to Felipe II by
Legazpi--probably by the "San Pedro."

[107] A measure for grain containing one-third of a _fanega_.

[108] An error naturally made, in those early days of acquaintance
with the Philippines, since the island of Mactan (Matan), where
Magalhaes was slain, lies near the coast of Cebu. According to the
_U.S. Philippine Gazetteer_ (p. 69), the archipelago comprises twelve
principal islands and three groups, with one thousand five hundred
and eighty-three dependent islands.

[109] Apparently meaning the "San Pedro," which was despatched from
Cebu by Legazpi on June 1, 1565. It reached Navidad on October 1,
and probably arrived at Seville in May or June, 1566.

[110] The _concha_ and _blanca_ were ancient copper coins of the
value of one-half and three _maravedis_, respectively. The coins
above-mentioned evidently resembled these in size.

[111] The "San Geronimo."

[112] Throughout this document, the statements and comments of the
notaries will be enclosed in parentheses, to enable the reader more
easily to separate the various letters and writs from one another.

[113] The _caracoa_ is a large canoe used by the Malayan peoples--"with
two rows of oars, very light, and fitted with a European sail, its
rigging of native manufacture" (_Dic. Acad._). According to Retana
(_Zuniga_, ii, p. 513*), the word _caracoa_ is not to be found in
Filipino dictionaries.

[114] Referring to the rule of Sebastiao, the infant king of Portugal,
and of his grandmother Catarina, regent during his minority.

[115] Javelins: the Portuguese word is _azagayas_, with which
cf. _assagai_, the name of a like weapon among the Kaffirs of Africa.

[116] This phrase (meaning "nothing paid") is no longer used in
notarial documents. Sometimes when documents are legalized by the
Mexican Legation at Washington, the fee is not paid there, but
is to be paid at Mexico on presentation of the document there;
the secretary of the Legation accordingly writes on it, _No se
pagaran derechos_--perhaps a similar procedure to that noted in the
text.--_Arthur P. Cushing_ (consul for Mexico at Boston).

[117] This arose from the fact that the Portuguese navigated eastward
from Europe to reach their oriental possessions, while the Spaniards
voyaged westward. The reckoning of the Spaniards in the Philippines
was thus a day behind that of the Portuguese. This error was corrected
in 1844, at Manila and Macao respectively. See vol. i, note 2.

[118] Sevilla, one of the centers of Mahometan power in Spain, was
besieged for more than two years (1246-48) by Fernando III of Castilla,
who finally captured it. The expedition against Tunis here referred to
was undertaken by Carlos I of Spain (1535). to restore Muley Hassan,
the Mahometan king of Tunis, to his throne, whence he had been driven
by Barbarossa, King of Algiers; the usurper was expelled, after a
brief siege.

[119] This is followed by the certification of the copyist who
transcribed this document for the South American boundary negotiations
between Spain and Portugal in 1776, at Paris. It reads thus: "I,
Don Juan Ignacio Cascos, revisor and expert in handwriting and
old documents, and one of those appointed by the Royal and Supreme
Council of Castilla, made the foregoing copy, and collated it with
the original, which was written on twenty-four sheets of ordinary
paper, and signed, each in his own hand, by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
and Fernando Riquel. Madrid, the twenty-sixth day of August in the
year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six.

_Juan Ignacio Pascos_."

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