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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia by Edited by Rev. James Wood

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TIBET (6,000), a country of Central Asia, and dependency of China
since 1720, called by the natives themselves Bod or Bodyul, comprises a
wide expanse of tableland, "three times the size of France, almost as
cold as Siberia, most of it higher than Mount Blanc, and all of it,
except a few valleys, destitute of population"; enclosed by the lofty
ranges of the Himalaya and Kuen-lun Mountains, it has been left
practically unexplored; possesses great mineral wealth, and a large
foreign trade is carried on in woollen cloth (chief article of
manufacture); polyandry and polygamy are prevailing customs among the
people, who are a Mongolic race of fine physique, fond of music and
dancing, jealous of intrusion and wrapt up in their own ways and customs;
the government, civil and religious, is in the hands of the clergy, the
lower orders of which are numerous throughout the country; a variation of
Mongol Shamanism is the native religion, but Lamaism is the official
religion of the country, and the supreme authority is vested in the Dalai
Lama, the sovereign pontiff, who resides at Lhassa, the capital.

TIBULLUS, ALBIUS, Roman elegiac poet, a contemporary of Virgil and
Horace, the latter of whom was warmly attached to him; he accompanied
Messala his patron in his campaigns to Gaul and the East, but had no
liking for war, and preferred in peace to cultivate the tender
sentiments, and to attune his harp to his emotions.

TICHBORNE, a village and property of Hampshire, which became
notorious in the "seventies" through a butcher, from Wagga Wagga, in
Australia, named Thomas Castro, otherwise Thomas Orton, laying claim to
it in 1866 on the death of Sir Alfred Joseph Tichborne; the "Claimant"
represented himself as an elder brother of the deceased baronet, supposed
(and rightly) to have perished at sea; the imposture was exposed after a
lengthy trial, and a subsequent trial for perjury resulted in a sentence
of 14 years' penal servitude. Orton, after his release, confessed his
imposture in 1895.

TICINO (127), the most southerly canton of Switzerland, lies on the
Italian frontier; slopes down from the Lepontine Alps in the N. to
fertile cultivated plains in the S., which grow olives, vines, figs, &c.;
the inhabitants speak Italian, and the canton, from the mildness of its
climate and richness of its soil, has been called the "Italian
Switzerland," embraces most of Lakes Lugano and Maggiore, and is
traversed by the St. Gothard Railway.

TICINO, a river of Switzerland and North Italy; springs from the S.
side of Mount St. Gothard, flows southwards through Lake Maggiore and SE.
through North Italy, joining the Po 4 m. below Pavia, after a course of
120 m.

TICKELL, THOMAS, a minor English poet, born at Bridekirk,
Cumberland; enjoyed the friendship and favour of Addison, who praised him
in the _Spectator_, and held till his death the appointment of secretary
to the Lords Justices of Ireland; his poetry does not count for much in
the history of English literature, but he was happy in the composition of
occasional poems, e. g. "The Prospect of Peace," "The Royal Progress,"
and in ballads, such as "Colin and Lucy," &c., and his translation of the
first book of the "Iliad" was so good as to rouse the jealousy of Pope

TICKNOR, GEORGE, American man of letters, born in Boston; studied in
various European cities, where he was received in the best literary
circles, and of which he has left in his journal interesting impressions;
held the professorship of French and Spanish in Harvard University for a
number of years; published in 1849 his "History of Spanish Literature,"
the standard work on the subject; also wrote lives of Lafayette and
Prescott, &c. (1791-1871).

TICONDEROGA (3), a township of New York, on Lake Champlain, 100 m.
N. of Albany; has various factories, mines in the vicinity, &c.; a place
of much prominence during the struggles with the French and later during
the revolutionary war.

TIECK, LUDWIG, German poet, born in Berlin; was one of the founders
of the Romantic school in Germany, was a friend of the Schlegels and
Novalis; wrote novels and popular tales and dramas; his tales, in
particular, are described by Carlyle as "teeming with wondrous shapes
full of meaning; true modern denizens of old fairyland ... shows a gay
southern fancy living in union with a northern heart;... in the province
of popular traditions reigns without a rival" (1773-1853).

TIENTSIN (950), an important city and river-port of China, on the
Pei-ho, 34 m. from its mouth and 80 m. SE. of Peking, of which it is the
port; since 1858 has been one of the open treaty ports, and in 1861 a
British consulate was established; three months of the year the Pei-ho is
frozen over; there is an increasing transit trade with Russia.

TIERRA DEL FUEGO, a compact island-group at the southern extremity
of the South American continent, from which it is separated by the Strait
of Magellan; the most southerly point is CAPE HORN (q. v.); of
the group Tierra del Fuego, sometimes called King Charles South Land,
belongs partly to the Argentine and partly to Chile, to which also belong
the other islands, except Staten Island, an Argentine possession; save
for a few fertile plains in the N., where some sheep-farming goes on, the
region is bleak, barren, and mountainous, with rocky, fiord-cut coasts
swept by violent and prolonged gales; scantily peopled by now harmless
Indians of a low type.

TIERS ETAT (third estate), name given to the Commons section in the
States-General of France.

TIFLIS (105), capital of a mountainous, forest-clad government (875)
of the same name and of Russian Caucasia, on the Kar, 165 m. SE. of the
Black Sea; is a city of considerable antiquity and note, and owes much
to-day to the energy of the Russians, who annexed it in 1802; noted for
its silver and other metal work.

TIGRIS, an important river of Turkey in Asia; rises in the mountains
of Kurdistan, flows SE. to Diarbekir, E. to Til (where it receives the
Bitlis), and hence SE. through a flat and arid country, till, after a
course of 1100 m., it unites with the Euphrates to form the Shat-el-Arab,
which debouches into the Persian Gulf 90 m. lower; is navigable for 500
m. to Bagdad; on its banks are the ruins of Nineveh, Seleucia, and

TILBURY FORT, on the Essex bank of the Thames, opposite Gravesend;
the main defence of the river above Sheerness; in 1886 extensive docks,
quays, a tidal basin, &c., were opened.

TILLOTSON, JOHN ROBERT, archbishop of Canterbury, born in Sowerby,
Yorkshire, of a Puritan family, and trained on Puritan lines; studied at
Clare Hall, Cambridge, came under the influence of CUDWORTH (q. v.),
conformed to the Established Church at the Restoration and became
king's chaplain and a prebend of Canterbury, till at length he rose to be
dean and primate; was an eloquent preacher, a man of moderate views, and
respected by all parties; his "Sermons" were models for a time, but are
so no longer (1630-1694).

TILLY, JOHANN TSERKLAES, COUNT OF, one of the great generals of the
THIRTY YEARS' WAR (q. v.), born in Brabant; was designed for the
priesthood and educated by Jesuits, but abandoned the Church for the
army; was trained in the art of war by Parma and Alva, and proved himself
a born soldier; reorganised the Bavarian army, and, devoted to the
Catholic cause, was given command of the Catholic army at the outbreak of
the Thirty Years' War, during the course of which he won many notable
battles, acting later on in conjunction with Wallenstein, whom in 1630 he
succeeded as commander-in-chief of the imperial forces, and in the
following year sacked with merciless cruelty the town of Magdeburg, a
deed which Gustavus Adolphus was swift to avenge by crushing the Catholic
forces in two successive battles--at Breitenfeld and at Rain--in the
latter of which Tilly was mortally wounded (1559-1632).

TILSIT (25), a manufacturing town of East Prussia, on the Memel or
Niemen, 65 m. NE. of Koenigsberg; here was signed in 1807 a memorable
treaty between Alexander I. of Russia and Napoleon, as the result of
which Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia was deprived of the greater part
of his dominions.

TIMBUCTOO (20), an important city of the Western Soudan, situated at
the edge of the Sahara, 8 m. N. of the Upper Niger, at the centre of five
caravan routes which lead to all parts of North Africa; carries on a
large transit trade, exchanging European goods for native produce; was
occupied by the French in 1894.

TIMOLEON, a celebrated general of ancient Greece, born, of a noble
family, in Corinth, about 395 B.C.; ardently espoused the cause of the
Greeks in Sicily, who were in danger of forfeiting their liberties to the
Carthaginians, and headed an army to Syracuse, where he defeated and
drove out Dionysius the Younger (344), subsequently cleared the island of
the oppressors, and brought back order and good government, after which
he quietly returned to private life, and spent his later years at
Syracuse, beloved by the Sicilians as their liberator and benefactor;
_d_. 337 B.C.

TIMON OF PHLIUS, a Greek philosopher, a disciple of PYRRHO
(q. v.), flourished 280 B.C.; wrote a satirical poem on the whole
Greek philosophy up to date, which is the source of our knowledge of his
master's opinions. Also the name of a misanthrope of Athens, a
contemporary of Socrates.

TIMOR (500), the largest of the long chain of islands which
stretches eastward from Java, of volcanic formation, mountainous, wooded,
and possessing deposits of various metals, but mainly exports maize,
sandal-wood, wax, tortoise-shell, &c.; population consists chiefly of
Papuans, whose native chiefs are the real rulers of the island, which
belongs, the W. portion of it to Holland and the E. to Portugal; E. of
Timor lies a group of three low-lying islands of coral formation, known
as Timor-Laut or Tenimber Islands (25); Dutch possession.

TIMOTHY, a convert of St. Paul's, associate and deputy, to whom, as
in charge of the Church at Ephesus, he wrote two epistles in the interval
between his imprisonment and death at Rome, the First Epistle to direct
him in the discharge of his pastoral duties, and the Second to invite him
to Rome, and counsel him, should he not be dead before he arrived.


TINDAL, MATTHEW, English deistical writer, born in Devonshire;
studied at Oxford, became Fellow of All Souls', was first a Protestant,
then a Catholic, and then a free-thinker of a very outspoken type,
exhibited in a polemic which provoked hostility on all sides; his most
famous work was "Christianity as old as Creation; or, the Gospel a
Republication of the Religion of Nature," a work which did not attack
Christianity, but rationalised it (1656-1733).

TINEWALD, THE, name of the Manx Parliament.

TINNEVELLI (23), a town of Madras Presidency, SE. India, capital of
a district (1,916) of the same name; lies 50 m. N. of Cape Comorin, and
adjoins Pallamcotta, head-quarters of the British military and
government; is a centre of Protestant mission work, and possesses a Sind
temple and a Hindu college.

TINTAGEL HEAD, a rocky headland, 300 ft high, on the W. Cornish
coast, 22 m. W. of Launceston; associated with the Arthurian legend as
the site of King Arthur's castle and court; 6 m. distant lies Camelford,
the famous Camelot.

TINTERN ABBEY, one of the most beautiful ruined abbeys of England,
founded by the Cistercian monks in 1131 on the Wye, in Monmouthshire, 5
m. above Chepstow; associated with Wordsworth's great poem, "Lines
composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey."

TINTORETTO, baptized JACOPO ROBUSTI, a famous Italian artist,
one of Ruskin's "five supreme painters," born at Venice; save for a few
lessons under Titian he seems to have been self-taught; took for his
models Titian and Michael Angelo, and came specially to excel in grandeur
of conception and in strong chiaroscuro effects; amongst his most notable
pictures are "Belshazzar's Feast," "The Last Supper," "The Crucifixion,"
"The Last Judgment," "The Resurrection," &c.; some of these are of
enormous size (1518-1594).

TIPPERARY (173), a south-midland county of Ireland, in the province
of Munster, stretching N. of Waterford, between Limerick (W.) and
Kilkenny (E.); possesses a productive soil, which favours a considerable
agricultural and dairy-farming industry; coal is also worked; the Suir is
the principal stream; the generally flat surface is diversified in the S.
by the Galtees (3008 ft.) and Knockmeledown (2609 ft.), besides smaller
ranges elsewhere; county town Tipperary (7), 110 m. SW. of Dublin; noted
for its butter market.

TIPPOO SAIB, son of HYDER ALI (q. v.), whom he succeeded in
the Sultanate of Mysore in 1782; already a trained and successful warrior
in his father's struggles with the English, he set himself with
implacable enmity to check the advance of British arms; in 1789 invaded
Travancore, and in the subsequent war (1790-1792), after a desperate
resistance, was overcome and deprived of half of his territories, and
compelled to give in hostage his two sons; intrigued later with the
French, and again engaged the English, but was defeated, and his capital,
Seringapatam, captured after a month's siege, himself perishing in the
final attack (1749-1799).

TIPTON (29), an iron-manufacturing town of Staffordshire, 81/2 m. NW.
of Birmingham.

TIRABOSCHI, GIROLAMO, an Italian writer, who for some time filled
the chair of Rhetoric at Milan University, and subsequently became
librarian to the Duke of Modena; is celebrated for his exhaustive survey
of Italian literature in 13 vols., a work of the utmost value

TIRESIAS, in the Greek mythology a soothsayer, who had been struck
blind either by Athena or Hera, but on whom in compensation Zeus had
conferred the gift of prophecy, and length of days beyond the ordinary
term of existence.

TIRNOVA (11), a fortified town of Bulgaria, 35 m. SSE. of Sistova;
is the seat of the Bulgarian patriarch; formerly the State capital.

TIRYNS, an ancient city of Greece, excavated by Schliemann in
1884-1885; situated in the Peloponnesus, in the plain of Argolis, 3 m.
from the head of the Argolic Gulf; legend associates it with the early
life of Hercules; has ruins of a citadel, and of Cyclopean walls
unsurpassed in Greece.

TISCHENDORF, CONSTANTIN VON, biblical scholar, born in Saxony; spent
his life in textual criticism; his great work "Critical Edition of the
New Testament" (1815-1874).

TISIPHONE, one of the three FURIES (q. v.).

TITANIA, the wife of Oberon and the queen of the fairies.

TITANIUM, a rare, very hard metal, always found in combination.

TITANS, in the Greek mythology sons of Uranos and Gaia, beings of
gigantic strength, and of the dynasty prior to that of Zeus, who made war
on Zeus, and hoped to scale heaven by piling mountain on mountain, but
were overpowered by the thunderbolts of Zeus, and consigned to a limbo
below the lowest depths of Tartarus; they represent the primitive powers
of nature, as with seeming reluctance submissive to the world-order
established by Zeus, and symbolise the vain efforts of mere strength to
subvert the ordinance of heaven; they are not to be confounded with the
Giants, nor with their offspring, who had learned wisdom from the failure
of their fathers, and who, Prometheus one of them, represented the idea
that the world was made for man and not man for the world, and that all
the powers of it, from highest to lowest, were there for his behoof.

TITHONUS, in the Greek mythology son of Laomedon, who was wedded to
Eos, who begged Zeus to confer on him immortality but forgot to beg for
youth, so that his decrepitude in old age became a burden to him; he was
changed into a cicada.

TITIAN, VECELLIO, great Italian painter, born at Capo del Cadore,
the prince of colourists and head of the Venetian school; studied at
Venice, and came under the influence of Giorgione; he was a master of his
art from the very first, and his fame led to employment in all directions
over Italy, Germany, and Spain; his works were numerous, and rich in
variety; he was much in request as a portrait-painter, and he painted
most of the great people he knew; he ranks with Michael Angelo and
Raphael as the head of the Italian renaissance; lived to a great age

TITIENS, TERESA, a famous operatic singer, born of Hungarian parents
in Hamburg; made her _debut_ in 1849 at Altona, in the character of
Lucrezia Borgia (1849), and soon took rank as the foremost singer on the
German lyric stage; appeared with triumphant success in London (1858),
and henceforth made her home in England, associated herself with the
management of Mapleson; visited America in 1875; her commanding physique
and powerful acting, together with her splendid voice, made her an ideal
interpreter of such tragic characters as Norma, Fidelio, Margarita,
Ortrud, &c. (1834-1877).

TITMARSH, MICHAEL ANGELO, pseudonym assumed for a series of years by

TITUS, a convert of St. Paul, a Greek by birth, appears to have
accompanied St Paul on his last journey, and to have been with him at his
death; Paul's Epistle to him was to instruct and encourage him during his
ministry in Crete.

TITUS, FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, Roman emperor, born at Rome, the son of
Vespasian, served in Germany and Britain, and under his father in Judaea;
on his father's elevation to the throne persecuted the Jews, laid siege
to Jerusalem, and took the city in A.D. 70; on his accession to the
throne he addressed himself to works of public beneficence, and became
the idol of the citizens; his death was sudden, and his reign lasted only
three years; during that short period he won for himself the title of the
"Delight of Mankind" (40-81).

TITYUS, a giant whose body covered nine acres of land, son of Zeus
and Gaia, who for attempting to force Latona was punished in the nether
world by two vultures continually gnawing at his liver.

TIVERTON (11), an interesting old town of Devonshire, pleasantly
situated between the Exe and Loman, 12 m. N. by E. of Exeter; possesses
public baths, assembly rooms, almshouses, and a 17th-century
grammar-school; noted for its lace manufactures.

TIVOLI (9), a town of Italy, known to the ancients as Tibur,
beautifully situated on the Teverone, 18 m. E. of Rome; was much resorted
to by the wealthy Roman citizens, and is celebrated by Horace; is full of
interesting remains.

TLAXCALA (138), a State of North Mexico, and formerly an Aztec
republic; capital, Tlaxcala (4); has woollen manufactures.

TOBAGO (21), one of the WINDWARD ISLANDS (q. v.), the most
southerly of the group; a British possession since 1763, politically
attached to Trinidad; is hilly, picturesque, and volcanic; exports rum,
molasses, and live-stock.

TOBIT, THE BOOK OF, a book of the Apocrypha giving account of the
life and vicissitudes of a pious Israelitish family in the Assyrian
captivity, that consisted of Tobit, Anna his wife, and Tobias his son;
all three are held up to honour for their strict observance of the Law of
the Lord and their deeds of charity to such as loved it, and notable for
the prominence given in it to the ministry of angels, both good and bad,
among the former Raphael and among the latter Asmodeus, and is the work
of a Jew whose mind was imbued with Oriental imagery.

TOBOLSK (20), a town and government (1,313), of W. Siberia,
picturesquely planted at the confluence of the Irtish and Tobol, 2000 m.
E. of St. Petersburg; has a cathedral, barracks, theatre, prison for
Siberian slaves, &c.

TOBY, UNCLE, the hero of Sterne's "Tristram Shandy," a retired
captain, distinguished for his kindness, gallantry, and simplicity.

TOCANTINS, one of the great rivers of Brazil, rises in the State of
Goyaz; flows northwards, and after a course of 1500 m. enters the estuary
of the Para, one of the mouths of the Amazon, 138 m. from the Atlantic;
receives the Araguay from the S., an affluent 1600 m. long.

TOCQUEVILLE, ALEXIS CLEREL DE, French economist, born at Verneuil,
of an old Norman family, bred to the bar, and specially distinguished as
the author of two works in high repute, "La Democratie en Amerique" and
"L'Ancien Regime et la Revolution"; died at Cannes, leaving much of his
work unfinished (1805-1861).

TODHUNTER, ISAAC, mathematician, born at Rye; educated at University
College, London, and at Cambridge, where he graduated senior wrangler and
Smith's prizeman in 1848; elected Fellow and principal mathematical
lecturer of his college (St. John's), and soon became widely known in
educational circles by his various and excellent handbooks and treatises
on mathematical subjects (1820-1884).

TODLEBEN, EDUARD IVANOVITCH, a noted Russian general of German
descent, who, trained in the engineer corps, greatly distinguished
himself by his defensive operations at Sebastopol during its siege by the
French and English in the Crimean War, and subsequently by the reduction
of Plevna, his greatest achievement, which brought to a close the war
with Turkey in 1877; subsequently became commander-in-chief in Bulgaria

TODMORDEN (25), a cotton town prettily situated amid hills on the
border of Lancashire and Yorkshire, on the Calder, 21 m. NE. of
Manchester; coal abounds in the vicinity.

TOGA, an outer garment, usually of white wool like a large blanket,
folded about the person in a variety of ways, but generally with the
right arm free, thrown over the left shoulder, and hanging down the back;
it was at once the badge of manhood and Roman citizenship.

TOGOLAND, a German protectorate on the Slave Coast, in Upper Guinea,
Gold Coast Colony on the W., and Dahomey on the E.; exports palm-oil and

TOKAY (5), a Hungarian town on the Theiss, 130 m. NE. of Pesth;
greatly celebrated for its wines, of which it manufactures 34 different

TOKYO or TOKEI (1,376), formerly called Yeddo, capital of the
Japanese Empire, situated on a bay of the same name on the SE. coast of
Hondo, and partly built on the delta of the river Sumida; is for the most
part flat and intersected by canals and narrow irregular streets, and has
a finely-wooded river-side avenue 5 m. long; on account of frequent
earthquakes most of the houses are of light bamboo structure, which,
however, renders them liable to destructive fires; has a fine castle,
government offices, university, and some 700 schools and colleges; as the
political, commercial, and literary metropolis it possesses an
overshadowing influence over the national life of the empire. Yokohama,
17 m. distant, is the port of entry.

TOLA, a weight in India for gold and silver, equal to 180 grains

TOLAND, JOHN, political and deistical writer, born in Derry, of
Catholic parents; abandoned the Catholic faith; studied at Leyden and
Oxford; his first work, "Christianity not Mysterious," which created a
great stir, and was burned in Ireland by the common hangman; it was
succeeded, along with others, by "Nazarenus," which traced Christianity
to conflicting elements in the early Church; he was a disciple of Locke

TOLEDO (20), a city of Spain, capital of a province (360), and
former capital of the kingdom, occupies a commanding site amid hills, on
the Tagus, 40 m. SW. of Madrid; within and without presents a sombre and
imposing appearance; is the see of the primate of Spain, and possesses a
noble Gothic cathedral, ruins of the Cid's castle, and remains of the
Moorish occupation (712-1085); the manufacture of sword-blades, famous in
Roman times, is still carried on in a government establishment a mile out
of the city.

TOLEDO (131), capital of Lucas County, Ohio, on the Maumee River, 80
m. W. of Lake Erie; is a busy centre of iron manufactures, and does a
large trade in grain, flour, lumber, &c., facilitated by a fine harbour,
canal, and railway systems.

TOLERATION ACT, a statute passed in 1689 to relieve all Dissenters
from certain penalties, except Roman Catholics and Unitarians.

TOLSTOI, COUNT LEO, novelist, social reformer, and religious mystic,
born in Tula, of a noble family; served for a time in the army, soon
retired from it, and travelled; married, and settled on his estate near
Moscow in 1862; his two great works are "War and Peace" (1865-68) and
"Anna Karenina" (1875-78); has written many works since, all more or less
in a religious vein, and in the keenest, deepest sympathy with the
soul-oppression of the world, finding the secret of Christianity to lie
in the precept of Christ, "Resist not evil," and exemplifying that as the
principle of his own life; _b_. 1828.

TOMMY ATKINS, the British soldier, as Jack Tar is the British
sailor, from a hypothetical name inserted in a War Office schedule at one
time issued to each soldier.

TOMSK (37), a town and government (1,300) of W. Siberia, on the
Tom, 55 m. from its confluence with the Obi; has a university, and is an
important depot on the trade-route to China.

TONE, THEOBALD WOLFE, Irish patriot, born in Dublin; called to the
bar in 1789; found a congenial sphere for his restless, reckless nature
in the disturbed politics of his time, and was active in founding the
"United Irishmen," whose intrigues with France got him into trouble, and
forced him to seek refuge in America, and subsequently France, where he
schemed for a French invasion of Ireland; eventually was captured by the
English while on his way with a small French squadron against Ireland;
was condemned at Dublin, but escaped a death on the gallows by committing
suicide in prison (1763-1798).

TONGA ISLANDS or FRIENDLY ISLANDS (19), an archipelago in the
S. Pacific, 250 m. SE. of Fiji; Tonga-tabu is the largest; volcanic and
fruit-bearing; missionary enterprise (Wesleyan Methodist) has done much
to improve the mental, moral, and material condition of the natives, who
belong to the fair Polynesian stock, and are a superior race to the other
natives of Polynesia, but are diminishing in numbers. See FRIENDLY

TONGALAND (100), a native State on the E. coast of South Africa,
stretching N. of Zululand.

TONGKING, TONQUIN, or TONKIN (9,000), a fertile northern
province of ANNAM (q. v.), ceded to France in 1884; is richly
productive of rice, cotton, sugar, spices, &c., but has an unhealthy

TONGRES (9), an episcopal city of Belgium, 12 m. NW. of Liege; its
church of Notre Dame dates from 1240.

TONNAGE AND POUNDAGE, the name given to certain duties first levied
in Edward II.'s reign on every _tun_ of imported wine, and on every
_pound_ weight of merchandise exported or imported; Charles I.'s attempt
to levy these without parliamentary sanction was one of the complaints of
his Long Parliament; were swept away by the Customs Consolidation Act of

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE, baptismal name JOHN HORNE, born, the son of
a well-to-do poulterer, in London; graduated at Cambridge, and to please
his father took holy orders in 1760, but after some years, during which
he had tutored abroad, zealously assisted Wilkes in his election to
Parliament, and successfully encountered "Junius"; he abandoned the
Church and studied for the bar, to which, on account of his holy orders,
he was refused a call; became an active political free-lance, and
acquired great popularity as a strenuous advocate of parliamentary
reform; entered Parliament in 1801, but in the following year was
excluded by an Act making it illegal for any one in priest's orders to be
returned; inherited the fortune and assumed the name of his friend
William Tooke of Purley; is best known as the author of the "Diversions
of Purley," "a witty medley of etymology, grammar, metaphysics, and
politics" (1736-1812).

TOOLE, JOHN LAWRENCE, a celebrated comedian, born in London, where
he was educated at the City School, and afterwards put to business, but
soon took to the stage, serving his apprenticeship and gaining a
considerable reputation in the provinces before making his appearance at
St. James's Theatre in London in 1854; became the leading low-comedian of
his day, and in 1880 took over the management of the Folly Theatre, which
he re-named Toole's Theatre; has unrivalled powers of blending pathos
with burlesque, and in such characters as Paul Pry, Caleb Plummer,
Chawles, &c., is a special favourite all over the English-speaking world;
_b_. 1832.


TOPE, the popular name in Buddhist countries for a species of
cupola-shaped tumulus surmounted by a finial, in shape like an open
parasol, the emblem of Hindu royalty; these parasol finials were often
placed one upon the top of the other until a great height was reached;
one in Ceylon attains a height of 249 ft., with a diameter of 360 ft.;
were used to preserve relics or to commemorate some event.

TOPEKA (34), capital of Kansas, on the Kansas River, 67 m. W. of
Kansas City; is a spacious, well laid out town, the seat of an Episcopal
bishop, well supplied with schools and colleges, and busy with the
manufacture of flour, heavy iron goods, &c.

TOePFFER, RUDOLF, caricaturist and novelist of Geneva, where he
founded a boarding-school, and became professor of Rhetoric in the Geneva
Academy; author of some charming novels, "Nouvelles Genevoises," "La
Bibliotheque de mon Oncle," &c. (1799-1846).

TOPLADY, AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE, hymn-writer, born at Farnham, Surrey;
became vicar of Broad Hembury, Devonshire, in 1768; was an uncompromising
Calvinist, and opponent of the Methodists; survives as the author of
"Rock of Ages," besides which he wrote "Poems on Sacred Subjects," and
compiled "Psalms and Hymns," of which a few are his own (1740-1778).

TORGAU (11), a fortified town of Prussia, on the Elbe, 70 m. SW. of
Berlin; has a church consecrated by Luther, and in the town-church the
wife of the great reformer lies buried; scene of a victory of Frederick
the Great over the Austrians in November 1760.

TORONTO (181), the second city of Canada, and metropolis of the W.
and NW. regions, capital of Ontario; situated on a small bay on the NW.
coast of Lake Ontario, 315 m. SW. of Montreal; is a spacious and
handsomely built city, with fine churches, a splendidly equipped
university, Parliament buildings, law courts, theological colleges,
schools of medicine and music, libraries, &c.; does a large shipping and
railway trade in lumber, fruit, grain, coal, &c.

TORQUAY (26), a popular watering-place of South Devon, on Tor Bay,
23 m. S. of Exeter; with a fine climate and beautiful surroundings, has
since the beginning of the century grown from a little fishing village to
be "the Queen of English watering-places"; a great yachting centre, &c.

TORQUEMADA, THOMAS DE, a prior of a Dominican monastery who became
in 1483, during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, head of the
Inquisition, a "holy office" he administered with merciless cruelty

TORRES STRAIT separates Australia from New Guinea, 80 m. broad, and
from its numerous islands, shoals, and reefs is exceedingly difficult to

TORRES-VEDRAS (5), a town of Portugal, 26 m. N. of Lisbon;
celebrated for the great lines of defence Wellington constructed in 1810,
and behind which he successfully withstood the siege of the French under
Massena, thus saving Lisbon, and preparing the way for his subsequent
expulsion of the French from the Peninsula.

TORRICELLI, EVANGELISTA, a celebrated Italian physicist; devoted
himself to science, and attracted the attention of Galileo, whom he
subsequently succeeded as professor at the Florentine Academy; discovered
the scientific principle of the barometer, which is sometimes called the
Torricellian tube, and made notable advances in mathematical and physical
science (1608-1647).

TORRINGTON (3), a market-town of North Devon, built on an eminence
overlooking the Torridge, 10 m. SW. of Barnstaple; manufactures gloves;
was the scene of a Parliamentary victory in 1646, during the great

TORTURE, JUDICIAL, torture to extort a confession, practised in
England till 1588, and in Scotland by thumbscrews and the boot till 1690.

TORY, the old name for a Conservative in politics, generally of very
decided type; originally denoted an Irish robber of the English in

TOTEMISM, division of a race into tribes, each of which has its own
Totem, or animal, as the symbol of it and the name, and as such treated
with superstitious veneration, as involving religious obligation.

TOTNES (4), a quaint old market-town of Devonshire, overlooking the
Dart, 29 m. SW. of Plymouth; has interesting Norman and other remains; a
centre of agricultural industry.

TOUL (12), a strongly-fortified town of France, on the Moselle, 20
m. W. of Nancy; has a noble Gothic cathedral and lace and hat
manufactures; was captured by the Germans in 1870.

TOULON (74), chief naval station of France, on the Mediterranean,
situated 42 m. SE. of Marseilles; lies at the foot of the Pharon Hills,
the heights of which are strongly fortified; has a splendid 11th-century
cathedral, and theatre, forts, citadel, 240 acres of dockyard, arsenal,
cannon foundry, &c.; here in 1793 Napoleon Bonaparte, then an artillery
officer, first distinguished himself in a successful attack upon the
English and Spaniards.

TOULOUSE (136), a historic and important city of South France,
capital of Haute-Garonne, pleasantly situated on a plain and touching on
one side the Garonne (here spanned by a fine bridge) and on the other the
Canal du Midi, 160 m. SE. of Bordeaux; notable buildings are the
cathedral and Palais de Justice; is the seat of an archbishop, schools of
medicine, law, and artillery, various academies, and a Roman Catholic
university; manufactures woollens, silks, &c.; in 1814 was the scene of a
victory of Wellington over Soult and the French. Under the name of Tolosa
it figures in Roman and mediaeval times as a centre of learning and
literature, and was for a time capital of the kingdom of the Visigoths.

TOURCOING (65), a thriving textile manufacturing town of France, 9
m. NE. of Lille.

TOURNAMENTS, real or mock fights by knights on horseback in proof of
skill in the use of arms and in contests of honour.

TOURNAY (35), a town of Hainault, Belgium, on the Scheldt, 35 m. SW.
of Brussels; in the 5th century was the seat of the Merovingian kings,
but now presents a handsome modern appearance; has a fine Romanesque
cathedral and flourishing manufactures of hosiery, linen, carpets, and

TOURNEUR, CYRIL, a later Elizabethan dramatist, who seems to have
led an adventurous life, and whose "Atheist's Tragedy" and "Revenger's
Tragedy" reach a high level of dramatic power, and have been greatly
praised by Swinburne; wrote also the "Transformed Metamorphosis" and
other poems; lived into James I.'s reign; almost nothing is known of his

TOURS (60), a historic old town of France, on the Loire, 145 m. SW.
of Paris; presents a spacious and handsome appearance, and contains a
noble Gothic cathedral, archbishop's palace, Palais de Justice, besides
ancient chateaux and interesting ruins; is a centre of silk and woollen
manufactures, and does a large printing trade; suffered greatly by the
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and during the Franco-German War;
became the seat of government after the investment of Paris and until its
capitulation to the Germans.

born at Tourville, La Manche; entered the navy in 1660, established his
reputation in the war with the Turks and Algerines, and in 1677 won a
victory over the Dutch and Spanish fleets; supported James II. in 1690,
and in the same year, as commander of the French Channel fleet, inflicted
a crushing defeat on the Dutch and English; but off Cape La Hogue in
1692, after a five days' engagement, had his fleet all but annihilated, a
memorable victory which freed England from the danger of invasion by
Louis XIV.; was created a marshal in 1693, and a year later closed his
great career of service by scattering an English mercantile fleet and
putting to flight the convoy squadron under Sir George Rooke (1642-1701).

TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE, a negro hero of Hayti, born, the son of an
African slave at Breda; took part in the native insurrection of 1791, and
in 1797 became a general of brigade in the service of the French, and by
gallant soldiership cleared the English and Spanish out of Hayti; became
president for life of the republic of Hayti, and began to work for the
complete independence of the island; in 1801, when Napoleon endeavoured
to re-introduce slavery, he revolted, but was subdued by a strong French
force and taken to France, where he died in prison; is the subject of a
well-known sonnet by Wordsworth (1743-1803).

TOWER HAMLETS, a parliamentary division of London E. of the city,
originally a group of hamlets at one time within the jurisdiction of the
Lieutenant of the Tower.

TOWERS OF SILENCE, towers in Persia and India, some 60 ft. in
height, on the top of which the Parsees deposit their dead to be gnawed
by vultures.

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, VISCOUNT, statesman, born at Raynham, Norfolk;
succeeded to the title on his father's death, and after taking his seat
in the Upper House turned Whig, and soon became prominent in the party;
was one of the commissioners who arranged the Scottish Union; accompanied
Marlborough as joint-plenipotentiary to the Gertruydenburg Conference
(1709); got into political trouble for signing the Barrier Treaty while
acting as ambassador to the States-General; under George I. rose to high
favour, became acknowledged leader of the Whigs, passed the Septennial
Act, but after 1721 was eclipsed in the party by the greater abilities of
Walpole, and after unpleasant rivalries was forced to withdraw from the
ministry (1730); gave himself then to agricultural pursuits (1674-1738).

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, statesman and orator, grandson of preceding;
entered Parliament in 1747 as a Whig, and after his great speech against
the Marriage Bill of 1753 ranked among the foremost orators of his day;
held important offices of State under various ministers, Bute, Chatham,
and Rockingham, and as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767 was
responsible for the imposition of the paper, tea, and other duties on the
American colonies which provoked the War of Independence and led to the
loss of the colonies; a man of brilliant gifts and noted wit, but led by
what Burke termed "an immoderate love of fame" to play "the weathercock"
in politics; died when on the point of attaining the premiership

TOWTON, a village of Yorkshire, 3 m. SE. of Tadcaster, where in
1461 Edward IV. at the head of the Yorkists completely routed the
Lancastrians under the Duke of Somerset.

TOYNBEE HALL, an institution in Whitechapel, London, founded in 1885
for the social welfare of the poor in the district, established in memory
of Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883), who had come under Ruskin's influence and
took a deep interest in the working-classes, his zeal for whose benefit
shortened his days.

TRACTARIANISM, the tenets of the High Church party in the English
Church advocated in "Tracts for the Times," published at Oxford between
1833 and 1841, the chief doctrine of which was that the Church, through
its sacraments in the hands of a regularly-ordained clergy, is the only
divinely-appointed channel of the grace of Christ.

TRADE, BOARD OF, a Government office which, as now constituted,
dates from 1786, but whose functions within recent times have been
considerably widened; consists of a president (a Cabinet minister), and
_ex officio_ the Lord Chancellor, Archbishop of Canterbury, First Lord of
the Treasury, the principal Secretaries of State, Chancellor of the
Exchequer, the Speaker, and others, but the actual work of the Board is
left in the hands of the president and his secretarial staff; comprises
five departments: (1) statistical and commercial; (2) railway; (3)
marine; (4) harbour; (5) financial.

TRAFALGAR, CAPE, on the S. coast of Spain, at the NW. entrance of
the Strait of Gibraltar; scene of naval engagements in which Nelson lost
his life after inflicting (October 21, 1805) a crushing defeat on the
combined fleets of France and Spain.

TRAJAN, MARCUS ULPIUS, Roman emperor, born in Spain; his great deeds
in arms won him a consulship in 91, and in 97 Nerva invited him to be his
colleague and successor; a year later he became sole emperor, ruled the
empire with wisdom and vigour, set right the finances, upheld an
impartial justice, and set on foot various schemes of improvement;
suppressed the Christians as politically dangerous, but with no fanatic
extravagance; remained above all a warrior and true leader of the
legions, and crowned his military fame by his successful conquest of
Dacia, in commemoration of which he is said to have erected the famous
Trajan Column, which still stands in Rome (56-117).

TRAJAN'S COLUMN, a column erected by Trajan in the Forum at Rome in
memory of his victory over the Dacians, and sculptured with the story of
his exploits, is 125 ft. in height, and ascended by 185 steps; was
surmounted by a statue of Trajan, for which Pope Sextus V. substituted
one of St. Peter.

TRANSCAUCASIA, an extensive tract of Russian territory stretching E.
and W. between the Caucasus (N.) and Turkey in Asia and Persia (S.). See

TRANSCENDENTALISM, name now principally employed to denote the great
doctrine of Kant and his school, that there are principles of _a priori_
derivation, that is, antecedent to experience, that are regulative and
constitutive of not only our thoughts but our very perceptions, and the
operation of which is antecedent to and sovereign over all our mental
processes; which principles are denominated the categories of thought;
the name is also employed to characterise every system which grounds
itself on a belief in a supernatural of which the natural is but the
embodiment and manifestation. See NATURAL SUPERNATURALISM.

TRANSMIGRATION, the doctrine prevalent in the East, that the soul is
immortal, and that when it leaves the body at death it passes into
another, a transition which in certain systems goes under the name of

TRANSUBSTANTIATION, the doctrine of Roman Catholics as defined by
the Council of Trent, that the bread and wine of the Eucharist is, after
consecration by a priest, converted mystically into the body and blood of
Christ, and is known as the docrine of the Real Presence.

TRANSVAAL, formerly SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC (1350), a country of
SE. Africa, stretching northwards from the Vaal River, and bounded N. by
Matabeleland, E. by Portuguese E. Africa and Swaziland, S. by Natal and
the Orange River Colony, and W. by Bechuanaland and Bechuanaland
Protectorate; comprises elevated plateaux, but is mountainous in the E.;
about the size of Italy; has a good soil and climate favourable for
agriculture and stock-raising, to which latter the inert Dutch farmer
chiefly devotes himself; its chief wealth, however, lies in its extremely
rich deposits of gold, especially those of the "Rand," of which it
exports now more than any country in the world; its advance since the
gold discoveries has been great, but the trade is almost entirely in the
hands of the British immigrants; JOHANNESBURG (q. v.) is the
largest town, and Pretoria (15) the seat of Government. In 1856 the
region was settled by Dutch farmers, who had "trekked" from Natal
(recently annexed by Britain) to escape British Rule, as in 1835, for a
similar reason, they had come from the Cape to Natal. Fierce encounters
took place with the native Basutos, but in the end the "Boers" made good
their possession. In 1877 the Republic, then in a disorganised and
impoverished condition, and threatened with extinction by the natives,
came under the care of the British, by whom the natives were reduced and
the finances restored. In 1880 a rising of the Boers to regain complete
independence resulted in the Conventions of 1881 and 1884, by which the
independence of the Republic was recognised, but subject to the right of
Britain to control the foreign relations. Within recent years agitations
were carried on by the growing "Uitlander" population to obtain a share
in the government to which they contributed in taxes the greater part of
the revenue, and a succession of attempts were made by the British
Government to get the Boers to concede the franchise to the "Uitlanders"
and remedy other grievances; but the negotiations connected therewith
were suddenly arrested by an ultimatum of date 9th October 1899,
presented to the British Government by the Transvaal, and allowing them
only 48 hours to accept it. It was an ultimatum they were bound to
ignore, and accordingly, the time having expired on the 11th, war was
declared by the Boers. It proved a costly and sanguinary one to both
sides in the conflict; but the resistance of the Boers was ultimately
overcome, and hostilities ceased in May 1902. Previously to this, the
Colony had been annexed by Great Britain (1900). It is at present (1905)
administered by a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and an Executive
Council; but it is proposed that, in the near future, representative
institutions should be granted.

TRANSYLVANIA (2247), eastern division of the Austrian Empire; is a
tableland enclosed NE. and South by the Carpathians, contains wide tracts
of forests, and is one-half under tillage or in pasture; yields large
crops of grain and a variety of fruits, and has mines of gold, silver,
copper, iron, &c., though the manufactures and trade are insignificant;
the population consists of Roumanians, Hungarians, and Germans; it was
united to Hungary in 1868.

TRAPANI (32), an ancient seaport of Sicily, known in Roman times as
DREPANUM, in the NW., 40 m. W. of Palermo; presents now a handsome
modern appearance, and trades in wheat, wine, olives, &c.

TRAPPISTS, an order of Cistercian monks founded in 1140 at La
Trappe, in the French department of Orne, noted for the severity of their
discipline, their worship of silence and devotion to work, meditation,
and prayer, 12 hours out of the 24 of which they pass in the latter
exercise; their motto is "Memento Mori"; their food is chiefly

TRASIMENE LAKE, a historic lake of Italy; lies amid hills between
the towns Cortona and Perugia; shallow and reedy, 10 m. long; associated
with Hannibal's memorable victory over the Romans 217 B.C.

TRAVANCORE (2,557), a native State in South India, under British
protection, between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea; it is
connected with the Madras Presidency; it is traversed by spurs of the
Western Ghats, beyond which, westward, is a plain 10 m. wide, covered
with coco-nut and areca palms; the population mainly Hindus; there are
native Christians and some black Jews; Trivandrum is the capital.

TRAVIATA, an opera representing the progress of a courtezan.

TREBIZOND (50), a city and thriving seaport NE. of Asia Minor, the
outlet of Persia and Armenia, on the Black Sea; is walled, and outside
are various suburbs; manufactures silks.

TRELAWNEY, EDWARD JOHN, friend of Shelley and Byron; entered the
navy as a boy, but deserted and took to adventure; met with Shelley at
Pisa; saw to the cremation of his body when he was drowned, and went with
Byron to Greece; was a brave, but a restless mortal; wrote "Recollections
of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron" (1792-1881).

TRELAWNEY, SIR JONATHAN, one of the seven bishops tried under James
II.; is the hero of the Cornish ballad, "And shall Trelawney die?" _d_.

TRENCH, RICHARD CHEVENIX, archbishop of Dublin, born in Dublin;
educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge; took orders; became
curate to Samuel Wilberforce, and wrote "Notes on the Miracles and
Parables" and "The Study of Words"; was Dean of Westminster before he
became archbishop (1807-1886).

TRENCK, BARON VON, general, first in the service of Austria, then of
Russia; dismissed from both; commanded a regiment of pandours in the
Austrian Succession War in the interest of Maria Theresa; tried to
capture Frederick the Great; was caught, tried, and condemned to prison,
escaped, was captured, and took poison; had a cousin with a similar fate

TRENT, an English river, rises in NW. of Staffordshire, flows NE.,
and unites with the Ouse, 15 m. W. of Hull.

TRENT (21), an Austrian town in S. of Tyrol, in a valley on the
Adige, 60 m. N. of Verona; has an Italian appearance, and Italian is

TRENT, COUNCIL OF, an oecumenical council, the eighteenth, held at
Trent, and whose sittings, with sundry adjournments, extended from 13th
December 1545 until 4th December 1563, the object of which was to define
the position and creed of the Church of Rome in opposition to the
doctrines and claims of the Churches of the Reformation.

TRENTON (73), capital of New Jersey State, on the Delaware River, 57
m. SW. of New York; divided into two portions by Assanpink Creek, and
handsomely laid out in broad, regular streets; public buildings include a
state-house, federal buildings, &c.; is the great emporium in the United
States of crockery and pottery manufactures.

TREPANNING, an operation in surgery whereby portions of the skull
are removed by means of an instrument called a trepan, which consists of
a small cylindrical saw; resorted to in all operations on the brain.

TREVELYAN, SIR GEORGE OTTO, politician and man of letters, born at
Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, son of Sir Charles Trevelyan (a
distinguished servant of the East India Company, governor of Madras,
baronet, and author) and Hannah, sister of Lord Macaulay; educated at
Harrow and Cambridge, and entered Parliament as a Liberal in 1865; has
held successively the offices of parliamentary secretary to the Board of
Admiralty, Chief Secretary for Ireland, Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster with a seat in the Cabinet, and Secretary for Scotland;
resigned his seat in 1897; has written "Life and Letters of Lord
Macaulay," "Early History of Charles James Fox," "The American
Revolution," &c., all of which are characterised by admirable lucidity
and grace of style; _b_. 1838.

TREVES (36), a famous old city of Prussia, beautifully situated on
the Moselle, 69 m. SW. of Coblenz; held to be the oldest city in Germany,
and claiming to be 1300 years older than Rome; is full of most striking
Roman remains, and possesses an interesting 11th-century cathedral,
having among many relics the celebrated seamless "Holy Coat," said to
have been the one worn by Christ; manufactures woollens, cottons, and
linens, and wine.

TRIBUNES, in ancient Rome officers elected by the plebs to preserve
their liberties and protect them from the tyranny of the aristocratic
party, their institution dating from 493 B.C., on the occasion of a
civil tumult.

TRICHINOPOLI (91), capital of a district of same name in Madras
Presidency, on the Kaveri, 56 m. inland; is a fortified town, with an
imposing citadel, barracks, hospital, &c.; noted for its cheroots and
jewellery; seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric and college.

TRICOLOUR, a flag adopted by the French Revolutionists in 1789, and
consisting of three vertical stripes, blue, white, and red, the blue next
the staff.

TRIDENT, originally a three-pronged fork used by fishermen, and at
length the symbol, in the hands of Poseidon and Britannia, of sovereignty
over the sea.

TRIESTE (158), an ancient town and still the first seaport of
Austro-Hungary; at the head of the NE. arm of the Adriatic, 214 m. SW. of
Vienna; an imperial free city since 1849; consists of an old and a new
town on the level fronting the sea; has a fine harbour and extensive
manufactures, embracing shipbuilding, rope-making, &c.

TRIM, CORPORAL, Uncle Toby's attendant in "Tristram Shandy."

TRIMURTI, the Hindu trinity, embracing BRAHMA THE CREATOR, VISHNU THE
PRESERVER, and SIVA (q. v.) the Destroyer; represented sometimes as a
body with three heads, that of Brahma in the centre, of Vishnu on the
right, and of Siva on the left.

TRINCOMALEE (10), an important naval station and seaport on the NE.
coast of Ceylon, 110 m. NE. of Kandy; possesses barracks, official
residences, and a splendid harbour, a haven of shelter to shipping during
the monsoons, and is strongly fortified.

TRINIDAD (208), the largest of the Windward Islands, and most
southerly of the ANTILLES (q. v.), lies off the mouth of the
Orinoco, 7 m. from the coast of Venezuela; is of great fertility, with a
hot, humid, but not unhealthy climate; sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cocoa
are the chief exports; a source of great wealth is a wonderful pitch lake
which, despite the immense quantities annually taken from it, shows no
perceptible diminution; inhabitants are mainly French; taken by the
British in 1797, and forms, with Tobago, a crown colony; capital, Port of

TRINITARIANS, name applied to those who believe in an ontological as
well as those who believe in a theological trinity, that is to say, who
recognise the like principle pervading the universe of being.

TRINITY, the doctrine, variously interpreted, that in the godhead or
divine nature there are three persons, respectively denominated Father,
Son, and Spirit--Father, from whom; Son, to whom; and Spirit, through
whom are all things; is essentially triunity in unity.

TRIPITAKA, (the three baskets), name given to the collection of the
sacred books of Buddhism, as being formed of three minor collections,
bearing the Sutras on discipline, the Vinaya on doctrine, and the
Abidharma on metaphysics.

TRIPOD, seat with three legs on which the priestess of Apollo sat
when delivering her oracles.

TRIPOLI (17), a seaport of Syria, 40 m. NE. of Beyrout; a place of
great antiquity, and successively in the hands of the Phoenicians,
Crusaders, and Mamelukes; it has many interesting Saracenic and other
remains; its trade is passing over to Beyrout.

TRIPOLI (1,000), a province (since 1835) of Turkey, in North Africa,
most easterly of the Barbary States; stretches northwards from the Libyan
Desert, lies between Tunis (W.) and Fezzan (E.), with which latter, as
also with Barca, it is politically united; carries on a brisk caravan
trade with Central Africa; capital, Tripoli (20), situated on a spit of
rocky land jutting into the Mediterranean; surrounded by high walls, and
Moorish in appearance.

TRIPTOLEMUS, in the Greek mythology the favourite of DEMETER
(q. v.), the inventor of the plough, and of the civilisation therewith
connected; played a prominent part in the Eleusinian Mysteries; was
favoured by Demeter for the hospitality he showed her when she was in
quest of her daughter.

TRISMEGISTUS (thrice greatest), the Egyptian Hermes, regarded as the
fountain of mysticism and magic.

TRISTAN DA CUNHA, the largest of three small islands lying out in
the South Atlantic, about 1300 m. SW. of St. Helena; 20 m. in
circumference; taken possession of by the British in 1817, and utilised
as a military and naval station during Napoleon's captivity on St.
Helena; now occupied by a handful of people, who lead a simple,
communistic life.

TRISTRAM, SIR, one of the heroes of mediaeval romance, whose
adventures form an episode in the history of the Round Table.

TRITON, in the Greek mythology a sea deity, son of Poseidon and
Amphitrite; upper part of a man with a dolphin's tail; often represented
as blowing a large spiral shell; there were several of them, and were
heralds of Poseidon.

THE DHARMA, and the SANGHA (q. v.).

TROCHU, LOUIS JULES, a distinguished French general, who came to the
front during the Crimean end Italian campaigns, but fell into disfavour
for exposing in a pamphlet (1867) the rotten state of the French army;
three years later, on the outbreak of the Franco-German War, was
appointed Governor of Paris, and, after the proclamation of the Republic,
general of the defence of the city till its capitulation, after which he
retired into private life (1815-1896).

TROLLOPE, ANTHONY, English novelist; belonged to a literary family;
his mother distinguished as a novelist no less; educated at Winchester
and Harrow; held a high position in the Post Office; his novels were
numerous; depict the provincial life of England at the time; the chief
being "Barchester Towers," "Framley Parsonage," and "Dr. Thorne"; wrote a
"Life of Cicero," and a biography of Thackeray; he was an enthusiastic
fox-hunter (1815-1882).

TROMP, CORNELIUS, Dutch admiral, son of succeeding, born at
Rotterdam; fought many battles with the English and proved himself a
worthy son of a heroic father; was created a baron by Charles II. of
England (1675); aided the Danes against Sweden, and subsequently
succeeded Ruyter as lieutenant admiral-general of the United Provinces

TROMP, MARTIN HARPERTZOON, famous Dutch admiral, born at Briel;
trained to the sea from his boyhood, in 1637 was created
lieutenant-admiral, and in two years' time had twice scattered Spanish
fleets; defeated by Blake in 1652, but six months later beat back the
English fleet in the Strait of Dover, after which he is said to have
sailed down the Channel with a broom to his masthead as a sign he had
swept his enemies from the seas; in 1653 Blake renewed the attack and
inflicted defeat on him after a three days' struggle; in June and July
Tromp was again defeated by the English, and in the last engagement off
the coast of Holland was shot dead (1597-1653).

TROMSOe, a town (6) and island (65) of Norway, in the NW.

TRONDHJEM (29), an important town, the ancient capital of Norway, on
Trondhjem Fjord, 250 m. N. of Christiania; is well laid out with broad
level streets, most of the houses are of wood; possesses a fine
13th-century cathedral, where the kings of Norway are crowned; carries on
a flourishing trade in copper ore, herrings, oil, &c.; is strongly

TROPHONIUS, in Greek legend, along with his brother Agamedes, the
architect of the temple of Apollo at Delphi; had a famous oracle in a
cave in Boeotia, which could only be entered at night.

TROPICS, two parallels of latitude on either side of the equator,
which mark the limits N. and S. of the sun's verticality to the earth's
surface, the distance being in each case 231/2 deg.; the northern tropic is
called the Tropic of Cancer, and the southern the Tropic of Capricorn.

TROPPAU (21), capital of Austrian Silesia, 184 m. E. of Vienna;
contains a castle, gymnasium, and an extensive library; manufactures
linen and woollen textiles, beetroot sugar, &c.

TROSSACHS, a romantic pass in the Perthshire Highlands, 8 m. W. of
Callander, stretching for about a mile between Lochs Katrine and Achray,
is charmingly wooded; is celebrated by Sir Walter Scott in his "Lady of
the Lake."

TROUBADOURS, a class of poets who flourished in Provence, Eastern
Spain, and Northern Italy from the 11th to the 13th century, whose songs
in the Langue d'Oc were devoted to subjects lyrical and amatory, and who
not infrequently were men of noble birth and bore arms as knights, and as
such were distinguished from the Jongleurs, who were mere strolling

TROUVERES, a class of ancient poets in Northern France, who like the
Troubadours of Southern France were of court standing, but whose poems,
unlike those of the Troubadours, were narrative or epic.

TROWBRIDGE (12), a market-town of Wiltshire, 25 m. NW. of Salisbury;
has a fine 15th-century Perpendicular church, in which the poet Crabbe is
buried; has woollen and fine cloth manufactures.

TROY, a city of Troas, a territory NW. of Mysia, Asia Minor,
celebrated as the scene of the world-famous legend immortalised by the
"Iliad" of Homer in his account of the war caused by the rape of Helen,
and which ended with the destruction of the city at the hands of the
avenging Greeks.

TROY (61), capital of Rensselaer County, New York, on the Hudson
River, 5 m. above Albany; possesses handsome public buildings, and is a
busy centre of textile, heavy iron goods, and other manufactures; has
daily steamship service with New York.

TROYES (50), a quaint old town of France, capital of the department
of Aube, on the Seine, 100 m. SE. of Paris; possesses a fine Flamboyant
Gothic cathedral, founded in 872, several handsome old churches, a large
public library; has flourishing manufactures of textile fabrics, and
trades in agricultural produce; here in 1420 was signed the Treaty of
Troyes, making good the claims of Henry V. of England to the French

TRUCK-SYSTEM, the paying of workmen's wages in goods in place of
money; found useful where works are far distant from towns, but liable to
the serious abuse from inferior goods being supplied; Acts of Parliament
have been passed to abolish the system, but evasions of the law are not

TRUMBULL, JONATHAN, an American patriot, judge and governor of
Connecticut, who supported the movement for independence with great zeal;
was much esteemed and consulted by Washington, whose frequent phrase,
"Let us hear what Brother Jonathan says," gave rise to the appellation
"Brother Jonathan" (1710-1785).

TRUNNION, COMMODORE HAWSER, an eccentric retired naval officer in
Smollett's "Peregrine Pickle," affects the naval commander in his

TRURO (11), an episcopal city and seaport of Cornwall; exports
largely tin and copper from surrounding mines; its bishopric was revived
in 1876, and a handsome Early English cathedral is nearing completion;
has also infirmary, old grammar-school, libraries, &c.

TUAM (4), a town of Galway, Ireland, 129 m. NW. of Dublin; is the
seat of an Anglican bishop and of a Catholic archbishop.

TUeBINGEN (13), a celebrated university town of Wuertemberg, 18 m. SW.
of Stuttgart; is quaint and crowded in the old town, but spreads out into
spacious and handsome suburbs, where is situated the new university.
Under Melanchthon and Reuchlin the old university became a distinguished
seat of learning, and later, during the professorship of BAUR (q. v.),
acquired celebrity as a school of advanced biblical criticism,
which gave great stimulus to a more rationalistic interpretation of the
Scripture narratives; has now an excellent medical school; also book
printing and selling, and other industries are actively carried on.

TUCKER, ABRAHAM, author of "The Light of Nature Pursued"; educated
at Oxford and the Inner Temple, but possessed of private means betook
himself to a quiet country life near Dorking and engaged in philosophical
studies, the fruit of which he embodied in seven volumes of miscellaneous
theological and metaphysical writing (1705-1774).

TUCUMAN, a north-central province (210) and town (26) of the
Argentine Republic, the latter on the Rio Sil, 723 m. NW. of Buenos

TUDELA (9), ecclesiastical city of Spain, on the Ebro, 46 m. NW. of

TUDOR, the family name of the royal house that occupied the English
throne from 1485 (accession of Henry VII.) to 1603 (death of Queen
Elizabeth), founded by Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, who became Clerk of
the Household, and subsequently the husband of Catherine of Valois, widow
of Henry V.; their son, Edmund, Earl of Richmond, married Margaret
Beaufort, a direct descendant of Edward III., and became the father of
Henry VII.

TULA (64), capital of a government (1,409) of the same name in
Central Russia, 107 m. S. of Moscow, the residence of a military and of a
civil governor, the seat of a bishop, and a busy centre of firearms,
cutlery, and other manufactures.

TULCHAN BISHOPS, bishops appointed in Scotland by James VI. to draw
the Church revenues for his behoof in part, a tulchan being "a calf-skin
stuffed into the rude similitude of a calf" to induce the cow to give her
milk freely; "so of the bishops, which the Scotch lairds were glad to
construct and make the milk come without disturbance."

TULLE (15), a town of France, capital of the dep. of Correze, 115 m.
NE. of Bordeaux; possesses a cathedral, episcopal palace, &c.; chief
manufacture firearms; the fine silk fabric which takes its name from it
is no longer manufactured here.

TUNBRIDGE (10), a market-town of Kent, 11 m. SW. of Maidstone, with
a fine old castle, a notable grammar-school, and manufactures of fancy

TUNBRIDGE WELLS (28), a popular watering-place on the border of Kent
and Sussex, 34 m. SE. of London; with chalybeate waters noted for upwards
of 250 years.

TUNIS (1,500), a country of North Africa, slightly larger than
Portugal; since 1882 a protectorate of France; forms an eastern
continuation of Algeria, fronting the Mediterranean to the N. and E., and
stretching S. to the Sahara and Tripoli; is inhabited chiefly by Bedouin
Arabs; presents a hilly, and in parts even mountainous, aspect; its
fertile soil favours the culture of fruits, olives, wheat, and esparto,
all of which are in gradually increasing amounts exported; fine marble
has been recently found, and promises well. The capital is Tunis (134),
situated at the SW. end of the Lake of Tunis, a few miles SE. of the
ruined city of CARTHAGE (q. v.); is for the most part a crowded
unwholesome place, but contains well-supplied bazaars, finely decorated
mosques, the bey's palace, a citadel, and is showing signs of improvement
under French management.

TUNSTALL (16), a market-town of Staffordshire, 41/2 m. NE. of
Newcastle-under-Lyme, is a coal-centre, with manufactures of earthenware
and iron.

TUPPER, MARTIN, author of "Proverbial Philosophy," born in
Marylebone; bred to the bar; wrote some 40 works, but the "Philosophy"
(1838), though dead now, had a quite phenomenal success, having sold in
thousands and hundreds of thousands, as well as being translated into
various foreign languages (1810-1889).

TURENNE, VICOMTE DE, a famous marshal of France, born at Sedan of
noble parentage; was trained in the art of war under his uncles Maurice
and Henry of Nassau in Holland, and entered the French service in 1630
under the patronage of Richelieu; gained great renown during the Thirty
Years' War; during the wars of the FRONDE (q. v.) first sided
with the "Frondeurs," but subsequently joined Mazarin and the court
party; crushed his former chief Conde; invaded successfully the Spanish
Netherlands, and so brought the revolt to an end; was created
Marshal-General of France in 1660; subsequently conducted to a triumphant
issue wars within Spain (1667), Holland (1672), and during 1674 conquered
and devastated the Palatinate, but during strategical operations
conducted against the Austrian general Montecuculi was killed by a
cannon-ball (1611-1675).

TURGOT, ANNE ROBERT JACQUES, French statesman, born at Paris, of
Norman descent; early embraced the doctrines of the _philosophe_ party,
and held for 13 years the post of intendant of Limoges, the affairs of
which he administered with ability, and was in 1774 called by Louis XVI.
to the management of the national finances, which he proceeded to do on
economical principles, but in all his efforts was thwarted by the
privileged classes, and in some 20 months was compelled to resign and
leave the matter to the fates, he himself retiring into private life

TURIN (230), a celebrated city of North Italy, a former capital of
Piedmont, 80 m. NW. of Genoa; although one of the oldest of Italian
cities it presents quite a modern appearance, with handsome streets,
statues, squares, gardens, a Renaissance cathedral, palaces, university
(over 2000 students), large library, colleges and museums, &c.;
manufactures are chiefly of textiles; has an interesting history from the
time of its first mention in Hannibal's day.

TURKESTAN, a wide region in Central Asia, divided by the Pamir plateau
into sections: (1) WESTERN TURKESTAN, which embraces Russian Turkestan
(3,342), the KHANATES OF KHIVA (q. v.) and BOKHARA (q. v.), and Afghan
Turkestan. (2) EASTERN TURKESTAN (600), formerly called Chinese Tartary;
unproductive in many parts, and but sparsely populated; produces some
gold, and a considerable quantity of silk, besides linens and cottons.

TURKEY or THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, a great Mohammedan State embracing wide
areas in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, besides the province of Tripoli
in North Africa, and the tributary States Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina (under Austria), Cyprus (under Britain), Samos and
Egypt (practically controlled by Britain). EUROPEAN TURKEY (4,786), which
during the last 200 years has been gradually losing territory, now
comprises a narrow strip of land between the Adriatic (W.) and the Black
Sea (E.), about twice the size of England; is traversed by the Dinaric
Alps and Pindus Mountains, which strike southwards into Greece, while
offshoots from the BALKANS (q. v.) diversify the E.; climate is very
variable, and is marked by high winds and extremes of cold and heat; the
soil is remarkably fertile and well adapted for the cultivation of
cereals, but agricultural enterprise is hampered by excessive taxation;
there is abundance of the useful metals; is the only non-Christian State
in Europe. ASIATIC TURKEY (16,000) is bounded N. by the Black Sea, S. by
the Arabian Desert and the Mediterranean, E. by Persia and Transcaucasia,
and W. by the Archipelago; has an area more than ten times that of Turkey
in Europe, is still more mountainous, being traversed by the Taurus,
Anti-Taurus, and the Lebanon ranges; is ill watered, and even the valleys
of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Jordan are subject to great drought in the
summer; embraces ASIA MINOR (q. v.), SYRIA (q. v.), PALESTINE (q. v.),
and the coast strips of Arabia along the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf;
chief exports are fruits, silk, cotton, wool, opium, &c. The population
of the Ottoman Empire is of a most heterogeneous character, embracing
Turks, Greeks, Slavs, Albanians, Armenians, Syrians, Arabs, Tartars, &c.
The government is a pure despotism, and the Sultan is regarded as the
Caliph or head of Islam; military service is compulsory, and the army on
a war footing numbers not less than 750,000, but the navy is small; since
1847 there has been considerable improvement in education; the finances
have long been mismanaged, and an annual deficit of two millions sterling
is now a usual feature of the national budget; the foreign debt is
upwards of 160 millions. From the 17th century onwards the once wide
empire of the Turks has been gradually dwindling away. The Turks are
essentially a warlike race, and commerce and art have not flourished with
them. Their literature is generally lacking in virility, and is mostly
imitative and devoid of national character.

TURNER, CHARLES TENNYSON, an elder brother of Alfred Tennyson; a man
of fine nature and delicate susceptibility as a poet, whose friendship
and "heart union" with his greater brother is revealed in "Poems by Two
Brothers" (1808-1879).

TURNER, JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM, great English landscape painter,
born probably in London, the son of a hairdresser; had little education,
and grew up illiterate, as he remained all his days; took to art from his
earliest boyhood; soon became acquainted with the artist class, and came
under the notice of Sir Joshua Reynolds; began to exhibit at 15; was
elected Associate of the Royal Academy at 24, and made an Academician at
28; he took interest in nothing but art, and led the life of a recluse;
was never married, and was wedded solely to his work; travelled much in
England and on the Continent, sketching all day long; produced in
water-colour and oil scene after scene, and object after object, as they
impressed him, and represented them as _he_ saw them; being a man of
moderate desires he lived economically, and he died rich, leaving his
means to found an asylum for distressed artists; of his works there is no
space to take note here; yet these are all we know of the man, and they
stamp him as a son of genius, who saw visions and dreamed dreams; he
early fascinated the young Ruskin; Ruskin's literary career began with
the publication of volume after volume in his praise, and in his
enthusiasm he characterised him as the "greatest painter of all time"
(1775-1851). See PERUGINO.

TURNER, SHARON, historian, born in London, where he led a busy life
as an attorney; devoted his leisure to historical studies, the first of
which were "History of Anglo-Saxons" and "History of England from the
Norman Conquest to the Death of Elizabeth," essays, &c. (1768-1847).

TURPIN, DICK, a felon executed at York for horse-stealing;
celebrated for his ride to York in Ainsworth's "Rookwood."

TUSCANY (2,274), a department of Italy, formerly a grand-duchy, lies
S. and W. of the Apennines, fronting the Tyrrhenian Sea on the W.;
mountainous in the N. and E., but otherwise consisting of fertile dale
and plain, in which the vine, olive, and fruits abound; silk is an
important manufacture, and the marble quarries of Siena are noted; formed
a portion of ancient ETRURIA (q. v.); was annexed to Sardinia
in 1859, and in 1861 was incorporated in the kingdom of Italy. Capital,

TUSCULUM, a ruined Roman city, 15 m. SE. of Rome; at one time a
favourite country resort of wealthy Romans; Brutus, Caesar, Cicero, and
others had villas here; was stormed to ruins in 1191; has many
interesting remains.

TUSSAUD, MADAME, foundress of the famous waxwork show in London,
born at Berne, and trained in her art in Paris; patronised by the sister
of Louis XVI.; was imprisoned during the Revolution, and in 1802 came to
London (1760-1850).

TWEED, a famous river of Scotland, rises in the S. of Peeblesshire,
and flows for 97 m. in a generally north-eastward direction; enters the
German Ocean at Berwick; is a noted salmon river, and inseparably
associated with the glories of Scottish literature and history.

TWICKENHAM (16), a town of Middlesex, on the Thames, 111/2 m. SW. of
London; a fashionable resort in the 18th century; the dwelling-place of
Pope, Horace Walpole, Turner, and others.

TWISS, SIR TRAVERS, jurist and economist, born in Westminster;
professor of Political Economy at Oxford, and subsequently of Civil Law;
drew up in 1884 a constitution for the Congo Free State; his writings
include "View of the Progress of Political Economy since the Sixteenth
Century," "International Law," "The Law of Nations," all of which rank as
standard and authoritative works (1809-1897).

TWIST, OLIVER, hero of Dickens's novel of the name.

TYCHE, the Greek name of the Latin goddess Fortuna, represented with
various attributes to symbolise her fickleness, her influence, her
generosity, &c.

TYLER, EDWARD BURNET, a distinguished anthropologist, born at
Camberwell; in 1856 he travelled through Mexico in company with Henry
Christy, the ethnologist; five years later published "Anahuac; or, Mexico
and the Mexicans"; in 1883 became keeper of the Oxford University Museum
and reader in Anthropology; in 1888 was appointed Gifford Lecturer at
Aberdeen, and in 1891 president of the Anthropological Society; his great
works are "Researches into the Early History of Mankind" and "Primitive
Culture"; _b_. 1832.

TYLER, JOHN, president of the United States, born in Charles City
County, Virginia; became a barrister; elected vice-president of the
United States in 1840, and on the death of Harrison succeeded to the
presidential office; showed much independence and strength of mind,
exercising his veto on several occasions; the ASHBURTON (q. v.)
Treaty and the annexation of Texas were the principal events of his
presidency; made strenuous endeavours to secure peace in 1861, but
failing sided with the South, and was a member of the Confederate
Congress (1790-1862).

TYLER, WAT, a tiler in Dartford, Kent, who roused into rebellion the
long-discontented and over-taxed peasantry of England by striking dead in
1381 a tax-gatherer who had offered insult to his young daughter; under
Tyler and Jack Straw a peasant army was mustered in Kent and Essex, and a
descent made on London; the revolters were disconcerted by the tact of
the young king RICHARD II. (q. v.), and in a scuffle Tyler was
killed by Walworth, Mayor of London.

TYNDAL, JOHN, physicist, born in co. Carlow, Ireland; succeeded
Faraday at the Royal Institution; wrote on electricity, sound, light, and
heat, as well as on the "Structure and Motion of the Glaciers," in
opposition to Forbes, whose theory was defended in strong terms by
Ruskin; wrote also "Lectures on Science for Unscientific People," much
praised by Huxley (1820-1893).

TYNE, river of North England, formed by the confluence near Hexham
of the N. Tyne from the Cheviots, and the S. Tyne, which rises on Cross
Fell, in E. Cumberland; forms the boundary between Durham and
Northumberland, and after a course of 32 m. enters the sea between
Tynemouth and South Shields.

TYNEMOUTH (28 township, 46 borough), a popular watering-place of
Northumberland, at the mouth of the Tyne, 9 m. E. of Newcastle; has a
fine sweep of promenaded shore, an aquarium, pier, lighthouse, baths,
&c.; North Shields and several villages lie within the borough

TYPHON, in the Greek mythology a fire-breathing giant, struck by a
thunderbolt of Jupiter, and buried under Etna.

TYRANTS, in ancient Greece men who usurped or acquired supreme
authority in a State at some political crisis, who were despotic in their
policy, but not necessarily cruel, often the reverse.

TYRCONNEL, RICHARD TALBOT, EARL OF, a Catholic politician and
soldier, whose career during the reigns of Charles II. and James II. is a
record of infamous plotting and treachery in support of the Catholic
Stuarts; was created an earl and lord-deputy of Ireland by James II.;
fled to France after the battle of the Boyne (1625-1691).

TYRE, a famous city of ancient PHOENICIA (q. v.), about 30
m. N. of Acre; comprised two towns, one on the mainland, the other on an
island opposite; besieged and captured in 332 B.C. by Alexander the
Great, who connected the towns by a causeway, which, by silting sands,
has grown into the present isthmus; its history goes back to the 10th
century B.C., when it was held by Hiram, the friend of Solomon, and
sustained sieges by Nebuchadnezzar and others; was reduced by Caesar
Augustus, but again rose to be one of the most flourishing cities of the
East in the 4th century A.D.; fell into ruins under the Turks, and is
now reduced to some 5000 of a population.

TYROL (929), a crownland of Austria; lies between Bavaria (N.) and
Italy (S. and W.); traversed by three ranges of the Alps and by the
rivers Inn and Adige; it is famed for the beauty of its scenery;
inhabited by Catholic Germans and Italians; sheep-farming, mining, and
forest, fruit, and wine cultivation are the chief industries; capital
INNSBRUCK (q. v.).

TYRONE (171), a central county of Ulster, Ireland; is hilly,
picturesque, and fertile in the lower districts; a considerable portion
is taken up by barren mountain slopes and bogland, and agriculture is
backward; coal and marble are wrought; Omagh is the capital, and Strabane
and Dungannon are prosperous towns.

TYRONE, HUGH O'NEIL, EARL OF, a notable Irish rebel; assumed the
title of "The O'Neil," and offered open rebellion to Queen Elizabeth's
authority, but, despite assistance from Spain, was subdued by Essex and
Mountjoy; was permitted to retain his earldom, but in James I.'s reign
was again discovered intriguing with Spain; fled the country, and had his
lands confiscated; _d_. 1616.

TYRRHENIAN SEA, an arm of the Mediterranean, stretching between
Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily on the W., and Italy on the E.

TYRTAEUS, a lyric poet of ancient Greece, of the 7th century B.C.,
and whose war-songs greatly heartened the Spartans in their struggle with
the Messenians.

TYRWHITT, THOMAS, English scholar, the son of an English Church
canon, born in London; was a Fellow of Merton in 1755, and in 1762 became
clerk to the House of Commons, a post, however, which proved too arduous
for him, and in 1768 he resigned; the remainder of his life was given to
literary pursuits; produced the first adequate edition of Chaucer (1775),
besides an edition of Aristotle's "Poetics," and books on Chatterton's
"Rowley Poems," &c. (1730-1786).

TYTLER, PATRICK FRASER, historian, son of Alexander Fraser Tytler, a
lord of Session under the title of Lord Woodhouselee, author of the
"Elements of History" (1747-1813), born in Edinburgh; abandoned the bar
for literature, and established his fame by his scholarly "History of
Scotland"; wrote biographies of Wycliffe, Raleigh, Henry VIII., &c.;
received a Government pension from Sir Robert Peel (1791-1849).


UCAYALI, a tributary of the Amazon, which rises in the S. Peruvian
Andes, and which it joins after a northward course of over 1000 m.

UDALL, NICHOLAS, author of "Ralph Roister-Doister," the earliest of
English comedies, and "the earliest picture of London manners," born in
Hants; was a graduate of Oxford, and head-master first of Eton and
subsequently of Westminister School (1505-1556).

UEBERWEG, FRIEDRICH, German philosopher, professor at Koenigsberg;
author of a "History of Philosophy," an excellent text-book (1826-1871).

UGANDA, a territory in East Africa along the N. and NW. shore of
Victoria Nyanza, with a population of from 300,000 to 500,000, and the
seat of an active mission propaganda on the part of both the Catholic and
Protestant Churches; has since 1890 been under British protection. The
capital is Mengo.

UGOLINO, COUNT, tyrant of Pisa; was of the Guelph party; celebrated
for his tragic fate; having fallen into the hands of his enemies, he was
in 1288 thrown into a dungeon along with his two sons and two grandsons,
and starved to death, a fate which suggested to Dante one of the most
terrible episodes in his "Inferno"; the dungeon referred to has since
borne the name of the "Tower of Hunger."

UHLAND, JOHANN LUDWIG, German poet, born at Tuebingen; studied law,
and wrote essays as well as poems, but it is on the latter his fame
rests, and that is as wide as the German world; he was a warm-hearted
patriot, and in keen sympathy with the cause of German liberation

UHLANS, a body of light cavalry in the German army, introduced first
into the Polish service, and of Tartar origin it is said.

UIST, two islands of the Outer Hebrides, called respectively North
and South, forming part of Inverness-shire; separated by the island of
Benbecula, with a population of over 3000 each; engaged chiefly in

UKASE, an edict issued by the Czar, having the force of a law.

UKRAINE (frontier), a fertile Russian province of undefined limits
in the basin of Dnieper, originally a frontier territory of Poland
against the Tartars.

ULEABORG (11), a seaport town in Russian Finland, near the head of
the Gulf of Bothnia; trades in wood and tar.

ULEMA, a body in Turkey, or any Mohammedan country, of the learned
in the Mohammedan religion and law, such as the Imams, or religious
teachers, the Muftis, or expounders of the law and the Cadis, or judges;
its decrees are called "fetvas."

ULLMANN, KARL, German theologian; was professor at Heidelberg: wrote
"Reformers before the Reformation," but is best known as author of "The
Sinlessness of Jesus" (1796-1865).

ULLSWATER, second largest of the English lakes, lies between
Cumberland and Westmorland, 8 m. long, and its average breadth 1 m.; is
looked down upon by Helvellyn, on the SW.

ULM (36), city of Wuertemberg, on the Danube, 46 m. SE. of Stuttgart;
was an imperial free city, and is a place of great importance; is famed
for its cathedral, which for size ranks next to Cologne, as well as for
its town hall; has textile manufactories and breweries, and is famed for
its confectionery; here General Mack, with 28,000 Austrians, surrendered
to Marshal Key in 1805.

ULOTRICHI, name given to the races that have crisp or woolly hair.

ULPHILAS, Gothic bishop; famous for his translation of the
Scriptures into Gothic, the part which remains being of great
philological value; was an Arian in theology (311-381).

ULRICI, HERMANN, German philosopher and literary critic, born in
Lower Lusatia; professor at Halle; wrote against the Hegelian philosophy
as pantheistic, and also studies in Shakespeare (1806-1884).

ULSTER (1,617), the northern province of Ireland, is divided into
the nine counties of Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh,
Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone, and has an area of 8560 sq. m.; became
an English settlement in 1611, and was largely colonised from Scotland;
it is the most Protestant part of the island, though the Catholics
predominate, and is the most enterprising and prosperous part; the land
is extensively cultivated, and flax growing and spinning the chief

ULTIMUS ROMANORUM (the last of the Romans), name given by Caesar to
Brutus, as one with whom the old Roman spirit would become extinct;
applied to the last of any sturdy race.

ULTRAMONTANISM, name given to extreme views in the matter of the
prerogatives and authority of the Pope, so called in France as prevailing
on the other side of the Alps.

ULUGH-BEG, a Tartar prince, grandson of Tamerlane; astronomy was a
favourite study of his, and in the patronage of it he founded an
observatory at Samarcand; after a reign of 40 years conjointly with his
father and by himself, he was put to death by a son who had rebelled
against him (1394-1449).

ULYSSES (i. e. Greek Odysseus), chieftain of Ithaca, one of the Greek
heroes in the Trojan War, in which he was with difficulty persuaded to
join, but in which, however, he did good service both by his courage and
his counsels; he is less famed for what he did before Troy than for what
befell him in his ten years' wandering homeward after, as recorded by
Homer in a separate poem called after him the "ODYSSEY" (q. v.), which
relates his stay among the LOTUS-EATERS (q. v.), his encounter with
POLYPHEMUS (q. v.), the enchantments of CIRCE (q. v.), the SIRENS (q.
v.), and CALYPSO (q. v.), and his shipwreck, &c. Tennyson represents him
as impatient of the humdrum life of Ithaca on his return, and as longing
to join his Trojan comrades in the Isles of the Blessed. See PENELOPE and

ULYSSES' BOW, a bow which only Ulysses could wield.

UMA (the gracious one), the consort of SIVA (q. v.), and
sometimes also of RUDRA (q. v.).

UMBALLA (499), a city in the Punjab, 150 m. NW. of Delhi; is an
important military station and a railway centre; carries on a large

UMBRIA, a province of ancient Italy, between Cisalpine Gaul and the
territory of the Sabines; inhabited originally by a powerful Latin race.

UMLAUT, name given by Grimm to the modification of a vowel in a
syllable through the influence of a vowel in the succeeding.

UNA (i. e. who is one), the personification of Truth, the
companion of St. George in his adventures, and who, after various
adventures herself, is at last wedded to him.

UNCIAL LETTERS, large round characters or letters used in ancient

UNCLE SAM, name given to the United States Government, derived from
a humorous translation of the initials U.S.

UNCONSCIOUS, THE, name given to a spiritual supernatural influence
operating in and affecting the life and character, but which we are not
sensible of ourselves, and still less reveal a conscious sense of to


UNDINE, a female spirit of the watery element, naturally without,
but capable of receiving, a human soul, particularly after being wedded
to a man and after giving birth to a child.

UNDULATORY THEORY, the theory that light is due to vibrations or
undulations in the ether as the medium through which it is transmitted
from its source in a luminous body.

UNEARNED INCREMENT, increase in the value of land or any property
without expenditure of any kind on the part of the proprietor.

UNICORN, a fabulous animal like a horse, with a cubit and a half
long horn on the forehead; was adopted by James I. as the symbol of
Scotland on the royal arms; is in Christian art a symbol of the
incarnation, and an emblem of female chastity.

UNIFORMITY, ACT OF, an Act passed in England in 1662 regulating the
form of public prayers and rites to be observed in all churches, and
which had the effect of driving hundreds of clergymen from the
Established Church.

UNIGENITUS, THE BULL, a bull beginning with this word, issued by
Pope Clement XI. in 1713 against JANSENISM (q. v.) in France,
and which was in 1730 condemned by the civil authorities in Paris.

UNION, FEDERAL, name given to a union of several States in defence
or promotion of the common good, while each State is independent of the
rest in local matters.

UNION, THE, a name applied in the English history to (1) the Union
of England and Scotland in 1603 under one crown, by the accession of
James VI. of Scotland to the throne of England on the death of Elizabeth;
(2) the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, under one Parliament
seated at Westminster, into the United Kingdom of Great Britain; and (3)
to the Union of the United Kingdom of Great Britain to Ireland in 1801,
when the Irish Parliament was abolished, and was represented, as it still
is, in the Imperial.

UNION JACK, originally the flag of Great Britain, on which the
crosses of St. George and St. Andrew are blended, with which certain
white streaks were blended or fimbriated after the Union with Ireland.

UNIONISTS, name given to the Liberal party opposed to Mr.
Gladstone's measure to grant Home Rule to Ireland.

UNITARIANS, a designation applicable to all monotheists in religion,
including Jews and Mohammedans, but generally and more specially applied
to those who deny the Church doctrine of the Trinity, and in particular
the divinity of Christ, and who have at different times and in different
countries assumed an attitude, both within the pale of the Church and
outside of it, of protestation against the opposite orthodox creed in the
interests of rationalistic belief; the name is also employed in
philosophy to designate those who resolve the manifold of being into the
operation of some single principle.

UNITED BRETHREN, name given to the MORAVIANS (q. v.).

UNITED PRESBYTERIANS, a body of Presbyterians in Scotland who
dissent from the Established Church on chiefly ecclesiastical grounds,
and had their origin in union in 1847 of the Secession Church of 1733
with the Relief Church of 1752, bodies previously in dissent as well. A
further union of the United Presbyterian body with the Free Church is to
all appearance about to be consummated.


UNITED STATES (62,622), the great Western republic; occupies an area
nearly as large as all Europe, bounded on the N. by the Dominion of
Canada, on the E. by the Atlantic, on the S. by Mexico and the Gulf, and
on the W. by the Pacific, extending 2700 m. from E. to W., and on an
average 1600 m. from N. to S.; on the coasts are few capes, inlets, and
islands, except on that of New England; there are two great mountain
systems, the Appalachians on the E. and the Rockies, the Cascade ranges,
&c., on the W., which divide the territory into four regions--an eastern,

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