Part 10 out of 11
General Remarks on the Methods of Taking Observations
The physical characters and measurements of each individual were noted
on a separate card, and the bulk of them have been embodied in the
following synopses. As my object has been to give a general impression
of each group, I have not burdened the descriptions with superfluous
scattered observations. The original records are available in Cambridge
for any desirous of consulting them. The statistics given refer to
the several recorded observations; where these fall short of the total
number it may be taken for granted that as a rule the remainder did not
depart markedly from the normal standard of the group in question --
the presence of salient characters would be noted, not their absence.
In Table A certain measurements and indices are given of the more
important groups in order to facilitate comparisons. Very small
groups and half-breeds have been omitted, the object being to
summarise the characters of the adults of the larger groups. The
median in most cases is practically identical with the average,
but where a difference occurs, the median more nearly represents the
central type. The indices are based on a calculation to two decimal
places; where the second decimal place is under five it is left out of
account, and where five or over the first decimal place is augmented
by one. This table should be compared with Table C.
In the other tables all the measurements and indices are given.
HEAD: LENGTH, from glabella to most prominent point of occiput;
BREADTH, maximum at right angles to above; BI-AURIC BREADTH, from base
of the tragus, pressing firmly; CIRCUMFERENCE, greatest circumference
immediately above the glabella; AURICULAR VERTICAL ARC, from base
of tragus over the vertex; AURICULAR RADII taken with a Cunningham's
radiometer from the ear-hole. FACE: TOTAL LENGTH, from nasion to chin;
UPPER LENGTH, from nasion to alveolus; BI-ZYGOMATIC BREADTH, from
greatest prominence of cheek arches, pressing firmly; INTER-OCULAR
WIDTH, between inner angles of the eyes; BI-GONIAL BREADTH, from the
angle of the lower jaw, pressing firmly. NOSE: LENGTH, from nasion
to angle with lip; BREADTH, between outer curvature of alae, without
pressure; BI-MALAR BREADTH, from the outer upper corner of the margin
of the orbit, pressing firmly (this was usually marked with a soft
pencil); NASO-MALAR LINE, between these points over the bridge of
The term DOLICHOCEPHALIC is used to designate a cephalic index of
77.9 and under, and BRACHYCEPHALIC one of 78 and over. Heads with a
length-height index of 66.9 and under are PLATYCEPHALIC, those of 67 --
69.9 are MESOCEPHALIC, and those of 70 and over are HYPSICEPHALIC. The
breadth-height limits are 82.9, 83 -- 84.9, and 85. The term
CHAMAEPROSOPIC is used where the total facial index is 89.9 and under,
and LEPTOPROSOPIC where it is 90 and over, the corresponding limit for
the upper facial index is -49.9 and 50+. Owing to the character of the
nose it was not easy in most cases to ascertain the exact upper limit
of the length, and it is probably owing to this that the indices show
such marked platyrhiny. Unfortunately these indices cannot be compared
with those obtained by Nieuwenhuis, as he measured to the tip of the
nose and not to its angle with the lip as we did. The term LEPTORHINE
is used for noses with an index of 69.9 and under, MESORHINE for
70 -- 84.9, PLATYRHINE for 85 -- 99.9, and HYPER-PLATYRHINE for 100
and over. The profiles of the nose were compared with the figures in
NOTES AND QUERIES (1892). In speaking of the EYE, by fold is meant
the Mongolian fold which covers the caruncle. All the irises have a
brown colour, being either light, medium, or dark. The observations
on the EARS were made by means of MS. notes and diagrams drawn up
for me by Prof. A. Keith. He recommended that persons under fifteen
years of age or over sixty should not be noted, and that as there is
a very marked sexual difference, observations on men and women should
be kept quite separate. Variations in every race are, within certain
limits, so numerous that he suggested that at least a hundred of each
sex should be observed; although the numbers examined of the several
tribes is usually very small, their total number will probably be found
sufficient to give a fair idea of the more common types of ears. The
TYPES of ears suggested by Dr. Keith are (1) "European": this applies
only to the general shape; the folding, etc., varies enormously. (2)
"Negroid": this resembles the "Orang type" but differs in being
two-thirds of a circle; that is to say, the Negroid ear has a much
greater breadth relative to its height than the ears of Europeans. (3)
"Orang": this is the smallest and most degenerate form of ear, seen
in its most typical form in the orang utan; it is the common female
type. (4) "Chimpanzee": this is the largest and most primitive form
of ear, and is found in its typical condition in the chimpanzee;
it is commonly, but not always, set at a considerable angle to the
head. ANGLE: The ear may be appressed (0), or it may stand out from
the head at an angle of less than 30[degree] (1), between 30[degree]
and 60[degree] (2), or over 60[degree] (3). LOBULE: This is never
totally absent, but when it is 3 mm. or less from the middle of the
curved base of the anti-tragus it may be called approximately so
(0), when 3 -- 10 mm. it is small (1), 10 -- 15 mm. medium (2),
over 15 mm. long (3). The lobule may be free or adhere partially
or totally to the side of the face. DESCENDING HELIX: The degree of
folding varies; there may be none (0), under 2 mm. (1), between 2 and
4 mm. (2), between 4 and 6 mm. (3). DARWIN'S POINT: It may be absent
(0), or present as a distinct tip (1), as an infolded tip (2), as an
inrolled knob (3), or as a slight thickening of the infolded part
of the helix (4); the position is constant in the upper posterior
segment. TRAGUS: This may be absent (0), otherwise it varies in size
measured from base to apex, under 3 mm. (I), between 3 and 5 mm. (2),
or 5 to 7 mm. (3). Sometimes it has two apices. ANTI-TRAGUS: This
also may be absent (0), or if present the size from base to apex
measures as in the tragus under 3 mm. (1), between 3 and 5 mm. (2),
or 5 -- 7 mm. (3). ANTI-HELIX: It is bent into an angle slightly or
not at all (0), the angle does not reach the level of the helix (1),
the angle is a little within or a little beyond the level of the helix
(2), it is very prominent, distinctly beyond the level of the helix
(3). Its prominence is a human feature.
As regards the HAIR, in all cases where there were a number of
observations one or two of the oldest men had grizzled or even grey
hair. The hair of the head is usually worn long and often attains
a length of about two feet, but it is sometimes cut shorter and is
occasionally very short. It is usually fairly abundant, but in all
groups a few persons have scanty hair. The hair of the face is in
all groups either absent or very scanty; the same applies to the body
hair. The only scale of SKIN colours we had was that given in the NOTES
AND QUERIES ON ANTHROPOLOGY (2nd ed., 1892), but as this was obviously
inadequate for the purpose, Dr. Hose prepared a scale for our use
in the field, the shades of which have subsequently been as far as
possible equated with those of Prof. von Luschan's Hautfarben-Tafel
(Puhl and Wagner, Rixdorf); it is these numbers which appear in
brackets in the following descriptions, and I have also attempted
to describe them in English; the term cinamon is based on the colour
of the stick cinnamon of commerce. The colours were usually matched
from the inner aspect of the upper arm so as to avoid the darkening
caused by the burning of the sun. Besides the information recorded
on the cards, a number of additional data on skin colour collected
by Dr. Hose are included in the synopses. As regards STATURE the
subject is described as SHORT when he measures less than 1.625 m. (5
ft. 4 in.), MEDIUM 1.625 -- 1.724 m. (5 ft. 4 in. to 5 ft. 8 in.),
and TALL 1.725 m. and over; the subject had his eyes looking towards
With the exception of the observations by Mr. R. Shelford, mainly on
the Land Dayaks and Iban, which are duly noted, all the data on the
living were collected by Dr. W. McDougall and myself, either separately
or conjointly, and I have to thank him for permitting me to work up
the results. Our thanks are due to Dr. Hose, at whose invitation we
went to Sarawak, and without whose zeal, knowledge of the country,
and wonderful influence over the natives this work could not have
been accomplished. Mr. S. H. Ray also assisted us as amanuensis. Most
of the figures were tabulated for me by Miss Barbara Friere-Marreco
and the remainder by Miss Lilian Whitehouse, who also has greatly
assisted me in drawing up this memoir.
I. Murut Group
Seven KALABIT men and 3 women and 4 MURUT men were measured. No
descriptive details of the Muruts are available.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 7 to be dolichocephalic and 7
brachycephalic; the 3 women are slightly more dolichocephalic than
the men, for whom the median is 78.5. One Kalabit is platycephalic,
1 mesocephalic, and 8 hypsicephalic as regards length-height, and
all are hypsicephalic as regards breadth-height. Four Kalabits were
noted as having oval heads, in 1 the occiput was prominent, 1 ovoid,
and 1 woman ellipsoidal.
FACE: Five Kalabits have pentagonal faces, being rather broad in 3,
2 were long and rather narrow, the jaws are narrow in 2. They show
a marked tendency to prognathism, especially dental prognathism. The
Kalabits are chamaeprosopic as regards both the total facial and the
upper facial indices, with one exception in both respects. The forehead
has a slight tendency to be narrow and high. The cheek-bones are
moderately prominent in 5 men and 1 woman and not prominent in 2 men
and 1 woman. The lips are moderately full. The chin is rather small,
and retreating in 3. NOSE: One Murut is leptorhine, 2 Kalabit men are
mesorhine, 6 are platyrhine, and 5 hyper-platyrhine. The root is high
in 4 Kalabit men, narrow in 3, broad in 4 and 1 woman, and flat in 3
and 1 woman; the base is reflected in 3 of each sex, and straight in
2 men; the alae are small in 4 men and 3 women, moderate in 3 men,
and round in 1 of each sex; the nostrils are rounded in 5 men and
3 women, and wide in 2 men. EYES: The aperture is narrow in 1 man,
moderately open in 5 men and 1 woman, wide in 1 man and 2 women; it
is straight with no fold in 5 men, straight with slight fold in 1 man,
more or less oblique with slight fold in 1 man and 2 women, in 1 woman
it is straight and the fold is more developed in the right eye than
in the left; the colour is medium in 1 man, dark brown in 5 men and
3 women. EARS: Type European in 3 of each sex, Negroid in 1 man, and
intermediate in 2 men; angle prominent in 5 men and 3 women, slightly
prominent in 2 men; lobule always distended, in 2 men it is adherent;
descending helix infolded under 2 mm. in all but 1 man in whom it is
under 4 mm.; Darwin's point absent in 3 men and 1 woman, doubtful in
2 men, infolded in 1 man, inrolled in 2 women; tragus under 3 mm. in 2
men, 3 -- 5 mm. in the rest; anti-tragus absent in 4 men, and 1 woman,
under 3 mm. in 3 men and 2 women; anti-helix below level of helix in
2 of each sex, about at the same level in 5 men and 1 woman.
HAIR: It is straight to wavy in 1 of each sex, wavy in 3 men and 1
woman, wavy-curly in 1 man. The colour is rusty black in 7 men and
3 women. It is moderately abundant and long.
SKIN: Four are lightest cinamon (12), 1 light cinamon (14), 1 cinamon
(6), 2 pale fawn (pale 17), 2 dull fawn (17).
Stature: All but 1 Murut man are of short stature, 1 Kalabit man being
only 1.485 m. (4 ft. 10 1/2 in.), the 3 women are still shorter,
1 being 1.410 m. (4 ft. 7 1/2 in.), the median for the Kalabits is
1.565 (5 ft. 1 1/2 in.).
II. Klemantan Group
1. South-western Group
(A) Forty-two LAND DAYAK men were measured by Mr. Shelford.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices range fairly evenly from 73.5 to 86.9,
19 men being dolichocephalic; the median is 78.4.
FACE: One is noted as very broad and 2 as prognathous. All but 1 are
chamaeprosopic as regards the total facial index and all but 6 as
regards the upper facial. NOSE: Nineteen are mesorhine, 17 platyrhine,
and 6 hyper-platyrhine; 1 is noted as aquiline, 3 as straight but
flat, and 2 have a low bridge; 2 have broad alae, 1 having a very
concave nose, broader than long with an index of 116.2, and wide
nostrils, it is evidently abnormal. Byes: A fold is mentioned in 18,
of which 3 are slight and 2 pronounced, its absence is noted in 3;
5 have medium brown irises.
HAIR: It is noted as straight in 6 and wavy in 2; it is black in 8,
and 24 have abundant hair; the hair of the face is absent in 7 and
sparse in 8, 1 had a stubbly beard.
SKIN: The colour of the skin is darker than that of other inland
tribes, 19 being of a very dark warm cinamon (25) and 4 cinamon
(6). It is noted in 1 as much darker when uncovered.
STATURE: None are tall, 7 are medium, the rest short, 4 being under
1.5 m. (4 ft. 11 in.), the median is 1.577 m. (5 ft. 2 in.).
[Thirty-one male and 4 female Ulu Ayar Dayaks were measured by
Nieuwenhuis, of these 5 were boys under 17, and all 4 females were
girls of 17 and under. See vol. ii., p. 315, note 1.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices range fairly evenly between 71 and
81.4, all but 5 are dolichocephalic, the median being 74.7.
FACE: It is usually of medium breadth; 2 (I.E. 6 per cent) have
broad faces. The bi-zygomatic breadth ranges from 125 to 145 mm.,
the median being 136 mm. NOSE: The breadth-measurements range from 36
to 46 mm., the length-measurements being taken from root to tip are
therefore not comparable. Eighteen males and 3 females are noted as
having concave noses, 13 and 1 as having broad flat noses, none as
straight or narrow, I.E. 60 per cent of the Ulu Ayars have concave
("depressed," "sunken," or "hollow") noses. EYES: The Mongolian fold
does not occur. The colour is dark.
HAIR: All had straight hair except 1 man; it is generally rather
scanty. The colour is black.
SKIN: The colour is noted as black or blue-black in 10, brown and
yellow in 5, light brown in 20.
STATURE: None are tall, 3 are medium, and the rest short, 2 being
under 1.5 m. (4 ft. 11 in.); the median is 1.551 (5 ft. 1 in.).]
(B) Seven MALOH men were measured by us.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index is essentially dolichocephalic,
3 being low brachycephals, the median 76.8. Two are mesocephalic
in the length-height index and none in the breadth-height, all the
remainder are hypsicephalic in both respects; 4 are pyriform, 2 oval,
and 1 ellipsoidal in shape.
FACE: Two are pentagonal, 2 rather broad, and 2 long; alveolar
prognathism is noted in 3, 1 of which has also general prognathism. Two
only are leptoprosopic in their total and upper facial indices. The
forehead is somewhat narrow and high, the cheek-bones more or
less prominent, the lips are usually moderately full, and the chin
fairly well developed. NOSE: One is mesorhine, 4 platyrhine, and 2
hyper-platyrhine; the profile is equally divided between straight
and concave; the base is reflected in 5, deflected in 2; the alae are
rather small and the nostrils wide and rounded. EARS: Type European in
5 (1 doubtful), Negroid in 2; angle prominent in 5, slightly prominent
in 2; lobule distended in all; descending helix infolded under 2
mm. in 5, 2 -- 4 mm. in 2; Darwin's point absent in 5, inrolled in 2
(1 doubtful); tragus 3 -- 5 mm. in 5 (2 doubtful), rather less in 2;
anti-tragus absent in 1, doubtful in 1, under 3 mm. in 5 anti-helix
below level of helix in 4, about at the same level in 3.
HAIR: The hair is distinctly wavy and long; it is rusty black in 5
and black in 2. There is a moderate amount on the face and none on
SKIN: SIX are dull fawn (17).
STATURE: ALL are short, 1 being 1.47 m. (4 ft. 9 3/4 in.); the median
is 1.585 m. (5 ft. 2 1/2 in.).
2. Central Group
BARAWAN SUB-GROUP -- This consists of 1 Murik man, 1 Long Ulai man and
1 woman, 8 Long Kiput men, 3 Lelak men, 12 Barawan men and 5 women,
2 Sakapan men, 1 Kajaman, and 4 mixed breeds (I.E. mixed with other
HEAD-FORM: Of the longer series the Barawans are the more
dolichocephalic, 6 men and 3 women have an index below 78, 1 Long Kiput
man and only 4 others being dolichocephalic; the median of the whole
series, excluding women, is 79. Most of the men and all the women
are hypsicephalic; but 2 Barawans are platycephalic, and 1 Barawan
and 2 mixed breeds are mesocephalic in length-height; 1 Long Kiput is
platycephalic in length-height and breadth-height, 2 are mesocephalic
in both respects, and 1 in length-height only; 1 Lelak is platycephalic
in length-height and mesocephalic in breadth-height. The shape is noted
as oval in 5 men and 3 women, ovoid in 1 of each sex, round in 3 men.
FACE: Nine men and 3 women have a pentagonal face; it is oval in 1 man
and 2 women, rather long in 5 men, square in 2 men, broad in 1 of each
sex. All are chamaeprosopic in both respects except 1 Barawan man as
regards total facial index and 2 in the upper. The forehead is rounded
or prominent in 8 men and 6 women, upright in 4 men and 1 woman, more
or less sloping in 4 men, broad and low in 5 men, narrow in 4 men. The
cheek-bones are large in 6 men and 1 woman, more or less prominent
in 10 men and 3 women, moderate in 11 men and 2 women. The lips vary
in thickness, 10 being thin and 7 more or less thick. The chin is
fairly well developed except in 6 men. NOSE: One Lelak is leptorhine,
2 Long Kiputs) 3 Barawan men and 2 women and 2 Barawan mixed breeds
are mesorhine; 5 Long Kiputs, 2 Lelaks, 6 Barawan men and 1 woman and 1
mixed breed, 1 Long Ulai man and woman and 2 Sakapans are platyrhine;
1 Long Kiput, 3 Barawan men and 2 women, 1 Murik and 1 Kajaman are
hyper-platyrhine. The profile is straight in 10 men and 1 woman, more
or less concave in 13 men and 5 women, slightly aquiline in 4 men;
blunt tips were noted in 2 cases. The root is more or less depressed
in 12 men and 4 women, not depressed in 7 men, broad and high in 3,
high in 3, narrow in 3. The base is reflected or slightly so in 16
men and 4 women, straight in 9 and 1, slightly deflected in 1 woman;
the alae are small in 3 men and 4 women, moderate in 4 men, and wide
in 5; the nostrils are round in 7 men and 5 women, oval in 10 and 1,
and transversely oval in 2 men. EYES: Aperture is moderate in 11 men
and 2 women, small in 10 men, large in 1 man. It is straight with no
fold in 3 men and 2 women, straight with a slight fold in 1 woman,
slightly oblique with no fold in 8 men and 1 woman, slightly oblique
with slight fold in 8 men and 2 women, in 1 Barawan man it is slightly
oblique with a very marked fold, 11 Barawans have more or less oblique
eyes of which 7 have a fold, 4 are straight, 1 of which has a slight
fold. Four men have light brown irises, 2 of each sex dark brown,
the remainder are medium. EARS: Type European in 5 Long Kiputs,
2 Lelaks, 8 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman; Negroid in 1
Barawan mixed breed; orang in 2 Barawans. Angle slightly prominent in
1 Long Kiput, 2 mixed breeds and 1 Kajaman, rather more so in 1 Long
Kiput, prominent in 1 Lelak, 5 Barawans. Lobule distended throughout,
perforated in 2 Barawans, adherent in 1 mixed breed. Descending helix
absent in 1 Long Kiput, infolded less than 2 mm. in 4 Long Kiputs,
1 Lelak, 11 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman; 2 -- 4 mm. in 1
Lelak, 1 Barawan mixed breed. Darwin's point absent in all except
1 Barawan and 1 mixed breed where it is an infolded tip. Tragus
under 3 mm. in 4 Long Kiputs, 1 Lelak, 1 Barawan and 1 mixed breed,
slightly more in 1 Lelak, 1 Barawan; 3 -- 5 mm. in 1 Long Kiput,
9 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman. Anti-tragus absent in 1
Long Kiput, 3 Barawans; under 3 mm. in 3 Long Kiputs, 2 Lelaks,
7 Barawans and 3 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman; 3 -- 5 mm. in 1 Long
Kiput, 1 Barawan. Anti-helix below level of helix in 2 Long Kiputs,
5 Barawans and 1 mixed breed; about at same level in 3 Long Kiputs,
2 Lelak, 6 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman. The 5 Barawan
women have ears of European type; angle slightly prominent in 2,
prominent in 3; lobule distended in all; descending helix infolded
less than 2 mm. in 4, 2 -- 4 mm. in 1; Darwin's point absent in all;
tragus 3 -- 5 mm. in all; anti-tragus absent in 2, under 3 mm. in 3;
anti-helix below level of helix in 2, about at same level in 3.
HAIR: Seven men and 2 women have straight hair, 17 and 3 wavy, and
2 men curly hair; the colour. is rusty black in 13 men and 3 women,
black in 12 and 3, brown in 1 man. It is generally abundant and long.
SKIN: Three are cinamon (6), 6 light cinamon (14), 15 lighter still
(12), 3 dull fawn (17), 3 pale fawn (pale 17), 4 pale pinkish buff
STATURE: Four men are of medium stature, 30 are short, of whom 2
men and all 6 women are below 1.5 m., 1 Barawan woman being only
1.395 m. (4 ft. 7 in.); the Barawans as a whole are shorter than
the others. The median for the whole series of men is 1.54 m. (5
ft. 1/2 in.).
3. Sebop Group
Sixteen MALANG men and 4 women were measured.
HEAD-FORM: The indices show 10 men and 3 women to be dolichocephalic,
6 men and 1 woman brachycephalic; the median is 76.9 for the men. All
are hypsicephalic, except 2 men in respect to length-height. The shape
is described as ovoid in 7 men, oval in 2, round oval in 1 of each sex,
and ellipsoidal in 4 men.
FACE: IT is pentagonal in 10 men and 3 women, ovoid in 1 woman, and
lozenge-shaped in 1 man; 6 men have long faces and 2 broad. Alveolar
prognathism is noted in 3 men, and superciliary ridges in 3. All are
chamaeprosopic except 1 of each sex in regard to the upper facial
index. The forehead is full in 9 men and 1 woman, broad in 3 men and 1
woman, narrow in 4 and 1, low in 4 and 2, high in 4. The cheek-bones
are more or less prominent in 12 men and 2 women, moderate in 2 men,
and not prominent in 2 of each sex. The lips are moderately thin. The
chin is rather small in 6 men; it is fairly well developed in 7 men and
4 women. NOSE: 2 men and 1 woman are mesorhine, the rest platyrhine,
2 men being hyper-platyrhine. The profile is straight in 8 men and 1
woman, more or less concave in 4 men and 3 women, slightly aquiline
in 2 men, high-bridged in 1, and slightly sinuous in 1; blunt tips
are noted in 4 men and 3 women. The root is moderately high in 10 men
and 1 woman, low in 6 and 3; it is narrow in 3 men and broad in 9 men
and 3 women. The base is reflected in 12 men and 4 women, straight in
3 men; the aloe are small in 11 men and 4 women, and moderate in the
remaining men; the nostrils are round in 9 men and 1 woman, wide in 4
and 1, long oval in 2 men and round oval in 1, narrow and elongated
in 1 woman, large in 1 man, they are nearly or quite horizontal in
3 men. EYES: The aperture is small or narrow in 7 men and 2 women,
moderately open in 5 men and 1 woman; it is straight with no fold in
8 men and 1 woman, straight with a slight fold in 4 men, slightly
oblique with no fold in 2 men and 1 woman, slightly oblique with
fold in 2 of each sex, the fold being slight in 1 man. The colour
of the iris is dark brown in 8 men and 4 women, medium in 7 men and
light in 1. EARS: Type European in 13 men and 4 women (1 doubtful),
approximately Negroid in 2 men, chimpanzee in 1 man; angle prominent
in 11 men and 3 women, rather less in 3 men, slightly prominent in
2 men; lobule distended in all but 1 man; descending helix absent in
2 women, infolded less than 2 mm. in 12 men and 1 woman (doubtful),
2 -- 4 mm. in 4 men and 1 woman; Darwin's point absent in 15 men and
3 women, doubtful in 1 man, infolded in 1 woman (?); tragus under 3
mm. in 2 men, 3 -- 5 mm. in 14 men and 4 women (1 doubtful), double in
3 men and 1 woman of these latter; anti-tragus absent in 6 men and 1
woman, trace in 2 men, under 3 mm. in 7 men and 2 women (1 doubtful),
3 -- 5 mm. in 1 of each sex; anti-helix below level of helix in 11 men
and 3 women (1 doubtful), about at the same level in 5 men and 1 woman.
HAIR: It is wavy in character; the colour is rusty black in 14 men and
4 women, black in 2 men. It is usually long and abundant on the head;
4 men have slight moustaches.
SKIN: Fourteen are lightest cinamon (12), 2 light cinamon (14), 9
pale fawn (pale 17), 2 light brown (near 17), 5 pale pinkish buff (11).
STATURE: One man is tall, the rest are short, 2 men and all the women
being under 1.5 m.; the median for the men is 1.535 m. (5 ft. 1/2 in.).
Eight LONG POKUN men and 10 women were measured.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 5 men and 4 women to be
dolichocephalic, 3 men and 6 women brachycephalic; the median for
the men is 76.9, for the women 79.4. One man is platycephalic, 3
men and 1 woman mesocephalic and the rest hypsicephalic as regards
length-height, all are hypsicephalic as regards breadth-height, in
each respect the women being markedly more hypsicephalic than the
men. The shape is noted as oval in 1 man and 9 women, round oval in
1 of each sex, ellipsoidal in 1 man and pyriform in 4 men.
FACE: In 5 men and 6 women it is more or less pentagonal, in 1 man
and 2 women lozenge-shaped. All are markedly chamaeprosopic both in
total facial and upper facial indices. The forehead is narrow in 3
men and 1 woman, broad in 2 and 1, small in 2 women, high or moderate
in 2 men and 6 women, fairly prominent in 1 and 2, low in 3 men. The
cheek-bones are moderately prominent in 8 of each sex, very prominent
in 1 woman, and not prominent in 1 woman. The lips are moderately thin
in most cases, but are rather thick in 2 men and 1 woman. The chin
is small in 3 men and 6 women (noted as not retreating in 2 women),
but is fairly well formed. NOSE: Four men and 5 women are mesorhine,
the rest platyrhine, 1 of each sex having an index of 100. The profile
is straight in 7 men and 4 women (the tip being blunt in 4 men and 2
women, and depressed in 3 men), concave in 4 women, "Chinese" in 1 man
and 2 women. The root is broad in 4 men and 9 women (flat in 4 of the
women), low in 3 men and 2 women, moderately high in 4 of each sex,
moderately narrow in 2 men; the base is more or less reflected in 8
men and 6 women, very much reflected in 1 woman, and nearly straight
in 3; the alae are small in 6 men and 8 women, moderate in 1 of each
sex and wide in 1 of each sex; the nostrils are round in 3 men and
7 women, more or less widely open in 6 men and 5 women and small in
3 women. EYES: The aperture is moderately open in 6 men and 7 women,
wide in 1 of each sex and rather narrow in 1 man and 2 women; it is
straight with no fold in 4 men and 6 women, straight with fold more
or less developed in 2 men and 1 woman, slightly oblique with no fold
in 2 men, slightly oblique with slight fold in 2 women, and oblique
with a trace of fold in 1 woman. The colour is light brown in 1 man,
medium in 6 men and 7 women, dark in 1 and 3. EAR: Type European in 7
men (2 doubtful) and 3 women, intermediate between European and Negroid
in 1 man; angle prominent in 6 men and 1 woman; lobule distended, right
adherent in 1 woman; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 7
men and 1 woman, 2 -- 4 mm. in 1 of each sex; Darwin's point absent
in 2 men and 1 woman, doubtful in 2 men, distinct tip in one man;
tragus under 3 mm. in 3 of each sex, being double in 1 man and 3 women,
slightly larger in 2 men, being double in 1, 3 -- 5 mm. in 3 men and
7 women, being double in 4 women; anti-tragus absent in 2 men and 5
women (1 doubtful), trace in 2 men and 1 woman, under 3 mm. in 4 men
and 1 woman; anti-helix below level of helix in 6 men and 1 woman,
about at the same level in 2 men (1 doubtful) and 1 woman.
HAIR: It is straight in 1 man, straight to wavy in 1 man and 5 women,
wavy in 5 and 3, wavy to curly in 1 man. The colour is rusty black
in 7 of each sex and dark brown in 3 women. It is long and fairly
abundant on the head; 2 men have beards, one only on the right side.
SKIN: Seven are lightest cinamon (12), 1 with a trace of green,
5 are dull fawn (17), 2 pale fawn (pale 17), 3 pale pinkish buff (11).
STATURE: TWO men are of medium height, the rest short, the median
being 1.59 m. (5 ft. 21 in.); only 2 women are over 1.5 m. and 2 are
under 1.4 m. (4 ft. 7 in.), the median being 1.47 m. (4 ft. 10 in.).
Five SEBOP men were measured.
HEAD-FORM: All but 1 are dolichocephalic, the median, being 75.3)
1 is platycephalic in regard to length-height, and 1 mesocephalic,
the rest are hypsicephalic in both respects. The shape is pyriform
in 2, oval to roundish in the remainder.
FACE: It is pentagonal in 4, and narrow with rather prominent
brow-ridge in 1. All are chamaeprosopic in both respects. The forehead
is full in 2 and low in 2. The cheek-bones are more or less prominent
in 4, 1 is not prominent. The lips are thin in 3 and moderate in 2. The
chin is fairly well developed. NOSE: Three are mesorhine, 1 platyrhine,
and 1 hyper-platyrhine. The profile is concave in 2, straight in 1, and
intermediate in 2; a blunt tip is noted in 1. The root is narrow and
moderately high in 2, moderately broad in 2, moderately high in 1, and
2 are fairly broad and flat. The base is reflected in 3 and straight
in 2; the alae are small in 3, moderately large and rounded in 1,
and wide and horizontal in 1. EYES: The aperture is fairly open in 4,
rather narrow in 1; it is straight with no fold in 3, and slightly
oblique with a slight fold in 2. The colour is medium brown. EARS:
Type European in 2, European to Negroid in 1; angle prominent in 2;
lobule distended in 1, trace in 1, 3 -- 10 mm. in 2, 10 -- 15 mm. in
1; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 2, 2 -- 4 mm. in 3;
Darwin's point absent in 2; tragus under 3 mm. in 1, rather larger
in 1, 3 -- 5 mm. in 3; anti-tragus under 3 mm. in 4, 3 -- 5 mm. in 1;
anti-helix below level of helix in 2, about at the same level in 3.
HAIR: It is wavy in 3, straight to wavy in 1, curly in 1; the colour
is rusty black in 4, dark brown in 1. It is fairly long and moderately
abundant on the head; 1 man has a small moustache at angles of mouth,
and 1 has a fairly good moustache and beard.
SKIN: Two are lightest cinamon (12), 1 light brown (near 17).
STATURE: All are short, 1 being under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.54
m. (5 ft. 1/2 in.).
Ten LERONG men and 5 women were measured.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 4 men and 1 woman to be
dolichocephalic, 6 men and 4 women brachycephalic, the median being
78.5 for the men and 81 for the women. Three men are mesocephalic as
regards length-height, otherwise both sexes are hypsicephalic both in
length-height and breadth-height, the women being more so than the
men. The shape is noted as ovoid in 5 men, pyriform in 3 men, oval
in 3 of each sex, and round oval in 2 women (1 with vertical occiput).
FACE: It is more or less pentagonal in 8 men and 1 woman, oval or ovoid
in 4 women, broad in 1 woman, and long in 2 men; alveolar prognathism
is noted in 1 of each sex and sunken temples and cheeks in 1 man. All
are chamaeprosopic as regards both total facial and upper facial
indices, one man only being an exception in both respects. The forehead
is good in 3 of each sex, fair in 3 men, rather narrow in 2 men and
1 woman. The cheek-bones are prominent in 8 men and 2 women, not
prominent in 2 and 3. The lips are moderately thin in 4, men but tend
to be thick in 2 men and 4 women. The chin is usually well developed,
but is small in 2 women. NOSE: Three men and 1 woman are mesorhine,
the rest platyrhine, 1 woman being hyper-platyrhine. The profile is
straight in 4 men and 1 woman, straight to slightly sinuous in two
men, "Chinese" in 1 woman, concave in 4 men and 3 women; blunt tips
are noted in 6 cases and depressed tips in 3; the root is moderately
high in 7 men, narrow in 2, more or less broad in 4 men and 1 woman,
rather low in 2 and 1, broad and flat in 4 women. The base is more or
less reflected in 6 men and 4 women, straight in 4 men; the alae are
small in 4 of each sex, moderate in 4 men, wide in 1 of each sex; the
nostrils are rounded in 5 of each sex, and more or less widely open in
6 men, distended in 1 man. EYES: The aperture is moderately wide in 9
men and 4 women, and rather narrow in 1 woman; it is straight with no
fold in 4 men and 1 woman, straight with slight fold in 2 women (in one
case trace of fold in right eye only), slightly oblique with trace of
fold in 2 men and 1 woman and with fairly developed fold in 1 woman,
slightly oblique with no fold in 1 of each sex, quite oblique with
slight fold in 1 man. The colour is medium brown in 8 men and 5 women
and dark brown in 1 man. EARS: Type European in 9 men and 4 women (3
doubtful), Negroid in one man; angle prominent in 8 men (1 doubtful),
slightly prominent in 1 man; lobule distended in all but 1 man in
whom it is medium; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 9 men
and 1 woman (doubtful), 2 -- 4 mm. in 1 man; Darwin's point absent
in 6 men, inrolled knob in 1 man; tragus under 3 mm. in 4 men, being
double in 3, slightly larger in 1 of each sex being double in both,
3 -- 5 mm. in 6 men and 4 women being double in 1 man; anti-tragus
absent in 3 men and 4 women, under 3 mm. in 8 men; anti-helix below
level of helix in 5 men, about at the same level in 5 men and 1 woman.
HAIR: It is straight in 2 women, straight to wavy in 6 men and 3
women, wavy in 3 men. The colour is rusty black in 7 men and 3 women,
light rusty black in 1 man, dark brown in 1 man and 2 women. It is
nearly always abundant on the head, and is rather long, especially
in the women.
SKIN: Eight are lightest cinamon (12), 1 light cinamon (14), 2 cinamon
(6), 4 pale fawn (pale 17).
Stature: One man is of medium height, the rest are short, 2 being
under 1.5 m., the median is 1.52 (4 ft. 11 3/4 in.). Four women are
under 1.5 m., one being only 1.39 m. (4 ft. 61 in.).
Seven MILANAU men, consisting of 6 Narom and 1 Miri, were measured.
HEAD-FORM: All are brachycephalic, but it should be remembered that
deformation of the head is practised by these people (vol. i., p. 48),
and it is probable that the cephalic index is very rarely normal,
consequently the head indices may be neglected. Three are flat behind
and broad in the parietal region, of whom 2 are narrow in front and
1 broad, 3 are more or less ovoid.
FACE: It is pentagonal in 4, the angle of the jaws is prominent in
1; the Miri man has an oval face pointed below, with small jaws and
alveolar prognathism. All are chamaeprosopic in regard both to total
facial and upper facial indices. The forehead is low and broad in
1, high and broad in 1, low in 1, high in 2, and rather sloping in
1. The cheek-bones are prominent in 3 and moderately large in 4. The
lips are moderately thin as a rule, in 1 they are fairly large. The
chin is rather small in 4, and fairly well formed in 3. NOSE: Four
men are mesorhine and 3 platyrhine, the highest index being 89.1. The
profile is straight in 4, with blunt tip in 2, slightly concave in 2,
and sinuous with blunt tip in 1; the root is high in 1, narrow and
moderately high in 2, broad and moderately high in 3; the base is
straight in 5, reflected in 1, and slightly concave in 1; the alae are
moderate in 3, and small in 1; the nostrils are rounded in 1, broad
in 1, moderately oval in 1. EYES: The aperture is moderately wide;
it is straight with no fold in 1, slightly oblique with no fold in 3,
more or less oblique with slight fold in 3. The colour of the iris is
medium brown in 4 and light in 2. EARS: Type European in 2, European to
Negroid in 1, European to chimpanzee in 1, chimpanzee in 1, orang in
1; angle prominent in 6, slightly prominent in 1; lobule absent in 1,
trace in 3, being adherent in 1, small in 2, medium in 1; descending
helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 6, 2 -- 4 mm. in 1; Darwin's point
absent in all; tragus under 3 mm. in 1, slightly larger in 15 3 --
5 mm. in 5, being double in 2; anti-tragus under 3 mm. in 5, 3 -- 5
mm. in 2; anti-helix below level of helix in 3, slightly below in 1,
about at the same level in 2, distinctly beyond in 1.
HAIR: One man had curly hair 1 wavy, 1 straight to wavy, and 1
straight, but the character was difficult to determine as in all
cases but one the hair was cut, being more or less closely cropped
in 2 men. The colour is noted as black in 6, and rusty black in 1,
and as fairly abundant on the head in 3; several had hair on the
face, 2 had small moustaches, 2 had moustaches and short beards,
1 had small beard and moustache and thick eyebrows.
SKIN: Three axe cinamon (6), 1 light cinamon (14), 1 lightest cinamon
(12), and 1 pale fawn (pale 17).
STATURE: One is of medium height, the rest are short but none are
under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.562 m. (5 ft. 1 1/2 in.).
III. Punan Group
Eighteen PUNAN men and four women were measured by us and one man by
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 3 men to be dolichocephalic, the
rest of the men and all the women are brachycephalic, the median being
80.9 for the men and 81.2 for the women. Two men are platycephalic
both in length-height and breadth-height, 1 is platycephalic in
length-height but mesocephalic in breadth-height, 1 is platycephalic in
length-height but hypsicephalic in breadth-height, 1 is mesocephalic
in length-height but platycephalic in breadth-height, 1 of each sex
is mesocephalic in both respects, 1 of each sex is mesocephalic
in length-height but hypsicephalic in breadth-height, 1 woman is
hypsicephalic in length-height and platycephalic in breadth-height,
the rest are hypsicephalic in both respects. The shape is usually
ovoid in the men, 2 are noted as pyriform; 3 women have round heads.
FACE: The shape varies; it is oval in 4 men and 2 women, but owing to
the general moderate prominence of the cheek-bones and the smallness
of the chin, it becomes pentagonal (3 men) or even lozenge-shaped
or triangular (2 men); 1 woman has a broad face and 1 man a somewhat
square, while 2 men have long faces. Alveolar prognathism is noted in
1 case and superciliary ridges in 2. All are chamaeprosopic except 2
men, 1 being leptoprosopic in regard to both total facial and upper
facial indices, the other as to upper facial only. The forehead is
upright in 3 of each sex, full in 5 men and 1 woman. The cheek-bones
are prominent in 9 men, moderate in 6 men and 2 women, broad in
1 of each sex. The lips are moderately thin except in 2 men and 1
woman. The chin is usually fairly well formed; though small it is
not retreating in 5 men. NOSE: Eight men are mesorhine, 7 men and 3
women platyrhine, 4 men and 1 woman hyper-platyrhine. The profile
is straight in 10 men and 1 woman, slightly concave in 6 and 1;
the root is more or less depressed in 9 men and 2 women, fairly high
and narrow in 4 men; the base is slightly reflected in 9 men and 4
women, straight in 7 men, and slightly deflected in 2 men; the alae,
are usually moderately developed, rather thin in 4; the nostrils are
oval in 13 or rounded in 4. EYES: The aperture is moderate in 11 men
and 1 woman, small in 5 and 2; it is straight with no fold in 5 men,
slightly oblique with no fold in 3 men, slightly oblique with a slight
fold in 6 men and 3 women and with a more developed fold in 1 woman,
moderately oblique with moderate fold in 3 men and with slight fold
in 1 man. The colour is light brown in 2 men, medium in 8, dark in
6 and 1 woman. EAR: Type European in 8, European to Negroid in 4;
angle prominent in 6, more so in 2; lobule distended in 9, absent in
1, adherent in 2, being small in 1; descending helix absent in 3,
infolded less than 2 mm. in 6, rather more in 1, 2 -- 4 mm. in 2;
Darwin's point a distinct tip in 2, doubtful in 1, absent in the rest;
tragus under 3 mm. in 5, being double in 1, rather larger in 1, 3 --
5 mm. in 7, being double in 1; anti-tragus absent in 2, trace in 1,
under 3 mm. in 10; anti-helix below level of helix in 5, about at
the same level in 8.
HAIR: It is straight in 6 men and 3 women, straight to wavy in 2 men,
wavy in 8 men and 1 woman, wavy to curly in 1 man. The colour is
rusty black in 12 men and 1 woman, black in 5 men, and dark brown in
1 man. It is usually fairly long and abundant on the head, but in 6
men it is noted as thin; 7 have a slight amount of hair on the face
and 1 a moderate amount on the legs.
SKIN: Fifteen are light cinamon (14), 15 lightest cinamon (12),
11 pale fawn (pale 17), and 6 dull fawn or light brown (17).
STATURE: Two are of medium height, the rest short, 4 men being under
1.5 m.; the median is 1.55 m. (5 ft. 1 in.).
Three UKIT men were measured by Mr. Shelford. They are more
brachycephalic than the Punan, their median index being 83.3, but are
slightly less chamaeprosopic, 2 being leptoprosopic in regard to the
upper facial index. All 3 are mesorhine.
The Mongolian fold is very slight in 2. All have straight black
hair. One is tall, measuring 1.735 m. (5 ft. 8 1/4 in.), the other
2 are short.
[Fourteen PUNAN men were measured by Nieuwenhuis.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices range evenly between 77.5 and 86.1,
the median being 81.3; all except 1 are brachycephalic.
FACE: It is broad in 5 and medium in the rest. The bi-zygomatic breadth
ranges from 132 to 145 mm., which is rather narrower than the range
obtained by us, 130 -- 154 mm. NOSE: the breadth varies between 37 and
43 mm., whereas in the Punans measured by us the range was between 34
and 44 mm. The shape is noted as concave in 4, broad and flat in 10,
I.E. 29 percent have "depressed," "sunken," or "hollow" noses. EYES:
the Mongolian fold does not occur. The iris is dark.
HAIR: It is uniformly straight and tends to be scanty. The colour
SKIN: The colour is light brown in 10, brown and yellow in 2, black
or blue-black in 2.
STATURE: None are tall, 4 are of medium height, the rest are short
1 being under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.569 m. (5 ft. 1 3/4 in.).]
IV. Kenyah Group
Twenty-six KENYAH men and 6 women were measured, consisting of 6
MADANG men, 9 Long Dallo men and 2 women, 9 Apoh men, 4 Long Sinong
women, and two other men. All these may be taken as pure Kenyahs,
and the following data are based thereon.
HEAD-FORM: THE cephalic indices of the three groups given on Table
A range from dolichocephaly to brachycephaly, and it is interesting
to note that the Madangs, with a median of 78.1, have distinctly the
narrowest heads, intermediate are the Long Dallo men, median 80.5,
while the Apoh men, with a median of 84, have distinctly the broadest
heads. The head in all is markedly hypsicephalic both as regards the
length-height and the breadth-height indices. The shape is described
as round in 8 men, oval in 2, ovoid in 3, square in 1, pyriform in 3,
and long in 2. The 4 Long Sinong women are distinctly brachycephalic,
the mean being 83.2, but the average is 85.1, owing to one having an
index 93.8. They also are very hypsicephalic.
FACE: Six men are recorded as having pentagonal faces, 3 broad and 3
long; alveolar prognathism is noted in 2. All are chamaeprosopic as
regards the total facial index, and all except 1 Madang and 2 Long
Dallo men as regards the upper facial index. The forehead is upright
in 10 men, 1 is noted as bulging and 1 as sloping. The cheek-bones are
moderate in 12 men, prominent in 6 men (1 very marked) and 2 women,
and broad in 1 of each sex. The lips are, as a rule, moderately full,
but are thin in 3. The chin is fairly well developed. NOSE: One man is
leptorhine, 6 are mesorhine, 13 platyrhine, 6 hyper-platyrhine. The 2
Long Dallo women are mesorhine, the 4 Long Sinong women are strongly
platyrhine. The profile is straight in 14 men, a few others varied. The
base is slightly reflected in 14 men, straight in 2; the alae are broad
in 5 men, small in 2, and the septum is disclosed in 2; the nostrils
are wide in 8 men, elongated in 1. EYES: The aperture is moderate in
10 men, wide in 6 men and 3 women, narrow in 7 men; it is straight with
no fold in 6 men and 1 woman and with a slight fold in 5 men, slightly
oblique with no fold in 5, and with a slight fold in 4 and 2 women,
oblique with no fold in 1. The colour is light in 2 men and 1 woman,
medium in 15 men and 1 woman, and dark in 7 men and 4 women. EARS: Data
were obtained only for the Madang. Type European in 3 (2 doubtful),
Negroid 1 (?); angle prominent 2 (?); lobule distended in 4, of medium
size in 1 (?); descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 2, rather
more in 1; tragus 3 -- 5 mm. in 5, being double in 1, 5 -- 7 mm. in 1;
anti-tragus absent in 1, trace in 1, under 3 mm. in 3, 3 -- 5 mm. in 1;
anti-helix below level of helix in 2, about at the same level in 1.
HAIR: It is straight in 7 men and 1 woman, wavy in 14 men and 2 women,
curly in 2 men. The colour is dark brown in 3 men, rusty black in 15
men and 5 women, black in 5 men and 1 woman. It is usually long and
moderately abundant on the head; face hair was observed in 2 men,
and a small amount on the body in 5.
SKIN: The average skin colour is various shades of cinamon; 11 are
cinamon (6), 16 are light cinamon (14), 14 are lightest cinamon (12),
9 pale fawn (pale 17), 3 dull fawn or light brown (17), 6 pale pinkish
STATURE: 7 men (3 Madangs, 3 Long Dallos, 1 Long Tikan) are of medium
height; the rest are short; the median is 1.61 m. (5 ft. 31 in.). The
stature of the 6 women ranges from 1.42 m. (4 ft. 8 in.) to 1.57
m. (5 ft. 1 3/4 in.).
V. Kayan Group
Twenty-one KAYAN men and 1 woman were measured.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index forms a gradual series with a median
of 79.8, all except 5 being brachycephalic. The head is distinctly
hypsicephalic, only 5 being mesocephalic as regards length-height. Five
were noted as oval, 2 ovoid, 1 square ovoid, 3 round.
FACE: The form varies, 3 being more or less pentagonal, 2 squarish,
2 round, and 5 oval. All are chamaeprosopic except 1 man in the total
facial and upper facial indices, and 1 of each sex in the upper
facial index. The forehead is upright in 6, and rounded and full
in 6. The cheek-bones are moderate in 14, and prominent in 3. The
lips are moderately full, being noted as thick in 2 men. The chin is
fairly well developed, with 3 exceptions. NOSE: Ten are mesorhine and
the remainder platyrhine, of whom 5 are hyper-platyrhine, 2 of these
latter are boys (aged 15); the excessive platyrhiny is due mainly to
the shortness of the nose in the three adults. The profile is straight
in 16 and moderately concave in 3; the root is slightly depressed in
11 and high in 6; the base is reflected in 11 and straight in 4; the
nostrils are transversely oval in 2, oval in 5, and round in 5. EYES:
The aperture is narrow in 12 and medium in 4; it Is straight with
no fold in 8 and with a slight fold in 2, slightly oblique with no
fold in 2 and with a slight fold in 6; 1 man with a straight eye and
no fold is noted as having a lash fold which is the character of a
Mongolian upper eyelid. The colour is light in 6, medium in 10, and
dark in 3. EARS: Type European in 2, European to Negroid in 3, orang
in 3; angle slightly prominent in 2; lobule distended in 5, perforated
in 2; descending helix absent in 1, infolded less than 2 mm. in 8;
Darwin's point absent; tragus under 3 mm. in 5, 3 -- 5 mm. in 4;
anti-tragus under 3 mm. in 8, 3 -- 5 mm. in 1; anti-helix below level
of helix in 4, about at the same level in 4, distinctly beyond in 1.
HAIR: It is straight in 6, wavy in 12, wavy to curly in 1, and curly
in 1 (Pl. 22); the colour is rusty black in 12, black in 6, and dark
brown in 1.
SKIN: The average skin colour is a light cinamon (14) or pale fawn
STATURE: All but 3 of the men are of short stature, the median being
1.550 m. (5 ft. 1 in.).
[Forty-eight male and 30 female KAYANS were measured by Nieuwenhuis,
also 1 Mahakam Kayan of each sex. Of these 5 were boys under 16 and
5 girls under 16, who will be omitted from the description where it
is possible to distinguish them.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index of the men forms a gradual series from
75 to 85.4 with 6 higher indices; 8 are dolichocephalic, the median
of the whole series of adult men being 81.1; that of the women ranges
from 75 to 93.2, with a slight weakening in the series about where the
median 82.5 occurs; one index, 97, falls considerably outside; 4 are
dolichocephalic. The Mahakam man has an index of 78.3, the woman 74. 1.
FACE: One Kayan had a long face, 14 per cent (including children)
had broad faces, the rest were medium. In our and his Kayans the
bi-zygomatic breadth ranges from 132 to 150 mm., except that two of
his are narrower, 126 and 129 mm. NOSE: Breadth-measurements agree
with ours. Two males and 1 female are noted as having concave noses,
35 and 20 as broad and flat, 9 and 8 as straight, 1 of each sex
as narrow and straight. These characterisations are of course not
mutually exclusive. No convex noses were observed; 4 per cent are
concave ("depressed," "sunken," or "hollow"). EYES: The Mongolian
fold does not occur. The iris is always dark.
HAIR: 28 per cent of the males and 17 per cent of the females had
wavy hair, 1 man had curly hair, the rest straight. As a rule it is
rather scanty, but 30 per cent of the Kayans had a moderate amount. The
colour is black.
SKIN: The colour is brown or yellow.
STATURE: Two men are tall, 6 medium and the rest short, 6 being
below 1.5 m., of whom 2 are under 18 years old; the median is 1.572
(5 ft. 2 in.). The women over 23 average 14 cm. shorter than the men;
this is a large difference, as it is usually 10 -- 12 cm., as in our
VI. Iban (or Sea Dayaks) Group
Fifty-six IBAN men were measured by us.
HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index forms a gradual series, the median
being 83, and therefore shows brachycephaly. The head is usually
hypsicephalic, but 1 is platycephalic as regards breadth-height,
2 are mesocephalic both in length-height and breadth-height, 5 are
mesocephalic in length-height and 3 in breadth-height. Thirteen are
noted as round, 7 as ovoid, 4 as oval, several had broad parietal
and narrow frontal regions producing a pyriform norma verticalis.
FACE: The form is noted as pentagonal in 10, oval in 5, broad oval
in 4, the narrowness of the jaw producing the pentagonal shape. The
majority are chaniaeprosopic, but 1 is leptoprosopic in total facial
and upper facial indices, and 7 are leptoprosopic in upper facial
index. The forehead is generally full or slightly bulging, but may be
straight and vertical; 3 are noted as being sloped. The cheek-bones
are prominent in 20, and moderately so in 24. The lips are moderately
full. The chin is small and moderately prominent. NOSE: Sixteen are
mesorhine, 21 platyrhine, and 19 hyper-platyrhine. The profile is
concave in 23, straight in 18 and nearly so in 4; the root is more
or less high in 19, more or less depressed in 20, in most cases it is
broad or moderately so; the base is straight in 24, reflected in 25,
deflected in 3; the alae are wide in 8, moderate in 6, small in 9;
the nostrils are oval in 10, transversely oval in 8, round in 13,
wide in 9. EYES: The aperture is narrow in 13, medium in 18, wide
in 3; it is straight with no fold in 10 and with a slight fold in
11, slightly oblique with no fold in 10 and with a moderate fold in
21. The majority are normal as regards the eyelashes, but 3 have a
distinct Mongolian character and 5 have it slightly. The colour is
intermediate in 25, dark in 22, light in 5, 4 cases were noted with
a bluish margin to the iris. EARS: Type European in 31, European to
Negroid in 2, Negroid in 2, orang flattened above in 1; angle slightly
prominent in 22, rather more so in 1, prominent in 8, more so in 1,
very prominent in 1; lobule distended in 10 and perforated in 5,
very small in 1, small in 13, being adherent in 4, rather small in
1, medium in 10, 1 being adherent, 2 perforated, and 1 doubtful;
descending helix absent in 2, infolded less than 2 mm. in 23, 2 --
4 mm. in 13; Darwin's point an infolded tip in 1, an inrolled knob
in 2, absent in the rest; tragus under 3 mm. in 11, being double
in 1, slightly larger in 1, 3 -- 5 mm. in 25, being double in 3,
5 -- 7 mm. in 1; anti-tragus absent in 4, under 3 mm. in 24, 3 --
5 mm. in 8, 5 -- 7 mm. in 1; anti-helix below level of helix in 23,
about at the same level in 15.
HAIR: It is straight in 16, wavy in 26, curly in 2, 1 being described
as crisp. The colour is rusty black in 26, black in 17, and dark
brown in 1. Eight men had a slight amount of hair on the face; the
body hair is absent or very scanty, but one had a quantity on his legs.
SKIN: Five are dark warm cinamon, 27 cinamon (6), 5 light cinamon
(14), 11 dull fawn (17), 11 light brown (near 17), 5 various shades of
a light greenish sepia (light 3 1), 3 a still lighter greenish sepia.
STATURE: One man is tall, 11 are of medium stature, and the remainder
short, 2 being under 1.5 In.; the median is 1.585 m. (5 ft. 2 1/2 in.).
Thirteen SIBUYAU men were measured by Mr. Shelford and 1 by us.
HEAD-FORM: All but two are brachycephalic, the median being
83. Mr. Shelford did not measure the radii and so the height indices
cannot be given.
FACE: All are chamaeprosopic with regard to the total facial index
and all except 3 in the upper facial index.
NOSE: Two are leptorhine, 7 mesorhine, and 5 platyrhine.
STATURE: All the men are short, 3 being under 1.5 m.; the median is
1.535 m. (5 ft. 1 in.).
Printed by R. & R. Clark, Limited, EDINBURGH.
WORKS ON ANTHROPOLOGY
By PROF. J. G. FRAZER, D.C.L., LL.D., LITT.D.
THE GOLDEN BOUGH
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Young Kayan Chief with middle-class Companion
Bruni, the pile-built Capital of the Sultans of Bruni
A Jungle Path near Marudi, Baram District
A Limestone Hill at Panga in Upper Sarawak
Old Beads Worn By Kayans
A. LUKUT SEKALA. -- Value formerly one healthy adult male slave
present value, from [pound sterling] 10 to [pound sterling] 15.
B. LABANG PAGANG. -- Value 5s. to 15s. Used chiefly at marriage
ceremony. Kayan value in brass-ware, one gong.
C. JEKOK0K. -- Value 15s. to 25s.; or in brass-ware, a small tawak.
D. KELAM WIT. -- Value 15s. to 30s.; or in brass-ware, a tawak which
measures from the base of the boss to the outer edge a span between
the first finger and the thumb. Also much used in marriage ceremony.
E. KELAM BUANG. -- Value about 15s.; much sought after and worn on
a girdle by Kayan girls. The bear bead.
F. KELAM BUANG BUTIT TELAWA. -- The name means the bear bead with
spider's belly. Value about 15s.
G. KAJA OBING. -- Value 15s. to 25s.
H. KELAM SONG. -- Value from [pound sterling]4 to [pound sterling]6;
or one adult female slave.
L KELAM. -- Kenyah. Value about 15s.
J. LUKUT. -- Kenyah. Value about 10s., or a gong; value about ten to
fifteen ingans of PADI, or about 7 bushels.
K. LUKUT MURIK. -- A bead used by the Murik tribe. Value about 10s.
L. INO KALABIT. -- A Kalabit necklace. Value about [pound sterling]5;
or an adult buffalo.
M. A single blue bead from the necklace "L."
The yellow beads in the necklace are known as LABANG, and the blue
ones as BUNAU. The beads in the necklace are all very old ones. The
beads A to H are chiefly, though not exclusively, found among Kayans;
I and J among Kenyahs; K among Muriks (Klemantans); and the necklace
L among Kalabits (Murut).
 -- Published in the JOURNAL OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE,
 -- Within Borneo the distribution of the MAIAS seems to be largely
determined by his incapacity to cross a river, there being several
instances in which he occurs on the one but not on the other bank of
 -- See especially the recently published HISTORY OF SARAWAK
UNDER ITS TWO WHITE RAJAHS, by S. Baring-Gould and C. A. Bampfylde,
 -- Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY, p. 140.
 -- Despite Crawfurd's opinion this is now an accepted
fact. Raffles's HISTORY OF JAVA contains much interesting information
on the point, and there is a remarkable statement which has not
obtained the attention that it deserves, showing that the Chinese
recognised the similarity between the Java and Soli (Nagpur)
alphabets. -- Groeneveldt, NOTES ON MALAY ARCHIPELAGO AND MALACCA;
Trubner's ESSAYS RELATING TO INDO-CHINA, vol. i. p. 166.
 -- There is a Bruni still alive whose hands have been cut off
 -- This account is taken from Groeneveldt (LOC. CIT.) who,
however, supposes Poli to be on the north coast of Sumatra. In this
he follows "all Chinese geographers," adding "that its neighbourhood
to the Nicobar Islands is a sufficient proof that they are right." But
Rakshas, which may have been "for a long time the name of the Nicobar
Islands, probably on account of the wildness and bad reputation
of their inhabitants," is merely Rakshasa, a term applied by the
Hindu colonists in Java and the Malay Peninsula to any wild people,
so that the statement that to the east of Poli is situated the land
of the Rakshas is hardly sufficient support for even "all Chinese
geographers." Trusting to "modern Chinese geographers," Groeneveldt
makes Kaling, where an eight-foot gnomon casts a shadow of 2.4
feet at noon on the summer solstice, to be Java, that is to say,
to be nearly 5[degree] south of the equator. Having unwittingly
demonstrated how untrustworthy are the modern geographers, he must
excuse others if they prefer the original authority, who states that
Poli is south-EAST of Camboja, the land of the Rakshas EAST of Poli,
to "all" geographers who state on the contrary that Poli is south-WEST
of Camboja, the Rakshas' country WEST of Poli. The name Poli appears
to be a more accurate form of Polo, the name by which Bruni is said
to have been known to the Chinese in early times.
 -- Rajah Charles Brooke, TEN YEARS IN SARAWAK, quoted in Ling
Roth's valuable work, THE NATIVES OF SARAWAK AND BRITISH NORTH BORNEO,
vol. ii. p. 279.
 -- E. H. Parker, CHINA, p. 33.
 -- Groeneveldt, LOC. CIT.
 -- Marsden, HISTORY OF SUMATRA, p. 383.
 -- Than camphor, tortoiseshell, ivory, and sandal woods.
 -- There is some doubt as to the date of the foundation of
 -- According to a Malay manuscript of some antiquity lent to
us by the late Tuanku Mudah, one of the kings (BATARA) of Majapahit
had a beautiful daughter, Radin Galo Chindra Kirana. This lady was
much admired by Laiang Sitir and Laiang Kemitir, the two sons of one
Pati Legindir. On the death of the king, Pati Legindir ruled the land
and the beautiful princess became his ward. He, to satisfy the rival
claims of his two sons, promised that whoever should kill the raja
of Balambangan (an island off the north coast of Borneo), known by
the nickname of Manok Jingga, should marry the princess. Now at the
court there happened to be Damar Olan, one of the sons of Raja Matarem,
who had disguised his high descent and induced Pati Legindir to adopt
him as his son. This young man found favour in the princess's eyes,
and she tried to persuade her guardian to let her marry him. Pati
Legindir, however, declared that he would keep to his arrangement,
and roughly told the lover to bring Manok Jingga's head before thinking
of marrying the princess. So Damar Olan set out with two followers on
the dangerous mission, which he carried out with complete success. On
his return he met his two rivals, who induced him to part with the
head of the royal victim, and then buried him alive in a deep trap
previously prepared. Pati Legindir, suspecting nothing, ordered his
ward to marry Laiang Sitir, who brought the trophy to the palace; but
the princess had learned of the treachery from one of the spectators,
and asked for a week's delay. Before it was too late, Damar Olan, who
had managed to find a way out of what nearly proved a grave, reached
the court and told his tale, now no longer concealing his rank. He
married the princess and afterwards was entrusted by Pati Legindir
with all the affairs of state. Having obtained supreme power, Damar
Olan sent his treacherous rivals to southern Borneo, with a retinue
of criminals mutilated in their ear-lobes and elsewhere as a penalty
for incest. These transported convicts, the ancestors of the Kayans,
landed near Sikudana and spread into the country between the Kapuas
and Banjermasin. It is interesting to see how this tale agrees with
other traditions. The Kayans state that they came across the sea at no
distant date. Javan history relates that Majapahit was ruled during
the minority of Angka Wijaya by his elder sister, the princess Babu
Kanya Kanchana Wungu. A neighbouring prince, known as Manok Jengga,
took advantage of this arrangement by seizing large portions of the
young king's domains. One, Daram Wulan, however, son of a Buddhist
devotee, overthrew him and was rewarded by the hand of the princess
regent. When Angka Wijaya came of age he entrusted the care of a
large part of his kingdom to his sister and brother-in-law.
 -- SEJARAH MALAYA, edited by Shellabear, Singapore, 1896, p. 106.
 -- Whose descendants are the Malanaus.
 -- Cf. Low, JOURNAL STRAITS BRANCH ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY,
vol. v. p. 1, from whose article we have obtained much interesting
 -- This is said to have been accomplished by Alak ber Tata's
brother, Awang Jerambok, the story of whose dealings with the Muruts
is well known both to Brunis and Muruts. He set out one day for
the head of the river Manjilin, but lost his way after crossing the
mountains. After wandering for three days he came upon a Murut village,
whose inhabitants wished to kill him. He naturally told them not to
do so, and they desisted. After some time, which he spent with these
rude folk, then not so far advanced into the interior, he so far won
their affections that they followed him to Bruni, where they were
entertained by the sovereign and generously treated. These Muruts
then induced their friends to submit.
 -- Founded after the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese,
1512 A.D. (Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY). Sultan Abdul Krahar,
great-great-grandson of Sultan Mohammed's younger brother, died about
1575 A.D. From this fact and the statement that Mohammed stopped the
Majapahit tribute, we may infer that the latter sat on the throne of
Bruni in the middle of the fifteenth century; if this inference is
correct, the story of his visit to Johore must be unfounded.
 -- Some say he was never converted, others that he was summoned
to Johore expressly to be initiated into Islam.
 -- He is also alleged to have seized the lady in a drunken
freak. It is stated that the Sultan was so much enraged at this that
he proposed to make war on Bruni. His minister, however, suggested
that enquiries should be made into the strength of that kingdom before
commencing operations. He was accordingly sent to Bruni, where he was
so well received that he married and remained there, with a number
of followers. Word was sent to Johore that the princess was treated
as queen and was quite happy with her husband. This appeased the
Sultan's wrath. An old friend of ours belonging to the Burong Pingai
section of Bruni, that is to say, the old commercial class, says that
his people are all descended from this Pengiran Bandahara of Johore,
and that the name Burong Pingai is derived from the circumstance that
their ancestor bad a pigeon of remarkable tameness.
 -- Cf. with Dalrymple's account of the origin of the Sulu
Sultanate, JOURNAL INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, iii. 545 and 564. See also
Lady Brassey's LAST VOYAGE, p. 165.
 -- He puts the longitude 30[degree] too far east; but in his day,
of course, there were no chronometers.
 -- Cited in full by Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY OF THE
INDIAN ISLANDS. Article, "Brunai."
 -- Much of the following information is extracted from an article
by J. R. Logan on European intercourse with Borneo, JOURNAL INDIAN
ARCHIPELAGO, vol. ii. p. 505.
 -- The article in the JOURNAL INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO says 1702.
 -- Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY, p. 37.
 -- 1811 to 1815.
 -- It seems not unreasonable to conjecture that the uniformly
high physical standard of the Punans and their seemingly exceptional
immunity from disease are due to their exposed mode of life, and to the
consequently severe selection exercised upon them by their environment.
 -- The Sea Dayak is exceptional in this respect; he wears a coat
of coloured cotton fibre woven in various patterns by the women.
 -- See Chap. XII.
 -- The turban is a head-dress which is copied from the Malays
and is rapidly spreading inland.
 -- This toy cross-bow is found among Kayans. Both it and the
arrow used are very crudely made.
 -- The war dress and accoutrements will be more fully described
in Chap. X.
 -- Accidental tearing of the lobe inevitably occurs occasionally;
and if this is attributed to the carelessness of any other person a
brass TAWAK or gong must be paid in compensation. Repair of a torn
lobe is sometimes effected by overlapping the raw ends and keeping
them tied in this position for some weeks.
 -- Some of the copper coins of Sarawak are perforated at the
 -- By the Kayans the heads are suspended in a single long row
from thelower edge of a long plank, each being attached by a rattan
passed through a hole in the vertex. Many of the Klemantans hang them
in a similar way to a circular framework, and the Sea Dayaks suspend
them in a conical basket hung by its apex from the rafters.
 -- The sub-tribes are the following: -- Uma Pliau, Uma Poh, Uma
Semuka, Uma Paku, and Uma Bawang, chiefly in the basin of the Baram;
in the Rejang basin -- the Uma Naving, Uma Lesong, Uma Daro; in the
Bintulu basin -- the Uma Juman; in the Batang Kayan -- the Uma Lekan;
in the Kapuas -- the Uma Ging; the Uma Belun, the Uma Blubo scattered
in several river-basins; and one other group in the Madalam river,
and one in the Koti.
 -- All the Kenyahs of the Baram are known as Kenyah Bauh. On
the watershed between the Batang Kayan and the Baram are the Lepu
Payah and the Madang. In the Batang Kayan basin are the Lepu Tau,
the Uma Kulit, Uma Lim, Uma Baka, Uma Jalan, Lepu Tepu. In the Koti
basin are the Peng or Pnihing; in the Rejang the Uma Klap. These are
the principal branches of the pure Kenyahs; each of them comprises a
number of scattered villages, the people of each of which have adopted
some local name. In addition to these there is a number of groups,
such as the Uma Pawa and the Murik in the Baram, and the Lepu Tokong
and the Uma Long in the Batang Kayan, the people of which seem to us to
be intermediate as regards all important characters between the Kenyahs
and the Klemantans. (For discussion of these relations see Chap. XXI.)
 -- For the marriage ceremony see Chap. XVIII.
 -- We take this opportunity of contradicting in the most emphatic
manner a very misleading statement which of all the many misleading
statements about the peoples of Borneo that are in circulation is
perhaps the most frequently repeated in print. The statement makes
its most recent reappearance in Professor Keane's book THE WORLD'S
PEOPLES (published in 1908). There it is written of the "Borneans"
that "No girl will look at a wooer before he has laid a head or two
at her feet." To us it seems obvious that this state of affairs could
only obtain among a hydra-headed race. The statement is not true of any
one tribe, and as regards most of the "Borneans" has no foundation in
fact. Applied to the Sea Dayaks alone has the statement an element of
truth. Among them to have taken a head does commonly enhance a wooer's
chances of success, and many Sea Dayak girls and their mothers will
taunt a suitor with having taken no head, but few of them will make
the taking of a head an essential condition of the bestowal of their
favour or of marriage. A mother will remark to a youth who is hanging
about her daughter, BISI DALAM, BISI DELUAR BULI DI TANYA ANAK AKU
(When you have the wherewithal to adorn both the interior and the
exterior of a room (I.E. jars within the room and heads without in
the gallery) you can then ask for my child).
 -- For the naming ceremony see Chap. XVIII.
 -- It is not rare to find that a child does not know the original
names of his parents, and even husbands may be found to have forgotten
the original names of their wives.
 -- We append to this chapter a table showing the names and
degrees of kinship of all the inhabitants of one Kenyah long house. At
the suggestion of Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, who has found this method
of great value in disentangling the complicated kinship systems
of some Melanesian and Papuan and other peoples, we have collected
similar information regarding Kayan, Sea Dayak, Klemantan, and Murut
villages. But in no case does the table discover any trace of any
elaborate kinship system.
 -- They are skilled woodmen, and know how to cut a tree so as
to ensure its falling in any desired manner; the final strokes cut
away the ends of the narrow portion of the stem remaining between
the upper and lower notches.
 -- See Chap. X.
 -- See Chap. XVII.
 -- The same connection of ideas is illustrated by the practice of
sterile women who desire children sleeping upon the freshly gathered
ears in the huts in the fields.
 -- See Chap. XVIII.
 -- See Chap. V.
 -- See Chap. XVII.
 -- See Chap. XV.
 -- There are said to be two other less common species of wild pig,
but probably there is only one other.
 -- A good account, taken mainly from Skertchly, of many traps may
be found in Mr. Ling Roth's well-known work, THE NATIVES OF SARAWAK
AND BRITISH NORTH BORNEO, London, 1896; and also in McPherson's work
 -- A stick of this kind is used in many rites. It is prepared by
whittling shavings from a stick and leaving them attached at one end;
so that a series of the shavings projects along one side of the stick.
 -- A similar practice prevails in the Malay Peninsula.
 -- On one occasion on which a race between twenty-two of these
war-boats was rowed at Marudi on the Baram river, we timed the
winning-boat over the down-stream course of four and half miles. The
time was twenty-two minutes thirteen seconds.
 -- There is no reason to suppose that the Kayan augurs have not
complete faith in the significance of the omens, and in the reality
of the protection afforded by the favourable omen-birds, which they
speak of as upholding them. Nevertheless, there can be no doubt
that the strong faith of the people in the omen-birds, and the awe
inspired by them, is very favourable to the maintenance of discipline
and obedience to the chiefs, and that this fact is appreciated by the
chiefs. The cult of the omen-birds, which hampers the undertakings of
these peoples at almost every turn, and which might seem to be wholly
foolish and detrimental, thus brings two great practical advantages:
namely, it inspires confidence, and it promotes discipline and a strong
sense of collective unity and responsibility. It is not improbable,
then, that the advantages of this seemingly senseless cult outweigh
its drawbacks, which in the shape of endless delays and changes of
plans are by no means small.
 -- So far as we know this is the only way in which the bow
and arrow is used in Borneo, although the principle of the bow is
frequently applied in making traps. It is perhaps worthy of remark
that the dense character of the jungle is probably more favourable
to use of the blow-pipe than to that of the bow and arrow.
 -- It is probable that the observation of this practice by
Europeans has given rise to the frequently published statements
that the tribes of the interior are cannibals. We affirm with some
confidence that none of the peoples of Borneo ever consume human
flesh as food. It is true that Kayans, Kenyahs, and Klemantans will
occasionally consume on the spot a tiny piece of the flesh of a
slain enemy for the purpose of curing disorders, especially chronic
cough and dysentery; and that Ibans, men or women, during the mad
rejoicings over captured heads will occasionally bite a head, or
even bite a piece of flesh from it. A third practice involving the
consumption of human flesh was formerly observed among the Jingkangs
(Klemantans of Dutch Borneo); when a son was seriously ill and the
efforts of the medicine-men proved ineffective, an infant sister of
the patient was killed and a small piece of the flesh given to the
patient to eat. It would, we think, be grossly unfair to describe
any of these peoples as cannibals on account of these practices.
 -- At one such feast eighty-five pigs and fifty-six fowls were
 -- See footnote, vol. i., p. 76.
 -- The Malays of Bruni and the other coast settlements have, of
course, used iron, and perhaps to some small extent forged it, since
the time when they adopted Arab civilisation; but they have not at any
time practised the smelting of iron ore. Between three and five hundred
years ago the principal currency of the people of Bruni consisted
of small oblong flattened pieces of iron known as SAPANGGAL (about 2
[ERROR: unhandled ×] 1 [ERROR: unhandled ×] 1/4 inches)
bearing the Sultan's stamp. This iron was probably obtained from
Chinese and other foreign traders, and was worked up into implements.
 -- The convenience of thus floating the timber is one reason for
the general tendency shown by Kayans to migrate gradually down river.
 -- This is an example of a very common type of practice which
implies the belief that the attributes of any object will attach
themselves to any whole into which the object may be incorporated as
a part; thus a hunter who has shot dead a pig or deer with a single
bullet will cut out the bullet to melt it down with other lead, and
will make a fresh batch of bullets or slugs from the mixture, believing
that the lucky bullet will leaven the whole lump, or impart to all
of it something of that to which its success was due. Compare also
the similar practice in regard to the seed grain (vol. i., p. 112).
 -- The pair of centre columns and the main columns supporting the
roof back and front should have been drawn thicker than the accessory
columns supporting the floor, and the width of the roof-plates is
much greater than is indicated in the diagrams.
 -- Some Kayans habitually speak of most of the dog-patterns by
the term USANG ORANG (which means the prawn's head). This indicates
possibly some gradual substitution of designs of the one origin for
those of the other.
 -- "Materials for a Study of Tatu in Borneo," by Charles Hose
and R. Shelford, J.R.A.I. vol. xxxvi. Here also we have to thank
the Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute for permission to
republish part of this paper, and to reproduce the plates and figures
accompanying it. The reference figures of this section refer to the
bibliographical list at the end of this chapter.
 -- Since these pages were printed we have had to mourn the loss
of our friend and fellow-worker, cut off in the early summer of a
life strenuously devoted to scientific research.
 -- Nieuwenhuis also notes (9, p. 451) that men in the course
of their travels amongst other tribes permit themselves to be tatued
with the patterns in vogue with their hosts.
 -- These figures refer to the bibliography printed at the end
of this chapter, vol. i., p. 280.
 -- The Sea Dayaks often employ for the same reason a carpal bone
of the mouse-deer (TRAGULUS).
 -- See also Haddon (4, Fig. 2), and Nieuwenhuis (8, Pls. XXV. and
XXVI.); the designs figured in the latter work are not very easy to
interpret, the lower of the two rosette figures looks as if it was
derived from four heads of dogs fused together. See also Ling Roth
(7, p. 85).
 -- In ancient days when a great Kayan or Klemantan chief built
a new house, the first post of it was driven through the body of
a slave; this sacrifice to a tutelary deity is no longer offered,
but a human figure is frequently carved on the post of a house and
may be a relic of the old custom; the figure is called TEGULUN. Sea
Dayak anthropomorphs are termed ENGKRAMBA and appear in cloths and
bead-work designs, also in carvings on boundary marks, witch-doctor's
 -- We apply the term SERIAL to those designs in which the units
of the pattern are repeated, or in which the units follow each other
in serial order; the UDOH ASU on a Kayan man's thigh is an ISOLATED
design, but the design on his hands is a SERIAL design.
 -- Cf. Ling Roth (7, p. 34) and Nieuwenhuis (9, Pl. 32).
 -- The Sea Dayak word TELINGAI or KELINGAI has the same meaning.
 -- The prices in the Baram river are much higher than in the
Mendalam, where a gong can only be demanded by an artist of twenty
years' experience; less experienced artists have to be content with
beads and cloth (9, p. 452).
 -- The wooden block is carefully cut square, and the design
occupies the whole of one surface; this is characteristic of the
blocks of female designs, whereas designs for male tatu are carved
on very roughly shaped blocks and do not always occupy the whole of
one surface. Since the female designs have to be serially repeated it
is important that the blocks should be of the exact required size,
otherwise the projecting parts of the uncarved wood would render
the exact juxtaposition of the serially repeated impressions very
difficult, whilst the isolated male designs can be impressed on the
skin in a more or less haphazard way.
 -- The drawing is taken from a rubbing of a model carved by an
Uma Lekan; this will account for the asymmetry noticeable every here
and there throughout the design. A print from an actual tatu-block is
shown in Pl. 139, Fig. 7; this would be repeated serially in rows down
the front and sides of the thigh, so that absolute uniformity would be
attained; the carver of the model, which was about one-sixth life size,
has not been able to keep the elements of his design quite uniform.
 -- For other examples of modified ASU designs employed by Kenyah
tribes, see E. B. Haddon (4, pp. 117, 118).
 -- By this name we denote those Kenyah tribes which stand
nearest to the Klemantans and furthest from the Kayans in respect of
customs. Cf. Chap. XXI.
 -- The names of the designs are given in Kayan.
 -- The same author states that "a sometime headman of Senendan
had two square tattoo marks on his back. This was because he ran away
in a fight, and showed his back to the enemy." This explanation seems
to us most improbable.
 -- As an instance of a quite opposite effect produced by a mark
on the forehead, we may note here, that some Madangs who had crossed
over from the Baram to the Rejang on a visit, appeared each with a
cross marked in charcoal on his forehead; they supposed that by this
means they were disguised beyond all recognition by evil spirits. The
belief that such a trivial alteration of appearance is sufficient
disguise is probably held by most tribes; Tama Bulan, a Kenyah chief,
when on a visit to Kuching, discarded the leopard's teeth, which when
at home he wore through the upper part of his ears, and the reason
that he alleged was the same as that given by the Madang. These people
believe not only that evil spirits may do them harm whilst they are on
their travels, but also that, being encountered far from their homes,
the spirits will take advantage of their absence to work some harm
to their wives, children, or property.
 -- Dr. Schmeltz has kindly furnished us with an advance sheet
of his forthcoming catalogue of the Borneo collection in the Leyden
Museum; he catalogues these drawings as tatu marks, but in a footnote
records our opinion of them made by letter. Dr. Nieuwenhuis apparently
adheres to the belief that they really are tatu marks.
 -- Mr. E. B. Haddon (4, p. 124) writes: "The tattoo design used by
the Kayans and Kenyahs ... has been copied and adopted by the Ibans in
the same way as the Kalamantans have done, the main difference being,
that the Ibans call the design a scorpion. FOR THIS REASON THE PATTERN
TENDS TO BECOME MORE AND MORE LIKE THE SCORPION ... ." The italics are
ours. Is not this "putting the cart before the horse"? It is only when
the design resembles a scorpion that the term SCORPION is applied to
it; all other modifications, even though tending towards the scorpion,
are called DOG; PRAWN, or CRAB.
 -- The following statement, which was written by us of the Kenyahs
in a former publication, holds good also of the Kayans: "They may
be said to attribute a soul or spirit to almost every natural agent
and to all living things, and they pay especial regard those that
seem most capable of affecting their welfare for good or ill. They
feel themselves to be surrounded on every hand y spiritual powers,
which appear to them to be concentrated in those objects to which their
attention is directed by practical needs; adopting a mode of expression
familiar to psychologists, we may say that they have differentiated
from a 'continuum' of spiritual powers a number of spiritual agents
with very various degrees of definiteness. Of these the less important
are very vaguely conceived, but are regarded as being able to bring
harm to men, who must therefore avoid giving offence to them, and must
propitiate them if they should by ill-change have been offended. The
more important, assuming individualised and anthromorphic forms and
definite functions, receive proper names, are in some cases represented
by rude images, and become the recipients of prayer and sacrifice"
(JOURN. OF ANTHROP. INSTITUTE, vol. xxxi. p. 174).
 -- If the dead man possessed no sufficiently presentable
garments, these may be supplied by friends. This last act of respect
and friendship has not infrequently been permitted to one of us.
 -- See vol. ii. p. 29.
 -- See vol. ii. p. 61.
 -- See vol. ii., p. 137.
 -- For the views of an individual Kayan on Laki Tenangan, see
vol. ii., p. 74.
 -- See vol. ii., p. 53.
 -- See Chap. X.
 -- The idea of giving up a valued possession to the god or
spirit in order to appease or propitiate him seems to underlie
a curious rite formerly practised by the JINGKANGS, a Klemantan
sub-tribe living on the great Kapuas river. These people, like most
of the peoples of Borneo, value their male children more highly than
their female children. If a boy seems to be at the point of death,
and if all other efforts to restore him have proved unavailing, the
relatives would kill an infant sister of the boy, and would cause the
boy to eat a small bit of the roasted flesh. The intention seems to
be to appease some malevolent spirit that is causing the sickness;
and the eating of the flesh seems to be considered necessary in order
to connect the sacrifice clearly with the sick child.
 -- Cf. vol. ii., p. 75, for the statement of a Kayan on this
 -- See vol. ii., p. 138.
 -- See vol. ii., p. 29, for usage of this word.
 -- This relation is illustrated by the fact that among the
charms and objects of virtue which the Kenyahs hang beside the heads
in the galleries of their houses, or over the fireplaces in their
rooms, are to be found in many houses one or two specimens of stone
axe-heads. The original use of these objects is not known to the
great majority of their possessors, who regard them as teeth dropped
from the jaw of the thunder-god, BALINGO. It is generally claimed
that some ancestor found these stones and added them to the family
treasures. A man who possesses such "teeth," carries them with him
when he goes to war. The Madang chief TAMA KAJAN ODOH, mentioned in
the following note as claiming descent from Balingo, possessed the
unusual number of ten such teeth. The credit of having first obtained
specimens of these stones from the houses belongs to Dr. A. C. Haddon,
who discovered a specimen in a Klemantan house of the Baram basin
in the year 1899. The existence of such Stones in native houses in
Dutch Borneo had been reported by Schwaner many years before that date.
 -- When questioned as to this claim, he gave us at once without
hesitation the names in order of the ancestors of nineteen generations
through whom he traces his descent from Balingo. It is perhaps
worth while to transcribe the list as taken down from his lips in
ascending order: -- KAJAN, TAMA KAJAN ODOH, SIGO, APOI, BAUM ([ERROR:
unhandled ♀]), ODOH SINAN ([female]), ALONG,
APOI, LAKING, LAKING GILING, GILING SINJAN, SINJAN PUTOH, PUTOH ATI,
ATI AIAI JALONG, BALARI, UMBONG DOH ([female]),
KUSUN PATU BALINGO. This succession of names, it will be noticed,
is consistent with the custom, common to the Kenyahs and Kayans,
of naming the father after his eldest child.
 -- There are four words used by the Kayans to express the notion
of the forbidden act, MALAN, LALI, PARIT, and TULAH. All these are
used as adjectives qualifying actions rather than things; but they
are not strictly synonymous terms. MALAN and PARIT seem to be true
Kayan words; LALI and TULAH to have been taken from the Malay, and to
be used generally by Kayans in speaking with Kenyahs or men of other
tribes to whom these words are more familiar than the Kayan terms.
MALAN applies rather to acts involving risks to the whole community,
PARIT to those involving risk to the individual committing the
forbidden act: thus, during harvest it is MALAN for any stranger to
enter the house, and the whole house or village is said to be MALAN;
but it is PARIT for a child to touch one of the images. Again, it is
not MALAN for the proper persons to touch the dried heads on certain
occasions, but it is always in some degree PARIT for the individual,
and for this reason the task is generally assigned to an elderly
man. LALI and TULAH seem to be the LINGUA FRANCA equivalents of MALAN
and of PARIT respectively.
 -- "The Relations between Men and Animals in Sarawak,"
J. ANTH. INST. vol. xxxi.
 -- We are not aware that the "bull-roarer" is put to any other
uses than this by any of the tribes.
 -- See Chap. XIII.
 -- Vol. ii., p. 120.
 -- The word BALI is used on a great variety of occasions,
generally as a form of address, being prefixed to the proper name
or designation of the being addressed or spoken of. The being thus
addressed is always one having special powers of the sort that
we should call supernatural, and the prefix serves to mark this
possession of power. It may be said to be an adjectival equivalent
of the MANA of the Melanesians or of the WAKANDA or ORENDA of North
American tribes, words which seem to connote all power other than
the Purely mechanical. It seems not improbable that the word BALI has
entered the Kayan language from a Sanskrit source; for in Sanskrit it
was prefixed to the names of priests and heroes. The word is even more
extensively used by the Kenyahs, who prefix it to the names of several
of their gods; and the Klemantans use the word VALI in the same way.
 -- This procedure seems to be one of the many varieties of
"crystal gazing" that are practised among many peoples; and it
seems probable that the DAYONG, in some cases at least, experiences
hallucinatory visions of the scenes that he so vividly describes as
he gazes on the polished metal. The sword so used becomes the property
of the DAYANG.
 -- These beads seem to be designed for use by the ghost in
paying for its passage across the river of death.
 -- Among some of the peoples it is customary to beat a big gong
while this operation is in progress, or, in the case of a woman, a
drum, in order to announce to the inhabitants of the other world the
coming of the recently deceased. The beating of gongs is in general
use for signalling from house to house.
 -- Small articles specially valued by the deceased are enclosed
in the coffin; thus, OYANG LUHAT, a Kayan PENGHULU (see Chap. XXII.),
who bled slowly to death from an accidentally inflicted wound, gave
strict instructions as he lay dying that his certificate of office
bearing the Rajah's signature and his Sarawak flag, the public badge
of his office, should be put in his coffin with his body; and there
can be no reasonable doubt that he hoped to display them, or rather
their ghostly replicas, in the other world. As a clear instance of
such belief it seems worth while to mention the following case. One
of us had given some coloured prints to a Kayan boy, an only son to
whom his parents were much attached. On a subsequent visit he was
told by the bereaved mother that the child had been very fond of the
pictures, and that she had put them in his coffin because she knew
that he would like to look at them in the other world.
 -- Among Klemantans it is usual to spoil all articles hung upon
a tomb; and they give the reason that in the other world everything
is the opposite of what it is here: the spoilt shall be perfect, the
new and unspoilt shall be old and damaged, and so on. It is probable
that the real or original motive for this practice is the desire to
avoid placing temptations to theft in the way of strangers.
 -- Among some of the Klemantan tribes the opposite practice of
shaving the whole scalp is observed in mourning.
 -- In some of the remoter forts of the Sarawak government old
heads that have been confiscated are kept, and are occasionally lent
for the purpose of enabling a village to go out of mourning without
shedding human blood.
 -- When pressed in private after a ceremony of this kind,
a certain DAYONG admitted to us that perhaps, if we should look
into the house, we should see the food apparently untouched; but he
maintained that nevertheless all the strength or essence of the food
would have been consumed, the husks merely being left.
 -- Apparently it is not that the DAYONG claims to be "possessed"
by the soul of the dead man; for from time to time he inclines his ear
again to the soul-house to catch the faint voice of the ghost. We know
of no cases in which it is claimed that the body of a living man is
"possessed" by a departed soul.
 -- Cases occur among the Kayans, though but rarely. The method
most employed is to stab a knife into the throat.
 -- In one such case the body was laid out in the gallery of the
house and preparations for the funeral were far advanced, when one of
us (C. H.) arrived. On glancing at the alleged corpse he suspected that
life was not extinct, and succeeded, by the application of ammonia
to the nostrils, in restoring the entranced Kayan to animation,
and shortly to a normal condition of health.
 -- The man mentioned in the foregoing footnote had given to a
DAYONG (no doubt in response to leading questions) a circumstantial
account of adventures of this kind, before we had an opportunity of
questioning him after an interval of some ten days. He then admitted
that he could remember nothing clearly.
 -- The cry of this species is peculiar; it terminates with an
interrupted series of cries that sound like mocking laughter.
 -- See below, vol. ii. p. 130.
 -- The incident was reported by Dr. Hose to the British Consul
at Bruni, who entered an effective warning against repetitions of
 -- A dangerous madman is generally kept shut up in a large
strong cage in the gallery of the house.
 -- It is believed that the tatuing on the woman's hands and
forearms illuminates for the ghost dark places traversed on the
journey to the other world.
 -- Coco-nuts are commonly opened by two blows with a sword
struck upon opposite sides, and it seems probable that the method of
splitting the jar was suggested by this practice.
 -- In this chapter we have departed from our rule of describing
first and most fully the facts and beliefs of the Kayan people, because
before planning this book we had paid special attention to this topic,
and had obtained fuller information in regard to the Kenyahs than to
other peoples, and had published this in the form of a paper in the
JOURNAL OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE ("The Relations between
Men and Animals in Sarawak," J. ANTH. INSTIT. vol. xxxi.). This
paper, modified and corrected in detail, forms the substance of this
chapter. We wish to epxress our thanks to the Council of the Royal
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland for permission
to make use of this paper.
 -- We find that the practices of these people in connection with
omens or auspices so closely resemble those of the early Romans that
it seems worth while to draw attention to these resemblances, and we
therefore quote in footnotes some passages from Dr. Smith's DICTIONARY
OF CLASSICAL ANTIQUITIES, referring to the practice of the Romans:
"In the most ancient times no transaction, whether private or public,
was performed without consulting the auspices, and hence arose the
distinction of AUSPICIA PRIVATA and AUSPICIA PUBLICA."
 -- See Chap. XXII.
 -- "No one but a patrician could take the auspices."
 -- "Romulus is represented to have been the best of augurs,
and from him all succeeding augurs received the chief mark of their
 -- "Hence devices were adopted so that no ill-omened sound
should be heard, such as blowing a trumpet during the sacrifice."
 -- "The person who has to take them (the auspices) first marked
out with a wand ... a division of the heavens called 'templum,'
... within which he intended to make his observations."
 -- "It was from Jupiter mainly that the future was learnt,
and the birds were regarded as his messengers."
 -- "The Roman auspices were essentially of a practical nature;
they gave no information respecting the course of future events, they
did not inform men what was to happen, but simply taught them whether
they were to do or not to do the matter purposed; they assigned no
reason for the decision of Jupiter, they simply announced -- Yes
 -- "It was only a few birds which could give auguries among
the Romans. They were divided into two classes: Oscines, those which
gave auguries by singing or their voice; and Alites, those which
gave auguries by their flight." "There were considerable varieties
of omen according to the note of the Oscines or the place from which
they uttered the note; and similarly among the Alites, according to
the nature of their flight."
 -- "They endeavoured to learn the future, especially in war,
by consulting the entrails of victims."
 -- This phrase as commonly used implies the exchange of
 -- See Chap. XII.
 -- Of the Romans it is said: "When a fox, a wolf, a serpent,
a horse, a dog, or any other kind of quadruped, ran across a person's
path or appeared in an unusual place, it formed an augury."
 -- JOURN. OF STRAITS ASIATIC SOCIETY, Nos. 8, 10, and 14.
 -- See Chap. XXII.
 -- See Chap. XVII.
 -- In the paper from which the greater part of this chapter is
extracted this word was spelt NYARONG. It is now clear to us that it
should be spelt as above, with the initial NG, a common initial sound
in the Sea Dayak language. The most literal translation of the word
is, the thing that is secret, or simply, the secret, or my secret.
 -- Almost every Iban possesses and constantly carries with
him a bundle of such objects; they are regarded as charms and are
called PENGAROH; but few probably claim to enjoy the protection of
a secret helper.
 -- INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY, and elsewhere.
 -- Now that the sacrifice of human victims is forbidden, Kenyahs
and Klemantans sometimes carve a human figure upon the first of the
main piles of a new house to be put into the ground.
 -- See vol. ii., p. 4.
 -- Quoted in Mr. Frazer's TOTEMISM, 1st ed., 1887, p. 8.
 -- Aban Jau possessed a large curiously shaped pig's tusk which
he wore on his person in the belief that any firearm fired at it would
not go off. It is probable that his belief in this charm was connected
with his belief in the dream-pig. The belief was very genuine, until
in a moment of excessive confidence he hanged the tusk upon a tree and
invited one of us to fire at it. The tusk was shattered. Aban Jau said
nothing; but presumably a process of disintegration began in his mind;
for after some hours he remarked that his charm had lost its power.