Part 9 out of 53
Andrews, and afterwards of Edinburgh, being succeeded at St. Andrews by
James David Forbes, who years before defeated him as candidate for the
Natural Philosophy chair in Edinburgh; bred originally for the Church,
and for a time a probationer (1781-1868).
BREWSTER, WILLIAM, leader of the Pilgrim Fathers in the _Mayflower_,
who conveyed them to Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620; had been a
clergyman of the Church of England.
BRIAN BOROIHME, an Irish chief, who early in the 10th century
established his rule over a great part of Ireland, and made great efforts
for the civilisation of the country; died defeating the Danes at
Clontarf, being, it is said, the twenty-fifth battle in which he defeated
BRIANCON, the highest town in France, 4300 ft. above sea-level, 42
m. SE. from Grenoble, with a trade in cutlery.
BRIAREUS, a Uranid with 50 heads and 100 arms, son of Ouranos and
Gaia, i. e. Heaven and Earth, whom Poseidon cast into the sea and
buried under Etna, but whom Zeus delivered to aid him against the Titans;
according to another account, one of THE GIANTS (q. v.).
BRICE, ST., bishop of Tours in the beginning of the 5th century, and
disciple of St. Martin. Festival, Nov. 19.
BRICE'S, ST., a day in 1002 on which a desperate attempt was made to
massacre all the Danes in England and stamp them wholly out, an attempt
which was avenged by the Danish king, Sweyn.
BRICK, JEFFERSON, an American politician in "Martin Chuzzlewit."
BRIDE OF THE SEA, Venice, so called from a ceremony in which her
espousals were celebrated by the Doge casting a ring into the Adriatic.
BRIDEWELL, a house of correction in Blackfriars, London, so called
from St. Bridget's well, near it.
BRIDGE OF ALLAN, a village on Allan water, 3 m. N. of Stirling, with
a mild climate and mineral waters.
BRIDGE OF SIGHS, a covered way in Venice leading from the Ducal
Palace to the State prison, and over which culprits under capital
sentence were transported to their doom, whence the name.
BRIDGENORTH, MAJOR RALPH, a Roundhead in "Peveril of the Peak."
BRIDGEPORT (48), a thriving manufacturing town and seaport of
Connecticut, U.S., 58 m. NE. from New York.
BRIDGET, MRS., a character in "Tristram Shandy."
BRIDGET, ST., an Irish saint, born at Dundalk; entered a monastery
at 14; founded monasteries; takes rank in Ireland with St. Patrick and
St. Columba. Festival, Feb. 1 (453-523). Also the name of a Swedish saint
in the 14th century; founded a new Order, and 72 monasteries of the
BRIDGETON, a manufacturing town in New Jersey, 38 m. S. of
BRIDGETOWN (21), capital of Barbadoes, seat of the government, the
bishop, a college, &c.; it has suffered frequently from hurricane and
BRIDGEWATER, FRANCIS EGERTON, 3RD DUKE OF, celebrated for his
self-sacrificing devotion to the improvement and extension of canal
navigation in England, embarking in it all his wealth, in which he was
aided by the skill of Brindley; he did not take part in politics, though
he was a supporter of Pitt; died unmarried (1736-1803).
BRIDGEWATER, FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON, 8TH EARL OF, educated for the
Church, bequeathed L8000 for the best work on natural theology, which his
trustees expended in the production of eight works by different eminent
men, called "Bridgewater Treatises," all to be found in Bohn's Scientific
BRIDGMAN, LAURA, a deaf, dumb, and blind child, born in New
Hampshire, U.S.; noted for the surprising development of intellectual
faculty notwithstanding these drawbacks; Dickens gives an account of her
in his "American Notes" (1829-1889).
BRIDGWATER, a seaport town in Somersetshire, 29 m. SW. of Bristol.
BRIDLEGOOSE, JUDGE, a judge in Rabelais' "Pantagruel," who decided
cases by the throw of dice.
BRIDLINGTON, a watering-place in Yorkshire, 6 m. SW. of Flamborough
Head, with a chalybeate spring.
BRIDPORT, VISCOUNT, a British admiral, distinguished in several
BRIEG (20), a thriving, third, commercially speaking, town in
Prussian Silesia, 25 m. SE. of Breslau.
BRIENNE, JEAN DE, descendant of an old French family; elected king
of Jerusalem, then emperor of Constantinople; _d_. 1237.
BRIENZ, LAKE OF, lake in the Swiss canton of Bern, 8 m. long, 2 m.
broad, over 800 ft. above sea-level, and of great depth in certain parts,
abounding in fish. Town of, a favourite resort for tourists.
BRIEUC, ST., (19), a seaport and an episcopal city in the dep. of
BRIGADE, a body of troops under a general officer, called brigadier,
consisting of a number of regiments, squadrons, or battalions.
BRIGANTES, a powerful British tribe that occupied the country
between the Humber and the Roman Wall.
BRIGGS, HENRY, a distinguished English mathematician; first Savilian
professor at Oxford; made an important improvement on the system of
logarithms, which was accepted by Napier, the inventor, and is the system
now in use (1561-1631).
BRIGHAM YOUNG, the chief of the Mormons (1801-1877).
BRIGHT, JAMES FRANCK, historian, Master of University College,
Oxford; author of "English History for the Use of Public Schools," a book
of superior literary merit; _b_. 1832.
BRIGHT, JOHN, English statesman, son of a Lancashire cotton spinner,
born near Rochdale; of Quaker birth and profession; engaged in
manufacture; took an early interest in political reform; he joined the
Anti-Corn-Law League on its formation in 1839, and soon was associated
with Cobden in its great agitation; entering Parliament in 1843, he was a
strong opponent of protection, the game laws, and later of the Crimean
war; he advocated financial reform and the reform of Indian
administration; and on the outbreak of the American Civil War supported
the North, though his business interests suffered severely; he was
closely associated with the 1867 Reform Act, Irish Church
Disestablishment 1869, and the 1870 Irish Land Act; his Ministerial
career began in 1868, but was interrupted by illness; in 1873, and again
in 1881, he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; he seceded from
Gladstone's Government on the Egyptian policy in 1882, and strenuously
opposed Home Rule in 1886; in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow
University; he was a man of lofty and unblemished character, an animated
and eloquent orator; at his death Mr. Gladstone pronounced one of the
noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another (1811-1889).
BRIGHTON (128), a much-frequented watering-place in Sussex, 50 m. S.
of London, of which it is virtually a suburb; a place of fashionable
resort ever since George IV. took a fancy to it; a fine parade extends
along the whole length of the sea front; has many handsome edifices, a
splendid aquarium, a museum, schools of science and art, public library
and public gallery; the principal building is the Pavilion or Marine
Palace, originally built for George IV. Also the name of a suburb of
BLIGHT'S DISEASE, a disease in the kidneys, due to several diseased
conditions of the organ, so called from Dr. Richard Bright, who first
investigated its nature.
BRIL BROTHERS, MATTHEW AND PAUL, landscape painters, born at
Antwerp; employed in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the
Vatican at Rome; of whom Paul, the younger, was the greater artist; his
best pictures are in Rome.
BRILLAT-SAVARIN, a French gastronomist, author of "Physiologie du
Gout," a book full of wit and learning, published posthumously; was
professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825).
BRIN`DISI (15), a seaport of Southern Italy, on the Adriatic coast;
has risen in importance since the opening of the Overland Route as a
point of departure for the East; it is 60 hours by rail from London, and
three days by steam from Alexandria; it was the port of embarkation for
Greece in ancient times, and for Palestine in mediaeval.
BRINDLEY, JAMES, a mechanician and engineer, born in Derbyshire;
bred a millwright; devoted his skill and genius to the construction of
canals, under the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater, as the greatest
service he could render to his country; regarded rivers as mere "feeders
to canals" (1716-1772).
BRINK, JAN TEN, a Dutch writer, distinguished as a critic in the
department of belles-lettres; _b_. 1834.
BRINVILLIERS, MARQUISE DE, notorious for her gallantries and for
poisoning her father, brother, and two sisters for the sake of their
property; was tortured and beheaded; the poison she used appears to have
been the Tofana poison, an art which one of her paramours taught her
(1630-1676). See AQUA TOFANA.
BRISBANE (49), capital of Queensland, on the Brisbane River, 25 m.
from the sea, 500 m. N. of Sydney, is the chief trading centre and
seaport of the Colony; it has steam communication with Australian ports
and London, and railway communication with Sydney, Melbourne, and
Adelaide; prosperity began when the colony was opened to free settlement
in 1842; it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city
incorporated in 1859.
BRISBANE, ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES, a naval officer of distinction under
Lords Hood and Nelson; captured in 1796 Dutch warships, three ships of
the line among them, in Saldanha Bay, and in 1807 the island of Curacoa;
was made governor of St. Vincent (1769-1829).
BRISBANE, SIR JAMES, naval officer, brother of the preceding, served
under Lord Howe and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829).
BRISBANE, SIR THOMAS MACDOUGALL, British general, a man of science
and an astronomer, born near Largs, Ayrshire; saw service as a soldier;
was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the colony;
gave name to the capital of Queensland; catalogued over 7000 stars;
succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society (1773-1860).
BRISE`IS, a young virgin priestess, who fell to the lot of Achilles
among the spoil of a victory, but whom Agamemnon carried off from him,
whereupon he retired to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further
part in the war, to its prolongation, in consequence, as Homer relates,
for ten long years; the theme of the "Iliad" being the "wrath of
Achilles" on this account, and what it led to.
BRISSAC, the name of a noble family which supplied several marshals
BRISSON, HENRI, French publicist and journalist; after holding
presidentships in the Chamber became premier in 1885, but resigned after
a few months; formed a Radical administration in 1898, which was
short-lived; _b_. 1835.
BRISSOT DE WARVILLE, JEAN PIERRE, a French revolutionary, born at
Chartres, son of a pastry-cook; bred to the bar, took to letters; became
an outspoken disciple of Rousseau; spent some time in the Bastille;
liberated, he went to America; returned on the outbreak of the
Revolution, sat in the National Assembly, joined the Girondists; became
one of the leaders, or rather of a party of his own, named after him
Brissotins, midway between the Jacobins and them; fell under suspicion
like the rest of the party, was arrested, tried and guillotined
BRISTOL (286), on the Avon, 6 m. from its mouth, and 118 m. W. of
London, is the largest town in Gloucestershire, the seventh in England,
and a great seaport, with Irish, W. Indian, and S. American trade; it
manufactures tobacco, boots and shoes; it has a cathedral, two colleges,
a library and many educational institutions; by a charter of Edward III.
it forms a county in itself.
BRISTOL CHANNEL, an inlet in SW. of England, between S. Wales and
Devon and Cornwall, 8 m. in length, from 5 to 43 in breadth, and with a
depth of from 5 to 40 fathoms; is subject to very high tides, and as such
dangerous to shipping; numerous rivers flow into it.
BRITANNIA, a name for Britain as old as the days of Caesar, and
inhabited by Celts, as Gaul also was.
BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE, a railway bridge spanning the Menai
Strait, designed by Robert Stephenson, and completed in 1850; consists of
hollow tubes of wrought-iron plates riveted together, and took five years
BRITANNICUS, the son of Claudius and Messalina, poisoned by Nero.
BRITISH ARISTIDES, name applied to Andrew Marvell from his
corresponding incorruptible integrity in life and poverty at death.
BRITISH ASSOCIATION, an association, of Sir David Brewster's
suggestion, of men of all departments of science for the encouragement of
scientific research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge, which
holds its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished
scientist, now in this, now in that selected central city of the country;
it is divided into eight sections--mathematical, chemical, geological,
biological, geographical, economic, mechanical, and anthropological.
BRITISH COLUMBIA (98), a western fertile prov. of British America,
extending between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, and from the
United States on the S. to Alaska on the N., being 800 m. long and four
times the size of Great Britain; rich in timber and minerals; rain is
abundant, and cereals do well.
BRITISH LION, the name given to John Bull when roused by opposition.
BRITISH MUSEUM, a national institution in London for the collection
of MSS., books, prints and drawings, antiquities, and objects of natural
history, ethnology, &c.; founded as far back as 1700, though not opened,
in Montagu House as it happened, for the public benefit till 1759.
BRITOMART, is a lady knight in the "Faerie Queene," representing
chastity with a resistless magic spear.
BRITTANY (3,162), an old French prov., land of the Bretons,
comprising the peninsula opposite Devon and Cornwall, stretching westward
between the Bays of Cancale and Biscay, was in former times a duchy; a
third of its inhabitants still retain their Breton language.
BRITTON, JOHN, topographer and antiquary, born in Wiltshire in
humble position; author of "Beauties of Wiltshire," instalment of a work
embracing all the counties of England and Wales; his principal works, and
works of value, are "Antiquities of Great Britain" and "Cathedral
Antiquities of England"; his chief work is 14 volumes; the "Antiquities
in Normandy" did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects
BRIXTON, a southern suburb of London, on the Surrey side, a district
of the city that has of late years extended immensely.
BROAD ARROW, a stamp like an arrow-head to indicate government
BROAD BOTTOM MINISTRY, a coalition of great weight under Mr. Pelham,
from Nov. 1744 to Mar. 1755, so called from the powerful parties
represented in it.
BROAD CHURCH, that section of the Church which inclines to liberal
opinions in theology, and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or
form, perhaps to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements
distinctive of the Christian system.
BROADS, THE NORFOLK, are a series of inland lakes in the E. of
Norfolkshire, which look like expansions of the rivers; they are
favourite holiday resorts on account of the expanse of strange scenery,
abundant vegetation, keen air, fishing and boating attractions.
BROB`DINGNAG, an imaginary country in "Gulliver's Travels,"
inhabited by giants, each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple";
properly a native of the country, in comparison with whom Gulliver was a
pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked from the lazy
finger of a maid."
BROCA, PAUL, an eminent French surgeon, anthropologist, and one of
the chief French evolutionists; held a succession of important
appointments, and was the author of a number of medical works
BROCHANT DE VILLIERS, a mineralogist and geologist, born in Paris;
director of the St. Gobin manufactory (1773-1810).
BROCHS, dry-stone circular towers, called also Picts' towers and
Duns, with thick Cyclopean walls, a single doorway, and open to the sky,
found on the edge of straths or lochs in the N. and W. of Scotland.
BROCKEN, or BLOCKSBERG, the highest peak (3740 ft.) of the Harz
Mts., cultivated to the summit; famous for a "SPECTRE" so called,
long an object of superstition, but which is only the beholder's shadow
projected through, and magnified by, the mists.
BROCKHAUS, FRIEDRICH ARNOLD, a German publisher, born at Dortmund; a
man of scholarly parts; began business in Amsterdam, but settled in
Leipzig; publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon," and a great
many other important works (1772-1823).
BROCOLIANDO, a forest in Brittany famous in Arthurian legend.
BRODIE, SIR BENJAMIN, surgeon, born in Wiltshire; professor of
surgery; for 30 years surgeon in St. George's Hospital; was medical
adviser to three sovereigns; president of the Royal Society (1783-1862).
BRODIE, WILLIAM, a Scottish sculptor, born in Banff; did numerous
busts and statues (1815-1881).
BROGLIE, ALBERT, son of the following, a Conservative politician and
litterateur, author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th
century"; _b_. 1821
BROGLIE, CHARLES VICTOR, DUC DE, a French statesman, born at Paris;
a Liberal politician; was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard; held
office under Louis Philippe; negotiated a treaty with England for the
abolition of slavery; was an Orleanist, and an enemy of the Second
Empire; retired after the _coup d'etat_ (1785-1870).
BROGLIE, VICTOR FRANCOIS, DUC DE, marshal of France, distinguished
in the Seven Years' War, being "a firm disciplinarian"; was summoned by
royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak of the Revolution;
could not persuade his troops to fire on the rioters; had to "mount and
ride"; took command of the Emigrants in 1792, and died at Muenster
BROKE, SIR PHILIP BOWES VERE, rear-admiral, born at Ipswich,
celebrated for the action between his ship _Shannon_, 38 guns, and the
American ship _Chesapeake_, 49 guns, in June 1813, in which he boarded
the latter and ran up the British flag; one of the most brilliant naval
actions on record, and likely to be long remembered in the naval annals
of the country (1776-1841).
BROMBERG (41), a busy town on the Brahe, in Prussian Posen; being a
frontier town, it suffered much in times of war.
BROME, ALEXANDER, a cavalier, writer of songs and lampoons instinct
with wit, whim, and spirit; and of his songs some are amatory, some
festive, and some political (1626-1666).
BROME, RICHARD, an English comic playwright, contemporary with Ben
Jonson, and a rival; originally his servant; his plays are numerous, and
were characterised by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study;
BROMINE, an elementary fluid of a dark colour and a disagreeable
smell, extracted from bittern, a liquid which remains after the
separation of salt.
BROMLEY (21), a market-town in Kent, 10 m. SE. of London, where the
bishops of Rochester had their palace, and where there is a home called
Warner's College for clergymen's widows.
BROMPTON, SW. district of London, in Kensington, now called S.
Kensington; once a rustic locality, now a fashionable district, with
several public buildings and the Oratory.
BROeNDSTED, PETER OLAF, a Danish archaeologist; author of "Travels and
Researches in Greece," where by excavations he made important
discoveries; his great work "Travels and Archaeological Researches in
BRONGNIART, ADOLPHE, French botanist, son of the succeeding, the
first to discover and explain the function of the pollen in plants
BRONGNIART, ALEXANDRE, a French chemist and zoologist, collaborateur
with Cuvier, born at Paris; director of the porcelain works at Sevres;
revived painting on glass; introduced a new classification of reptiles;
author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic arts (1770-1847).
BRONTE (16), a town in Sicily, on the western slope of Etna, which
gave title of duke to Nelson.
BRONTE, the name of three ladies, Charlotte, Emily, and Anne,
daughters of a Yorkshire clergyman of Irish extraction: CHARLOTTE,
born at Thornton, Yorkshire; removed with her father, at the age of four,
to Haworth, a moorland parish, in the same county, where she lived most
of her days; spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher; on her
return, in conjunction with her sisters, prepared and published a volume
of poems under the pseudonyms respectively of "Currer, Ellis, and Acton
Bell," which proved a failure. Nothing daunted, she set to novel writing,
and her success was instant; first, "Jane Eyre," then "Shirley," and then
"Villette," appeared, and her fame was established. In 1854 she married
her father's curate, Mr. Nicholls, but her constitution gave way, and she
died (1816-1855). EMILY (Ellis), two years younger, poet rather than
novelist; wrote "Wuthering Heights," a remarkable production, showing
still greater genius, which she did not live to develop. ANNE
(Acton), four years younger, also wrote two novels, but very ephemeral
BRONZE AGE, the age in the history of a race intermediate between
the Stone Age and the Iron, and in some cases overlapping these two, when
weapons and tools were made of bronze.
BRONZI`NO, a Florentine painter, painted both in oil and fresco; a
great admirer of Michael Angelo; his famous picture, "Descent of Christ
into Hell" (1502-1572).
BROOK FARM, an abortive literary community organised on Fourier's
principles, 8 m. from Boston, U.S., by George Ripley in 1840; Nathaniel
Hawthorne was one of the community, and wrote an account of it.
BROOKE, HENRY, Irish dramatist and novelist, born in co. Cavan;
author of the "Fool of Quality," a book commended by John Wesley and much
lauded by Charles Kingsley, and the only one of his works that survives;
wrote, among other things, a poem called "Universal Beauty," and a play
called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783).
BROOKE, SIR JAMES, rajah of Sarawak, born at Benares, educated in
England; entered the Indian army; was wounded in the Burmese war,
returned in consequence to England; conceived the idea of suppressing
piracy and establishing civilisation in the Indian Archipelago; sailed in
a well-manned and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object;
arrived at Sarawak, in Borneo; assisted the governor in suppressing an
insurrection, and was made rajah, the former rajah being deposed in his
favour; brought the province under good laws, swept the seas of pirates,
for which he was rewarded by the English government; was appointed
governor of Labuan; finally returned to England and died, being succeeded
in Sarawak by a nephew (1803-1868).
BROOKE, STOPFORD, preacher and writer, born in Donegal; after other
clerical appointments became incumbent of Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury, and
Queen's chaplain; from conscientious motives seceded from the Church, but
continued to preach in Bloomsbury; wrote the "Life of Robertson of
Brighton," a "Primer of English Literature," "History of English Poetry,"
"Theology in the English Poets," and "Life of Milton," all works in
evidence of critical ability of a high order; _b_. 1832.
BROOKLYN (806), a suburb of New York, on Long Island, though ranking
as a city, and the fourth in the Union; separated from New York by the
East River, a mile broad, and connected with it by a magnificent
suspension bridge, the largest in the world, as well as by some 12 lines
of ferry boats plied by steam; it is now incorporated in Greater New
York; has 10 m. of water front, extensive docks and warehouses, and does
an enormous shipping trade; manufactures include glass, clothing,
chemicals, metallic wares, and tobacco; there is a naval yard, dock, and
storehouse; the city is really a part of New York; has many fine
buildings, parks, and pleasure grounds.
BROOKS, CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY, novelist and journalist, born in
London; was on the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_; sent to Russia to
inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry and labouring
classes there, as well as in Syria and Egypt; his report published in his
"Russians of the South"; formed a connection with _Punch_ in 1851,
writing the "Essence of Parliament," and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor
in 1870; he was the author of several works (1816-1874).
BROSSES, CHARLES DE, a French archaeologist, born at Dijon; wrote
among other subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and
prehistoric man (1709-1777).
BROSSETTE, a French litterateur, born at Lyons; friend of Boileau,
and his editor and commentator (1671-1743).
BROTHERS, RICHARD, a fanatic, born in Newfoundland, who believed and
persuaded others to believe that the English people were the ten lost
tribes of Israel (1757-1824).
BROUGHAM, HENRY, LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX, born in Edinburgh, and
educated at the High School and University of that city; was admitted to
the Scotch bar in 1800; excluded from promotion in Scotland by his
liberal principles, he joined the English bar in 1808, speedily acquired
a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in Crown libel actions, and, by
his eloquence in the cause of Queen Caroline, 1820, won universal popular
favour; entering Parliament in 1810, he associated with the Whig
opposition, threw himself into the agitation for the abolition of
slavery, the cause of education, and law reform; became Lord Chancellor
in 1830, but four years afterwards his political career closed; he was a
supporter of many popular institutions; a man of versatile ability and
untiring energy; along with Horner, Jeffrey, and Sidney Smith, one of the
founders of the _Edinburgh Review_, also of London University, and the
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; a writer on scientific,
historical, political, and philosophical themes, but his violence and
eccentricity hurt his influence; spent his last days at Cannes, where he
BROUGHTON, LORD. See HOBHOUSE.
BROUGHTON, RHODA, novelist, her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well";
wrote also "Cometh Up as a Flower," "Red as a Rose is She," &c.; _b_.
BROUGHTON, WILLIAM ROBERT, an English seaman, companion of
Vancouver; discovered a portion of Oceania (1763-1822).
BROUGHTY FERRY (9), a watering-place, with villas, near Dundee, and
a favourite place of residence of Dundee merchants.
BROUSSA (37), a city in the extreme NW. of Asiatic Turkey, at the
foot of Mt. Olympus, 12 m. from the Sea of Marmora; the capital of the
Turkish empire till the taking of Constantinople in 1453; abounds in
mosques, and is celebrated for its baths.
BROUSSAIS, JOSEPH VICTOR, a French materialist, founder of the
"physiological school" of medicine; resolved life into excitation, and
disease into too much or too little (1772-1838).
BROUSSEL, a member of the Parlement of Paris, whose arrest, in 1648,
was the cause of, or pretext for, the organisation of the Fronde.
BROUSSON, a French Huguenot who returned to France after the
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and was broken on the wheel, 1698.
BROUWER, a Dutch painter, mostly of low, vulgar life, which, as
familiar with it, he depicted with great spirit (1605-1638).
BROWN, AMY, the first wife of the Duc de Berri, born in England,
died in France; the Pope, in 1816, annulled her marriage, but declared
her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876).
BROWN, CHARLES BROCKDEN, an American novelist, born in Philadelphia,
of Quaker connection; his best-known fictions are "Wieland," "Edgar
Huntly," &c. (1771-1810).
BROWN, FORD MADOX, an English painter, born at Calais; his subjects
nearly all of a historical character, one of which is "Chaucer reciting
his Poetry at the Court of Edward III."; anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism
BROWN, SIR GEORGE, British general, born near Elgin, distinguished
both in the Peninsular and in the Crimean war, was severely wounded at
Inkerman, when in command of the Light Division (1790-1863).
BROWN, HENRY KIRKE, an American sculptor, did a number of statues, a
colossal one of Washington among them (1814-1886).
BROWN, JOHN, American slavery abolitionist; settled in Kansas, and
resolutely opposed the project of making it a slave state; in the
interest of emancipation, with six others, seized on the State armoury at
Harper's Ferry in hope of a rising, entrenched himself armed in it, was
surrounded, seized, tried, and hanged (1800-1859).
BROWN, JOHN, of Haddington, a self-educated Scotch divine, born at
Carpow, near Abernethy, Perthshire, son of a poor weaver, left an orphan
at 11, became a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington; a man of
considerable learning, and deep piety; author of "Dictionary of the
Bible," and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787).
BROWN, JOHN, M.D., great-grandson of the preceding, born at Biggar,
educated in Edinburgh High School and at Edinburgh University, was a
pupil of James Syme, the eminent surgeon, and commenced quiet practice in
Edinburgh; author of "Horae Subsecivae," "Rab and his Friends," "Pet
Marjorie," "John Leech," and other works; was a fine and finely-cultured
man, much beloved by all who knew him, and by none more than by John
Ruskin, who says of him, he was "the best and truest friend of all my
life.... Nothing can tell the loss to me in his death, nor the grief to
how many greater souls than mine that had been possessed in patience
through his love" (1810-1882).
BROWN, JOHN, M.D., founder of the Brunonian system of medicine,
born at Bunkle, Berwickshire; reduced diseases into two classes, those
resulting from redundancy of excitation, and those due to deficiency of
excitation; author of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on the Old
and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). See BROUSSAIS.
BROWN, JONES, AND ROBINSON, three middle-class Englishmen on their
travels abroad, as figured in the pages of _Punch_, and drawn by Richard
BROWN, MOUNT (16,000 ft.), the highest of the Rocky Mts., in N.
BROWN, OLIVER MADOX, son of Ford Madox, a youth of great promise
both as an artist and poet; died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874).
BROWN, RAWDON, historical scholar, spent his life at Venice in the
study of Italian history, especially in its relation to English history,
which he prosecuted with unwearied industry; his great work, work of 20
years' hard labour, "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to
English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern Italy,"
left unfinished at his death; died at Venice, where he spent a great part
of his life, where Ruskin found him and conceived a warm friendship for
BROWN, ROBERT, a distinguished botanist, born at Montrose, son of an
Episcopal clergyman; accompanied an expedition to survey the coast of
Australia in 1801, returned after four years' exploration, with 4000
plants mostly new to science, which he classified and described in his
"Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae"; became librarian to, and finally
president of, the Linnean Society; styled by Humboldt _botanicorum facile
princeps_; he was a man of most minute and accurate observation, and of a
wide range of knowledge, much of which died along with him, out of the
fear of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858).
BROWN, SAMUEL, M.D., chemist, born in Haddington, grandson of John
Brown of Haddington, whose life was devoted, with the zeal of a mediaeval
alchemist, to a reconstruction of the science of atomics, which he did
not live to see realised: a man of genius, a brilliant conversationist
and an associate of the most intellectual men of his time, among the
number De Quincey, Carlyle, and Emerson; wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory
of Christianity," "Lectures on the Atomic Theory," and two volumes of
"Essays, Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856).
BROWN, THOMAS, Scottish psychologist, born in Kirkcudbrightshire,
bred to medicine; professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of
Edinburgh, colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart; his lectures, all
improvised on the spur of the moment, were published posthumously;
"Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth sense,
which he called the "muscular." He was a man of precocious talent, and a
devoted student, to the injury of his health and the shortening of his
life; he was obliged from ill-health to resign his professorship after 10
BROWN WILLY, the highest peak (1368 ft.) in Cornwall.
BROWNE, CHARLES FARRAR, a humorist and satirist, known by the
pseudonym of "Artemus Ward," born in Maine, U.S.; his first literary
effort was as "showman" to an imaginary travelling menagerie; travelled
over America lecturing, carrying with him a whimsical panorama as
affording texts for his numerous jokes, which he brought with him to
London, and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success;
he spent some time among the Mormons, and defined their religion as
singular, but their wives plural (1834-1867).
BROWNE, HABLOT KNIGHT, artist, born in London; illustrated Dickens's
works, "Pickwick" to begin with, under the pseudonym of "Phiz," as well
as the works of Lever, Ainsworth, Fielding, and Smollett, and the
Abbotsford edition of Scott; he was skilful as an etcher and an
architectural draughtsman (1815-1882).
BROWNE, ROBERT, founder of the Brownists, born in Rutland; the first
seceder from the Church of England, and the first to found a Church of
his own on Congregational principles, which he did at Norwich, though his
project of secession proved a failure, and he returned to the English
Church; died in jail at Northampton, where he was imprisoned for
assaulting a constable; he may be accounted the father of the
Congregational body in England (1540-1630).
BROWNE, SIR THOMAS, physician and religious thinker, born in London;
resided at Norwich for nearly half a century, and died there; was
knighted by Charles II.; "was," Professor Saintsbury says, "the greatest
prose writer perhaps, when all things are taken together, in the whole
range of English"; his principal works are "Religio Medici," "Inquiries
into Vulgar Errors," and "Hydriotaphia, or Urn-Burial, a Discourse of the
Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk"; "all of the very first importance in
English literature,..." adds the professor, "the 'Religio Medici' the
greatest favourite, and a sort of key to the others;" "a man," says
Coleridge, "rich in various knowledge, exuberant in conceptions and
conceits, contemplative, imaginative, often truly great, and magnificent
in his style and diction.... He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast, with a
strong tinge of the fantastic. He meditated much on death and the
hereafter, and on the former in its relation to, or leading on to, the
BROWNE WILLIAM, English pastoral poet, born at Tavistock; author of
"Britannia's Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe," a collection of
eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque," on the story of Ulysses and
Circe, with some opening exquisitely beautiful verses, "Steer hither,
steer," among them; was an imitator of Spenser, and a parallel has been
instituted between him and Keats (1590-1645).
BROWNIE, a good-natured household elf, believed in Scotland to
render obliging services to good housewives, and his presence an evidence
that the internal economies were approved of, as he favoured good
husbandry, and was partial to houses where it was observed.
BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT, _nee_ BARRETT, poetess, born at
Carlton Hall, Durham; a woman of great natural abilities, which developed
early; suffered from injury to her spine; went to Torquay for her health;
witnessed the death by drowning of a brother, that gave her a shock the
effect of which never left her; published in 1838 "The Seraphim," and in
1844 "The Cry of the Children"; fell in with and married Robert Browning
in 1846, who immediately took her abroad, settling in Florence; wrote in
1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese," in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows," and in
1856 "Aurora Leigh," "a novel in verse," and in 1860 "Poems before
Congress"; ranks high, if not highest, among the poetesses of England;
she took an interest all through life in public affairs; her work is
marked by musical diction, sensibility, knowledge, and imagination, which
no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861).
BROWNING, ROBERT, poet, one of the two greatest in the Victorian
era, born in Camberwell; early given to write verses; prepared himself
for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary; his
first poem "PAULINE" (q. v.) published in 1833, which was
followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835, "Sordello" in 1840; after a time, in
which he was not idle, appeared, with some of his "Dramatic Romances and
Lyrics," in 1855 his "Men and Women," and in 1868 "THE RING AND THE
BOOK" (q. v.), his longest poem, and more analytic than poetic;
this was succeeded by a succession of others, finishing up with
"Asolando," which appeared the day he died at Venice; was a poet of great
subtlety, deep insight, creative power, and strong faith, of a genius and
learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of;
lies buried in Westminster Abbey; of Browning it has been said by
Professor Saintsbury, "Timor mortis non conturbabat, 'the fear of death
did not trouble him.' In the browner shades of age as well as in the
spring of youth he sang, not like most poets, Love and Death, but Love
and Life.... 'James Lee,' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra,' and 'Prospice' are among the
greatest poems of the century." His creed was an optimism of the
brightest, and his restful faith "it is all right with the world"
BROWN-SEQUARD, physiologist, born in Mauritius, of American
parentage; studied in Paris; practised in New York, and became a
professor in the College de France; made a special study of the nervous
system and nervous diseases, and published works on the subject; _b_.
BRUANT, a French architect, born in Paris; architect of the
Invalides and the Salpetriere; _d_. 1697.
BRUAT, a French admiral, commanded the French fleet at the Crimea
BRUCE, a family illustrious in Scottish history, descended from a
Norman knight, Robert de Bruis, who came over with the Conqueror, and who
acquired lands first in Northumberland and then in Annandale.
BRUCE, JAMES, traveller, called the "Abyssinian," born at Kinnaird
House, Stirlingshire, set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source
of the Nile: believed he had discovered it; stayed two years in
Abyssinia, and returned home by way of France, elated with his success;
felt hurt that no honor was conferred on him, and for relief from the
chagrin wrote an account of his travels in five quarto vols., the general
accuracy of which, as far as it goes, has been attested by subsequent
BRUCE, MICHAEL, a Scotch poet, born near Loch Leven, in poor
circumstances, in the parish of Portmoak; studied for the Church; died of
consumption; his poems singularly plaintive and pathetic; his title to
the authorship of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention
BRUCE, ROBERT, rival with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on
the death of Margaret, the Maiden of Norway, against whose claim Edward
I. decided in favour of Baliol (1210-1295).
BRUCE, ROBERT, son of the preceding, earl of Carrick, through
Marjory his wife; served under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one
instance; sued for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304).
BRUCE, ROBERT, king of Scotland, son of the preceding, did homage
for a time to Edward, but joined the national party and became one of a
regency of four, with Comyn for rival; stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at
Dumfries, 1306, and was that same year crowned king at Scone; was
defeated by an army sent against him, and obliged to flee to Rathlin,
Ireland; returned and landed in Carrick; cleared the English out of all
the fortresses except Stirling, and on 24th June 1314 defeated the
English under Edward II. at Bannockburn, after which, in 1328, the
independence of Scotland was acknowledged as well as Bruce's right to the
crown; suffering from leprosy, spent his last two years at Cardross
Castle, on the Clyde, where he died in the thirty-third year of his reign
BRUCIN, an alkaloid, allied in action to strychnine, though much
weaker, being only a twenty-fifth of the strength.
BRUeCKENAU, small town in Bavaria, 17 m. NW. of Kissingen, with
mineral springs good for nervous and skin diseases.
BRUCKER, historian of philosophy, born at Augsburg, and a pastor
there; author of "Historia Critica Philosophiae" (1696-1770).
BRUEYS, DAVID AUGUSTIN DE, French dramatist, born at Aix, an abbe
converted by Bossuet, and actively engaged in propagating the faith;
managed to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays
BRUGES (49), cap. of W. Flanders, in Belgium, intersected by canals
crossed by some 50 bridges, whence its name "Bridges"; one of these
canals, of considerable depth, connecting it with Ostend; though many of
them are now, as well as some of the streets, little disturbed by
traffic, in a decayed and a decaying place, having once had a population
of 200,000; has a number of fine churches, one specially noteworthy, the
church of Notre Dame; it has several manufactures, textile and chemical,
as well as distilleries, sugar-refineries, and shipbuilding yards.
BRUGSCH, HEINRICH KARL, a German Egyptologist, born at Berlin; was
associated with Mariette in his excavations at Memphis; became director
of the School of Egyptology at Cairo; his works on the subject are
numerous, and of great value; _b_. 1827.
BRUeHL, HEINRICH, COUNT VON, minister of Augustus III., king of
Poland, an unprincipled man, who encouraged his master, and indulged
himself, in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance, so that when the
Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to flee from Dresden and
seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763).
BRUIN, the bear personified in the German epic of "Reynard the Fox."
BRUMAIRE, the 18th (i. e. the 9th November 1799, the foggy month),
the day when Napoleon, on his return from Egypt, overthrew the Directory
and established himself in power.
BRUMMELL, BEAU, born in London, in his day the prince of dandies;
patronised by the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV.; quarrelled with
the prince; fled from his creditors to Calais, where, reduced to
destitution, he lived some years in the same reckless fashion; settled at
length in Caen, where he died insane (1778-1805).
BRUNCK, an able French Hellenist, classical scholar, and critic,
born at Strassburg; edited several classical works, played a perilous
part in the French Revolution; was imprisoned, and, on his release, had
to sell his library in order to live (1729-1803).
BRUNE, G. MARIE, French marshal, saw service in the Vendean war and
in Italy, distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland;
submitted to Bourbons in 1814; joined Napoleon on his return from Elba;
was appointed to a post of command in the S. of France, but had to
surrender after Waterloo, and was attacked by a mob of Royalists at
Avignon as he was setting out for Paris, and brutally murdered and his
body thrown into the Rhone (1763-1815).
BRUNEL, SIR ISAMBARD, engineer, born in Rouen, entered the French
navy, emigrated to the United States; was chief engineer of New York;
settled in England, became block-maker to the Royal Navy; constructed the
Thames tunnel, begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849).
BRUNEL, ISAMBARD KINGDOM, son of the preceding, assisted his father
in his engineering operations, in particular the Thames tunnel; was
engineer of the Great Western Railway; designed the _Great Western_
steamship, the first to cross the Atlantic; was the first to apply the
screw propeller to steam navigation; designed and constructed the _Great
Eastern_; constructed bridges and naval docks (1806-1859).
BRUNELLESCHI, Italian architect, born in Florence, bred a goldsmith,
studied at Rome; returned to his native city, built the Duomo of the
Cathedral, the Pitti Palace, and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito
BRUNETIERE, French critic, connected with the _Revue des Deux
Mondes_ and now editor; a very sound and sensible critic; his chief work,
begun in the form of lectures in 1890, entitled "L'Evolution des Genres
de l'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise"; according to Prof.
Saintsbury, promises to be one of the chief monuments that the really
"higher" criticism has yet furnished; _b_. 1849.
BRUNETTO-LATINI, an Italian writer, who played an important part
among the Guelfs, and was obliged to flee to Paris, where he had Dante
for a pupil (1220-1294).
BRUNHILDA, a masculine queen in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to
marry the man that could beat her in feats of strength, was deceived by
Siegfried into marrying Gunther, and meditated the death of Siegfried,
who had married her rival Chriemhilda, which she accomplished by the hand
of Hagen. Also a queen of Austrasia, who, about the 7th century, had a
lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde, queen of Neustria, the other division
of the Frankish world, which at her death she seized possession of for a
time, but was overthrown by Clothaire II., Fredegunde's son, and dragged
to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse.
BRUNI, LEONARDO, Italian humanist, born at Arezzo, hence called
Aretino; was papal secretary; settled in Florence, and wrote a history of
it; did much by his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of
BRUeNN (95), Austrian city, capital of Moravia, beautifully situated,
93 m. N. of Vienna, with large manufactures; woollens the staple of the
country; about one-half of the population Czechs.
BRUNNOW, COUNT VON, a Russian diplomatist, born at Dresden;
represented Russia in several conferences, and was twice ambassador at
the English Court (1797-1875).
BRUNO, GIORDANO, a bold and fervid original thinker, born at Nola,
in Italy; a Dominican monk, quitted his monastery, in fact, was for
heterodoxy obliged to flee from it; attached himself to Calvin for a
time, went for more freedom to Paris, attacked the scholastic philosophy,
had to leave France as well; spent two years in England in friendship
with Sir Philip Sidney, propagated his views in Germany and Italy, was
arrested by the Inquisition, and after seven years spent in prison was
burned as a heretic; he was a pantheist, and regarded God as the living
omnipresent soul of the universe, and Nature as the living garment of
God, as the Earth-Spirit does in Goethe's "Faust"--a definition of Nature
in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor Resartus";
BRUNO, ST., born at Cologne, retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble
with six others, where each lived in cells apart, and they met only on
Sundays; founder of the Carthusian Order of Monks, the first house of
which was established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). Festival,
BRUNO THE GREAT, third son of Henry the Fowler; archbishop of
Cologne, chancellor of the Empire, a great lover of learning, and
promoter of it among the clergy, who he thought should, before all,
represent and encourage it (928-965).
BRUNONIAN SYSTEM, a system which regards and treats diseases as due
to defective or excessive excitation, as sthenic or asthenic. See
BRUNSWICK (404), a N. German duchy, made up of eight detached parts,
mostly in the upper basin of the Weser; is mountainous, and contains part
of the Harz Mts.; climate and crops are those of N. Germany generally.
BRUNSWICK (101), the capital, a busy commercial town, once a member
of the Hanseatic League, and fell into comparative decay after the decay
of the League, on the Oker, 140 m. SW. of Berlin; an irregularly built
city, it has a cathedral, and manufactures textiles, leather, and
BRUNSWICK, CHARLES WILLIAM, DUKE OF, Prussian general, commanded the
Prussian and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution;
emitted a violent, blustering manifesto, but a Revolutionary army under
Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy, and compelled him to retreat
in 1792; was beaten by Davout at Auerstaedt, and mortally wounded
BRUNSWICK, FREDERICK WILLIAM, DUKE OF, brother of Queen Caroline;
raised troops against France, which, being embarked for England, took
part in the Peninsular war; fell fighting at Ligny, two days before the
battle of Waterloo (1771-1815).
BRUSSELS (477), on the Senne, 27 m. S. of Antwerp, is the capital of
Belgium, in the heart of the country. The old town is narrow and crooked,
but picturesque; the town-hall a magnificent building. The new town is
well built, and one of the finest in Europe. There are many parks,
boulevards, and squares; a cathedral, art-gallery, museum and library,
university and art schools. It is Paris in miniature. The manufactures
include linen, ribbons, and paper; a ship-canal and numerous railways
BRUTUS, LUCIUS JUNIUS, the founder of Republican Rome, in the 6th
century B.C.; affected idiocy (whence his name, meaning stupid); it
saved his life when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death; but when
Tarquin's son committed an outrage on Lucretia, he threw off his
disguise, headed a revolt, and expelled the tyrant; was elected one of
the two first Consuls of Rome; sentenced his two sons to death for
conspiring to restore the monarchy; fell repelling an attempt to restore
the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns, one of the sons of the
BRUTUS, MARCUS JUNIUS, a descendant of the preceding, and son of
Cato Uticensis's sister; much beloved by Caesar and Caesar's friend, but
persuaded by Cassius and others to believe that Caesar aimed at the
overthrow of the republic; joined the conspirators, and was recognised by
Caesar among the conspirators as party to his death; forced to flee from
Rome after the event, was defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus,
but escaped capture by falling on a sword held out to him by one of his
friends, exclaiming as he did so, "O Virtue, thou art but a name!" (85-42
BRUYERE, a French writer, author of "Characteres de Theophraste," a
satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696).
BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS, American statesman, born in Salem,
Illinois; bred to the bar and practised at it; entered Congress in 1890
as an extreme Free Silver man; lost his seat from his uncompromising
views on that question; was twice nominated for the Presidency in
opposition to Mr McKinley, but defeated; _b_. 1860.
BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN, American poet; his poems were popular in
America, the chief, "The Age," published in 1821; was 50 years editor of
the _New York Evening Post_; wrote short poems all through his life, some
of the later his best (1794-1878).
BRYCE, JAMES, historian and politician, born at Belfast; Fellow of
Oriel College, Oxford; bred to the bar; for a time professor of Civil Law
at Oxford; entered Parliament in 1880; was member of Mr. Gladstone's last
cabinet; his chief literary work, "The Holy Roman Empire," a work of high
literary merit; _b_. 1838.
BRYDGES, SIR SAMUEL EGERTON, English antiquary, born at Wootton
House, in Kent; called to the bar, but devoted to literature; was M.P.
for Maidstone for six years; lived afterwards and died at Geneva; wrote
novels and poems, and edited old English writings of interest
BUBASTIS, an Egyptian goddess, the Egyptian Diana, the wife of Ptah;
and a city in Lower Egypt, on the eastern branch of the Nile.
BUCCANEERS, an association, chiefly English and French, of piratical
adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries, with their head-quarters in
the Caribbean Sea, organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in
resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S.
American continent, which they were carrying home across the sea.
BUCCLEUCH, a glen 18 m. SW. of Selkirk, with a stronghold of the
Scott family, giving the head the title of earl or duke.
BUCEN`TAUR, the state galley, worked by oars and manned by 168
rowers, in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the
annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in
BUCEPH`ALUS (i. e. ox-head), the horse which Alexander the Great,
while yet a youth, broke in when no one else could, and on which he rode
through all his campaigns; it died in India from a wound. The town,
Bucephala, on the Hydaspes, was built near its grave.
BUCER MARTIN, a German Reformer, born at Strassburg; originally a
Dominican, adopted the Reformed faith, ministered as pastor and professor
in his native place, differed in certain matters from both Luther and
Zwingli, while he tried to reconcile them; invited by Cranmer to England,
he accepted the invitation, and became professor of Divinity at
Cambridge, where he died, but his bones were exhumed and burned a few
years later (1491-1551).
BUCH, LEOPOLD VON, a German geologist, a pupil of Werner and
fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt, who esteemed him highly;
adopted the volcanic theory of the earth; wrote no end of scientific
BUCHAN, a district in the NE. of Aberdeenshire, between the rivers
Deveron and Ythan; abounds in magnificent rock scenery. The Comyns were
earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309.
BUCHANAN, CLAUDIUS, born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, chaplain in
Barrackpur under the East India Company, vice-provost of the College at
Fort William, Calcutta; one of the first to awaken an interest in India
as a missionary field; wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815).
BUCHANAN, GEORGE, a most distinguished scholar and humanist, born at
Killearn, Stirlingshire; educated at St. Andrews and Paris; professor for
three years in the College at St. Barbe; returned to Scotland, became
tutor to James V.'s illegitimate sons; imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for
satires against the monks, escaped to France; driven from one place to
another, imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the
Inquisition, where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the
Psalms; came back to Scotland, was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary,
in 1566 principal of St. Leonard's College, in St. Andrews, in 1567
moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI., and had
several offices of State conferred on him; wrote a "History of Scotland,"
and his book "De Jure Regni," against the tyranny of peoples by kings;
died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him; was buried at the public
expense in Greyfriars' churchyard; when dying, it is said he asked his
housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury
him, and when he found there was not, he ordered her to distribute what
there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him
or not as they saw good (1506-1582).
BUCHANAN, JAMES, statesman of the United States, was ambassador in
London in 1853, made President in 1856, the fifteenth in order, at the
time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head,
favoured the South, retired after his Presidentship into private life
BUCHANAN, ROBERT, a writer in prose and verse, born in Warwickshire,
educated at Glasgow University; his first work, "Undertones," a volume of
verse published by him in 1863, and he has since written a goodly number
of poems, some of them of very high merit, the last "The Wandering Jew,"
which attacks the Christian religion; besides novels, has written
magazine articles, and one in particular, which involved him in some
BUCHANITES, a fanatical sect who appeared in the W. of Scotland in
1783, named after a Mrs. Buchan, who claimed to be the woman mentioned in
BUCHAREST (220), capital of Roumania, picturesquely situated on the
Dambovitza, a tributary of the Danube, in a fertile plain, 180 m. from
the Black Sea; is a meanly built but well-fortified town, with the
reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe; there is a Catholic
cathedral and a university; it is the emporium of trade between the
Balkan and Austria; textiles, grain, hides, metal, and coal are the chief
articles in its markets.
BUCHEZ, JOSEPH, a French historian, politician, and Socialist;
joined the St. Simonian Society, became a Christian Socialist, and a
collaborateur in an important historical work, the "Parliamentary History
of the French Revolution"; figured in political life after the Revolution
of 1848, but retired to private life after the establishment of the
BUeCHNER, LUDWIG, physician and materialist, born at Darmstadt;
lectured at Tuebingen University; wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff,"
i. e. Force and Matter, and had to retire into private practice as a
physician on account of its materialistic philosophy, which he insisted
on teaching (1824-1899).
BUCHON, a learned Frenchman; wrote chronologies of French history
BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF, favourite of James I. and
Charles I., born in Leicestershire; rose under favour of the former to
the highest offices and dignities of the State; provoked by his conduct
wars with Spain and France; fell into disfavour with the people; was
assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton, on the eve of his
embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628).
BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF, son of the preceding; served
under Charles I. in the Civil War, was at the battle of Worcester; became
minister of Charles II.; a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man
BUCKINGHAM, JAMES SILK, traveller and journalist, born in Falmouth;
conducted a journal in Calcutta, and gave offence to the East India
Company by his outspokenness; had to return to England, where his cause
was warmly taken up; by his writings and speeches paved the way for the
abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855).
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185), English S. midland county, lying E. of
Oxford, W. of Bedford and Hertford, is full of beautiful and varied
scenery; hill, dale, wood, and water. The Thames forms the southern
boundary, the Ouse flows through the N., and the Thame through the
centre. The Chiltern Hills cross the county. Agriculture is the
prevailing industry; dairy produce, cattle and poultry feeding, and sheep
rearing the sources of wealth. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3), on
the Ouse, 60 m. NW. of London.
BUCKLAND, FRANCIS (FRANK), naturalist, son of the succeeding, bred
to medicine; devoted to the study of animal life; was inspector of salmon
fisheries; wrote "Curiosities of Natural History," "Familiar History of
British Fishes," &c.; contributed largely to the journals, such as the
_Field_, and edited _Land and Water_, which he started in 1866
BUCKLAND, WILLIAM, a distinguished geologist, born at Tiverton; had
a predilection from boyhood for natural science; awoke in Oxford
University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology;
his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects; exerted
himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in
Genesis; was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel; his intellect
gave way in 1850, and he remained in mental weakness till his death
BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE, editor of the _Times_, born near Bath; studied
at Oxford, where he distinguished himself; is a Fellow of All Souls'
College; became editor in 1884, having previously belonged to the
editorial staff; _b_. 1854.
BUCKLE, HENRY THOMAS, an advanced thinker, born in Lee, in Kent; in
delicate health from his infancy, too ambitious for his powers, thought
himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England," in
connection with that of Europe, tried it, but failed; visited the East
for his health, and died at Damascus; his theory as regards the
development of civilisation is, that national character depends on
material environment, and that progress depends upon the emancipation of
rationality, an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements
at work, and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones;
he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862).
BUCKSTONE, JOHN BALDWIN, an able comic actor and popular dramatist,
born in London; for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre,
BUDA-PESTH (506), a twin city, the capital of Hungary, on the
Danube; Buda (Ger. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left, the two
cities being connected by a suspension bridge, the former on a rocky
elevation and the latter on level ground; a great commercial centre.
BUDASTIS, an ancient town in Lower Egypt, where festivals in honour
of Bacchus used to be held every year.
BUDDHA, GAUTAMA, or SAKYA-MUNI, the founder of Buddhism about
the 5th century B.C., born a Hindu, of an intensely contemplative
nature, the son of a king, who did everything in his power to tempt him
from a religious life, from which, however, in his contemplation of the
vanity of existence, nothing could detain him; retired into solitude at
the age of 30, as Sakyamuni, i. e. solitary of the Sakyas, his tribe;
consulted religious books, could get no good out of them, till,
by-and-by, he abstracted himself more and more from everything external,
when at the end of ten years, as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone
with the universe, soul with soul, the light of truth rose full-orbed
upon him, and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as
Buddha, i. e. the Enlightened; now he said to himself, "I know it all,"
as Mahomet in his way did after him, and became a preacher to others of
what had proved salvation to himself, which he continued to do for 40
years, leaving behind him disciples, who went forth without sword, like
Christ's, to preach what they, like Christ's, believed was a gospel to
BUDDHISM, the religion of Buddha, a religion which, eschewing all
speculation about God and the universe, set itself solely to the work of
salvation, the end of which was the merging of the individual in the
unity of being, and the "way" to which was the mortification of all
private passion and desire which mortification, when finished, was the
Buddhist Nirvana. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith,
which erelong became a formality, as all faiths of the kind, or of this
high order, ever tend to do. Buddha is not answerable for this, but his
followers, who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of
formulae, which Buddha, knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the
spirit giveth life, never attempted to do. Buddha wrote none himself, but
in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form,
under the name of Tripitaka, or triple basket, as it is called. Buddhism
from the first was a proselytising religion; it at one time overran the
whole of India, and though it is now in small favour there, it is, in
such form as it has assumed, often a highly beggarly one, understood to
be the religion of 340 millions of the human race.
BUDE-LIGHT, a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen
into the centre of an Argand burner, so called from the place of the
BUDWEIS (28), a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau, 133 m. NW. of
BUENOS AYRES (543), capital of the Argentine Republic, stands on the
right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate, 150 m. from the
Atlantic; it is a progressing city, improving in appearance, with a
cathedral, several Protestant churches, a university and military school,
libraries and hospitals; printing, cigar-making, cloth and boot
manufacture are the leading industries; it is the principal Argentine
port, and the centre of export and import trade; the climate does not
correspond with the name it bears; a great deal of the foreign trade is
conducted through Monte Video, but it monopolises all the inland trade.
BUFFALO (256), a city of New York State, at the E. end of Lake Erie,
300 m. due NW. of New York; is a well-built, handsome, and healthy city;
the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in
grain, cattle, and coal; while immense iron-works, tanneries, breweries,
and flour-mills represent the industries; electric power for lighting,
traction, &c., is supplied from Niagara.
BUFFON, GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE, a great French naturalist,
born at Montbard, in Burgundy; his father one of the _noblesse de robe_;
studied law at Dijon; spent some time in England, studying the English
language; devoted from early years to science, though more to the display
of it, and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of
the Jardin du Roi; assisted, and more than assisted, by Daubenton and
others, produced 15 vols. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle"
between the years 1749 and 1767. The saying "Style is the man" is
ascribed to him, and he has been measured by some according to his own
standard. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value
now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780).
BUGEAUD, THOMAS, marshal of France, born at Limoges; served under
Napoleon; retired from service till 1830; served under Louis Philippe;
contributed to the conquest of Algiers; was made governor, and created
duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the
battle of Isly in 1844; his motto was _Ense et aratro_, "By sword and
BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN, a German Reformer, a convert of Luther's and
coadjutor; helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools
BUGGE, Norwegian philologist, professor at Christiania; _b_. 1833.
BUHL, ornamental work for furniture, which takes its name from the
inventor (see INFRA), consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with
tortoise-shell or enamel, or with metals of another colour; much in
fashion in Louis XIV.'s reign.
BUHL, CHARLES ANDRE, an Italian cabinet-maker, inventor of the work
which bears his name (1642-1732).
BUKOWINA (640), a small prov. and duchy in the E. of
Austria-Hungary; rich in minerals, breeds cattle and horses.
BULGARIA, with Eastern Roumelia (3,154), constitutes a Balkan
principality larger than Ireland, with hills and fertile plains in the
N., mountains and forests in the S.; Turkey is the southern boundary,
Servia the western, the Danube the northern, while the Black Sea washes
the eastern shores. The climate is mild, the people industrious; the
chief export is cereals; manufactures of woollens, attar of roses, wine
and tobacco, are staple industries; the chief import is live stock.
SOFIA (50), the capital, is the seat of a university. VARNA
(28), on the Black Sea, is the principal port. Bulgaria was cut out of
Turkey and made independent in 1878, and Eastern Roumelia incorporated
with it in 1885.
BULL, an edict of the Pope, so called from a leaden seal attached to
BULL, GEORGE, bishop of St. Davids, born at Wells; a stanch
Churchman; wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings
of Paul and James on the matter of justification, and "Defensio Fidei
Nicenae," in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN
CREED (q. v.), and denied or modified by Arians, Socinians, and
BULL, JOHN, a humorous impersonation of the collective English
people, conceived of as well-fed, good-natured, honest-hearted,
justice-loving, and plain-spoken; the designation is derived from
Arbuthnot's satire, "The History of John Bull," in which the Church of
England figures as his mother.
BULL, OLE BORNEMANN, a celebrated violinist, born in Bergen, Norway,
pupil of Paganini; was a wise man at making money, but a fool in spending
BULL RUN, a stream in Virginia, U.S., 25 m. from Washington, where
the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate, July 1861 and
BULLANT, a French architect and sculptor; built the tombs of
Montmorency, Henry II., and Catherine de Medicis, as well as wrought at
the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578).
BULLER, CHARLES, a politician, born in Calcutta, pupil of Thomas
Carlyle; entered Parliament at 24, a Liberal in politics; held
distinguished State appointments; died in his prime, universally beloved
and respected (1806-1848).
BULLER, GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY, served in China, Ashanti, South
Africa, Egypt, and the Soudan, with marked distinction in the 60th King's
Royal Rifles; has held staff appointments, and was for a short time
Under-Secretary for Ireland; _b_. 1839.
BULLINGER, HEINRICH, a Swiss Reformer, born in Aargau; friend and
successor of Zwingli; assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession; was
a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575).
BULLS AND BEARS, in the Stock Exchange, the bull being one who buys
in the hope that the value may rise, and the bear one who sells in the
hope that it may fall. See BEAR.
BUeLOW, BERNARD VON, Foreign Secretary of the German empire; early
entered the Foreign Office, and has done important diplomatic work in
connection with it, having been secretary to several embassies and charge
d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war; _b_. 1850.
BUeLOW, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, BARON VON, a Prussian general; served his
country in the war with Revolutionary France; defeated the French under
the Empire in several engagements, and contributed to the victory at
Waterloo, heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the
decisive moment (1755-1816).
BUeLOW, GUIDO VON, a famous pianist, pupil of Liszt (1830-1894).
BULOZ, a French litterateur, born near Geneva; originator of the
_Revue des Deux Mondes_ (1803-1877).
BULWER, HENRY LYTTON, an experienced and successful diplomatist,
served the Liberal interest; was party to the conclusion of several
important treaties; wrote several works, "An Autumn in Greece," a "Life
of Byron," &c. (1801-1872).
BUMBLE, MR., a beadle in "Oliver Twist."
BUNAU, a German historian, author of a "History of the Seven Years'
BUNCOMBE, a district in N. Carolina, for the ears of the
constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the
U.S. Congress, whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe," i. e. to please
BUNDELKHAND (2,000), a territory in NW. Provinces, India, between
the Chambal and the Jumna; has been extensively irrigated at great labour
BUNKER HILL, an eminence 112 ft., now included in Boston, the scene
on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of
BUNSBY, JACK, commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son," regarded as an
oracle by Captain Cuttle.
BUNSEN, BARON VON, a diplomatist and man of letters, born at
Korbach; in Waldeck; studied at Marburg and Goettingen; became acquainted
with Niebuhr at Berlin; studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de
Sacy at Paris; became secretary, under Niebuhr, to the Prussian embassy
at Rome; recommended himself to the king, and succeeded Niebuhr; became
ambassador in Switzerland and then in England; was partial to English
institutions, and much esteemed in England; wrote the "Church of the
Future," "Hippolytus and his Age," &c. (1791-1860).
BUNSEN, ROBERT WILLIAM, a distinguished German chemist, born at
Goettingen, settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg; invented the
charcoal pile, the magnesian light, and the burner called after him;
discovered the antidote to arsenic, with hydrate of iron and the
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. v.); _b_. 1811.
BUNSEN BURNER, a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube
with holes at the bottom of it to let in air, which burns with the gas,
and causes at the top a non-luminous flame; largely used in chemical
BUNYAN, JOHN, author of the "Pilgrim's Progress," born in Elstow,
near Bedford, the son of a tinker, and bred himself to that humble craft;
he was early visited with religious convictions, and brought, after a
time of resistance to them, to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ,
his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment, an
imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years,
and it was towards the close of it, and in the precincts of Bedford jail,
in the spring of 1676, that he dreamed his world-famous dream; here
two-thirds of it were written, the whole finished the year after, and
published at the end of it; extended, it came out eventually in two
parts, but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress, and
ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world;
encouraged by the success of it--for it leapt into popularity at a
bound--Bunyan wrote some sixty other books, but except this, his
masterpiece, not more than two of these, "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy
War," continue to be read (1628-1688).
BUONTALENTI, an Italian artist, born at Florence, one of the
greatest, being, like Michael Angelo, at once architect, painter, and
BURBAGE, RICHARD, English tragedian, born in London, associate of
Shakespeare, took the chief role in "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Richard
III.," &c. (1562-1618).
BURCHELL, MR., a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield," noted for
his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to
BURCKHARDT, Swiss historian and archaeologist, born at Bale, author
of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance"; _b_. 1818.
BURCKHARDT, JOHN LUDVIG, traveller, born at Lausanne, sent out from
England by the African Association to explore Africa; travelled by way of
Syria; acquired a proficiency in Arabic, and assumed Arabic customs;
pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim--the first Christian to risk
such a venture; returned to Egypt, and died at Cairo just as he was
preparing for his African exploration; his travels were published after
his death, and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they
BURDER, GEORGE, Congregational minister, became secretary to the
London Missionary Society, author of "Village Sermons," which were once
widely popular (1752-1832).
BURDETT, SIR FRANCIS, a popular member of Parliament, married
Sophia, the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts, a wealthy London banker,
and acquired through her a large fortune; becoming M.P., he resolutely
opposed the government measures of the day, and got himself into serious
trouble; advocated radical measures of reform, many of which have since
been adopted; was prosecuted for a libel; fined L1000 for condemning the
Peterloo massacre, and imprisoned three months; joined the Conservative
party in 1835, and died a member of it (1770-1844).
BURDETT-COUTTS, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA, BARONESS,
daughter of Sir Francis, inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts, her
grandfather, which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well
as patriotic objects; was made a peeress in 1871; received the freedom of
the city of London in 1874, and in 1881 married Mr. William Lehman
Ashmead-Bartlett, an American, who obtained the royal license to assume
the name of Burdett-Coutts; _b_. 1804.
BUREAU, a name given to a department of public administration, hence
bureaucracy, a name for government by bureaux.
BUeRGER, GOTTFRIED AUGUST, a German lyric poet, author of the ballads
"Lenore," which was translated by Sir Walter Scott, and "The Wild
Huntsman," as well as songs; led a wild life in youth, and a very unhappy
one in later years; died in poverty (1747-1794).
BURGKMAIR, HANS, painter and engraver, born at Augsburg; celebrated
for his woodcuts, amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531).
BURGOS (34), ancient cap. of Old Castile, on the Arlanzon, 225 m. N.
of Madrid by rail; boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed
period, and an old castle; was the birthplace of the Cid, and once a
university seat; it has linen and woollen industries.
BURGOYNE, JOHN, English general, and distinguished as the last sent
out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies, and, after a victory
or two, being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga, fell
into disfavour; defended his conduct with ability and successfully
afterwards; devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama, the "Heiress" in
the latter his best (1723-1792).
BURGOYNE, SIR JOHN, field-marshal, joined the Royal Engineers,
served under Abercromby in Egypt, and under Sir John Moore and Wellington
in Spain; was present at the battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman in
the Crimea; was governor of the Tower (1782-1871).
BURGUNDY was, prior to the 16th century, a Teutonic duchy of varying
extent in the SE. and E. of France; annexed to France as a province in
the 6th century; the country is still noted for its wines.
BURHANPUR (32), a town in the Central Provinces of India, in the
Nimar district, 280 m. NE. of Bombay; was at one time a centre of the
Mogul power in the Deccan, and a place of great extent; is now in
comparative decay, but still famous, as formerly, for its muslins, silks,
BURIDAN, JEAN, a scholastic doctor of the 14th century, born in
Artois, and famous as the reputed author, though there is no evidence of
it in his works, of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass, called
after him Buridan's Ass, between a bottle of hay and a pail of water, a
favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will.
BURKE, EDMUND, orator and philosophic writer, born at Dublin, and
educated at Dublin University; entered Parliament in 1765; distinguished
himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side, in particular by his
speeches on the American war, Catholic emancipation, and economical
reform; his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of
the impeachment of Warren Hastings; he was a resolute enemy of the French
Revolution, and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections," a weighty
appeal; wrote in early life two small but notable treatises, "A
Vindication of Natural Society," and another on our ideas of the "Sublime
and Beautiful," which brought him into contact with the philosophic
intellects of the time, and sometime after planned the "Annual Register,"
to which he was to the last chief contributor. "He was," says Professor
Saintsbury, "a rhetorician (i. e. an expert in applying the art of
prose literature to the purpose of suasion), and probably the greatest
that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797).
BURKE, SIR JOHN BERNARD, genealogist, born in London, of Irish
descent, author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom";
produced, besides editing successive editions of it, a number of works on
aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892).
BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA, Australian explorer, born in Galway; conducted
an expedition across Australia, but on the way back both he and his
companion Wells perished, after terrible sufferings from privation and
BURKE, WILLIAM, a notorious murderer, native of Ireland; executed in
1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation, after
intoxicating them with drink, whose bodies he sold for dissection to an
Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox, whom the citizens mobbed; he had
an accomplice as bad as himself, who, becoming informer, got off.
BURKITT, WILLIAM, Biblical expositor, born in Suffolk; author of
"Expository Notes on the New Testament," once held in high esteem
BURLEIGH, WILLIAM CECIL, LORD, a great statesman, born in
Lincolnshire; bred to the legal profession, and patronised and promoted
by the Protector Somerset; managed to escape the Marian persecution;
Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities, and appointed
him chief-secretary of state, an office which, to the glory of the queen
and the good of the country, he held for forty years, till his death. His
administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without
respect of persons, and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as
well as himself (1520-1598).
BURLINGAME, ANSON, American diplomatist; sent ambassador to China,
and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts;
concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870).
BURMA (9,606), a vast province of British India, lying E. of the Bay
of Bengal, and bounded landward by Bengal, Tibet, China, and Siam; the
country is mountainous, drained by the Irawadi, Salween, and Sittang
Rivers, whose deltas are flat fertile plains; the heights on the Chinese
frontier reach 15,000 ft; the climate varies with the elevation, but is
mostly hot and trying; rice is the chief crop; the forests yield teak,
gum, and bamboo; the mines, iron, copper, lead, silver, and rubies. Lower
Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam, cap. Rangoon, and was seized
by Britain in 1826 and 1854. Upper Burma, cap. Mandalay, an empire nearly
as large as Spain, was annexed in 1886.
BURN, RICHARD, English vicar, born in Westmoreland; compiled several
law digests, the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and
"Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785).
BURNABY, COLONEL, a traveller of daring adventure, born at Bedford,
a tall, powerful man; Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue; travelled in
South and Central America, and with Gordon in the Soudan; was chiefly
distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of
Tartary, of which he published a spirited account, and for his travels
next year in Asia Minor and Persia, and his account of them in "On
Horseback through Asia Minor"; killed, pierced by an Arab spear, at Abu
Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge; he was a daring
aeronaut, having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon
BURNAND, FRANCIS COWLEY, editor of _Punch_; studied for the Church,
and became a Roman Catholic; an expert at the burlesque, and author of a
series of papers, entitled "Happy Thoughts," which give evidence of a
most keen, observant wit: _b_. 1836.
BURNE-JONES, SIR EDWARD, artist, born at Birmingham, of Welsh
descent; came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement,
and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it, which is at
once mystical in conception and realistic in execution; he was one of the
foremost, if not the foremost, of the artists of his day; imbued with
ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment; William Morris and he
were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford, and used to spend
their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898).
BURNES, SIR ALEXANDER, born at Montrose, his father a cousin of
Robert Burns; was an officer in the Indian army; distinguished for the
services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of
the native languages; appointed Resident at Cabul; was murdered, along
with his brother and others, by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection
BURNET, GILBERT, bishop of Salisbury, born at Edinburgh, of an old
Aberdeen family; professor of Divinity in Glasgow; afterwards preacher at
the Rolls Chapel, London; took an active part in supporting the claims of
the Prince of Orange to the English throne; was rewarded with a
bishopric, that of Salisbury; wrote the "History of the Reformation," an
"Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles," the "History of His Own Times";
he was a Whig in politics, a broad Churchman in creed, and a man of
strict moral principle as well as Christian charity; the most famous of
his works is his "History of His Own Times," a work which Pope, Swift,
and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715).
BURNET, JOHN, engraver and author, born at Fisherrow; engraved
Wilkie's works, and wrote on art (1784-1868).
BURNET, THOMAS, master of the Charterhouse, born in Yorkshire,
author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth," eloquent in descriptive
parts, but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715).
BURNETT, FRANCES HODGSON, novelist, born in Manchester, resident for
a time in America; wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's," and other stories of
Lancashire manufacturing life, characterised by shrewd observation,
pathos, and descriptive power; _b_. 1849.
BURNEY, CHARLES, musical composer and organist, born at Shrewsbury;
a friend of Johnson's; author of "The History of Music," and the father
of Madame d'Arblay; settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814).
BURNEY, CHARLES, son of preceding, a great classical scholar; left a
fine library, purchased by the British Museum for L13,500 (1757-1817).
BURNEY, JAMES, brother of preceding, rear-admiral, accompanied Cook
in his last two voyages; wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery"
BURNLEY (87), a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 27 m. N. of
Manchester; with cotton mills, foundries, breweries, &c.
BURNOUF, EUGENE, an illustrious Orientalist, born in Paris;
professor of Sanskrit in the College of France; an authority on Zend or
Zoroastrian literature; edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata
Purana," a book embodying Hindu mythology; made a special study of
Buddhism; wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852).
BURNS, JOHN, politician and Socialist, born at Vauxhall, of humble
parentage; bred to be an engineer; imbibed socialistic ideas from a
fellow-workman, a Frenchman, a refugee of the Commune from Paris; became
a platform orator in the interest of Socialism, and popular among the
working class; got into trouble in consequence; was four times elected
member of the London County Council for Battersea; and has been twice
over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament; _b_. 1858.
BURNS, ROBERT, celebrated Scottish poet, born at Alloway, near Ayr,
in 1759, son of an honest, intelligent peasant, who tried farming in a
small way, but did not prosper; tried farming himself on his father's
decease in 1784, but took to rhyming by preference; driven desperate in
his circumstances, meditated emigrating to Jamaica, and published a few
poems he had composed to raise money for that end; realised a few pounds
thereby, and was about to set sail, when friends and admirers rallied
round him and persuaded him to stay; he was invited to Edinburgh; his
poems were reprinted, and money came in; soon after he married, and took
a farm, but failing, accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries; fell
into bad health, and died in 1796, aged 37. "His sun shone as through a
tropical tornado, and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon.... To
the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more
venerable, but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given.... And
that spirit, which might have soared could it but have walked, soon sank
to the dust, its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom;
and died, we may almost say, without ever having lived." See Carlyle's
"Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man
and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. He is at his best
in his "Songs," he says, which he thinks "by far the best that Britain
has yet produced.... In them," he adds, "he has found a tune and words
for every mood of man's heart; in hut and hall, as the heart unfolds
itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence, the _name_, the _voice_
of that joy and that woe, is the name and voice which Burns has given
BURRA-BURRA, a copper-mine in S. Australia, about 103 m. NE. of
BURRARD INLET, an inlet of river Fraser, in British Columbia,
forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast.
BURRITT, ELIHU, a blacksmith, born in Connecticut; devoted to the
study of languages, of which he knew many, both ancient and modern; best
known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great
part of Europe, on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879).
BURROUGHS, JOHN, popular author, born in New York; a farmer, a
cultured man, with a great liking for country life and natural objects,
on which he has written largely and _con amore_; _b_. 1837.
BURRUS, a Roman general, who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's
education, and opposed his tyrannical acts, till Nero, weary of his
expostulations, got rid of him by poison.
BURSCHENSCHAFT, an association of students in the interest of German
liberation and unity; formed in 1813, and broken up by the Government in
BURSLEM (31), a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire, and the
"mother of the potteries"; manufactures porcelain and glass.
BURTON, JOHN HILL, historian and miscellaneous writer, born at
Aberdeen; an able man, bred for the bar; wrote articles for the leading
reviews and journals, "Life of Hume," "History of Scotland," "The