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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, Volume II, 1521-1569 by Emma Helen Blair

Part 4 out of 5

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over an extent of more than fifty or sixty leagues--although, it is
true, I have heard it said that one of our ships once ran a distance
of eighty leagues; but his grace's having entered three hundred
leagues into these waters of ours causes me anxiety, especially in
view of his coming through a sea so calm and winds so gentle that
small boats are able to navigate it, as most of the people of this
region have told and declared to me. As regards his saying that he
was absolutely obliged to enter, owing to lack of provisions, I reply
through the lips of the captain of his company and those of ours here,
who affirmed that in the Ladrones Islands where he was best employed
in the service of God, so many boats brought him supplies that their
number was estimated in one single day at six hundred; moreover,
that in the islands aforesaid, and in others by which they passed,
they obtained hens, swine, fish, rice, and yams. The same thing was
told me by the father prior; and I understand that Guido de Lavezaris,
treasurer of his majesty and his grace, having, in this archipelago
of ours, nothing left of the six hundred boat-loads and obtaining in
this region so little food in the boats or camp, sent to Panae and
others of our districts for supplies at the cost of a great deal of
trouble. This is a fact well attested, since I have been in this port;
for I consented and allowed many vessels bearing supplies to enter,
on their declaring to me that there was so great lack of provisions
here that many soldiers were living upon grass. I assert it to be clear
and evident, moreover, for every man of judgment and understanding,
that so rich a fleet--comprising so large ships, sent forth for the
purpose of discovery by its king, and departing from his kingdom of
Nova Spanha, a land of so great fertility and abundance--would not
lack supplies and munitions for three or even four years; and that
a fleet so large as that of which his grace is commander must have
come provided and supplied with everything necessary for a long
period of time. And this was, indeed, declared to be the fact by
the chief men of the encampment, who said that biscuit and supplies
abounded on the flagship, when it arrived hence at Nova Spanha;
and that there was great superfluity in many things obtained from
the islands lying within their demarcation, as well as in many more
which his grace brought over in his fleet. In this lack of provisions
(in which he placed himself very much by his own choice), we placed
Alvoro de Mendonca, who was then captain of the fortress of Maluco,
at his disposal for everything that he might need from these lands and
seas of the king our sovereign, in the month of July of the year one
thousand five hundred and sixty-seven through the means of Antonio
Ronbo da Costa and Baltesar de Sousa, whom I sent for this purpose
from Maluco in two _caracoras._ This his grace did not accept--
on account of the abundance of everything which he possessed, as if
appears--contrary to the action which would be taken by one who is in
necessity, and who avails and assists himself even through the medium
of his enemies; and even more so in the case of so good friends as are
and always have been the vassals of the king our sovereign and those
of the sovereigns of Castela, between which princes there exists a very
ancient relation and intimacy. The excuse he gives, in addition to the
others already mentioned, of entering into this our sea and conquest,
because he knew that the Portuguese have no commercial relations as
yet within these islands, is weak and of no avail; for in what law,
either divine or human, does his grace find it written that, when the
kings and their vassals disregard for a time commercial relations with
lands belonging within their demarcations, others should consequently
take therefrom gold and drugs, which do not belong to them? As for
his saying that he entered here to look for Spaniards who remained in
these islands from the fleet of Ruilopez de Villalobos, and that he
has already ransomed one, and has information regarding two more--this
is a very poor reason for violating good faith, truth, oath, and so
solemn a compact between so Christian princes. This is especially true
in view of the knowledge and experience (to which Guido de Lavezaris
could testify) of the great affection and sheltering kindness with
which those of the company of Ruilopez de Villalobos were received
and transported to Spanha (at great expense to his highness and his
captains), through the favor of the viceroy, and were well looked
after in our merchant ships; while those who, with his approbation,
wished to remain here, were likewise granted many favors, and, having
become rich, now dwell in the fortresses and cities of India. Moreover,
he might have trusted us in this matter of the three Spaniards, who
remained here at all the less cost to his majesty, and without serving
his highness. As for trying to make me to believe that he was serving
the interests of the king our sovereign during his stay in this our
king's land, with his safeguards and defenses. I emphatically assert
that they were all erected very much against his interests; for one
who has the intention alleged by his grace gives evidences plain to
all, assuring the inhabitants of the land against those accompanying
him, but not by means of fortifications and a so great assumption
of authority in another's kingdom--usurping therein the vassalage
rights of his highness and transferring the same to his majesty,
who already has so many; obliging the natives to pay him tribute,
and laying down the law to them as if they were his own subjects; and
taking them prisoners on their coming to see the captains of their
real king and sovereign, as in the case of one who was captured as
he came to the pinnace of Antonio Ronbo da Costa, and prevented from
speaking with me. As for the chimerical charges which his grace makes
against me concerning the letter of Antonio Lopez de Segueira, and the
words of the soldiers of Antonio Rumbo, in what manner could he have
formed an opinion from a letter written by an individual captain who
had been separated for many days from my company, if the sincerity of
my intentions should be truly proved without further indications? For
I do not know the words of his letter; but the statement of Antonio
Lopez, after having had several shots fired against him, was not
without cause, inasmuch as, having learned that alien people had
a considerable time previous entered into this our territory, and
had made a settlement and erected a fort therein, knowing withal
but little of his grace, and much of the compact, good faith, and
sincerity of his royal majesty the king Don Felipe, it seemed proper
to lay the blame upon the captain rather than on the king--of which,
in the judgment of many, his grace was not so ill-deserving. God
forbid that I should reply to what is said concerning the words of the
soldiers, for I should be very much ashamed to have to give account,
in so sorry a business, for my actions in entering and remaining
in this port; and to make proof of the great zeal which I have for
the service of God and of the kings our sovereigns, and of my great
desire to preserve peace and amity between us--suffering, as I have,
whatever wrong is done me in this camp. Let his grace judge me only
upon sure grounds, and not on chimerical accusations of the past,
the falsity of which I prove by good deeds in the present. With regard
to his claim of not having ships in which to depart from these waters
of ours into his own, during the three or four years in which he has
been settled in this our port of Cebu, I maintain that he had more
than sufficient time and ships in which to leave; for I know that the
flagship could carry two hundred men, or as many as his grace may then
have had in his camp quite easily (for the return passage had already
been discovered), inasmuch as his grace intimated to me in a letter
which he wrote me at Maluco that the flagship held even more. And of
his own accord he ordered the _patache_ "San Joan," the other small
_patache_, and some frigates to be run ashore; for as soon as one came
from Nova Spanha the others could easily go thither--a large fleet,
certainly, since it contained more than a thousand men, together with
a camp much larger. He lacked, therefore, neither supplies, ships, a
known route home, nor time in which to depart from our demarcation,
when he entered there, as is plain; the small _patache_ and the
flagship, also, were not lacking to him. We offered him everything
that he needed from the fortress and fleet of his highness.

Therefore, from the above and from other things previously written, it
remains proved, not by the Portuguese, but by the Spaniards themselves,
and not by camp-followers but by his chief men, that his grace is not
here through necessity, but with a very definite aim, awaiting more
men and a fleet, in order forcibly to wrest Maluco, China, and Japan,
from the king our sovereign. This is clearly shown by the words of
the foremost men of his company, and by the many questions they put
to us concerning our knowledge of these regions; as well as by the
letters from Nova Espanha which have fallen into my hands.

_The encampment_: It is shown by the people and munitions which
his grace ordered to be brought, and which were brought to him;
the flagship and the _patache_; the extent of the defenses which
he is erecting day and night; the great reenforcements which he
is procuring from among the infidels to help him fight against us
Christians--as was well made evident at the arrival of Antonio Ronbo
and at mine; his ordering these people to hasten with their arms to
this camp of his, summoning them to fill all the land with snares;
and by his resolve to shed, with the aid of his ships, much Christian
blood. All this consists of deeds, and not of imaginations such as
he brings up before me regarding the king of Ternate; for it is much
more certain that the latter has not yet gone forth from his kingdom
than that he is now absent from it. It is true that I summoned that
king to come with his fleet, as a vassal of the king our sovereign,
for many reasons: first and foremost, to induce him to leave his
land and not remain there, when I should go thither to investigate
his evil deeds against God and his highness in the persecution of
the Christian communities of Morobachan, Anboyno, and Celebs--as on
several occasions, it was suspected, happened covertly. The second,
to take satisfaction upon his people for the treasonable acts which
the natives of Taguima committed in their harbor against the boats
of the merchantmen from Maluco and of this fleet; but I was unable
to inflict punishment by effecting a landing there on account of the
country being overgrown with heavy thickets. The third, that I might
negotiate for provisions for this archipelago, if his grace should
long remain therein. The fourth, to chastise many Moros and natives
who have injured, and are injuring, God and his highness. The fifth,
to make such use as should be necessary of that king's services and
labor. But as for availing myself of his forces against Christians,
may God forbid that I should ever do such a thing; and blood so
old and free from stain as mine, and so Christian a nation as the
Portuguese are, would never tolerate it. And that this is true I have
already intimated to his grace, to the father prior, and to Guido de
Lavezaris, not forgetting where I begin this reply of mine--wherein I
declare that his grace is wronging God, his majesty, and his highness,
and is, besides, quite well understood in other matters pertaining
to this affair. I add, moreover, in so far as God is concerned: his
ordering or consenting to the sale of iron and weapons in this camp
to the infidels, so as to arm them against Christians; his ordering
javelins [115] to be made in this settlement of negroes and in his own,
which the Spaniards would take away to Mindanao and Cavetle to sell,
exchanging them for cinnamon, hardwood _machetes_, axes, knives,
and even for drugs. One of the principal items concerns the Lord's
Supper--so jealously guarded by the holy fathers, and regarding which
they have issued threats of excommunication, so stringent that no one
can be absolved except by them. He suffers many men belonging to this
camp to have carnal intercourse in public with native women, without
punishing them therefor, although making a pretense of being rigorous
in other matters of less importance. He takes other people's property,
acting in all respects just as if he were ourselves, and thus takes
our property against our will. As concerns his majesty, he reduces
and renders null and void, in so many respects, his solemn compact
(which deserves all the good faith and truth that should belong to
so Christion a prince), and thus wrongs his blood relatives to whom
he owes so many obligations. He takes from his highness by force
these lands conquered by him; and he is awaiting more forces and a
fleet to terminate completely the task of capturing them all. For
this he is taking measures, with much preparation of war, in his
hostility to the captains and people of his highness's fleet--among
whom there is no hostile feeling, and who even offer amicably to
serve, with much love and pleasure in so doing, both him and all his
company. With regard to the two galleys which his grace asks from me,
out of the three which I possess, it would not be right to give them
to him, even though I found him doing many services to God and to
the king our lord in this land. But when I find him wronging them,
and intending to wrong them still more, I can but be startled at his
grace's asking me for the sinews of this fleet and the sword with
which to cut off my own head, as I would be doing if I should give
him ships in order that he may carry out the more successfully his
purpose--especially as no clause existed in the treaty which would
oblige the king our lord to order ships and a fleet to be given to
the Spaniards who might pass this way with the intention of doing
him injury, in order that they might depart hence and continue on
their way. As far as his grace's awaiting a reply from his majesty is
concerned, I consider it even more unreasonable to ask for galleys;
for, just as one who is committing some deadly sin displeases God all
the more the longer he continues therein, so likewise, the longer his
grace continues to transgress the good faith and truth of the contract
made by his very Christian king and lord, the greater displeasure he
will cause to God; but, if he would depart hence, upon our waters, in
all peace and amity, God would be pleased and the princes satisfied,
since they are so good Catholics and so close and intimate
relatives. And his grace would thus be atoning for the past to the
king our lord, and to me on his behalf; and would not, considering
his age, be obliged, in this last quarter of his life, to oppose God
in a matter so contrary to precedent and justice, by trying to remain
forcibly in this our land and sea, at the cost of shedding innocent
blood in the matter, or of its being wiped out at the same cost--when
without any trouble or expense he may attain his wish, and be placed
where he may see his sovereign; or, in case of loss, have security
therefor, and profit into the bargain. Let him go forth once more to
make discoveries, and to propagate our holy Catholic faith, in his
own demarcation; and I entreat and summon him to depart with his camp
into this fleet, where they will be treated with all the good faith,
sincerity, and affection which befits good Christians and vassals
of kings so closely bound. For the purpose of returning to Espanha,
all necessary supplies and hospitable services will be afforded
him. But let him not beg off by saying, as he has already said once,
that he has instructions not to transgress or violate the treaty
and compact in these our waters; for one who has, in all respects,
up to the present time, done precisely the contrary will with all
the more justice journey by our waters to Espanha, thus serving God
and the kings our lords, rather than injure them by remaining. I also
entreat him once more, and with special emphasis summon him, to have
his instructions shown to me, as I on my part will do by sending him
the orders of the king our lord, whenever he may, with a mind exempt
from passion or self-interest, desire me to do so. And I entreat him
earnestly as a favor, and I summon him in the name of God and of the
said princes, to consider the agreement which I here propose to him:
and, having considered it, to carry it out in all respects without
distrust, reserve, deceit, or delay whatsoever. And if he does not wish
to accept this fleet, which I offer him in order that he may depart,
and return to Espanha, let him then depart from this island and from
all others belonging to the demarcation of the king our lord, with all
his camp implements of war, his master-of-camp, his captains, ensigns,
sergeants, corporals, and the other officers and people of war and the
royal service. If his grace be unwilling to do this, I bear witness
that all the blame and fault which may ensue in this matter will fall
upon him, and that he and all his camp will be held and considered
as suspected rebels against the mandates of his king and sovereign;
and I shall remain exempt from any fault for whatsoever injury and
evil may occur. And you, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public in this fleet
for the king our lord, are commanded to read to him the contract, and
to acquaint the said Miguel Lopez, general of the camp and people of
Nova Spanha, with this reply, which shall be incorporated and annexed
to the reply made by him, as aforesaid; and of this you will give me
the document or documents necessary to be drawn up in public form. I
likewise command you, Fernao Riquel, notary-in-chief of this camp,
and all the other clerks and notaries thereof, to give and transfer to
me all the summons, protests, replies, and responses which may be made
in this matter, now or hereafter, and the instrument and instruments
which shall be necessary to me, in duly attested form. In this galley
"San Francisco," on the nineteenth day of the month of October of
the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight. Let there be no
doubt in the interlineation which occurs at the hundred and third
line of the said reply, namely, _vindo questa_; and where it reads,
in the margin, _e requeiro_, at the beginning of the two hundred and
thirty-first line above-written--for it is all correct. In the same
day and year above-written.

_Goncalo Pereira_.

(_Notification_: On the nineteenth day of the month of October of the
year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight, in this port of Cebu,
at the place occupied by the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi,
general of the fleet and forces of Nova Spanha, there was given to me
by Afonso Alvarez Furtado, factor of the fleet of the king our lord,
the compact made between the emperor Don Carlos (whom may God preserve)
and the king Don Joan the Third our lord (may he live in glory), and
likewise the answer which Guoncallo Pereira, captain-general, sent to
the reply to the first summons of the said Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi;
and he ordered me, on behalf of the king our lord, to read it, and
acquaint him therewith. And I read, and made him cognizant thereof,
_de verbo ad verbum_, before him personally and many persons of his
camp. He replied thereto that he hnd heard the same, and would make
answer. Witnesses thereto who were present at all the proceedings:
the said Afonso Alvarez Furtado; Baltesar de Freitas, clerk of the
said fleet; Martin de Goti, master-of-camp; Andres de Mirandaiola,
factor of his majesty; Andres de Ybarra, captain; Dioguo Dartieda,
captain; and Guido de Lavezaris, his majesty's treasurer--all of whom
affixed their signature with me.

_Pero Bernaldez_, notary.)

(In the said day, month, and year above written, with me signed
Fernando Herrequel, notary-in-chief of this camp and fleet. Witnesses:
Martin de Goiti, Andres de Ybarra, Andres de Mirandaola, Guido de
Lavezaris, Diego de Artieda, Fernando Riquel, Afonso Alvarez Furtado,
Baltesar de Freitas.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

_Compact_: Don Sebastiao, by God's grace King of Purtugual, and of the
Algarves here and beyond the sea, in Afriqua; Seignior of Guinee and of
the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia,
and India--to all the _corregidors_, auditors, judges, justices,
officials, and persons of my realms and fiefs, to whomsoever this
my letter of testimony may be presented, and on whom the recognition
thereof is incumbent, greeting: I hereby declare that, through Goncalo
Pereira, knight of my household, captain-general of my fleet, now
at my fortress of Maluco, I was petitioned by Alvoro de Mendonca,
captain of the said fort, and knight of my household, that I should
order a copy made of the compact which was made between the King Don
Joao and the emperor Don Carlos, my ancestors of glorious memory,
in regard to the doubt and controversy of Maluco; the same to be
filed in the factory of the said fortress, in order that he might
thereby justify himself completely with Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi,
captain-general of the fleet of the king Don Felipe, my much loved
and esteemed brother, now stationed at the island of Cebu. The copy
of this contract I have ordered sent to the said captain; it is,
_de verbo ad verbum_, as follows:

Don Johan, by the grace of God King of Purtugual and of the two
Algarves here and on the other side of the sea, in Afriqua; Seignior
of Guinee, and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia,
Arabia, Persia, and India,--to all the _corregidors_, auditors,
judges, justices, officials, and persons of my realms and fiefs,
to whom this my letter of testimony may be presented, and on whom the
recognition thereof is incumbent, greeting: I hereby declare that by my
governor Jorge Cabral, orders were sent to my auditor-general (whom,
with appellate jurisdiction, I maintain in those parts of India),
to forward a testimonial letter giving a copy of the compact made
between me and the emperor, my greatly beloved and cherished brother,
regarding the dispute and controversy of Maluco, in the interest of
which, and thus ordered in fulfilment of my duty, the said copy of the
compact was forwarded in the testimonial letter by two routes. The
copy thereof, _de verbo ad verbum_, constitutes what follows in the
consecutive pages adjoining this.

Don Joao, by the grace of God King of Purtugual and of the Algarves on
this side and beyond the sea, in Afriqua; Seignior of Guinee and of
the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia,
and India, to all the _corregidors_, auditors, judges, justices,
officials, and persons to whom this my testimonial letter shall be
shown, and on whom the acknowledgment thereof is incumbent: I inform
you hereby that my attorney tells me that, for the protection and
preservation of my laws he needs the copy of the compact which I
have made with the emperor, my greatlv beloved and cherished brother,
in regard to the dispute and controversy of Maluco. It is as follows:

[Here follows the Compact or treaty of Zaragoza, April, 1529, whereby
Carlos relinquishes all rights to Maluco for the consideration of
three hundred and fifty thousand ducats. The essential parts of this
treaty are given in vol. i, pp. 222 ff. of this series.]

[The summons or notification proper then continues:]

And, on his summoning of my said attorney, I ordered him to forward
to him this my letter of testimony with the copy of the said
compact given in the town of Almeyra on the ninth day of the month
of December. Ordered by the king's decree through the licentiate
Francisco Diaz de Amaral, of his _desembargo_; and _corregidor_ of my
court with jurisdiction over criminal affairs, Antonio Ferraz drew up
the same in the year one thousand five hundred and forty-five, and I,
Pero Dalcaceva Carneiro, of the said Council of the said sovereign, and
his secretary and notary-in-chief in all his kingdoms and possessions,
countersigned it.

(This compact above preceding and declared was here copied entire
from the copy sent from the kingdoms, which was signed by the
licentiate Francisco Diaz de Amaral mentioned therein, approved by the
chancellor's office, and drawn up by the secretary, Pero Dalcaceva
Carneiro and Joao de Figueiroa. Wherefore, coming as it does in the
manner above set forth, this copy, which was derived therefrom and
written here, is a true one, without any thing of a nature to cause
doubt save a certain interlineation reading "within the said line,
which such islands or lands." For, to make the same a true copy,
it was written on thirteen half-sheets of paper and compared, from
beginning to end, by the official whose name is affixed hereto; and
full faith shall be given the same wherever it shall be presented,
in court or out, in view of the fact that, for greater assurance,
it is sealed with the seal of my arms in this city of Goa on the
twenty-third day of April. The king ordered the same through the
licentiate Christovao Fernandez, member of the _desembargo_ and
auditor-in-chief of India with appellate jurisdiction. Lopo Daguiar,
a notary by office, had the document written and subscribed, by the
authority which he possesses, in the year of the birth of our Lord
Jesus Christ, one thousand five hundred and fifty. _Pagado nihil._
[116] The licentiate,

_Christovao Fernandez_.)

(Compared with the original copy by me, a notary, in conjunction by
the official here subscribed. Antonio Fernandez, Lopo Daguiar. _Pagado
nihil._ Lopo Daguiar. The licentiate,

_Andre de Mendanha_.)

(This compact previously and above set forth was in its entirety copied
from the copy of another copy sent from the kingdom and signed by the
licentiate Christovan Fernandez mentioned therein, which was approved
by the chancellor's office, and compared by Antonio Fernandez and
Lopo Daguiar: wherefore, on account of its above-mentioned source,
this duplicate emanating therefrom is presented here as a true and
correct copy, without there being anything therein which would cause
doubt. It was all inscribed upon seventeen half-pages of paper, with
the copy of the letter-patent and that of the compact, compared in its
entirety by the official hereunto subscribed. Wherefore full and entire
faith shall be given to the same, wherever it shall be presented,
both in and outside of court, inasmuch as, to assure the same, it is
sealed with the seal of my arms in this fortress of Maluco on the
second day of the month of September. Ordered by the king through
Alvaro de Mendonca, nobleman of his household and his captain in
this said fortress, and through Thome Arnao, court-notary who had it
drawn up and subscribed, by the authority possessed by him thereto,
in the year of the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ one thousand five
hundred and sixty-seven. _Pagado nihil_.

_Alvoro de Mendonca_.)

(Collated with the original copy of the said copy by me, a notary,
in company with the officials hereunto subscribed. Dioguo de Paiva,
Thome Arnao, of the chancery.

_Vasco Martinez_.)

(This is the copy of a reply which the very illustrious Miguel Lopez
de Leguazpi sent to Goncalo Pereira, captain-general in these regions
of the South for the king our lord, which reply I, Pero Bernaldez,
notary-public of this fleet, copied from the original at the request
of the said Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.)

I, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, governor and captain-general for his
majesty the king Don Felipe, our sovereign, over his people and his
royal fleet for the discovery of the islands of the West--in reply
to the rejoinder made by the very illustrious captain-general of the
Portuguese fleet, to the response which I made to his first summons,
do now confirm my response aforesaid, which is absolutely true, as
said and declared therein; and this will be proved and established
with true and sufficient evidences and proofs, at any and all times,
as it shall prove necessary. And I do not feel bound to reply to
many of the things contained in his rejoinder, inasmuch as they are
utterly irrelevant, and have nothing to do with the business here
concerned--tending, as they do, to attribute fault, and cause for
slander, where there is none; many of them, also, being untrue, and
unworthy of a person in so serious and important a station, and of so
illustrious and Christian blood as the said captain-general claims
to possess. And thus denying it, in all and for all, and coming
to the essential points, I declare and affirm that my entrance in
this island was occasioned by the reasons and causes contained in my
response; that it was forced and necessary, and without my knowing
that I had passed the line of demarcation. And this I neither knew
nor understood until the said captain-general assured me of it in his
letters. And likewise I affirm that I was detained, and remained here
against my will, through my inability to leave in any way for lack
of ships and provisions; and not intentionally or purposely to harm,
in any way whatsoever, the very illustrious and puissant sovereign,
the king of Portugal, or any of his possessions, or to harm any third
party. Nor had I the intention of taking anyone's property away from
him, as may be proved by those principal persons of this camp by whom
his grace declares himself to be informed of the contrary; for, if
put upon their oaths, they will, as Christians, be unable to escape
the necessity of telling the truth. And, as a man who has desired,
and still desires, to depart hence, the first time when Antonio Rumbo
da Costa and Baltasar de Soza came here, I informed them that what
I needed for that purpose was ships, and that ships were on their
way; and so I have informed his grace many times. In this necessity,
however, he has up to the present time given me neither remedy, aid,
nor favor--which I expected from friends and vassals of a sovereign
so related by kinship and blood with his majesty; and as I would have
done for them, if I had found them in the plight in which they find
me. It is no valid objection to say that I have had ships in which
I could have left--such, for example, as the "Capitana" and the
"San Juan," which went to Nueva Espana--for the "Capitana" carried
about two hundred persons, and the _patache_ "San Juan" seventy,
which number was the utmost that they could carry, on account of
the supplies and rigging which they bore. Nor does it avail to say
that I intentionally ran the flagship aground, for the opposite is
the truth; nor should it be presumed or believed that a vessel so
much needed by this camp (the property, moreover, of his majesty)
could purposely have been run aground--which statement any person
who is willing to look at the matter dispassionately, will clearly
perceive. And it avails even less to say that the father Fray Andres
de Urdaneta requested me to settle in the island of Ladrones, for
this did not occur; nor will such a request ever appear, in truth,
save in so far as it was discussed whether it would be well for us
to go to that island, in view of our having no supplies, or any kind
of meat, or anything to live on. It was agreed by all that we should
proceed thither, as was done; and the six hundred crafts which he said
came alongside the ships came to beg and not to give. For, in all the
ten days of our stay there, we could not buy ten _fanegas_ of rice;
and if they brought anything it was cocoanuts, bananas, _tamalle_,
and other articles of the fruit kind, of very unsubstantial and
ordinary quality. This will prove to be the truth, rather than what
is said in opposition thereto. And when we arrived at these islands,
we were in great need of food, as we had on board the fleet nothing
but biscuit--and even that in small quantity, as it was carried only
by the "Capitana" for its return; so that the whole camp suffered
for the lack of food. And even if the supply of biscuit was more
than sufficient to last until Nueva Espana was reached, yet as the
return passage was not then known, we endeavored to supply those
going on the vessels with provisions sufficient for one year; and as
they arrived at Nueva Espana instead, within three months, they had
of necessity a superabundance of biscuit. Further, regarding his,
accusations as to my being here against the will of God and of his
majesty, I deny it; for I have always endeavored to do his majesty's
will with all fidelity and loyalty like the true and faithful servant
that I am, as has ever been the custom of my ancestors; and I shall
try to pursue that course until I die. Accordingly, I intend to give
good account to his majesty, as I have always done, of all matters
entrusted to me--which here require neither allegation nor mention,
for I am bound to account therefor to his majesty alone. As for what
he says concerning the promises and kind services which were offered
me from him, I refer to his said first summons and his reply to my
rejoinder--the import of which is that I should go with my men to his
fleet and depart therein for India, or some other place, and that I
should immediately leave these lands with all my men; and accusing
me of many losses and damages which I did not inflict. These offers,
made under such hard conditions, appear more like those of an enemy
than of a friend; for I do not see that the terms proposed could have
been any harsher if I and all those with me had been Turks. For the
first injunction, namely, that I should go to India, is contrary to
what his majesty expressly orders me to do; so that, if I did it,
I might then indeed be accused of violating his will. It would be,
moreover, a violation of the treaty between the kings, our sovereigns,
which was presented me by his grace, inasmuch as a clause thereof
says that the vassals of the king of Castilla may navigate the seas
of the king of Portugal as much as necessary, in order to reach the
South Sea of his majesty toward the strait of Magallanes, and no more;
and that if any other navigation than this through the seas of his
highness occurs, it will be done by any persons in violation of the
said treaty. Wherefore we are bound not to do this thing under any
consideration, for our intention has been and is to adhere to the
said treaty. And as for the second injunction, that we should depart
and leave the land immediately with all our men and munitions of war,
such a thing is impossible without ships, as is clear and evident,
and as such I declare the same. And, therefore, from the offers
aforesaid results, and may be clearly inferred, the intention with
which the said offers were made--which is tantamount to using force
upon us and injuring us, as if we were men isolated in this island, and
without respect for the will of God or of our sovereigns and lords,
or for peace and friendship, or for the relationship that exists
between them. And that the truth of my justification may stand out
more clearly, I declare myself ready to show the instructions and
orders which I bear--as I have previously said I would do, on the
condition that the said captain-general show me his own: and I do
promise that if he will sell me ships in which to go away, that I will
immediately depart, and leave these lands free to the rightful owners
thereof. And in the event that I do not obtain them from this source,
but that ships or message shall come from his majesty, I will do the
same, without my stay in this island causing any damage or injury to
any district of the kings our lords. And, to carry out the same, I am
ready, if necessary, to make any instrument or instruments whatsoever;
and to pay for any and all damage which may result from my stay in
this island. And since God, the omnipotent and true who resides in
the heaven, is cognizant of the hearts intentions, and wills of men
I do appoint him judge of this dispute between us. O show the truth,
and protect and aid the same in all respects. And, not admitting the
protests of the captain-general's reply, I beg and require him--once,
twice, and thrice, and as many times as I am by law obliged,--in the
name of God our Lord and of his majesty, to accept our justification
and leave us free; and that he cherish no intention to make war upon
us, or harm us, or employ any force or injury against us; for our
own will and intention is to inflict the same on none. And, if the
contrary be done, I do protest that it will be at his own blame and
responsibility, and that he will be obliged to incur all the damage
and losses which may result therefrom. And I request you, Fernando
Riquel, chief clerk of this camp, to read the same to him, and to
notify him thereof, and to give me in public form the testimonies and
duplicates thereof which may be necessary to me for the protection
of my right. Given in Cubu on the twentieth day of the month of
October, of the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight. No
doubt should be occasioned by the erasure where it reads _navios_
["ships"], which was erased in the interest of truth.

_Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi_.

(_Notification:_ In the galley "San Francisco" of the fleet of the very
illustrious Goncalo Pereira, captain-general, anchored in the harbor of
this island of Cebu, on the twentieth day of the month of October of
the said year, I, Fernando Riquel, chief clerk, and in the government
employ, did read this response and that contained therein to the said
captain-general in person, in presence of the factor and inspector
Andres de Mirandaola, who holds power of attorney from the very
illustrious Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, governor and captain-general for
his majesty and on his behalf. And his grace, the said captain-general,
having heard the foregoing, which I read to him _de verbo ad verbum_,
said that, not replying to what did not demand reply in the said
response--which had been written by one more blinded by passion
than in the free use of his senses, or than by one of the descent
which he claimed--but confining himself only to the most essential
points concerning the service of God and of the kings, he does deny
everything which his grace says in his said rejoinder, evidences for
which denial he will show in their propor time by documents worthy
of credence before the sovereigns. He also states that he refuses
even more emphatically to show him the instructions which he carries;
for since he has been in this port (now some twenty days), his grace
told him continually that he would show him his instructions, yet upon
his sending Don Duarte de Meneses for this purpose, his grace would
not show him the same; and likewise, when he came with the said Don
Duarte upon this galley "San Francisco," his grace refused to show his
instructions to him. Moreover, when he went ashore to see his grace,
and talked with him, the latter would not show the same; and on two
occasions when he sent hither the said factor, Andres de Mirandaola,
with a response, he did not order him, either in person or by another,
to show the same, although he continually affirmed that he would show
them. On account of these things, and of his breaking in all respects
the said principal contract; and, because it appears that he was not
in need, during the three years and some months of his stay here;
and because of the deceptions which his grace practiced upon him,
using many fine words, but very different deeds as the coast defenses
and forts proved--although he [the Portuguese captain-general] did not
adopt such method in his treatment of him, when he allowed many ships
bearing provisions and men to enter the harbor, although he could have
detained the same--through all these things, his real intention is
laid bare. For, as one intending to make war takes advantage of all
occasions to that end, so has his grace done and still is doing. As
for the other matters, he is referred to the protest sent to him today
by Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of the Portuguese fleet. And this he
gave as his response before the witnesses, Captain Alvaro de Mendonza,
Admiral Don Duarte de Meneses, Simon de Mendonca, and the factor Afonso
Alvarez Furtado, who together with me; the said Fernando Riquel, signed
the same with their names. Andres de Mirandaola, Alvaro de Mendonca,
Don Duarte de Meneses, Simao de Mendonca, Alfonso Alvarez Furtado.

I testify thereto, _Fernando Riquel_.)

(This duplicate has been compared most carefully with the original by
me, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet for the king, our lord,
without there being found any interlineation or erasure which would
cause doubt--save that there is an erasure where it read _navios_
["ships"], which was done in the interests of truth. And the said
Fernao Riquel, chief clerk, was present at the comparison, and signed
here with me, together with Baltesar de Freitas notary of the fleet,
who placed here his approval. This day, the twenty-ninth of December,
one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

I have compared this duplicate,

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(This duplicate was compared before me, Baltesar de Freitas, notary
of this fleet, on the said day and year above specified.

_Baltesar de Freitas_.)

(On the said day, month, and year, I was present at the collation
and comparison of this duplicate.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

_Third summons_: Concerning the summons and protest that I, Gonzalo
Pereira, captain-general of this fleet, make to the very illustrious
Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi, general of the fleet and people of Nova
Espanha. You, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet, are
directed to present and read to him the same; and, with his reply
(or without it, if he refuse to give one), to put into my hands the
instruments necessary to me to prove the truth of what follows. I
affirm that on arriving at this port of Cebu, and exchanging such
courtesies with his grace as were befitting to the requirements of
my position and rank, besides offering both by letters and requests
on behalf of the king our lord, everything needful to him and to his
army, and to his royal majesty, the King Don Felipe--in order, also,
to serve in this matter the king our lord--his grace did not so much
as consent to accept from me anything whatsoever; but descended to
subterfuge, and, as answer to my rejoinder, ordered his artillery
to take position in front of the fleet, to impede my passage--in
spite of his being on the land and sea of the king our sovereign. In
every respect, therefore, he gives evidence of not adhering to the
compacts and treaties made between his imperial majesty Don Carlos,
King of Castella, and King Don Joao, our lord (may they rest in glory),
which documents I had sent and presented to him in order to obviate
all doubts and disputes that might arise. He has certainly incurred,
in return, the displeasure of God and the sovereigns. Secondly, I
send him again the letter of the emperor Don Carlos to Ruilopez de
Vilhalobos, and those of his company, that he may see more clearly
its truth and purport; and I summon his grace particularly--once
and as many times as I am empowered thereunto--and, in general,
all his captains, ensigns, sergeants corporals, and pilots, and all
the other officials of war, retinue, and justice, on both land and
sea, soldiers and sailors alike--in conformity to the said compact,
to assemble immediately on this fleet of the king our lord, and to
depart therein in order to present themselves before the viceroy of
India. From the said viceroy, in the name of the king our lord, in my
own, and in that of the captains of this fleet and of the fortresses of
India, I give to each individually, and, to all in general, assurance
that no harm or injury whatsoever shall be done them; that they shall
be left free to go to their own kingdom or remain in India, as they
prefer; and that they shall receive all possible good treatment, and
be given all their property, and everything of which they may stand
most in need. And if his grace refuse to do this, I summon him again
and many times, and all the rest of his fleet and army, individually
and collectively, to depart at once and leave the said fortress,
and abandon this island and all others which, by the said treaty,
are seen to belong to the commerce and conquest of the king our lord,
and to leave everything here forever free and disembarrassed. And
likewise I notify them not to do violence to, and to leave free,
the Portuguese who are in his army, to whom, by this present, I give
assurance, in the name of the king our lord, that they shall not be
proceeded against as criminals, for thus embarking and being in the
said fleet and camp, from the day when they passed the boundaries of
Castella up to the present. And I summon them all individually and
collectively, and I order them in the name of the king our lord, to
come immediately to this the fleet of their true king and sovereign,
on the above-mentioned assurance that they shall in all respects be
protected. And if they do not consent thereto, and he, Miguel Lopez
de Leguaspi--and his captains and officers, and all the persons
above-named--shall not, in every respect, assent to that which I
request and demand as above, I declare that he--together with all
his above-mentioned captains and persons aforesaid, of whatsoever
rank, nation, condition, or country they may be--will be held and
considered and judged as disobedient by his royal majesty, King Don
Felipe, their sovereign, and by the King of Portugal, our lord, and
by their officers of justice. And in the same event I do, now and
forever, in the name of the said kings, hold them as rebels, if they
neither come hither nor depart within the three days first following
the notification of this summons. I impose this time upon them as a
limit, declaring that they shall not be allowed another day's respite;
that they will be condemned to death, both natural and civil, either
through war or in any other way whatever, according to the custom and
laws of our kingdom; and that their possessions, ships, artillery,
munitions of war, and everything else which they may have brought to
this land or obtained therein, or received in trade or in any other
way, shall be seized and distributed and given away to the extent
which may seem to me conformable to the said compact. Nor shall they,
the parties aforesaid, or any one acting for them, or any of their
heirs, or any relation or descendant, in particular or in general,
have in this matter any right--neither they, nor likewise the owners
of the said property, fleet, or munitions, which shall thus be
taken from them, even though absent, wherever they may be. Moreover,
even though they be not guilty of the disobedience and disrespect
aforesaid, nor have given any cause for this action, they shall not,
subsequently nor at any time, have any right to proceed against me,
or against any captain, officer, or member of this fleet who may be
holding the same; nor shall any heir of the above-named persons, at
any time whatsoever, be obliged to make restitution thereof, either
legally or as a matter of conscience. Likewise, in conformity with
the said compact, I declare to be null and void, and of no effect or
force, all right which they may have, royal, personal, or based upon
any other title or right which may be named, designated, or specified,
or which his majesty King Don Felipe claims to have acquired, through
the compact made between the very Catholic and Christian sovereigns,
King Don Joan the Second of Portugal, and Don Fernando of Castella
(may they rest in glory), regarding the division of the conquest and
discovery of the world, conceded by the holy fathers, in the commerce
and conquest of Maluco and all its lands and seas which shall be found,
perceived, or discovered by ships in that whole region west of Nova
Spanha, as determined by an imaginary line from north to south through
the islands of Las Velas [Ladrones]; and those rights I declare null
and void from the day on which the said Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi
passed to the west of the said line with his fleet. And likewise I
declare that, inasmuch as this fleet contains more soldiers than men
of letters, all summons, declaration, and protestation befitting the
right and justice of the king, our lord, and of his descendants and
kingdoms, shall be held as made and truly and completely declared,
demanded, summoned, alleged, and protested, without any lack or
failure, whatsoever. And neither his royal majesty, nor any or all
successors to the kingdom of Castella shall have the right to require
or summon the Portuguese to deliver to them their lands and conquest
of the said West; or demand any payment or satisfaction whatsoever
for the losses, damages, deaths, or deprivations of property occurring
to the disobedient camp and fleet, or to any others who, subsequently
arriving, are subject to the foregoing. For others have already come
to these parts who pretended to be filled with brotherly love and
affection, but did not prove this by their actions--inasmuch as they
did very great injury to the property of the king our lord, and of his
vassals, without the king's receiving any compensation therefor from
his illustrious highness. No doubt should be entertained regarding
the interlineation where the word _justica_ ["justice"] occurs. This
day, the twenty-first day of the month of October, in the year one
thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Gonzalo Pereira_.

(_Notification:_ On the twenty-first day of the month of October of
the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight, at the present
place of habitation of the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi,
general of the fleet and people of Nova Espanha, I, Pero Bernaldez,
notary-public, in his presence and that of his captains and many other
persons of his camp, read, _de verbo ad verbum_, the foregoing summons,
together with the letter of the emperor Don Carlos (may he rest in
glory). In reply, he said that he heard the same and would respond as
was befitting. Witnesses thereto: Martin de Goete, master-of-camp;
Andres de Ybarra, captain; Guido de Lavezaris, treasurer of his
majesty; Luis de a Haya, captain--all of whom affixed their signatures
together with me. Martin de Goiti, Luis de la Haya, Guido de Lavezaris,
Andres de Ybarra.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(_Response:_ This is a duplicate of a response which the very
illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi sent to Goncallo Pereira,
captain-general in these parts of the south for the king our lord. This
response, I, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet copied from
the original at the request of the said Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi.)

I, Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi, governor and captain-general for his
majesty King Don Felipe, our lord, of his people and the royal fleet
for the discovery of the islands of the West, declare in response
to the third summons of the very illustrious Gonzalo Pereira,
captain-general of the Portuguese fleet, served on me by Pero
Bernaldez, notary-public thereof, that I am ready and prepared to do
and fulfil everything specified and offered by me in the answers which
I have previously given to the summons which he has sent me. Basing
my reply once more upon them, I repeat that on my part there will
be no failure to respect and carry out the treaty made by the kings
our lords, and to maintain the peace, friendship, and alliance which
have existed and still exist between them, and which is incumbent upon
us owing to the close relationship of the two. As for the conditions
contained in the said summons aforesaid, which command me to go with
all my people to his fleet, to depart therein for India, I declare
that this is impossible for me, as it would be a direct violation
of the instructions which I have received from his majesty; nor
could I give over my people and my fleet to any person whomsoever,
without his majesty's express permission and command. Moreover,
it would be a violation of the compact and treaty existing between
the kings our lords. And, in the event of my not doing this, he says
that within three days from now I must leave this island and these
lands. This I myself desire, and would be glad to do so, if it were
possible. And I promise to do the same immediately, if his grace will
furnish me means therefor. But it is neither right nor reasonable
to oblige me to perform the impossible. And I declare, therefore,
and promise that when I shall have ships I will depart, and leave
the land free to whomsoever it may belong, without allowing my stay
therein to result in harm to any one; and if it shall so result, then
I stand ready to pay and to give payment and satisfaction therefor,
to a sufficient and adequate amount, and to do everything in my power
to the end that the treaty between the kings our sovereigns shall
not be transgressed, or any injury be done or ensue to any of the
parties hereto. And regarding what he says in his summons concerning
the new fort, I admit that it is true that some fortifications were
begun--a thing most usual and customary wherever there is a garrison
of Spanish soldiers--for protection from any one who might undertake
to do me injury or violence. But it was not done to injure his fleet,
or anything else belonging to him, which did not previously do me
injury. This is especially evident in view of the fact that although
yesterday I had begun the erection of the new fort, aforesaid, on
receiving a letter from his grace in which he asked me to cease and
not continue work upon the same, I immediately ordered that work to
cease and to be suspended; and nothing more has been or will be done
thereon, if his grace and his fleet are willing to keep peace and
friendship with me, as is incumbent upon Christians and vassals of
sovereigns so closely connected and related. This I do in order that
no statement or calumny for breaking the said peace may be uttered
against me. And, regarding what he says in the rejoinder to my second
reply, namely, that I refused to show the instructions which I bear,
his grace knows perfectly well that I have offered many times to show
him the same, and that nothing was sent by him. And to do everything
possible on my own part, and to make my cause a just one, I send to
him enclosed herewith those clauses of my instructions bearing upon
the present business, which were copied from the original, and signed
and approved by the chief notary of this camp, in order that they
might be produced as witness and proof, at anytime or place whatever;
besides this, his grace will be allowed, if he so desire, to send
some person here to see them collated with the original. Throughout
these instructions is evident and deducible the Christian spirit,
greatness, rectitude, and kindness of his majesty King Don Felipe,
as well as the moderation which he orders to be maintained wherever
we should fall in with Portuguese--which is very different in its
nature from what is essayed and planned against me and the vassals
of his majesty. It will be seen, moreover, how just is his majesty's
cause, and, in his royal name, our own. Therefore, in the name of God
omnipotent, our Lord and of his majesty, I beg and summon his grace
once, twice, thrice, and as many more times as I am bound by law--not
to consent to or permit any wrong or injury to be done, directly or
indirectly, by evasions, or in any other manner whatsoever, in order
that Christian blood may not be shed without cause or occasion, to
the great displeasure of God and of the princes our sovereigns. For
my intention was not to do any harm to any one; but rather I offer
to pay all and any damage which may result from my stay here; and I
declare that, if he do the contrary, then all the deaths, damages,
losses, and interests shall fall upon his head and responsibility,
and that he shall be obliged to pay and make satisfaction for the
same. Moreover, I protest, as much as the rights of his majesty and
our own make it incumbent upon me, to demand, allege, and protest,
and, although it be not declared or specified here, I do allege,
demand, and protest therein, as many times as the law and my duty
require. And I do not admit the protestations and condemnations which
are contained in his summons and protest; and I request that this
response shall likewise be read, shown, and made known to all the
captains of his fleet, together with the clauses of my instructions,
in order that they may see our justification; and, having seen it,
comport themselves as Christians--so that God our Lord, and our
princes, may be better served, without shedding Christian blood;
and that the other injuries and difficulties which, in the opposite
event might ensue, may be avoided. And I require and summon you,
Fernando Riquel, notary-in-chief of this camp, to read and make
known this response and protest, and the clauses mentioned therein,
to the said captain-general, and the other captains of his fleet; and,
with his response, or without the same, to give me the testimonies
and copies necessary to me in his majesty's interest, and to my own
in his royal name. Given in Cubu, on the twentieth day of October of
the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Miguel Lopez de Legazpi_.

(_Notification:_ The foregoing answer and clauses, I, Fernando
Riquel, notary-in-chief in the government employ, read and made
known to the said very illustrious Gonzalo Pereira, captain-general
of the Portuguese fleet, in his own person, as well as to the other
captains of his fleet, _de verbo ad verbum_, in such a way that it
was understood--those captains being Alvaro de Mendonca, Don Duarte
de Meneses, Simon de Mendoca, Lorenco Furtado de Mendoca, and Mendo
Ruellas de Vasconcelos--on the twentieth day of the month of October
of the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight. And let it
be understood, that although I reckon today as the twentieth of
October, the summons to which this is the response, was made upon
the twenty-first everything having been done upon the same day. The
cause for this is the difference between the Portuguese and the
Castilians, the former reckoning one day ahead, and so it is in
all the rejoinders and summons. I delivered this notification and
summons to the said parties on the galley "San Francisco," this day,
the twentieth of October, in the presence of the foregoing persons,
and of Alonso Alvarez Furtado, factor of his highness--all of whom
signed their names here, together with me; likewise Christoval Ponce,
notary of his majesty's camp. Simaon de Mendonca, Alvoro de Mertdonca,
Lourenco Furtado de Mendonca, Don Duarte de Meneses, Alfonso Alvarez
Furtado, Mendornellas de Vasconcellos, Christoval Ponse de Leon.

I testify thereto, _Fernando Riquel_.)

(This copy was closely and faithfully compared with the original
by me, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet, without there
being found any interlineation or erasure of a kind which would
cause doubt--although there is an interlineation--_dha_ [_dicha_,
"said"] which was truthfully inserted. The said Fernao Riquel,
notary-in-chief, was present at the comparison, and signed his name
together with Baltesar de Freitas, notary of the fleet, who placed
here his approval. This day, the twenty-ninth of December of the year
one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(This copy was compared before me, Baltesar de Freitas, notary of
the fleet, on the said day and year above specified.

_Baltesar de Freitas_.)

(On the day, month, and year aforesaid, I was present at the collation
and comparison of this copy.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

(This is the copy of certain clauses of [the instructions given by]
the royal _Audiencia_ of Mexico, which the very illustrious Miguel
Lopez de Leguaspi sent to Goncalo Pereira, captain-general in the
regions of the south for the king our sovereign--which document was
copied at the request of the said Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi.

I, Fernando Riquel, notary-in-chief of the royal fleet for the
discovery and administration of the islands of the West, for his
majesty, King Don Felipe, our sovereign, testify and affirm to all
persons, who may see the present: that in a set of instructions and
regulations, signed by Don Luis de Velasco, former viceroy of Nueva
Espana; the licentiate Valderrama, _visiador_-general and member of
the council of his majesty; Doctor Ceynos, Doctor Villalobos, Doctor
Horozco, Doctor Vasco de Puga, and Doctor Villanueva--all auditors
of the said Royal _Audiencia_ of Nueva Espana, resident in the City
of Mexico--and countersigned by Antonio de Turcios, secretary of the
_Audiencia_, is contained, among many other clauses, the following:)

"The course of conduct which you, Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi, appointed
as governor and general on his majesty's behalf, for the discovery
of the islands of the West, by the very illustrious viceroy Don Luis
de Velasco, late governor and captain-general of this Nueva Espana,
and president of the royal _Audiencia_ resident therein, are to
adhere to in the voyage and expedition which with the aid of God,
our lord, you are about to undertake for the discovery aforesaid,
with the ships which have been constructed for that purpose by his
majesty's orders and are now at Puerto de la Navidad in this Nueva
Espana, on the coast of the South Sea is as follows:"

[See _ante_, p. 89 ff., for synopsis of these instructions.]

[The clauses sent thus by Legazpi relate in general to the course
to be pursued in the expedition in regard to the Portuguese and
their possessions in the eastern seas--assuming, however, that the
Philippines fell within Spain's demarcation, wherein Legazpi was
ordered to effect a settlement. The document continues:]

(I took the above clauses from the said instructions and
regulations. They were signed by the above-mentioned viceroy
[Antonio de Mendoza], the _visitador_, and the auditors, as is
sufficiently apparent; and to that document I refer, by order of
the most illustrious governor Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi. The same are
well and faithfully copied, and the comparison and collation thereof
took place before Christoval Ponze, notary of this camp, and Juan de
Gamboa. And they are well and faithfully copied. Given in the island
of Cubu, on the twentieth day of October, in the year one thousand
five hundred and sixty-eight. Therefore, I, the said Fernando Riquel,
affix hereunto my signature and accustomed flourish, in attestation
of truth. _Fernando Riquel_.)

(I, Fernando Riquel, notary-in-chief of the government, read and made
known to the said most illustrious Goncalo Pereira, captain-general of
the Portuguese fleet in his own person, and to the other captains of
his fleet--to wit, Alvaro de Mendoca, Don Duarte de Meneses, Simon de
Mendoca, Lorenco Furtado de Mendoca, Mendornellas de Vasconcellos--the
above reply and clauses, word for word, so that he might have full
understanding thereof, on the twentieth day of the month of October,
in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight. It is understood
that, although I reckon today as the twentieth of October, the summons
to which this is a reply was dated on the twenty-first, all which
took place on one and the same day. The cause for this difference
between the Portuguese and Castilians is that the Portuguese are
one day ahead. [117] This is so in all their replies and summons. I
delivered this notification and summons abovesaid in the galleon
"San Francisco" on the twentieth day of October abovesaid, in the
presence of those above-mentioned, and Alonso Alvarez Furtado, factor
of his highness; and they all signed their names jointly with me and
Christoval Ponze, notary of his majesty's camp. Simon de Mendoza,
Don Duarte de Meneses, Alvoro de Mendoca, Lorenco Furtado de Mendoca,
Mendornellas de Vasconcelos, Alonso Alvarez Furtado, Christoval Ponze.
_Fernando Riquel_.)

(This copy was collated thoroughly with the original by me, Pero
Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet. It has no interlineations
or erasure which would cause doubt. There occurs only the following
interlineation, namely, _entender_ ["to understand"], which was
added to make it correct. The said Fernao Riquel was present at the
collation, and signed here jointly with me and Baltesar de Freitas,
notary of the fleet, who placed here his approval. Collated on the
twenty-ninth day of December of the year one thousand, five hundred
and sixty-eight.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(I certify that this copy was collated in my presence, Baltesar de
Freitas, notary of this fleet, on the day as abovesaid. _Baltesar
de Freitas_.)

(On the said day, month, and year abovesaid, I was present at the
correction and collation of this copy.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

_Fourth summons_: Replying to this third answer of the very illustrious
Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi, general of the fleet and people of Nova
Espanha, I declare, as I have already said in my reply, that actions
speak louder than words. Up to this point I have acted in a way
pleasing both to God and to the kings our lords, being bound to serve
both equally well, on account of the close and long enduring union
which, always existing between the former sovereigns of Castella and
Purtugual, does now likewise exist between these present rulers. And,
understanding from the instructions which his highness [of Portugal]
gives to his captains for such cases, that he orders them to serve
the interests of his royal majesty, King Don Felipe, in every
possible way not at variance with his own interests, I have in all
respects thus carried out his commands and all the stipulations of
the treaty; while his grace has violated the same in so many ways,
principally in making traffic, on behalf of Nova Espanha, of gold
and drugs from this region within our demarcation--a thing forbidden
in specific terms in the treaty. This does not harmonize with what
his grace says about stress of weather and the lack and necessity
of ships--for one who has been engaged in traffic knows the remedy
for such cases, and his grace did traffic in our gold and drugs,
and sent for reenforcements, by the fleet--a thing which, likewise,
does not harmonize with his affirmations. For, the fewer people the
ships contained on coming from Nova Espanha, the better could his grace
lodge himself therein with all his camp, there being none in the whole
voyage to obstruct his way provided they had sufficient crews. But
God exists, and heaven cannot be covered with a sieve; nor are there
diseases of the eye so serious as to be able to hinder the perception
of a thing so evident. His grace is condemned by his own captains for
his transgressions against the treaty, while he himself admits that
his instructions forbid him to enter our demarcation. And although,
in view of the above, I was released from obligation to do him any
favor, yet I have been begging him for a considerable time to make
use both of me and of this fleet, since he himself possesses none,
and to depart therein upon his way. Nor is it reasonable that his
grace should depart alone in any of these ships; and he must be out
of his senses, after staying here four years, to undertake to wait
four more in this land of the king, our lord--for that is the least
time in which ships can be constructed in Nova Espanha for him to
depart in; and this season there could reach him only the _patache_
"San Joan," and some ship or other from Peru, a very small conveyance
for so large a camp. Wherefore I beg him as a favor, and summon him,
once and many times, to depart in this fleet belonging to the king,
our lord,--or, better, to his majesty--together with all the people
of his highness, inasmuch as this tends to the latter's service; for
this is the easiest and best remedy, to depart from our conquest,
and observe, at least, in part, the treaty. Likewise, I again
request him to come with all his camp to this fleet, that we may both
continue together the work of propagating our holy Catholic faith, and
destroying the sect of Mafamede [Mahomet] in Maluco, Java, and Acheen;
for as this work is so pleasing to God, it should be likewise so to
so Christian a sovereign as is his majesty. And--in payment for the
many times when the kings of Purtugual went to Castella to render aid
to her sovereigns against the Moors who were warring against them--it
would be better for us to join our forces, and change our hostility
to friendship, as the battle of Selado, and the raising of the great
siege of Sevilha, and many other battles in which the Portuguese added
luster to their name in the service of the said kings, demand--and, in
our own times, those fleets of ours which participated in the capture
of Tunes, in the island of Dargel, or again in the taking of Pinhao,
[118] and in many other public and private undertakings in which,
with both money and arms, we greatly aided the kings of Castella. In
spite of all this, his grace will not grant me a thing so reasonable
and pleasing, both to God and to the kings our lords, and to the
advantage of their army; but, on the contrary, so obstinately refuses
to accept the offer of this fleet, and will not depart from our land,
but steadily continues building fortifications and throwing up new
breastworks, from which he attacked the fleet of the king our lord
in this his port, and fired several shots at us from the fortress,
as if we were Moors and pagans. And yet I did not allow him to be
bombarded, in reply, from this galley "San Francisco," although I had
cannon with which I could have caused him much anxiety; but rather
retired, in accordance with my constant desire, past and present, for
peace--as is seen in my reluctance to make war upon him or to be the
cause of shedding Christian blood. Thus I have acted very differently
from his grace, who had ambuscades laid at the fords, whither I sent
my boat, peaceably, without any soldiers aboard, in order to show in
all respects my great desire to avoid war. As for his grace's saying
that I opened fire on his fort, it was only after I had sent him
word beforehand not to make this necessary; so that the desire which
has since been made evident by him was shown therein also. And a few
bombardments from the boats, moreover, were not sufficient either to
deter his people on land from continuing their work upon our land and
sea or his grace from breaking out in open war against me with great
ardor and desire; while I, on the contrary, had very little desire to
injure him, but allowed many vessels, people, and provisions to go
into the fortress, wherewith he could fortify himself against this
peaceful fleet of the king our lord. And with regard to the clauses
of his instructions which his grace had shown to me in his defense,
I would say that this was of service to me; for although, it is true,
one of them says that he shall go among the Filipinas islands, yet,
immediately thereafter follows a contrary clause to the effect that he
shall in no way transgress the treaty and agreement between Castella
and Purtugual, which has the more force to prevent him from going to
the Filipinas, in virtue of the more effectual words contained in the
solemn covenant of the treaty aforesaid. Moreover, in regard to his
grace's saying that the desire entertained by his majesty was not to
enter our demarcation, and that he thought the Filipinas were in his,
I would say that in all kingdoms, when it happens that doubt arises in
the instructions, letters, provisions, or charters of the sovereigns,
it is the custom to be guided thereby according to the intention of
those who gave them. Another clause declares that, if he find us in his
demarcation, he shall not do us any violence; but his grace came even
to our own territory and did this, acting in flagrant disobedience
to what his instructions allowed him, by undertaking illegally and
wrongfully thus to dispossess us of our land and sea. And again I beg
and summon him, once and many times, on the part of God, and of the
kings our lords, not to do us violence, but to depart in this fleet,
in the doing of which he will be doing great service to God and to
the sovereigns aforesaid. And if he do not this, I declare by all
the declarations of the protest sent to him through Pero Bernaldez,
notary-public of this fleet, on the twenty-first of October, in the
year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight, that all the losses,
deaths, dispossessions of property, and damages consequent shall fall
upon his grace, while I shall remain free and absolved therefrom. I
request and summon you, Fernao Riquel, notary-in-chief of that camp,
to read and make known this response to the said Miguel Lopez, and
with his reply--or without it, if he refuse to give it--to deliver
to me the certain instrument or instruments which shall be necessary
to me; likewise that you send me such instruments, so arranged as to
be authoritative, containing all the summons, protests, duplicates,
replies, rejoinders, and letters which have been exchanged and
written in this affair hitherto. In this galley "San Francisco," on
the twentieth day of October, in the year one thousand five hundred
and sixty-eight. There is no doubt or wrong erasure herein.

_Guoncallo Pereira_.

(_Notification_: In the island and port of Cubu, in the Filipinas,
on the twenty-seventh day of the month of October of the year one
thousand five hundred and sixty-eight, before the very illustrious
Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, governor and captain-general for his majesty
of the war and of the fleet for the discovery of the islands of the
West, and in the presence of me, Fernando Riquel, chief notary of
the same, there appeared Roque Bras, a servant, claiming to be in
the service of the very illustrious Goncalo Pereira, captain-general
of the Portuguese fleet anchored in this port; and, in his name,
presented this document as contained above. And he asked me, the said
Fernando Riquel, to read the same, and the said governor ordered me
to read it; wherefore, to carry out his commands, I did read it, _de
verbo ad verbum_, as well and exactly as I could, considering that
it was written in Portuguese. The said governor, on hearing the same,
said that he had heard it and would respond thereto--witnesses to all
the abovesaid being the master-of-camp Martin de Goiti, Captain Diego
de Artieda, Captain Luis de la Haya, and Captain Juan de Salzedo,
all of whom signed the same jointly with me. Martin de Goiti, Diego
de Artieda. Luis de la Haya, Juan de Salzedo.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

(_Response:_ This is the copy of a response which the very illustrious
Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi sent to Guoncallo Pereira, captain-general in
these regions of the south for the king our lord. I, Pero Bernaldez,
notary-public of the said fleet, copied the same from the original
at the request of the said Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi.)

I, Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi, governor and captain-general for his
majesty King Don Felipe, our lord, of his people and royal fleet
for the discovery of the islands of the West: in response to the
summons of the very illustrious Gonzalo Pereira, captain-in-chief of
the Portuguese fleet, served on me the twenty-seventh day of this
present month of October I declare that it is true, as contained
in his summons, that "actions speak louder than words," as also do
offers without actions--which in his case we have seen to be very
different. For it is manifest and known to all that his actions
have been, and are, very different from good words; since on the
twentieth day of this month, without any cause or legitimate reason,
or without the removal of the assurances given by one to the other,
or without making or giving any warning or information, his grace
ordered his galleys and small vessels to make an attack on certain
fortifications and defenses of ours. And they attacked and fired
many cannon and arquebuse-shots at the people on the shore and bank
near the fort aforesaid, without any artillery being fired at them
in return from this camp, which could do them harm, until the outcome
of the affair was seen. On the contrary, astonished at the treatment
afforded us when we had not given any occasion whatsoever for the same,
I wrote to his grace that very day. He, without any reply to what I had
written, sent, the next morning, two galleots and a pinnace to take up
a position in the other entrance of this harbor (where they now are),
in order to prevent us from receiving any supplies or provisions. He
has blockaded us upon all sides; and, what is most intolerable of all,
the galleys and pinnaces aforesaid have sacked, fired, and burned all
the neighboring villages, and killed the natives and inhabitants,
without exempting even women and children, in the towns of Gavi,
Cotcot, Diluan, Denao, and Mandavi--for the sole reason, and no other,
as I understand, that they had been at peace with us, and had supplied
and sold us provisions for our money. All this cannot be denied,
inasmuch as we have seen it all with our own eyes. This may well
be called deeds, and not words: and he has answered with a war of
incredible cruelty. And in view of this, it is not surprising that
we should have taken or that we do take some precautions, since he
has made war so openly, and now tries to do us so open violence and
injury. As far as the pleasing of God and of our rulers is concerned,
it is of very little service, or none at all, to say that we should
go to his fleet; for this cannot be done without violating his
majesty's orders, to which I shall not expose myself. Moreover,
all possible justifications have been offered on my side for not
departing from this land and leaving it free; and, if necessary,
I now offer them again. And it has no bearing on the subject to say
that I have been here four years and desire to remain four years
more; for my intention and desire has not been, nor is, to remain
here even one year, but to depart as soon as I receive despatches
and ships from his majesty--which, at latest, will be here with the
next northeast wind. And as for his saying that only the _patache_
"San Juan" and one ship can reach me, that is all nonsense; for his
majesty, if he desire, can send one, six, ten, or twenty ships from
Nueva Espana, for they have them in the South Sea there. And, what
is more, I offer to depart with those that come, whether they be few
or many, this being the easiest, shortest, and quickest remedy for
what his grace says he wishes and desires--namely, that I should leave
this land free and unembarrassed. And in this way he will receive full
satisfaction very shortly, without loss, damage, or injury whatsoever
to the one side or the other, unless his grace himself chooses to
give occasion therefor. And, if he do this, he will do his duty, and
what he is bound to do in the service of God and of our sovereigns,
and will obviate the necessity of shedding Christian blood--as well
as an infinite number of damages and annoyances which might otherwise
ensue and come to pass now or in the future. And if, in the event of
his grace's not being willing so to do, any further damage, loss,
or scandal should ensue, then I declare that he shall be guilty of
it all; and that he shall be considered to have acted criminally in
all respects and be obliged to give an account of his deeds to God
and to our sovereigns and rulers. And I ask and summon him--once,
twice, thrice, and as many more times as I am required by law--not
to permit violence to be done me, or any injury or warlike action
such as he has undertaken, much to the displeasure of God and of
our sovereigns and lords. And I protest, in all ways in which I have
already protested, and all others in which, on his majesty's behalf,
I am bound to request, declare, affirm, and allege--all of which,
although not specified in detail, is fully expressed herein. And
as for what he says about its being better to join his fleet in the
work of propagating our holy Catholic faith, and destroying the sect
of Mahomet in Maluco, Java, and Achen, in compensation for the many
occasions on which the sovereigns of Portugal aided those of Castilla
against the Moros--I say that if his highness or he, in his royal
name, wage war against the pagans in these islands, and have need
of other people's assistance, I am ready and prepared to give him
soldiers to help, and to go with him to the places above-mentioned,
in the service of the very illustrious and puissant King of Portugal,
conformably to the instructions and orders which I have from his
majesty, provided that his grace give them ships and supplies,
and such other securities as may be reasonable from one party to
another. Regarding what he says of the clauses of my instructions,
the unequivocal, holy, and sincere intention of his majesty stands
clearly forth therefrom, and should be received and admitted as such;
and likewise the fact that I myself have fulfilled his royal orders,
and have no intention of injuring any one or taking other people's
property from them. For I offer and stand ready to depart, just as
soon as possible, from everything which his grace declares to belong
to his highness, without any further summons; and to pay for all the
years of my stay here. This--being, as it is, the truth--is sufficient
satisfaction for all that his grace has said or may say in the matter;
for I desire to follow his instructions provided it be within my power,
and depart from this land and leave it free and unembarrassed. And
therefore I declare that I will do this, as I have said--refusing at
the same time to admit his allegations, and basing myself upon those
which I have made on my own part, which are true and certain. Given
in this settlement and camp on the twenty-eighth day of October in
the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Miguel Lopez de Legaspi_.

(_Notification_: In the galley "San Francisco" of the royal fleet of
Portugal, on the twenty-eighth day of October in the year one thousand
five hundred and sixty-eight, I, Christoval Ponze, notary, read and
made known this response and summons of the very illustrious Miguel
Lopez de Legaspi, governor and captain-general of the fleet for the
discovery of the islands of the West, to the very illustrious Gonzalo
Pereira, captain-general of the royal fleet of Portugal, in his own
person, _de verbo ad verbum_, in such a way that he understood it. He
responded that he heard and would make answer to the same, witnesses
being Don Duarte de Meneses, admiral of the said fleet, Antonio Lopez
de Sequeyra, Mendornellas de Vasconcellos, and the factor Alonso
Alvarez Furtado, all of whom signed here their names. Don Duarte de
Meneses, Antonio Lopez de Sequeyra, Mendornellas de Vasconcellos,
Alfonso Alvarez Furtado.)

(This copy was carefully collated with the original by me, Pero
Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet, without there being found any
interlineation or erasure which would cause doubt--although there is
an erasure of the word _no_ ["not"] which was made without deceitful
purpose. At this comparison was present the said Fernao Riquel,
who signed here with me, together with Baltesar de Freitas, notary
of the fleet, who placed here his approval on this twenty-ninth day
of December, in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(This copy was compared before me, Baltesar de Freitas, notary of
this fleet, on the day aforesaid.

_Baltesar de Freitas_.)

(I was present at the correction and comparison of this copy on the
month, day, and year aforesaid.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

_Fifth summons_: In response to the fourth reply which the very
illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguaspi, general of the fleet and people
of Nova Spanha, sent and had conveyed to me on the twenty-ninth
day of the month of October in the year one thousand five hundred
and sixty-eight, by Christovao Ponze de Leon, notary of his camp,
I say that I cannot help being amazed again and again at seeing how
his Grace attempts to depreciate my actions and give luster to his
own--those on the one side being so different from those on the other,
and done in sight of his camp yonder and of this fleet stationed
here. When there are, however, so many noblemen and gentlemen of
such reputation for sincerity and truth, his Grace will not be able
to deny that during the forty days of peace in this port, he did not
see any sign of hostility in this our fleet of the king, our lord,
or any indication thereof, inasmuch as ships were allowed to enter to
him with men and provisions aboard--when by capturing them, as could
have been done easily, I could have caused him much annoyance, if
my intention had been to bring about such a consummation. His Grace,
however, in great contrast to my own procedure, on the same days and
during the same peace, had many breastworks and defenses constructed
in his fortress, and corresponding defenses outside of the same
with a great amount of artillery mounted on many baskets filled with
earth. These were quite sufficient to defend himself against a great
army, rather than a small band of Portuguese zealous in the service
of God and of the kings our lords, and reluctant to shed Christian
blood even in so just a cause. Nor will he deny that--not content
with having so strong a fortress, with so many Spaniards to make
defense against us in our own territory in case I should undertake to
do him violence therein--he ordered, during the term of the peace,
an artillery station to be established on the bank opposite where
he took in water, in order to prevent me from obtaining any; and up
to the present time he has refused to let me have any, although this
is our own land. Moreover, he desired to cannonade the fleet at short
range from the fortress aforesaid, as afterward more clearly appeared;
for, on my immediately writing his Grace through Baltesar de Freitas,
notary of the fleet, to do me the favor to order that this should not
occur again, since it seemed more the act of an enemy than of a friend,
he wrote me in return things irrelevant to the case, while the rest of
his letter consisted only of vain words and compliments. I wrote to
his Grace again the next day, sending my letter by Pero Bernaldez,
notary-public of this fleet. In this letter I asked him again to
do me the favor of ordering the work to be destroyed; otherwise, I
should consider myself authorized to declare that war had broken out,
and that the assurances between us would remain null and void--as his
Grace will see in my letters, since his memory is so feeble as he says
and declares, since he says and declares that without the assurances
being canceled as yet on either side, and without giving any warning
or intimation whatsoever, I ordered the boats and galleys to fire on
his fortifications and basket defenses. But this I did, in reality,
in firing on the black people of the land, who were acting against
their true king and lord. Little blood was shed in this affair, as I
have ascertained, but all this business his Grace owes to his failure
to reply to or satisfy me--acting as if he wished open war with me,
as was seen by the breast-work which he had constructed. And--after a
few volleys had been fired from the said boats, galleys, and pinnaces,
in reply to the many broadsides which they let fly at us from their
fortress--here on the afternoon of that same day Fernan Riquel,
notary-in-chief of that camp, came with a reply from his Grace, also
a copy of certain clauses from his instructions, and a message to
the effect that he would finally have the work stopped, if this fleet
would stand off farther from shore. This I showed to the said Fernao
Riquel, who suddenly became short-sighted, in order not to see it;
nevertheless, I ordered the boats to retire, and to fire no more. And
the next day I did not, on my part, consent that they should go on
increasing the work further. In what, then, does his Grace find here,
up to the present time, more good words and deeds than mine? Moreover
I gave him much more peace. It should be added that after the boats
had killed many Indians and a few Spaniards, they ceased from further
shots that afternoon and the following day. It would then have been
just and due to us that his Grace should have had the basket defenses
destroyed--for that was the true road to peace and amity after so long
a period of enjoyment of our land--rather than to allow a bombardment,
as cruel as if against heretics, to take place and endure from eleven
o'clock in the morning till sunset. These ships of the king our lord
were pierced with balls in his own port, killing several persons,
and so aimed as to kill many more, if I had not used caution and
retired. This affair is certainly an ugly and terrible one, before
God and men. I did not, however, consent that any broadside should be
fired from this galley, the "San Francisco," although I had pieces
of very large caliber therein, which could have done much damage to
the fortress and defenses. And therefore, up to the present time,
I have not shed, nor given occasion for the shedding of Christian
blood as his Grace has done in batteries and ambuscades--although none
whatever were made against him, inasmuch as I restrained myself when
I could have done him much injury by fire and sword. The sovereigns
yonder, however--who are so good Christians and have clear minds--will
judge of the fair words and fair deeds of his Grace, and of my
deceitful words and most evil deeds; for we cannot be good judges
in our own behalf in such an offense committed against the king, our
lord, and his vassals. Quickly turning to the work at hand, a little
later on the same day of the cannonading, I ordered the galleys to
take possession of the other mouth of this harbor; for, now that his
Grace has broken out in war against me, it seemed to me better service
to God, and to the kings our lords, and a Christian's obligation,
to pursue hostilities by means of starvation rather than by fire and
sword--for although I blockade you with it, I have ordered this fleet,
and it stands ready, to bring you a great quantity of supplies, that
you may not perish through lack thereof. And as for the damage which
the oared vessels have done in the territory of the infidels, it does
not appear to me so serious and unheard-of as his Grace depicts it;
for it is juster in war that we should punish those vassals of the
king our lord for unfaithfulness and opposition to their true leaders
than that his Grace himself, although a stranger here, should, in time
of peace, give them very different kind of punishment for slighter
cause, in addition to making them pay tribute. As for his assertion
that he will pay and satisfy the king our lord for all the losses and
damage which he has done him in this land of his, it was unnecessary
to write such a thing; for his Highness is not a merchant nor is he so
avaricious as to take satisfaction in money or property from any other
sovereign, particularly from his captains; and he will be satisfied,
and I, in his name, only at his Grace's leaving the land free and
unencumbered, and thus not bringing about the death of his vassals
there in so many ways. As for his Grace's being willing to give me
people and assistance for the augmentation of the faith and the service
of the king our lord, certainly he may be sincere in this one matter;
but the Moros of Maluco, Java, and Acheen are, through our sins,
so numerous, that without his Grace in person, and all his company,
it would be difficult to sweep them away. But with such aid I hope in
God that much service will be done Him by us all; for on His account
they ought to be resigned to take a voyage much longer than from
India to Espanha, inasmuch as He suffered Himself to be crucified
and shed His precious blood for our salvation. For the letters of
instruction issued by Christian princes do not forbid their captains
the propagation of the Catholic faith and the destruction of the sect
of Mafamede, in any land of in any way whatsoever--especially when
the rightful king, through his captains, requests this so necessary
assistance from his Grace; and when there is so much intimacy and so
close a relation between these kings our lords, as to justify asking
that there be given him all the supplies and munitions necessary and
sufficient to their needs, and even much more. But since his Grace
is not willing, for the sake of God and the aforesaid sovereigns, to
go so long a way toward carrying out their wishes, I protest in the
terms already on my part protested. And I require you, Pero Bernaldez,
notary-public of this fleet, to read and make known this response
to the said Miguel Lopez; and to deliver into my hands an instrument
drawn in public form, containing all the summons, protests, replies,
duplicates, and letters, which may be needed for the outcome of this
business. Given in this galley the "San Francisco" on the thirtieth
day of October, in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Goncalo Pereira_

(_Notification and Reply_: On the thirtieth day of the month of
October in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight, at the
place now occupied by the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi,
general of the fleet and forces of Nova Spanha, at the command of
Goncallo Pereira, captain-general of the fleet of the South Sea,
I, Pero Bernaldez, notary, read and made known to him _de verbo
ad verbum_, this reply as above written. He responds as follows to
the same: "that the captain-general should well remember that, in
the first letter in which this summons is mentioned, he asked only
for the cessation of the work of erecting the wicker defenses, which
request was granted immediately and the work ceased, although baskets
cannot constitute war, and are rather for defense than offense. And
on the following day, by a second letter which his Grace wrote, he
again reiterated and requested that the baskets should be taken down,
and that he should receive either yes or no as an answer, with which
he would consider himself to have received a final answer. With the
same letter he sent me word by the factor Andres de Mirandaola and
Hernando Riquel, notary-in-chief of this camp, that if the baskets
were not taken down by nightfall, he would consider war to have
broken out between us. While I was engaged in framing an answer to
this, and before the time-limit set by him had expired, he sent his
galleys and small boats to attack the defenses and the people who were
stationed on the shore. Then our soldiers, seeing that the Portuguese
were attacking them and had begun hostilities, determined to complete
their defenses, and fought with the Portuguese from about noon-time
until sunset, without any cannon-shots being fired at the Portuguese
from this camp. And on the morning of the following day, without any
new action on our part, the said captain-general sent two galleys
and a small boat to seize upon the other entrance to this harbor, and
this order was executed. They have been and still are located there,
toward the east; and they refuse to allow any person, or supplies,
or anything else whatsoever, to come in or go out from this camp--a
procedure for which I am at a loss to find the proper designation,
unless it be war and the intention to starve us to death, which
is not a usual action on the part of Christians. Consequently, he
should not be astonished if this causes us to think that his actions
do not correspond to his words, and to the offers made on his part;
while, on the contrary, there is in truth all possible justification
on our part, and we have offered assistance and favor, should they
be necessary, against infidels, and in the interest of his Highness,
the very illustrious and puissant King of Portugal. For I will carry
out and fulfil that promise with the same willingness with which it
is offered, in the consciousness of being therein of service to his
Majesty. And it is but little relevant to say that, unless I go in
person with all my camp, nothing can be effected; for either there or
here, or any place whatsoever, I could be of little use, and would
be but little missed; nor is it just, in view of the impossibility
of my performing it without the express permission of his Majesty, to
attempt to oblige and bind me to perform the same. And as for the rest,
I confirm what I have already said, responded, requested, and protested
against, in his Majesty's name, in previous replies and rejoinder;
and if it be necessary, I again request, demand, and protest, as many
times as I am by law obliged, and as may be befitting. As for the war,
violence, and injuries which his Grace does, and tries to do me, I
elect almighty God, who knows the whole truth and the hearts of men,
as judge, and pray that He, out of the infinite pity and benignity
of His heart, may aid and favor him who most truly and with least
injury has tried and is trying to obtain peace from the opposite side,
without Christian blood being shed, to His great displeasure and that
of the kings our lords. Therefore I exculpate his Majesty, and myself
in his royal name, as well as all those in his royal service at this
camp, so that neither now nor at any subsequent time may blame or
responsibility be charged upon or imputed to them." He signed the
above with his name, and said that he gave it, and he did give it, as
his answer. There were present, as witnesses, Captain Juan Maldonado
de Berrocal; the ensign-general, Amador de Arriaran; the accountant,
Andres Cauchela; the chief constable, Graviel de Ribera; and the
notary-in-chief, Fernando Riquel--all of whom, together with me,
the said Pero Bernaldez, signed the same. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
Juan Maldonado de Berrocal, Andres Cauchela, Amador de Arriaran,
Graviel de Ribera, Fernando Riquel.

_Pero Bernaldez_

_Sixth summons_: In response to this fifth answer from the very
illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi, general of the fleet and people
of Nova Spanha. I admit briefly that in my first letter to him,
I requested him to discontinue the defenses, and in the second,
to destroy them--which his Grace refused to do, although it was a
thing so just and so important to the lords of the land, as well
as to my own advantage, for him not to employ hostilities against
me, or give me occasion to accept the same; for it was but a slight
cost or humiliation for a man who has so great a desire for peace as
his Grace constantly says he has, to destroy the defenses, in which
more hostility than friendship is displayed. I, on the other hand,
had more than sufficient reason and justification for sending the
galleys to take possession of the other entrance to this harbor,
inasmuch as our respective courses of action were very unlike during
the peace, as has been stated in other responses. Moreover, his Grace
will not, in spite of all, deny that the galleys had not yet left
this position when his people began to bombard me; and that those
vessels had taken a very different route from that of going to cut
off supplies. And as for his Grace's excusing himself and the rest
of the company from engaging in the service of God, of his Majesty,
and of the king our lord, as I have requested, more cogent reasons
exist than that his presence is not very important in a case of so
great urgency. Concerning his reiterated plea that he cannot violate
his royal Majesty Don Felipe's instructions, I declare to him that
since he entered here in violation of the same, and against the will
of the king our lord, the latter will be well served by his Grace's
going still farther, in his willingness to employ himself in his
Majesty's service. And in all the rest, I take my stand upon what has
already been said, and protest by what has already been protested. I
order you, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet, to notify him
thereof, and deliver into my hands such instrument or instruments as
shall be necessary to me, drawn up in legal form. Made in this galley
"San Francisco" on the first day of November in the year one thousand
five hundred and sixty-eight. An erasure was made by me therein which
shall not cause doubt, since it was made without intention to deceive.

_Goncallo Pereira_

(In the island and port of Cubu in the Filipinas, on the thirty-first
day of the month of October, in the year one thousand five hundred
and sixty-eight, before the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
governor and captain-general for his Majesty of the people and fleet
for the discovery of the islands of the West, and in the presence of
me, Fernando Riquel, notary-in-chief and official notary, appeared Pero
Bernaldez, notary-public, who declared that he belonged to the fleet
of the very illustrious Goncalo Pereira, captain-general, and read
this response above-written. The said governor after hearing the same,
said that, "as his Grace the said captain-general says, he had written
in the first letter that the work on the wicker fortifications should
cease; and that, with the intention of pleasing and satisfying him
in all respects, he, the said governor, had ordered the work thereon
to cease; and it would not have continued, had not his Grace ordered
them to be bombarded with many pieces from four galleys and small
boats--whereupon the soldiers seeing that they were being fired upon
completed their defenses at the great risk of their own lives and
persons. And on the following day, when the galleys and small boats
went off to seize and blockade the other entrance to this harbor,
the purpose of their expedition was shown clearly, and afterward put
beyond the shadow of a doubt, by their own acts. And it is unjust that
his Grace should prohibit the conveyance of provisions to this camp,
for those therein are Christians, and vassals of his Majesty, King Don
Felipe, our lord. This act, beside being disobedience to God our lord,
will greatly displease the princes, our sovereigns. And so I beg and
request of him, and, on behalf of God and of his Majesty, I summon him,
to allow the unrestricted entrance to and passage from this camp of
provisions, as should be done and permitted between Christians, and
between vassals of princes so intimate and so closely related. By the
copy of the clauses of his instructions sent to the captain-general,
his [Legazpi's] entrance into these islands, is shown to have been
by the orders of his Majesty and not against his royal will; and he
declares that, in order to depart from the islands, the shortest way
open to him is that which he has requested in his past replies. It
is also evident that his Grace could very easily provide for this,
especially now that additional ships have come to him aside from
those of his fleet. In doing this he will greatly please God our
lord and the kings our sovereigns, and extricate this whole camp,
as well as his own fleet and person, from a bad predicament. The said
captain-general must understand that he will therein particularly serve
his own sovereign, for he will prevent the necessity of other soldiers
and fleets being sent here to attack us. Wherefore again, I request,
summon, and protest to him all that has been requested, summoned,
and protested in the past response, and the answer thereto." And
this he said he gave as his response, and he signed it with his
name, in the presence, as witnesses, of Captain Andres de Ybarra,
Captain Juan de Salzedo, Captain Juan Maldonado de Berrocal, and
the accountant Andres Cauchela, who signed the same with me. Miguel
Lopez de Legazpi, Andres Cauchela, Andres de Ybarra, Juan de Salzedo,
Juan Maldonado de Berrocal, Pero Bernaldez.

Before me, _Fernando Riquel_)

_Last summons_: I conclude with this my last response, weary of so
many papers containing so many irrelevancies on a thing so clear and
evident; for though I admit the possibility of his Grace's having
ordered the work to cease, as he affirms in his rejoinder, yet I
declare it to be of no avail to give an order if the order be not
carried out, or not obeyed. The work, on the contrary, was continued
with greater haste and care for four hours after the time-limit which
I had written to his Grace, saying that if the work were not destroyed
I should consider myself as answered. I stated that oared boats would
then be sent to frighten them, and prevent the execution of a work
so unjust and of so ill a purpose, in addition to the many acts of
injustice which have already been committed here in this land of the
king our lord, greatly to his displeasure--and, as I believe, that
of his Majesty, which is the same thing. On my complaining several
times to his Grace, during the continuance of peace, and when I had
so great a desire of serving him--as even now I feel no hesitation
in doing--in regard to his erection within the aforesaid camp of
many breastworks and fortifications, he replied, by letter, that
it was the custom of camps and soldiers always to be thus throwing
up fortifications. Nevertheless, he was erecting those defenses,
not in his Majesty's demarcation, but thirty leagues within that
of his Highness, and against one of his captains--one, too, who is
so peaceably inclined as I have always been, until the moment when
war was waged against me, and a considerable time after that, for
which reason I am surprised at his acts. I then ordered the galleys
to the other entrance of this harbor--the justest and most Christian
means of acting, for it was my intention not to starve him to death,
but to oblige him to cease from this injury to his Highness, and
accept shelter in this fleet and make up for past privation. For what
Friar Quapucho [i.e., fustian-clad] is so humble, so long-suffering,
and so charitable to any one as I have been to a person who has not
deserved it from his king and lord? The more ships that come to me
to join this fleet, the better service will his Grace and company be
able to enjoy therein, and they will experience much friendship and
satisfaction therein--thus performing great service to God and to the
kings, to whom we are all so closely bound, and for whom we ought to
endure and surfer hardships with exceeding joy. And this the more,
because his Grace neither possesses nor gives any just reason for
being excused from so virtuous a work (in which he will always take
personal part in company with me who follow and accompany him), or
for being unwilling to concede what I have requested so many times,
and now request again, much more earnestly, on behalf of God, of his
Majesty, and of the king our lord. All that has happened or which
may subsequently happen, therefore, I declare shall fall to his own
responsibility; and I protest, by the protestations already made, and
by all which may redound to the justice and right of the king our lord,
and of the subsequent heirs of the kingdoms of Portugal. And you,
Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet, are directed to make
the same known to him, and give and deliver to me such instrument or
instruments as shall be required by me. In this galley "San Francisco,"
on the second day of the month of November, in the year one thousand
five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Goncallo Pereira_

(In the island and port of Cubu, on the first day of the month of
November, in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight,
in the presence of me, Christoval Ponze, scrivener of this camp
of his Majesty, there appeared Pero Bernaldez, notary-public,
who claimed to be of the royal fleet of Portugal, and read this
answer from the very illustrious Goncalo Pereira, captain-general
of the said fleet, to the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
governor and captain-general for his Majesty of the royal fleet for
the discovery of the islands of the West, in his own person, in such
wise as to be heard by him. He declared that he had already answered
and replied to the said captain-general, on many distinct occasions,
concerning the fact that his intention and will had not been nor
is to injure the exalted and puissant king of Portugal, or anything
belonging to him in any way; or to seize upon or take from him, or
occupy this or any other land belonging to him. "I desire, as I have
desired always, to depart from this land; and if up to the present
moment this design has not found realization and I have not departed,
it has been through lack of equipment and of ships, and not through any
expectation of reenforcements of men and a fleet, as, on the contrary,
he affirms." Wherefore he begged the said captain-general to sell him
ships, in order that he might immediately depart; or else to suggest to
him some other way by which he could leave, since he neither wishes nor
desires any other consummation. As for the fortifications and defenses
which his Grace mentions, they are for the purpose of defense against
any one trying to do him violence or injury unjustly and unreasonably,
until such time as he may be enabled to depart and leave this land
free, as he has declared and promised he would do. Neither on his
own part nor on that of anyone belonging to his camp has he desired
to make war upon his Grace or on the members of his royal fleet;
but rather to serve them in all possible ways, as he has offered in
past summons and responses, to which he begs to refer, and on all of
which he takes his stand anew. On the other hand, it is quite clear
and evident that the captain-general is trying to do him violence and
injury in wishing to carry him to India with him without consenting
to any other means whatsoever; and in having begun and initiated war
against him and blockaded him, by ordering the entrances and outward
passages of this harbor blockaded, on account of which he is bound
to make defense. And since the said captain-general wishes it so,
and continues doing so great injury to God our lord, and to our
sovereigns, by the war, and sheds Christian blood, unreasonably and
without justification, all the blame and responsibility, and all the
damages, losses and deaths resulting therefrom, shall be upon his
shoulders. He protests again by all protested and demanded by him
in his past replies, and by all which most devolves upon him in this
case to protest, demand, and summon, as many times as is proper and to
which he is by law obliged; and he thus challenges him as testimony,
in the presence, as witnesses, of Captain Diego de Artieda and Captain
Andres de Ybarra; the factor, Andres de Mirandaola; the treasurer,
Guido de Levazaris; and the ensign-in-chief, Amador de Arriaran, all
of whom signed here their names. Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, Diego de
Artieda, Andres de Ybarra, Guido de Lavezaris, Andres de Mirandaola,
Amador de Arriaran, Pero Bernaldez.

Before me, _Christoval Ponze_, notary)

(All the above papers, writings, replies, responses, and other
documents above set forth, I, the said Fernando Riquel, took _manu
propria_, as best I could, from the originals, writing them down _de
verbo ad verbum_ and letter for letter, at the request of the said
governor Miguel _Lopez_ de Lagazpi, who signed the same here with his
name. And they are accurate and true, witnesses of the correction and
comparison with the originals thereof being Miguel Lopez, Francisco
de Cocar, and Juan de Gamboa y Lezcano, soldiers in this camp--in
testimony whereof I have made my usual signature and rubric. Given
at Cubu, the second day of the month of June in the year one thousand
five hundred and sixty-nine.

In testimony of the truth, _Fernando Riquel_)

(This copy was written on twenty-three sheets of paper, including
the present, and bears the corrections, erasures, and interlineations
following: [These follow, in the original document.] And note should
be taken that the contract was corruptly and badly written for so it
was in the original.)

(In the City of Mexico, on the twenty-third day of the month of
December in the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-nine, the
presidents and auditors of the royal _Audiencia_ of Nueva Spana said
that, inasmuch as in a docket of letters and despatches from Miguel
Lopez de Legaspi, governor and captain in the islands of the West,
which came addressed to this royal _Audiencia_, this relation was found
therein of negotiations between the said governor and Goncalo Pereira,
a Portuguese, captain of the most serene King of Portugal, regarding
the summons repeatedly served, to the effect that the said Miguel
Lopez should depart from the islands, region, and spot, where he was
situated as is declared in the said relation, it is fitting that this
docket be sent to his Majesty in his royal Council of the Indies. In
order that entire faith may be given thereto, a judicial inquiry shall
be received confirming the signature as that of the said Miguel Lopez
de Legaspi, and of the handwriting and signature of Hernando Riquel,
his notary. Having been received as signed from the secretary of this
royal _Audiencia_ it shall be sent to his Majesty. And accordingly
they ordered it, by decree, to be set down in writing.

_Sancho Lopez de Agurto_)

(_Attestation_: And then upon the said day, month, and year above
specified for the said inquiry, there was received an oath in the name
of God and the blessed Mary, and upon the sign of the cross +, in the
form prescribed by law, from Sancho Lopez de Agurto, secretary of the
royal _Audiencia_ of this Nueva Spana, and he took the same in the
presence of me, Juan Augustin de Contreras, notary of his Majesty and
receiver of this royal _Audiencia_, under which he promised to tell
the truth in this affair. On being interrogated by the aforesaid,
and after having seen the writing contained in this other part,
and the signatures thereof, where occur the names of Miguel Lopez
and Fernando Riquel, he said that this witness knew the said Miguel
Lopez and Fernando Riquel, whom many times he had seen write and sign
their names; and that he knows that the said Miguel Lopez de Legaspi
went as governor and general to the islands of the West, and took
as his official notary the said Fernando Riquel, on the authority
of the viceroy Don Luis de Velasco; and that the said signatures at
the end of the said narration and writing, to wit, "Miguel Lopez"
and "Fernando Riquel," together with the handwriting of the said
narration are, of a truth so far as this witness knows, those of the
parties aforesaid; and he says this without the slightest doubt, for,
as already said, he has seen them write and sign their names, and he
has written papers and signatures of theirs in his possession similar
to those of the said narration, without the slightest variation. The
said Hernando Riquel was held and considered as an upright man, and
a lawyer of much veracity; and as such this witness held and still
holds him. And he declares on the oath taken by him that his entire
deposition is true, and he has affixed his signature to the same.

_Sancho Lopez de Agurto_

Before me, _Johan Augustin_, notary of his Majesty.)

[The sworn depositions of Juan Augustin de Contreras and of Alonso
de Segura, made before Sancho Lopez de Agurto, follow. They are
substantially the same as the above. The document continues:]

(I, the said Sancho Lopez de Agurto, notary of the chamber of the
said royal _Audiencia_ of Nueva Espana, who was present at the said
inquiry made therein, affixed my seal in testimony of the truth. [119]

_Sancho Lopez de Agurto_)

Bibliographical Data

_Expedition of Garcia de Loaisa_

_Resume of contemporaneous documents_.--These documents, dated from
1522 to 1537, are briefly synopsized from Navarrete's _Col. de viages_,
v, pp. 193-439. This editor obtained the material for his series from
the archives of Sevilla, Madrid, and Simancas.

_Voyage of Alvaro de Saavedra_

_Resume of contemporaneous documents_.--These documents are dated in
1527-28, and are published by Navarrete, _ut supra_, pp. 440-486.

_Expedition of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos_

_Resume of contemporaneous documents_.--These documents, also
synopsized, for the period 1541-48, are obtained from _Doc. ined._,
as follows: _Ultramar_, ii, part i, pp. 1-94; _Amer. y Oceania_, v,
pp. 117-209, and xiv, pp. 151-165.

_Expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi_

_Resume of contemporaneous documents_.--These documents, covering
the period 1559-69, are also synopsized from _Doc. ined. Ultramar_,
ii, pp. 94-475, and iii, pp. v-225, 244-370, 427-463.

_Warrant for establishment of Augustinian Mission_ (1564).--The
original of this document was found among the archives of the
Augustinian convent at Culhuacan, Mexico. The only publication of
this _Patente_ of which we are aware is that (in Latin) from which our
translation is made, in a work by Elviro J. Perez, O.S.A.,--_Catalogo
bio-bibliografico de los religiosos agustinos_ (Manila, 1901),
pp. xi-xiv. At present, we are unable to give further information
concerning the document.

_Possession of Cibabao_ (Feb. 15, 1565).--The original MS. (from
a copy of which our translation is made) is conserved in the
Archivo de Indias at Sevilla; pressmark, "Simancas--Filipinas;
descubrimientos, descripciones y poblaciones de las Islas Filipinas,
anos 1537 a 1565; est. 1, caj. 1, leg. 1, 23." It has been published
in _Doc. ined. Ultramar_, i i, pp. 351-355.

_Proclamation regarding gold found in burial places_ (May 16,
1565).--The data for the preceding document apply to this one
also--save that to pressmark should be added "ramo 25;" and that the
pagination for this one in _Doc. ined._ is 355-357.

_Letter to Felipe II_ (May 27, 1565).--The original MS. is also
in Sevilla; pressmark, "Simancas--Filipinas; descubrimientos,
descripciones y gobierno de Filipinas; est. 1, caj. 1, leg. 1,
23." It was published, _ut supra_, pp. 357-359. There are two copies
in the Archivo, one of which is incorrectly endorsed "1569." In such
cases it should be remembered that despatches and other official
documents were often sent in duplicate--sometimes in triplicate,
or even quadruplicate,--and by different vessels, to ensure that at
least one copy should reach its destination.

_Letters to Felipe II_ (May 29, June 1, 1565).--The original MSS. (from
copies of which our translations are made) are also in the Archivo
de Indias; pressmark. "Patronato, Audiencia de Filipinas--Cartas
de los gobernadores." More definite designation is not possible, as
these MSS. were not in their regular place in the above _patronato_
at the time when our transcripts were made. With the letter of June
1 we present a photographic reproduction of the signatures. Both of
these documents were published in _Doc. ined. Amer. y Oceania_, xiii,
pp. 527-531.

_Letter to the Audiencia of Mexico_ (May 28, 1565).--The original
MS. is in the Archivo de Indias; pressmark, "Simancas--Filipinas;
descub. descrip. y pob. Filipinas, anos 1537 a 1565; est. 1, caj. i,
leg. 1, 24, no. 24." This letter was accompanied by a memorandum of
supplies needed for the military post established in the Philippines by
Legazpi; and with the above-named MS. is a list of this sort--which,
however, must have been placed in this _legajo_ by some error, as it
mentions some articles that had been sent in the year 1570. But in
another patronato--which has the same title as the above, but for the
years 1566-68--in "est. 1, caj. 1, leg. 2, 24," is a list of similar
character, with the title, _Memoria de los rescates y municiones
que se pidieron a Nueva Espana, para enviar al campo de S.M. que
reside en el puerto de Cubu_. This document is undated; but internal
evidence makes it probable that it is the list which was sent with
this letter to the Audiencia, with which we have accordingly placed
it, transferring the other list to a later date, 1571.

_Legazpi's Relation_ (1565).--The original MS. is in the
Museo-Biblioteca de Ultramar, Madrid; pressmark, "170-20-3_a_, caja
n_o_. 22." It has not, so far as is known, ever been published. Nothing
indicates positively the name of the person to whom it was written;
but we may reasonably conjecture, from the style of address, that
it was probably sent to the president of the Audiencia of Mexico. As
Legazpi's own account of his voyage and achievements, this document
possesses special interest and value.

_Copia de vna carta venida de Seuilla a Miguel Saluador de Valencia_
(1566).--This little pamphlet (Barcelona, Pau Cortey, 1566)
is generally regarded as the first printed account of Legazpi's
expedition. But one copy is known to exist--the one which was in
Retana's collection, now the property of the Compania General de
Tabacos de Filipinas, Barcelona. For this reason, we present this
document in both the Spanish text and English translation--the former
being printed from an exact transcription made from the original
document at Barcelona. The original is in two sheets (four pages)
of quarto size, printed in type about the size of that used in this
series; it is bound in red boards, and is in good condition.

_Letters to Felipe II_ (July 12, 15, 23, 1567, and June 26,
1568).--The original MSS. of these four letters (from copies of which
our translations are made) are in the Archivo de Indias at Sevilla;
pressmark, "Simancas--Secular, Audiencia de Filipinas; Cartas y
expedientes de gobernador de Filipinas vistos en el consejo. Anos de
1567 a 1599; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 6."

_Negotiations between Legazpi and Pereira_ (1568-69).--The originals
of these documents are in the Archivo de Indias at Sevilla; pressmark,
"Est. 1. caj. 1, leg. 2, 24, n_os_. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9." A MS. copied or
compiled from these originals for use in the South American boundary
negotiations at Paris in 1776, is in the Archivo general at Simancas;
pressmark, "Leg. 7412, fol. 87 y 88;" from a copy of this MS. our
translation is made.

NOTES

[1] This document is printed in both the original language and
English translation.

[2] Navarrete says in a note that this must have been made about the
time the Junta of Badajoz closed, in 1524.

[3] The hospital (and, later, military) order of St John of Jerusalem,
was first established in that city in 1023, and received papal
recognition in 1113. Its knights served with distinction in the
crusades. From 1291 to 1523 the order had its seat in the island
of Rhodes; but in 1530 that of Malte was ceded to it by the emperor
Charles V. After the capture of Malta by the French, the order became
small and insignificant. This order was known in the course of its
history by various names, among them being the Order of Rhodes (Rodas).

Garcia Jofre de Loaisa, the commander of this expedition, was a native
of Ciudad Real. He must not be confounded with the noted archbishop
of Seville, of the same name, whose kinsman he was. The commander
died at sea in July, 1526.

[4] This was a priest who accompanied the expedition. After passing
the Strait of Magellan, the ship "Santiago," in which Areizaga sailed,
was compelled by lack of supplies to direct its course toward the
Spanish settlements on the west coast. This priest returned thence
to Spain, where the historian Oviedo saw him; the latter compiles
from Areizaga's narrative a long account of his adventures, and of
Loaisa's voyage as far as the strait (see Oviedo's _Hist. de Indias_,

Book of the day: