Part 47 out of 53
etc., breathe the spirit of the old regime, and are full of natural and
vivacious pictures of French life (1761-1836).
SOWERBY BRIDGE (10), manufacturing town in West Riding of Yorkshire,
3 m. SW. of Halifax; cotton-spinning, woollen manufactures, and dyeing
are the chief; it was the birthplace of Tillotson.
SOY, a sauce or condiment used in Japan and China; prepared from a
bean which is extensively cultivated in those countries.
SOYER, ALEXIS, a famous cook, born at Meaux; turned aside from a
tempting career as a vocalist and took up gastronomy as a profession;
during the 1830 Revolution he narrowly escaped with his life to London,
which he henceforth made his head-quarters, rising to the position of
cook to the Reform Club; rendered important services as a culinary expert
in Ireland during the 1847 famine, and at the Crimea (1855); was the
author of various highly popular works on the art of cooking, "The Modern
Housewife," "Shilling Cookery Book," etc. (1809-1858).
SPA (7), a watering-place in Belgium, 20 m. SE. of Liege; a
favourite health and fashionable resort on account of its springs and its
picturesque surroundings, the number of visitors during the season
amounting to 12,000.
SPAHI, an Algerine cavalry soldier serving in the French army.
SPAIN (17,800), a kingdom of South-West Europe, which with Portugal
(less than one-fifth the size of Spain) occupies the entire Iberian
Peninsula, and is divided from France on the N. by the Pyrenees
Mountains, and on the E. and S. is washed by the Mediterranean; the NW.
corner fronts the Bay of Biscay (N.) and the Atlantic (W.), while
Portugal completes the western boundary; its area, three and one-third
times the size of England and Wales, is, along with the Canaries and the
Balearic Isles, divided into 49 provinces, although the more familiar
names of the 14 old kingdoms, states, and provinces (New and Old Castile,
Galicia, Aragon, etc.) are still in use; forms a compact square, with a
regular, in parts precipitous, coast-line, which is short compared with
its area; is in the main a highland country, a vast plateau (2000 to 3000
ft. high) occupying the centre, buttressed and crossed by ranges (Sierra
Nevada in the S., Sierra de Guadarrama, Sierra Morena, etc.), and
diversified by the long valleys of the Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadalquivir,
and other lesser rivers, all of which are rapid, and only a few
navigable; climate varies considerably according as one proceeds to the
central plains, where extremes of heat and cold are experienced, but over
all is the driest in Europe; agriculture, although less than a half of
the land is under cultivation, is by far the most important industry, and
Valencia and Catalonia the provinces where it is most successfully
carried out, wheat and other cereals, the olive and the vine, being the
chief products; other important industries are mining, the Peninsula
being extremely rich in the useful minerals; Merino sheep farming,
anchovy and sardine fisheries, wine-making, and the manufacture of
cotton, silk, leather, and paper; chief exports are wine, fruits, mineral
ores, oil and cork; Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, and Malaga are
the chief towns; the widest variety of character exists among the natives
of the various provinces, from the hard-working, thrifty Catalan to the
lazy, improvident Murcian, but all possess the southern love "of song,
dance, and colour," and have an inherent grace and dignity of manner;
Roman Catholicism is the national religion; and although systems of
elementary and secondary schools are in vogue, education over all is in a
deplorably backward condition; the Government is a hereditary and
constitutional monarchy; the Cortes consists of the Senate and the
Chamber of Deputies; universal suffrage and trial by jury are recent
innovations. The outstanding fact in the history of Spain, after the
downfall of the Roman Empire, of which she had long formed a part, is the
national struggle with the Moors, who overran the peninsula in the 8th
century, firmly established themselves, and were not finally overthrown
till Granada, their last possession, was taken in 1492; sixteen years
later the country became a united kingdom, and for a brief period, with
its vast American colonies and wide European possessions, became in the
16th century the dominant power of Europe; since then she has lagged more
and more in the race of nations, and her once vast colonial empire has
gradually crumbled away till now, since the unsuccessful war with America
in 1898, only an island or two remains to her.
SPALATO (15), a historic and flourishing town of Dalmatia, finely
situated on a promontory on the E. side of the Adriatic, 160 m. SE. of
Fiume; a place of considerable antiquity, and one of the great cities of
the Roman world; is chiefly famed for the vast palace built by
Diocletian, and which became his residence after his abdication;
subsidiary buildings and grounds were enclosed by walls, within which now
a considerable part of the town stands; the noblest portions of the
palace are still extant; the modern town carries on an active trade in
grain, wine, cattle, etc.; is noted for its liqueurs.
SPALDING, a market-town in Lincolnshire, 34 m. SE. of Lincoln, in
the heart of the Fens; is a very ancient place; has a trade in
agricultural produce, and is a railway centre.
SPALLANZANI, LAZARO, a noted Italian scientist, born at Scandiano,
in Modena; held chairs of Philosophy and Greek in the Universities of
Reggio and Modena, but more attracted to natural science he in 1768
became professor of Natural History at Pavia; wrote elaborate accounts of
expeditions to Sicily and elsewhere; overturned Button's theory of
spontaneous generation, and in important works made some valuable
contributions to physiological science (1729-1799).
SPANDAU (45), an important town and fortress of Prussia, in
Brandenburg, at the confluence of the Spree and Havel, 8 m. W. by N. of
Berlin; fortifications are of the strongest and most modern kind, and in
the "Julius Tower" of the powerful citadel the German war-chest of
L6,000,000 is preserved; there is an arsenal and large Government
cannon-foundries, powder-factories, etc.
SPANHEIM, FRIEDRICH, a theological professor at Geneva (1631), and
afterwards at Leyden (1641); author of the work on "Universal Grace"
(1600-1648). His son, EZECHIEL SPANHEIM (1629-1710) became professor
of Eloquence in his native town, Geneva, and after acting as tutor to
the sons of the Elector Palatine was employed on several important
diplomatic missions to Italy, England, and France; meanwhile devoted his
leisure to ancient law and numismatics, publishing learned works on these
subjects. FRIEDRICH SPANHEIM, brother of preceding, was a learned
Calvinistic professor of Theology at Heidelberg (1685), and afterwards at
SPANISH MAIN (i. e. mainland), a name given at one time to the
Central American provinces of Spain bordering on the Caribbean Sea, and
also to the Caribbean Sea itself.
SPARKS, JAMES, president of Harvard University, born in Connecticut;
bred a carpenter, took to study, attended Harvard, where he graduated,
studied theology, and became Unitarian, becoming a minister in that body,
but retired from the ministry and settled in Boston; edited the _North
American Review_; wrote and edited biographies of eminent Americans, and
edited the writings of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington
SPARTA or LACEDEMON, the capital of ancient Laconia, in the
Peloponnesus, on the right bank of the Eurotas, 20 m. from the sea; was 6
m. in circumference, consisted of several distinct quarters, originally
separate villages, never united into a regular town; was never surrounded
by walls, its walls being the bravery of its citizens; its mythical
founder was Lacedemon, who called the city Sparta from the name of his
wife; one of its early kings was Menelaus, the husband of Helen;
LYCURGUS (q. v.) was its law-giver; its policy was aggressive,
and its sway gradually extended over the whole Peloponnesus, to the
extinction at the end of the Peloponnesian War of the rival power of
Athens, which for a time rose to the ascendency, and its unquestioned
supremacy thereafter for 30 years, when all Greece was overborne by the
SPARTACUS, leader of the revolt of the slaves at Rome, which broke
out about 73 B.C.; was a Thracian by birth, a man of powerful physique,
in succession a shepherd, a soldier, and a captain of banditti; was in
one of his predatory expeditions taken prisoner and sold to a trainer of
gladiators, and became one of his slaves; persuaded his fellow-slaves to
attempt their freedom, and became their chief and that of other runaways
who joined them; for two years they defied and defeated one Roman army
after another sent to crush them, and laid Italy waste, till at the end
of that time Licinius Crassus, taking up arms in earnest, overpowered
them in a decisive battle at the river Silarus, in which Spartacus was
SPASMODIC SCHOOL, name given to a small group of minor poets about
the middle of the 19th century, represented by Philips, James Bailey,
Sydney Dobell, and Alexander Smith, from their strenuous, overstrained,
and unnatural style.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY, the weight of a body compared with another of
equal bulk taken as a standard, such as the weight of a cubic inch of
SPECTRUM, the name given to coloured and other rays of pure light
separated by refraction in its transmission through a prism, as exhibited
on a screen in a darkened chamber.
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS, name given to the method of determining the
composition of a body by means of the spectrum of light which it gives
forth or passes through it, founded on the principle that a substance
powerfully absorbs exactly the rays it radiates, and every substance has
its own absorbing powers; or it may be defined the method of
distinguishing different kinds of matter by their properties in relation
SPECULATIVE, THE, that which we think and which as such goes no
deeper than the intellect, which is but the eye of the soul, not the
heart of it. See SPIRITUAL, THE.
SPEDDING, JAMES, editor of Bacon, born at Mirehouse, near Keswick,
son of a Cumberland squire; scholar and honorary Fellow of Cambridge;
became in 1847 Under-Secretary of State with L2000 a year; devoted his
life to the study of Bacon, the fruit of which the "Letters and the Life
of Francis Bacon, including all his Occasional Works, newly selected and
set forth with a Commentary, Biographical and Historical," in 7 vols.; a
truly noble man, and much esteemed by his contemporaries in literature
SPEKE, JOHN BANNING, African explorer, born in Somersetshire; became
a soldier, and served in the Punjab; joined Burton in 1854 in an
expedition into Somaliland, and three years after in an attempt to
discover the sources of the Nile, and setting out alone discovered
Victoria Nyanza, which he maintained was the source of the river, but
which Burton questioned; on his return he published in 1863 an account of
his discovery, which he was about to defend in the British Association
when he was shot by the accidental discharge of his gun while he was out
SPENCE, JOSEPH, a miscellaneous writer, born in Hants; educated at
and a Fellow of Oxford; his principal work, "Polymetis; or, an Inquiry
into the Agreement between the Works of the Roman Poets and the Remains
of Ancient Artists"; his "Anecdotes" are valuable from his acquaintance
with the literary class of the time, and have preserved his name
SPENCER, HERBERT, systematiser and unifier of scientific knowledge
up to date, born at Derby, son of a teacher, who early inoculated him
with an interest in natural objects, though he adopted at first the
profession of a railway engineer, which in about eight years he abandoned
for the work of his life by way of literature, his first effort being a
series of "Letters on the Proper Sphere of Government" in the
_Nonconformist_ in 1842, and his first work "Social Statics," published
in 1851, followed by "Principles of Psychology" four years after; in 1861
he published a work on "Education," and his "First Principles" the
following year, after which he began to construct his system of
"Synthetic Philosophy," which fills a dozen large volumes, and has
established his fame as the foremost scientific philosopher of the time.
Following in the lines of Auguste Comte and John Stuart Mill, he takes a
wider sweep than either of them, fills the field he occupies with fuller
and riper detail, resolves the whole of science into still more ultimate
principles, and works the whole up into a more compact and comprehensive
system. He is valiant before all for science, and relegates everything
and every interest to Agnosticism that cannot give proof of its
scientific rights. "What a thing is in itself," he says, "cannot be
known, because to know it we must strip it of all that it becomes, of all
that has come to adhere to it." The ultimate thus arrived at he finds to
be, and calls, Energy, and that therefore, he says, we don't and can't
know. That a thing _is_ what it becomes seems never to occur to him, and
yet only the knowledge of that is the knowledge of the ultimate of being,
which is the thing he says we cannot know. To trace life to its roots he
goes back to the cell, whereas common-sense would seem to require us, in
order to know what the cell is, to inquire at the fruit. This is the
doctrine of St. John, "The Word was God." In addition to agnosticism
another doctrine of Spencer's is Evolution, but in maintaining this he
fails to see he is arguing for an empty conception barren of all thought,
which thought is the alpha and omega of the whole process, and is as much
an ultimate as and still more so than the energy in which he absorbs God.
Indeed, his philosophy is what is called the AUFKLAeRUNG (q. v.)
in full bloom, and in which he strips us of all our spiritual content or
_Inhalt_, and under which he would lead us out of "HOUNDSDITCH"
(q. v.), not _with_, but _without_, all that properly belongs to us;
SPENCER GULF, a deep inlet on the coast of South Australia, 180 m.
by 90 m.
SPENER, PHILIP JACOB, German Protestant theologian, founder of the
PIETISTS (q. v.), born in Alsace, studied in Strasburg; in 1670
held a series of meetings which he called "Collegia Pietatis," whence the
name of his sect; established himself in Dresden and in Berlin, but Halle
was the centre of the movement; he was an earnest and universally
esteemed man (1636-1705).
SPENSER, EDMUND, author of the "Faerie Queene," and one of England's
greatest poets; details of his life are scanty and often hypothetical;
born at London of poor but well-connected parents; entered Pembroke Hall,
Cambridge, as a "sizar" in 1569, and during his seven years' residence
there became an excellent scholar; took a master's degree, and formed an
important friendship with Gabriel Harvey; three years of unsettled life
followed, but were fruitful in the production of the "Shepheards'
Calendar" (1579), which at once placed him at the head of the English
poets of his day; had already taken his place in the best London literary
and political circles as the friend of Sir Philip Sidney and Leicester,
and in 1580 was appointed private secretary to Lord Grey, then proceeding
to Ireland as the Lord Deputy, and although his master soon returned to
England Spencer continued to make his home in Ireland, where he obtained
some civil appointments, and in 1591 entered into possession of a
considerable portion of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Desmond,
adjacent to his house, Kilcolman Castle, co. Cork; seems to have been a
pretty stern landlord, and, as expounded in his admirable tract, "A View
of the Present State of Ireland," the advocate of a policy of
"suppression and repression"; consequently was little loved by the Irish,
and on the outbreak of Tyrone's rebellion in 1598 his house was sacked
and burned, and he himself forced to flee to London, where he died a few
weeks later "a ruined and heart-broken man"; the rich promise of the
"Shepheards' Calendar" had been amply fulfilled in the "Complaints,"
"Amoretti," "Colin Clout's Come Home Again," the "Epithalamium" the
finest bridal song in any language, and above all in the six published
books of "The Faerie Queene" (1589 and 1596), in which all his gifts and
graces as a poet are at their best; "He may be read," says Professor
Saintsbury, "in childhood, chiefly for his adventure; in later youth, for
his display of voluptuous beauty; in manhood, for his historical and
ethical weight; in age, for all combined" (1552-1599).
SPERMACETI, a white waxy matter obtained in an oily state from the
head of the sperm-whale inhabiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans; candles
made of it yield a particularly steady and bright light.
SPEY, a river in the N. of Scotland which, rising in Badenoch, flows
NE. through Inverness, Elgin, and Banffshire, falls into the Moray Firth
after a course of 107 miles; the salmon-fisheries are valuable; it is the
swiftest of the rivers of Great Britain.
SPEZIA (20), the chief naval station, "the Portsmouth," of Italy;
occupies a strongly fortified site at the head of a bay on the W. side of
Italy, 56 m. SE. of Genoa; here are the naval shipbuilding yards,
national arsenal, navy store-houses, besides schools of navigation,
manufactures of cables, sail-cloth, &c.
SPHINX, a fabled animal, an invention of the ancient Egyptians, with
the body and claws of a lioness, and the head of a woman, or of a ram, or
of a goat, all types or representations of the king, effigies of which
are frequently placed before temples on each side of the approach; the
most famous of the sphinxes was the one which waylaid travellers and
tormented them with a riddle, which if they could not answer she devoured
them, but which Oedipus answered, whereupon she threw herself into the
sea. "Such a sphinx," as we are told in "Past and Present," "is this life
of ours, to all men and nations. Nature, like the Sphinx, is of womanly
celestial loveliness and tenderness, the face and bosom of a goddess, but
ending in the claws and the body of a lioness ... is a heavenly bride and
conquest to the wise and brave, to them who can discern her behests and
do them; a destroying fiend to them who cannot. Answer her
riddle--Knowest thou the meaning of to-day?--it is well with thee. Answer
it not; the solution for thee is a thing of teeth and claws."
SPICE ISLANDS. See MOLUCCAS.
SPINELLO, ARETINO, a celebrated Italian fresco-painter, born at
Arezzo, where, with visits to Florence, his life was chiefly spent; was
in his day the rival of Giotto, but few of his frescoes are preserved,
and such of his paintings as are to be found in various galleries of
Europe are inferior to his frescoes (1330-1410).
SPINOLA, AMBROSIO, MARQUIS OF, great Spanish general under Philip
II. of Spain, born at Genoa, with a following of 9000, maintained at his
own expense, took Ostend after a resistance of 3 years, in consequence of
which feat he was appointed commander-in-chief, in which capacity
maintained and again maintained a long struggle with Prince Maurice of
Nassau, terminated only with the death of the latter; his services on
behalf of Spain, in the interest of which he spent his fortune, were
never acknowledged, and he died with poignant grief (1571-1630).
SPINOZA, BENEDICT, great modern philosopher, born in Amsterdam, of
Jews of Portuguese extraction in well-to-do circumstances, and had been
trained as a scholar; began with the study of the Bible and the Talmud,
but soon exchanged the study of theology in these for that of physics and
the works of Descartes, in which study he drifted farther and farther
from the Jewish creed, and at length openly abandoned it; this exposed
him to a persecution which threatened his life, so that he left Amsterdam
and finally settled at The Hague, where, absorbed in philosophic study,
he lived in seclusion, earning a livelihood by polishing optical glasses,
which his friends disposed of for him; his days were short; he suffered
from ill-health, and died of consumption when he was only 44; he was a
man of tranquil temper, moderate desires, purity of motive, and kindly in
heart; his great work, his "Ethica," was published a year after his
death; he had held it back during his lifetime because he foresaw it
would procure him the name of atheist, which he shrank from with horror;
Spinoza's doctrine is summed up by Dr. Stirling thus, "Whatever is, is;
and that is extension and thought. These two are all that is; and
besides these there is nought. But these two are one; they are attributes
of the single substance (that which, for its existence, stands in need of
nothing else), very God, in whom, then, all individual things and all
individual ideas (modes of extension those, of thought these) are
comprehended and take place"; thus we see Spinoza includes under the term
extension all individual objects, and under thought all individual ideas,
and these two he includes in God, as He in whom they live and move and
have their being,--a great conception and a pregnant, being the
speculative ground of the being of all that lives and is; not without
good reason does Novalis call him "Der Gott-getrunkene Mensch," the
God-intoxicated man (1632-1677).
SPINOZISM, the pantheism of SPINOZA (q. v.), which regards
God as the one self-subsistent substance, and both matter and thought
attributes of Him.
SPIRES or SPEYER, an old German town on the left bank of the
Rhine, in the Palatinate, 14 m. SW. of Heidelberg, the seat of a bishop
and with a cathedral, of its kind one of the finest in Europe, and the
remains of the Retscher, or imperial palace, where in 1529 the Diet of
the Empire was held at which the Reformers first got the name of
Protestants, because of their protestation against the imperial decree
issued at Worms prohibiting any further innovations in religion.
SPIRIT (lit. breath of life), in philosophy and theology is the
Divine mind incarnating itself in the life of a man, and breathing in all
he thinks and does, and so is as the life-principle of it; employed also
to denote any active dominating and pervading principle of life inspired
from any quarter whatever and coming to light in the conduct.
SPIRIT, THE HOLY, the Divine Spirit manifested in Christ which
descended upon His disciples in all its fulness when, shortly after His
decease, their eyes were opened to see the meaning of His life and their
hearts to feel the power of it.
SPIRITUAL, THE, the fruit of the quickening and abiding action of a
higher principle at the centre of the being, operating so as to suffuse
the whole of it, pervade the whole of it, to its utmost limits, which,
seating itself in the heart of the thoughts and affections, works and
weaves itself into all the life tissues and becomes part and parcel of
the very flesh and blood. No idea, however true, however elevated or
elevating one may feel it, is spiritual till it centralises in the heart
and affects all the issues thereof.
SPIRITUALISM, a term that has two very different meanings, denoting
at one time the doctrine that the only real is the SPIRITUAL (q. v.),
and at another time a belief in the existence of spirits whom we,
by means of certain media, can hold correspondence with, and who, whether
we are conscious of it or not, exercise in some cases an influence over
human destiny, more particularly of the spirits of dead men with whom in
their disembodied state we can by means of certain mediums hold
correspondence, and who, from their continued interest in the world, do
in that state keep watch and ward over its affairs as well as mingle in
them, forming a world of spirits gone from hence, yet more or less active
in the sense world.
SPITHEAD, the eastern portion of the strait which separates the Isle
of Wight from the Hampshire coast, 14 m. long, with an average breadth of
4 m.; is a sheltered and safe riding for ships, and as such is much used
by the British navy; receives its name from a long "spit" of sandbank
jutting out from the mainland. See the _SOLENT_.
SPITZBERGEN, the name of an Arctic archipelago lying 400 m. N. of
Norway, embracing West Spitzbergen (15,260 sq. m.), North-East Land,
Stans Foreland, King Charles land or Wiche Island, Barents Land, Prince
Charles Foreland, besides numerous smaller islands; practically lies
under great fields of ice, enormous glaciers, and drifts of snow, pierced
here and there by mountain peaks, hence the name Spitzbergen; the home of
vast flocks of sea-birds, of polar bears, and Arctic foxes, while herds
of reindeer are attracted to certain parts by a scanty summer vegetation;
there are no permanent inhabitants, but the fiord-cut shores are
frequented in summer by Norwegian seal and walrus hunters.
SPLUeGEN, an Alpine pass in the Swiss canton of the Grisons; the
roadway 24 m. long, opened in 1822, crosses the Rhaetian Alps from Chur,
the capital of Grisons, to Chiavenna, in Lombardy, and reaches a height
of 6595 ft.
SPOHR, LUDWIG, musical composer and violinist, born in Brunswick;
produced both operas and oratorios, "Faust" among the former, the "Last
Judgment" and the "Fall of Babylon" among the latter; his violin-playing
was admirable, producing from the tones of the instrument the effects of
the human voice; wrote a handbook for violinists (1784-1859).
SPOLETO (8), an ancient city of Central Italy, built on the rocky
slopes of a hill, in the province of Umbria, 75 m. NE. of Rome; is
protected by an ancient citadel, and has an interesting old cathedral
with frescoes by Lippo Lippi, and an imposing 7th-century aqueduct; was
capital of a Lombard duchy, and in 1220 was joined to the Papal States.
SPONTINI, GASPARO, Italian operatic composer, born at Majolati;
settled in Paris in 1803, and a year later made his mark with the little
opera "Milton," and subsequently established his fame with the three
grand operas, "La Vestale," "Ferdinand Cortez," and "Olympia"; from 1820
to 1842 was stationed at Berlin under court patronage, and in the face of
public and press opposition continued to write in a strain of elevated
and melodious music various operas, including his greatest work "Agnes
von Hohenstaufen" (1774-1851).
SPORADES, a group of islands in the AEgean Sea, of which the largest
is the Mitylene.
SPOTTISWOODE, JOHN, archbishop of St. Andrews; accompanied James VI.
to London, was zealous for the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland;
was archbishop of Glasgow before he was translated to St. Andrews;
officiated at coronation of Charles I. at Holyrood in 1633, and was two
years after made Chancellor of Scotland; wrote a "History of the Church
of Scotland"; was buried in Westminster (1565-1639).
SPOTTISWOODE, WILLIAM, mathematician and physician, born in London;
was Queen's printer, as his father had been before him; published
numerous important papers on scientific subjects, his greatest work "The
Polarization of Light," a subject on which he was a great authority
SPREE, a river of Prussia, rises in East Saxony close to the
Bohemian border, follows a winding and generally N. and NW. course of 227
m. till its Junction with the Havel at Spandau; chief towns on its banks
are Bautzen, Kottbus, Luebben, and Berlin; is connected with the Oder by
the Frederick William Canal.
SPRENGEL, CARL, physician and botanist, born in Pomerania; held
professorship in Halle; wrote on the history of both medicine and botany
SPRENGER, ALOYS, eminent Orientalist, born in the Tyrol; studied in
Vienna; went to India in 1843, where he diligently occupied his mind in
study, and on his return in 1857 was appointed professor of Oriental
Languages at Bern, from which he was translated to Heidelberg; edited
Persian and Arabic works, and wrote the "Life and Doctrine of Mohammed";
SPRINGFIELD, 1, capital (34) of Illinois, situated in a flourishing
coal district, 185 m. SW. of Chicago; has an arsenal, two colleges, and a
handsome marble capitol; coal-mining, foundries, and flour, cotton, and
paper mills are the chief industries; the burial-place of Abraham
Lincoln. 2, A nicely laid out and flourishing city (62) of Massachusetts,
capital of Hampden County, on the Connecticut River (spanned here by five
bridges), 99 m. W. by S. of Boston; settled in 1635; has important
manufactories of cottons, woollens, paper, and a variety of other
articles, besides the United States armoury. 3, Capital (22) of Greene
County, Missouri, 232 m. WSW. of St. Louis; has rapidly increasing
manufactories of cottons, woollens, machinery, &c.; in the vicinity was
fought the battle of Wilson's Creek, 10th August 1861. 4, Capital (38) of
Clark County, Ohio, on Lagonda Creek and Mad River, 80 m. NE. of
Cincinnati; is an important railway centre, and possesses numerous
factories of machinery, bicycles, paper, &c.
SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON, a great preacher, born at Kelvedon, Essex;
had no college training; connected himself with the Baptists; commenced
as an evangelist at Cambridge when he was but a boy, and was only 17 when
he was appointed to a pastorate; by-and-by on invitation he settled in
Southwark, and held meetings which were always requiring larger and
larger accommodation; at length in 1861 the Metropolitan Tabernacle,
capable of accommodating 6000, was opened, where he drew about him large
congregations, and round which he, in course of time, established a
number of institutions in the interest at once of humanity and religion;
his pulpit addresses were listened to by thousands every Sunday, and were
one and all printed the week following, and circulated all over the land
and beyond it till they filled volumes; no preacher of the time had such
an audience, and none such a wide popularity; he preached the old Puritan
gospel, but it was presented in such a form and in such simple, idiomatic
phrase, as to commend it as no less a gospel to his own generation:
besides his sermons as published, other works were also widely
circulated; special mention may be made of "John Ploughman's Talk"
SPURZHEIM, JOHANN CASPAR, phrenologist, born in Treves; went to
study medicine at Vienna; attended the lectures of Gall and became a
disciple, accompanying him on a lecturing tour through Central Europe,
and settling with him in 1807 in Paris; in 1813 he separated from Gall,
and went to lecture in England with much acceptance; in 1832 he proceeded
to America with the same object, but he had hardly started on his mission
when he died at Boston; he wrote numerous works bearing on phrenology,
education, &c. (1776-1832).
SRUTI, the name given to sacred and revealed tradition, or
revelation generally, among the Hindus.
STAAL, JEAN, a French lady of humble circumstances, of metaphysical
turn; skilled in the philosophies of Descartes and Malebranche; was in
the Bastille for two years for political offences; was a charming woman,
and captivated the Baron de Staal; left Memoirs and Letters (1693-1750).
STABAT MATER, A Latin hymn on the dolours of the Virgin, beginning
with these words, and composed in the 13th century by Jacopone da Todi, a
Franciscan monk, and set to music by several composers, the most popular
STADIUM, the course on which were celebrated the great games
(foot-racing, wrestling, &c.) of ancient Greece, held at Olympia, Athens,
and other places; the most famous was that laid out at Olympia; length
600 Greek feet, which was adopted as the Greek standard of measure, and
equalled 6061/2 English feet.
STADTHOLDER, an anglicised form of the Dutch "stadhouder" (i. e.
stead-holder), a title conferred on the governors of provinces in the Low
Countries, but chiefly associated with the rulers of Holland, Zealand,
and Utrecht; in 1544 the title was held by William the Silent, and
continued to be the designation of the head of the new republic of the
United Provinces of the Netherlands until 1802, when William V. was
compelled to resign his stadtholdership to France, the country afterwards
assuming a monarchical government.
STAEL, MADAME DE, distinguished French lady, born in Paris, daughter
of Necker, and only child; a woman of eminent ability, and an admirer of
Rousseau; wrote "Letters" on his character and works; married a man ten
years older than herself, the Baron de Stael-Holstein, the Swedish
ambassador in Paris, where she lived all through the events of the
Revolution in sympathy with the royal family; wrote an appeal in defence
of the queen, and quitted the city during the Reign of Terror; on her
return in 1795 her _salon_ became the centre of the literary and
political activity of the time; the ambition of Napoleon excited her
distrust, and forced her into opposition so expressed that in 1801 she
was ordered to leave Paris within 24 hours, and not to come within 40
leagues of it; in 1802 she was left a widow, and soon after she went
first to Weimar, where she met Goethe and Schiller, and then to Berlin;
by-and-by she returned to France, but on the publication of her
"Corinne," was ordered out of the country; after this appeared her great
epoch-making work on Germany, "L'Allemagne," which was seized by the
French censors; after this she quitted for good the soil of France, to
which she had returned; settled in Switzerland, at Coppet, where she died
STAFFA ("pillar Island"), an uninhabited islet of basaltic formation
off the W. coast of Scotland, 54 m. W. of Oban; 11/2 m. in circumference,
and girt with precipitous cliffs, except on the sheltered NE., where
there is a shelving shore; is remarkable for its caves, of which Fingal's
Cave is the most famous, having an entrance 42 ft. wide and 66 ft. high,
and penetrating 227 ft.
STAFFORD (20), county town of Staffordshire, on the Sow, 29 m. NNW.
of Birmingham; has two fine old churches, St. Mary's and St. Chad's,
interesting architecturally, King Edward's grammar school, and Stafford
Castle finely situated on the outskirts; is an important railway centre,
and noted for its boot and shoe manufactures.
STAFFORDSHIRE (1,083), a midland mining and manufacturing county of
England, wedged in on the N. between Cheshire (W.) and Derby (N.), and
extending southward to Worcester, with Shropshire on the W., and
Leicester and Warwick on the E.; with the exception of the wild and hilly
"moorland" in the N. consists of an undulating plain crossed by the
Trent, and intersected in all directions by canals and railways; embraces
two rich coal-fields, one in the "Black Country" of the S., where rich
deposits of iron-stone are also worked, and one in the N., embracing the
district of the "Potteries"; famous breweries exist at Burton;
Wolverhampton is the largest town.
STAGIRITE, THE, ARISTOTLE (q. v.), so called from his
native place Stagira.
STAHL, FRIEDRICH JULIUS, writer of jurisprudence, born at Muenich, of
Jewish parents; embraced Christianity; wrote "The Philosophy of Law";
became professor thereof at Berlin; was a staunch Lutheran, and a
Conservative in politics (1802-1861).
STAHL, GEORG ERNEST, a German chemist, born at Anspach; was
professor of Medicine at Halle; author of the theory of PHLOGISTON
(q. v.) and of ANIMISM (q. v.) (1650-1735).
STAINES (5), a pretty little town of Middlesex, on the Thames
(spanned here by a fine granite bridge), 6 m. SE. of Windsor; St. Mary's
church has a tower designed by Inigo Jones; has breweries, mustard-mills,
and other factories; in the neighbourhood are RUNNYMEDE and
COOPER'S HILL (q. v.).
STAIR, JOHN DALRYMPLE, 1ST EARL OF, eldest son of James Dalrymple
(1619-1695) of Stair (a distinguished lawyer in his day, who rose to be
President of the Court of Session; wrote a well-known work, "Institutes
of the Law of Scotland"; as a Protestant supported the Prince of Orange,
and by him was raised to the peerage as viscount in 1690); adopted law as
a profession, and was called to the bar in 1672; got into trouble with
Claverhouse, and was fined and imprisoned, but in 1687 was received into
royal favour, became Lord Advocate, a Lord Ordinary in the Court of
Session, and subsequently as Secretary of State for Scotland was mainly
responsible for the MASSACRE OF GLENCOE (q. v.); was created an
earl in 1703, and later was active in support of the union of the English
and Scottish Parliaments (1648-1707).
STAIR, JOHN DALRYMPLE, 2ND EARL OF, second son of preceding; entered
the army at 19, and fought with his regiment, the Cameronians, at
Steinkirk; studied law for some time at Leyden, but went back to the
army, and by 1701 was a lieutenant-colonel in the Scots Foot Guards, and
in 1706 colonel of the Cameronians; fought with distinction under
Marlborough at Venlo, Ramillies, Oudenarde, and, as commander of a
brigade, at the siege of Lille and at Malplaquet; was active in support
of the Hanoverian succession, and subsequently in the reigns of George I.
and II. filled important diplomatic and military posts (1673-1747).
STALACTITE, a cone of carbonate of lime attached like an icicle to
the roof of a cavern, and formed by the dripping of water charged with
the carbonate from the rock above; Stalagmite being the name given to the
cone formed on the floor by the dripping from a stalactite above.
STALYBRIDGE (44), a manufacturing town of Cheshire and Lancashire,
on both banks of the Tame, 71/2 m. E. by N. of Manchester; is of modern
growth, and noted for its large cotton-yarn and calico factories,
iron-foundries and machine-shops.
STAMFORD (8), an interesting old town, partly in Lincolnshire and
partly in Northamptonshire, on the Welland, 12 m. WNW. of Peterborough;
was one of the five Danish burghs, and is described in DOMESDAY
BOOK (q. v.); a massacre of Jews occurred here in 1140, and in
Plantagenet times it was a place of ecclesiastical, parliamentary, and
royal importance; figures in the Wars of the Roses and the Civil War of
Charles I.'s time; has three fine Early English churches, a corn
exchange, two handsome schools, Browne's Hospital, founded in Richard
III.'s reign, and Burghley House, a noble specimen of Renaissance
architecture; the _Stamford Mercury_ (1695) is the earliest provincial
newspaper; the district is mainly agricultural.
STAMFORD (16), a town of Connecticut, situated amid surrounding
hills in Long Island Sound, 33 m. NE. of New York; is a summer resort,
and has iron and bronze foundries, etc.
STAMFORD BRIDGE, a village of Yorkshire, on the Derwent, 91/4 m. NE.
of York; the scene of Harold's victory over the invading forces of Harold
Haarfager on September 25, 1066.
STAMP ACT, a measure passed by Grenville's Ministry in 1765 enacting
that all legal documents used in the colonies should bear Government
stamps. The Americans resisted on the ground that taxation without
representation in Parliament was unjust. Riots broke out, and the stamped
paper was carefully avoided. In 1766 Pitt championed the cause of the
colonists, and largely through his eloquence Government in that year was
induced to repeal the Act.
STANDING STONES, rude unhewn stones standing singly or in groups in
various parts of the world, and erected at remote periods, presumably in
memory of some great achievement or misfortune, or as having some
STANDISH, MILES, one of the Puritan fathers, of Lancashire birth,
and a cadet of a family of knightly rank in the county; served in the
Netherlands as a soldier, and went to America in the Mayflower in 1620,
and was helpful to the colony in its relations both with the Indians and
the mother-country; is the hero of a poem of Longfellow's.
STANFIELD, CLARKSON, English landscape-painter, born in Sunderland,
of Irish descent; began as a scene-painter; his first picture,
"Market-boats on the Scheldt," proving a success, he devoted himself to
easel-painting, and his principal works were "Wreckers off Fort Rouge,"
"A Calm at Sea," "The Abandoned," "The Bass Rock"; his frequent visits to
the Continent supplied him with fresh subjects; and Ruskin says of one of
his pictures, "it shows as much concentrated knowledge of the sea and sky
as, diluted, would have lasted any of the old masters for life"
STANHOPE, LADY HESTER LUCY, born at Chevening, Kent, the eldest
daughter of the third Earl of Stanhope, and niece of William Pitt; a
woman of unusual force of character and attractiveness; from 1803 to 1806
was, as the confidant and housekeeper of her uncle William Pitt, a leader
of society; retired with a Government pension after Pitt's death, but
impelled by her restless nature, led an unsettled life in Southern
Europe, and finally settled in Syria in 1814, making her home in the old
convent of Mar Elias, near Mount Lebanon, where, cut off from Western
civilisation, for 25 years she exercised a remarkable influence over the
rude tribes of the district; assumed the dress of a Mohammedan chief, and
something of the religion of Islam, and in the end came to look upon
herself as a sort of prophetess; interesting accounts of her strange life
and character have been published by her English physician, Dr. Madden,
and others (1776-1839).
STANHOPE, PHILIP HENRY, EARL, historian, born at Walmer, only son of
the fourth Earl of Stan hope; graduated at Oxford in 1827, and three
years later entered Parliament as a Conservative; held office as
Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in Peel's Ministry of 1834-35, and as
Secretary to the Indian Board of Control during 1845-46; succeeded his
father in 1855, before which he was known by the courtesy title of Lord
Mahon; literature was his chief interest, and as a historian and
biographer he has a deservedly high reputation for industry and
impartial judgment; a "History of England from 1713 to 1783," a "History
of Spain under Charles II.," "Historical and Critical Essays," and Lives
of Pitt, Conde, and Belisarius, are his most important works (1805-1875).
STANISLAS I., LECZINSKI, king of Poland, born in Lemberg; afterwards
sovereign of the Duchies of Bar and Lorraine; became the father-in-law of
Louis XV. (1677-1766).
STANLEY. ARTHUR PENRHYN, widely known as Dean Stanley, having been
dean of Westminster, born at Alderley, in Cheshire, son of the rector,
who became bishop of Norwich; was educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, and
afterwards at Balliol College, Oxford; took orders, and was for 12 years
tutor in his college; published his "Life of Dr. Arnold" in 1844, his
"Sinai and Palestine" in 1855, after a visit to the East; held a
professorship of Ecclesiastical History in Oxford for a time, and
published lectures on the Eastern Church, the Jewish Church, the
Athanasian Creed, and the Church of Scotland; accompanied the Prince of
Wales to the East in 1862, and became dean of Westminster next year in
succession to Trench; wrote "Historical Monuments of Westminster Abbey"
and "Christian Institutions"; he had been married to Lady Augusta Bruce,
and her death deeply affected him and accelerated his own; he was buried
beside her in Henry VII.'s chapel; he was an amiable man, an interesting
writer, and a broad churchman of very pronounced views (1815-1881).
STANLEY, HENRY MORTON, African explorer, born in Denbigh, Wales, in
humble circumstances, his parental name being Rowlands, he having assumed
the name of Stanley after that of his adopted father, Mr. Stanley, New
Orleans; served in the Confederate army; became a newspaper foreign
correspondent, to the _New York Herald_ at length; was summoned to go and
"find Livingstone"; after many an impediment found Livingstone on 10th
November 1871, and after staying with him, and accompanying him in
explorations, returned to England in August next year; in 1874 he set out
again at the head of an expedition, solved several problems, and returned
home; published "Congo and its Free State," "In Darkest Africa," &c.;
represents Lambeth, North, in Parliament, having been elected in 1895;
STANNARY, a general term used to cover the tin mines of a specified
district, the miners themselves, and such customs and privileges as
appertain to the workers and the mines. In England the term is specially
associated with the stannaries of Devon and Cornwall, which by an Act of
Edward III. were conferred in perpetuity upon the Prince of Wales as Duke
of Cornwall, who holds the title of Lord Warden of the Stannaries.
Special Stannary Courts for the administration of justice amongst those
connected with the mines are held in the two counties, and are each
presided over by a warden and a vice-warden. Up to 1752 representative
assemblies of the miners, called Stannary Parliaments, were held. Appeals
from the Stannary Courts may be made now to the higher courts of England.
STAR-CHAMBER, a court which originated in the reign of Edward III.,
and consisted practically of the king's ordinary council, meeting in the
Starred Chamber, and dealing with such cases as fell outside the
jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery; was revived and remodelled by
Henry VII., and in an age when the ordinary courts were often intimidated
by powerful offenders, rendered excellent service to the cause of
justice; was further developed and strengthened during the chancellorship
of Wolsey, and in the reign of James I. had acquired jurisdiction as a
criminal court over a great variety of misdemeanours--perjury, riots,
conspiracy, high-treason, &c. Already tending to an exercise of
unconstitutional powers, it in the reign of Charles I. became an
instrument of the grossest tyranny, supporting the king in his absolutist
claims, and in 1641 was among the first of the many abuses swept away by
the Long Parliament.
STARS, THE, are mostly suns, but being, the nearest of them, at a
distance from us more than 500,000 times our distance from the sun, are
of a size we cannot estimate, but are believed to be 300 times larger
than the earth; they are of unequal brightness, and are, according to
this standard, classified as of the first, second, down to the sixteenth
magnitude; those visible to the naked eye include stars from the first to
the sixth magnitude, and number 3000, while 20,000,000 are visible by the
telescope; of these in the MILKY WAY (q. v.) alone there are
18,000,000; they are distinguished by their colours as well as their
brightness, being white, orange, red, green, and blue according to their
temperature and composition; they have from ancient date been grouped
into constellations of the northern and the southern hemispheres and of
the ZODIAC (q. v.), the stars in each of which being noted by
the Greek letters, as [Greek: alpha], [Greek: beta], according to their
brightness; they all move more or less, and some go round each other, and
are called double according as there are two or more of them so
revolving; besides stars singly visible there are others called
CLUSTERS OR NEBULAE (q. v.).
STARS AND STRIPES, the flag of the United States, the stripes
representing the original States of the Union, and stars those annexed
STATEN ISLAND, 1, belonging to New York State (52), and comprising
the county of Richmond; is a picturesque island (14 m. long), 5 m. SW. of
New York, separated from Long Island by the Narrows and from New Jersey
by the Kill van Kull and Staten Island Sound; pretty watering-villages
skirt its shores, and Forts Richmond and Wadsworth guard the entrance to
the Narrows. 2, A lofty, precipitous, and rugged island, snow-clad most
of the year, belonging to Argentina, lying to the SE. of Tierra del
Fuego, from which it is separated by Le Maire Strait (40 m.).
STATES-GENERAL, name given to an assembly of the representatives of
the three estates of nobles, clergy, and bourgeoisie, or the _Tiers Etat_
as it was called, in France prior to the Revolution of 1789, and which
was first convoked in 1302 by Philip IV.; they dealt chiefly with
taxation, and had no legislative power; they were convoked by Louis XIII.
in 1614, and dismissed for looking into finance, and not convoked again
till the last time in 1789, for the history of which see Carlyle's
STATES-RIGHTS, doctrine of the contention of the Democrats in the
United States that the several States of the Union have all the rights,
powers, and privileges not expressly made over to the central government,
and by extremists even the right of secession.
STATIONERS' HALL, the hall of the old Company of London Stationers,
incorporated in 1557, who enjoyed till the Copyright Act of 1842 the sole
right of having registered at their offices every pamphlet, book, and
ballad published in the kingdom. Although no longer compulsory, the
practice of entering books at Stationers' Hall is still found useful for
copyright purposes. The register-rolls of books entered at Stationers'
Hall have been carefully preserved, and are of the highest value to the
STATIONS OF THE CROSS, steps in the passage of Jesus from the
judgment-hall to Calvary, or representations of these, before each one of
which the faithful are required to kneel and offer up a prayer.
STATIUS, PUBLIUS PAPINIUS, a Latin poet, born in Naples; lived at
Rome, flourished at court, particularly that of Domitian, whom he
flattered, but retired to his native place after defeat in a competition;
his chief work is the "Thebais," an epic in 12 books, embodying the
legends connected with the war against Thebes; he ranks first among the
poets of the silver age; a collection of short pieces of his named
"Silvae" have been often reprinted (61-96).
STAUBBACH (dust stream), a famous waterfall in Bern, near
Lauterbrunnen, 8 m. S. of Interlaken, with a sheer descent of 980 ft.; in
the sunlight it has the appearance of a rainbow-hued transparent veil,
and before it reaches the ground it is dissipated in silvery spray.
STAUNTON, HOWARD, a famous chess-player; was an Oxford man, and led
a busy life as a journalist and miscellaneous writer in London; won the
chess championship in 1843, and did much to extend the scientific study
of the game by various publications, "The Chess-Player's Handbook," &c.;
was also held in high repute as a Shakespearian scholar; published
well-annotated editions of Shakespeare's works and a facsimile of the
first folio (1810-1874).
STAVANGER (24), a flourishing port of Norway, on a fiord on the SW.
coast, 100 m. S. of Bergen; is of modern aspect, having been largely
rebuilt; has two excellent harbours, a fine 11th-century Gothic
cathedral, and is the centre of important coast fisheries.
STAVROPOL (657), a Russian government on the Caspian Sea, the
inhabitants of which are chiefly nomads and breed horses, with a capital
of the same name (36) on a hill, a modern town and a prosperous, both in
manufacture and trade.
STEEL, SIR JOHN, sculptor, born at Aberdeen; studied at Edinburgh
and Rome; made his mark in 1832 by a model of a statue, "Alexander and
Bucephalus," and soon took rank with the foremost and busiest sculptors
of his day; his works are mostly to be found in Edinburgh, and include
the equestrian statue of Wellington, statues of Sir Walter Scott (in the
Scott Monument), Professor Wilson, Dr. Chalmers, Allan Ramsay, etc.; the
splendid figure of Queen Victoria over the Royal Institution gained him
the appointment (1844) of sculptor to Her Majesty in Scotland, and on the
unveiling of his fine equestrian statue of Prince Albert in 1876 he was
created a knight (1804-1891).
STEELE, SIR RICHARD, a famous English essayist, born, the son of an
attorney, in Dublin; educated as a foundationer at the Charterhouse and
at Oxford; enamoured of a soldier's life, enlisted (1694) as a cadet in
the Life Guards; in the following year received an ensigncy in the
Coldstream Guards, and continued in the army till 1706, by which time he
had attained the rank of a captain; a good deal of literary work was done
during his soldiering, notably "The Christian Hero" and several comedies;
appointed Gazetteer (1707), and for some two years was in the private
service of the Prince Consort, George of Denmark; began in 1709 to issue
the famous tri-weekly paper the _Tatler_, in which, with little
assistance, he played the part of social and literary censor about town,
couching his remarks in light and graceful essays, which constituted a
fresh departure in literature; largely aided by Addison, his old school
companion, he developed this new form of essay in the _Spectator_ and
_Guardian_; sat in Parliament as a zealous Whig, and in George I.'s reign
was knighted and received various minor court appointments; continued a
busy writer of pamphlets, &c., but withal mismanaged his affairs, and
died in Wales, secured from actual penury by the property of his second
wife; as a writer shares with Addison the glory of the Queen Anne Essay,
which in their hands did much to purify, elevate, and refine the mind and
manners of the time (1671-1729).
STEEN, JAN, Dutch painter, born in Leyden; was a _genre_ painter of
the style of Rembrandt, and his paintings display severity with sympathy
and a playful humour; he is said to have led a dissipated life, and to
have left his wife and a large family in extreme destitution (1626-1679).
STEEVENS, GEORGE, commentator on Shakespeare, born at Stepney; in
1736 edited 20 of Shakespeare's plays carefully reprinted from the
original quartos, and in 1731 his notes with those of Johnson in another
edition; a further edition, with a number of gratuitous alterations of
the text, was issued by him in 1793, and that was the accepted one till
the publication of Knight's in 1838 (1736-1800).
STEIN, BARON VON, Prussian statesman, born at Nassau; rose rapidly
in the service of the State, and became Prussian Prime Minister under
William III. in 1807, in which capacity he effected important changes in
the constitution of the country to its lasting benefit, till Napoleon
procured his dismissal, and he withdrew to Austria, and at length to St.
Petersburg, where he was instrumental in turning the general tide against
STEIN, CHARLOTTE VON, a lady friend of Goethe's, born at Weimar;
Goethe's affection for her cooled on his return from Italy to see her so
changed; she never forgave him for marrying a woman beneath him; letters
by Goethe to her were published in successive editions, but hers to him
were destroyed by her (1742-1827).
STEINMETZ, CARL FRIEDRICH VON, Prussian general, born at Eisenach;
distinguished himself in the war of 1813-1814, and inflicted crushing
defeats on the Austrians in 1866; fell below his reputation in the
Franco-German War, and was deprived of his command after the battle of
Gravelotte, but was elected Governor-General of Posen and Silesia
STEINTHAL, HEYMANN, German philologist, born at Groebzig, in Anhalt;
studied at Berlin, where in 1863 he became professor of Comparative
Philology, and in 1872 lecturer at the Jewish High School on Old
Testament Criticism and Theology; author of various learned and acute
works on the science of language; _b_. 1823.
STELLA, the name under which Swift has immortalised Hester Johnson,
the story of whose life is inseparably entwined with that of the great
Dean; was the daughter of a lady-companion of Lady Gifford, the sister of
Sir William Temple, who, it is conjectured, was her father. Swift first
met her, a child of seven, when he assumed the duties of amanuensis to
Sir William Temple in 1688, and during his subsequent residence with Sir
William (1696-1699) stood to her in the progressive relationship of
tutor, friend, and lover; but for some unaccountable reason it would seem
they never married, although their mutual affection and intimacy endured
till her death; to her was addressed, without thought of publication, the
immortal "Journal to Stella," "the most faithful and fascinating diary
the world has ever seen," which throws an invaluable flood of light on
the character of Swift, revealing unsuspected tendernesses and affections
in the great satirist (1681-1728).
STENCILLING, a cheap and simple process of printing on various
surfaces letters or designs; the characters are cut out in thin plates of
metal or card-board, which are then laid on the surface to be imprinted,
and the colour, by means of a brush, rubbed through the cut spaces.
STENO, NICHOLAS, a noted anatomist, born at Copenhagen, where he
studied medicine and kindred sciences with great enthusiasm; became
widely known in European medical circles by his important investigations
into the natural functions of glands (salivary and parotid), the heart,
brain, &c.; in 1667 became physician to the Grand-Duke of Tuscany,
residing at Florence, where he renounced Lutheranism for Catholicism;
made valuable geological investigations, but finally gave himself up to a
religious life; was created a bishop, and in 1677 Vicar-Apostolic of
North Germany; chiefly remembered for his contributions to anatomical
STENTOR, a Grecian herald who accompanied the Greeks in the Trojan
War, and whom Homer describes as "the great-hearted, brazen-voiced
Stentor, whose shout was as loud as that of fifty other men," hence the
STEPHEN, king of England from 1135 to 1154, nephew of Henry I., his
mother being Adela, daughter of William I.; acquired French possessions
through the favour of his uncle and by his marriage; in 1127 swore fealty
to his cousin Matilda, daughter of Henry I., as his future sovereign, but
on the death of his uncle usurped the throne, an action leading to a
violent civil war, which brought the country into a state of anarchy; the
Scots invaded on behalf of Matilda, but were beaten back at Northallerton
(the Battle of the Standard, 1138); foreign mercenaries introduced by the
king only served to embitter the struggle; the clergy, despoiled by the
king, turned against him, and in the absence of a strong central
authority the barons oppressed the people and fought with one another;
"Adulterine Castles" sprang up over the country, and "men said openly
that Christ and His saints were asleep"; in 1141 Matilda won the battle
of Lincoln and for a few months ruled the country, but "as much too harsh
as Stephen was too lenient," she rapidly became unpopular, and Stephen
was soon again in the ascendant; the successes of Henry, son of Matilda,
led in 1153 to the treaty of Wallingford, by which it was arranged that
Stephen should retain the crown for life, while Henry should be his heir;
both joined in suppressing the turbulent barons and the "Adulterine
Castles"; more fortunately circumstanced, Stephen had many qualities
which might have made him a popular and successful king (1105-1154).
STEPHEN, the name of nine popes; S. I., Pope from 253 to 257,
signalised by his zeal against the heresies of his time; S. II.,
Pope from 752 to 757, in whose reign, under favour of Pepin le Bref,
began the temporal power of the Popes; S. III., Pope from 768 to
772, sanctioned the worship of saints and images; S. IV., Pope from
816 to 817; S. V., Pope from 885 to 891, distinguished for his
charity; S. VI., Pope from 896 to 897, strangled after a reign of 18
months; S. VII., Pope from 829 to 831, entirely under the control of
his mistresses; S. VIII., pope from 939 to 942; S. IX., Pope
from 1057 to 1058, vigorously opposed the sale of benefices and the
immorality of the clergy.
STEPHEN, GEORGE, archaeologist, born in Liverpool; settled in Sweden,
and became professor of English in Copenhagen; his great work entitled
"Old Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England"; _b_. 1813.
STEPHEN, JAMES, slavery abolitionist, born in Dorsetshire; held a
post in the West Indies; wrote "Slavery in the British West Indies," an
able book; had sons more or less distinguished in law and law practice
STEPHEN, LESLIE, man of letters, born at Kensington, educated at
Eton and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow; became
editor of the _Cornhill_ and of the first 26 volumes of the "Dictionary
of National Biography"; is the author of "Hours in a Library" and
"History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century," books that have
produced a deep impression; has also produced several biographies,
distinguished at once by accuracy, elegance, and critical acumen; _b_.
STEPHEN, ST., protomartyr of the Christian Church, who was (Acts
vii.) stoned to death in A.D. 33; his death is a frequent subject of the
old painters, the saint himself being less frequently depicted, but when
so he is represented usually in a deacon's dress, bearing a stone in one
hand and a palm-branch in the other, or both hands full of stones.
STEPHENS, JAMES, Fenian conspirator, born in Kilkenny; became "Head
Centre," and zealous in the Fenian cause both in Ireland and America; was
arrested in Dublin, but escaped; found his way to New York, but was
deposed, and has sunk out of sight; _b_. 1824.
STEPHEN'S, ST., the Parliament House of Westminister, distinguished
from St. James's, which denotes the Court, as Downing Street does the
STEPHENSON, GEORGE, inventor of the locomotive, born, the son of a
poor colliery engineman, at Wylam, near Newcastle; was early set to work,
first as a cowherd and then as a turnip-hoer, and by 15 was earning 12s.
a week as fireman at Throckley Bridge Colliery, diligently the while
acquiring the elements of education; married at 21, and supplemented his
wage as brakesman at Killingworth Colliery by mending watches and shoes;
in 1815 invented a safety-lamp for miners, which brought him a public
testimonial of L1000; while at Killingworth turned his attention to the
application of steam to machinery, and thus constructed his first
locomotive in 1814 for the colliery tram-road; railway and locomotive
construction now became the business of his life; superintended the
construction of the Stockton and Darlington Railway (1821-25), the
Liverpool and Manchester Railway (1826-29), over which he ran his
locomotive the "Rocket" at a maximum rate of 35 m. an hour; in the
outburst of railway enterprise which now ensued Stephenson's services
were in requisition all over the country; became principal engineer on
many of the new railways; bought the country-seat of Tapton, near
Chesterfield, to which he retired for much-needed rest; a man of
character, gentle and simple in his affections, strong and purposeful in
his labours, who, as he himself says, "fought for the locomotive
single-handed for nearly 20 years," and "put up with every rebuff,
determined not to be put down" (1781-1848).
STEPHENSON, ROBERT, son of preceding, born at Willington Quay, was
well educated at Newcastle, and for a session at Edinburgh University;
began in 1823 to assist his father, and from 1824 to 1827 fulfilled an
engineering engagement in Colombia, South America; rendered valuable
service in the construction of the "Rocket," and as joint-engineer with
his father of the London and Birmingham line, was mainly responsible for
its construction; turning his attention specially to bridge-building he
constructed the Britannia and Conway Tubular bridges, besides many
others, including those over the Nile, St. Lawrence, &c.; was returned to
the House of Commons in 1847; received the Grand Cross of the Legion of
Honour from the French emperor, and many other distinctions at home and
abroad; was buried in Westminster Abbey (1803-1859).
STEPNIAK, Russian Nihilist and apostle of freedom; exiled himself to
England; author of "Underground Russia" (1852-1895).
STEPPES, the name given to wide, treeless plains, barren except in
spring, of the SE. of Russia and SW. of Siberia.
STEREOSCOPE, a simple optical apparatus which, when two photographs
of an object taken from slightly different standpoints (so as to secure
the appearance it presents to either eye singly) are placed under its
twin magnifying lenses, presents to the eyes of the looker a single
picture of the object standing out in natural relief.
STERLING, JOHN, a friend of Carlyle's, born at Kames Castle, Bute,
son of Captain Sterling of the _Times_; studied at Glasgow and Cambridge;
a man of brilliant parts and a liberal-minded, but of feeble health; had
Julius Hare for tutor at Cambridge, and became Hare's curate at
Hurstmonceaux for eight months; wrote for reviews, and projected literary
enterprises, but achieved nothing; spent his later days moving from place
to place hoping to prolong life; formed an acquaintanceship with Carlyle
in 1832; became an intelligent disciple, and believed in him to the last;
Hare edited his papers, and wrote his life as a clergyman, and Carlyle,
dissatisfied, wrote another on broader lines, and by so doing
immortalised his memory (1806-1843).
STERN, DANIEL. See AGOULT.
STERNE, LAURENCE, English humourist, born at Clonmel, Ireland, son
of Roger Sterne, captain in the army; his mother an Irishwoman; was
educated at Halifax and Cambridge, by-and-by took orders, and received
livings in Sutton and Shillington, became a prebend at York, and finally
got a living at Coxwold; in 1759 appeared the first two volumes of
"Tristram Shandy," and in 1767 the last two; in 1768 his "Sentimental
Journey," and in the interim his "Sermons," equally characteristic of the
man as the two former productions. Stopford Brooke says, "They have no
plot, they can scarcely be said to have any story. The story of 'Tristram
Shandy' wanders like a man in a labyrinth, and the humour is as
labyrinthine as the story. It is carefully invented, and whimsically
subtle; and the sentiment is sometimes true, but mostly affected. But a
certain unity is given to the book by the admirable consistency of the
characters," his masterpieces, among which is "Uncle Toby"; the author
died in London of pulmonary consumption (1713-1763).
STERNHOLD, THOMAS, principal author of the first English metrical
version of the Psalms, originally attached to the Prayer-Book as
augmented by John Hopkins; continued in general use till Tate and Brady's
version of 1696 was substituted in 1717; was a Hampshire man, and held
the post of Groom of the Robes to Henry VIII. and Edward VI. (1500-1549).
STEROPES, one of the three CYCLOPS (q. v.).
STESICHORUS, a celebrated Greek lyric poet, born in Sicily;
contemporary of Sappho, Aleacus, and Pittacus; at his birth it is said a
nightingale alighted on his lips and sang a sweet strain (632-652 B.C.).
STETTIN (116), capital of Pomerania, and a flourishing river-port on
both banks of the Oder, 30 m. from its entrance into the Baltic, and 60
m. NE. of Berlin; lies contiguous to, and is continuous with, the smaller
towns of Bredow, Grabow, and Zuellchow; principal buildings are the royal
palace (16th century), the Gothic church of St. Peter (12th century), and
St. James's (14th century); is a busy hive of industry, turning out
ships, cement, sugar, spirits, &c., and carrying on a large export and
STEUBEN, BARON VON, general in the American War of Independence,
born in Magdeburg; originally in the Prussian service under Frederick the
Great, and had distinguished himself at the siege of Prague and at
Rossbach; emigrating to America at the end of the Seven Years' War he
offered his services, which were readily welcomed, and contributed to
organise and discipline the army, to the success of the revolution
STEVENSON, ROBERT, an eminent Scottish engineer, born at Glasgow,
the son of a West India merchant; adopted the profession of his
stepfather Thomas Smith, and in 1796 succeeded him as first engineer to
the Board of Northern Lighthouses, a position he held for 47 years,
during which he planned and erected as many as 23 lighthouses round the
coasts of Scotland, his most noted erection being that on the Bell Rock;
introduced the catoptric system of illumination and other improvements;
was also much employed as a consulting engineer in connection with
bridge, harbour, canal, and railway construction (1772-1850).
STEVENSON, ROBERT LOUIS BALFOUR, novelist and essayist, grandson of
the preceding, born at Edinburgh, where in 1875 he was called to the bar,
after disappointing his father by not following the family vocation of
engineering; had already begun to write for the magazines, and soon
abandoned law for the profession of letters, in which he rapidly came to
the front; in 1878 appeared his first book, "An Inland Voyage," quickly
followed by "Travels with a Donkey," "Virginibus Puerisque," "Familiar
Studies"; with "Treasure Island" (1883) found a wider public as a writer
of adventure and romance, and established himself permanently in the
public favour with "Kidnapped" (1886, most popular story), "The Master of
Ballantrae," "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," &c.; his versatility in letters
was further revealed in his charming "A Child's Garden of Verse,"
"Ballads," "Memories and Portraits," and "A Footnote to History" (on
Samoan politics); in 1890 failing health induced him to make his home in
the island of Samoa, where he died and is buried; "His too short life,"
says Professor Saintsbury, "has left a fairly ample store of work, not
always quite equal, seldom quite without a flaw, but charming,
stimulating, distinguished as few things in this last quarter of a
century have been" (1850-1894).
STEWARD, LORD HIGH, in early times the highest office of state in
England, ranking in power next to the sovereign; hereditary during many
centuries, the office lapsed in the reign of Henry IV., and since has
been revived only on special occasions, e. g. a coronation, a trial of
a peer, at the termination of which the office is demitted, the Lord High
Steward himself breaking in two his wand of office.
STEWART, BALFOUR, physicist, born in Edinburgh; after finishing his
university curriculum went to Australia and engaged for some time in
business; returned to England; became director at Kew Observatory, and
professor of Natural Philosophy at Owens College, Manchester; made
discoveries in radiant heat, and was one of the founders of SPECTRUM
ANALYSIS (q. v.); published text-books on physics, in wide repute
STEWART, DUGALD, Scottish philosopher, born in Edinburgh, son of
Matthew Stewart; attended the High School and the University; studied one
session at Glasgow under Dr. Reid; assisted his father in conducting the
mathematical classes in Edinburgh, and succeeded Adam Ferguson in the
Moral Philosophy chair in 1785, a post, the active duties of which he
discharged with signal success for twenty-five years, lecturing on a wide
range of subjects connected with metaphysics and the science of mind; he
wrote "Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind," "Philosophical
Essays," &c.; "His writings," says Carlyle, who held him in high
veneration, "are not a philosophy, but a making ready for one. He does
not enter on the field to till it; he only encompasses it with fences,
invites cultivators, and drives away intruders; often (fallen on evil
days) he is reduced to long arguments with the passers-by to prove that
it _is_ a field, that this so highly-prized domain of his is, in truth,
soil and substance, not clouds and shadows. It is only to a superficial
observer that the import of these discussions can seem trivial; rightly
understood, they give sufficient and final answer to Hartley's and
Darwin's and all other possible forms of Materialism, the grand Idolatry,
as we may rightly call it, by which, in all times, the true Worship, that
of the Invisible, has been polluted and withstood" (1753-1858).
STEWART, HOUSE OF. See STUART.
STEWART, MATTHEW, mathematician, born at Rothesay; bred for the
Church, was for a time minister of Roseneath, and succeeded Maclaurin as
professor of Mathematics in Edinburgh in 1747; was the author of a
mathematical treatise or two, and the lifelong friend of Robert Simson
STEYER (17), a manufacturing town of Upper Austria, at the junction
of the Steyer and Enns, 20 m. NE. of St. Valentin; noted for its
flourishing iron and steel manufactures, of which it is the chief seat in
STHENO, one of the THREE GORGONS (q. v.).
STIELER, a celebrated German cartographer, born at Gotha; his
atlases are deservedly held in high esteem for their excellence
STIER, RUDOLF EWALD, German theologian; was a devout student of the
Bible as the very Word of God, and is best known as the author of the
"Words of the Lord Jesus" (1800-1862).
STIGAND, archbishop of Canterbury and favourite of Edward the
Confessor, who advanced him to the bishoprics of Elmham and Winchester
and to the Primacy in 1052; his appointment was popularly regarded as
uncanonical, and neither Harold nor William the Conqueror allowed him to
perform the ceremony of coronation; through William's influence was by
the Pope deprived of his office and condemned to imprisonment.
STIGMATA, impressions of marks corresponding to certain wounds
received by Christ at His crucifixion, and which certain of the saints
are said to have been supernaturally marked with in memory of His. St.
Francis in particular showed such marks.
STILICHO, a Roman general, son of a Vandal captain under the emperor
Valens; on the death of Theodosius I., under whom he served, became the
ruler of the West, and by his military abilities saved the Western
Empire; defeated Alaric the Goth in a decisive battle and compelled him
to retire from Italy, as he did another horde of invading barbarians
afterwards; aspired to be master of the Roman empires, but was
assassinated at Ravenna in 403.
STILL, JOHN, bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Grantham; rose in the
Church through a succession of preferments: is credited with the
authorship of one of the oldest comedies in the English language, "Gammer
Gurton's Needle," turning on the loss and recovery by her of the needle
with which she was mending her goodman's breeches (1543-1607).
STILLING, JUNG, a German mystic; studied medicine at Strasburg, and
when there became acquainted with Goethe, who took a liking for him and
remained his warm friend; settled as a physician at Elberfeldt and became
professor at Marburg and at Heidelberg; he was distinguished for his
skill in operations on the eye, and is said to have restored to sight
without fee or reward 3000 poor blind persons; he is best known by his
autobiography; Carlyle defines him as the German "Dominie Sampson."
STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD, bishop of Worcester, born in Dorsetshire; was
a scholarly man, wrote on apologetics, in defence of the Church of
England as a branch of the Church Catholic, in support of the doctrine of
the Trinity, and in advocacy of harmony in the Church; was an able
controversialist and a generous minded; was a handsome man, and popularly
called the "Beauty of holiness" (1635-1699).
STIPPLE, a mode of engraving by dots instead of lines, each dot when
magnified showing a group of small ones.
STIRLING, JAMES HUTCHISON, master in philosophy, born in Glasgow;
bred to medicine and practised for a time in South Wales; went to Germany
to study the recent developments in philosophy there, on his return to
Scotland published, in 1863, his "Secret of Hegel: being the Hegelian
System in Origin, Principle, Form, and Matter," which has proved
epoch-making, and has for motto the words of Hegel, "The Hidden Secret of
the Universe is powerless to resist the might of thought! It must unclose
before it, revealing to sight and bringing to enjoyment its riches and
its depths." It is the work of a master-mind, as every one must feel who
tackles to the study of it, and of one who has mastered the subject of it
as not another in England, or perhaps even in Germany, has done. The grip
he takes of it is marvellous and his exposition trenchant and clear. It
was followed in 1881 by his "Text-book to Kant," an exposition which his
"Secret" presupposes, and which he advised the students of it to expect,
that they might be able to construe the entire Hegelian system from its
root in Kant. It is not to the credit of his country that Dr. Stirling
has never been elected to a chair in any of her universities, though it
is understood that is due to the unenlightened state of mind of electoral
bodies in regard to the Hegelian system and the prejudice against it,
particularly among the clergy of the Church. He was, however, elected to
be the first Gifford Lecturer in Edinburgh University, and his admirers
have had to content themselves with that modicum of acknowledgment at
last. He is the author of a critique on Sir William Hamilton's theory of
perception, on Huxley's doctrine of protoplasm, and on Darwinianism,
besides a translation of SCHWEGLER'S "History of Philosophy," with
notes, a highly serviceable work. His answer to Huxley is crushing. He is
the avowed enemy of the Aufklaerung and of all knowledge that consists of
mere Vorstellungen and does not grasp the ideas which they present; _b_.
STIRLING, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, EARL OF, poet, born at Menstrie, near
Alloa; was for a time tutor to the family of Argyll; was the author of
sonnets called "Aurora," some curious tragedies, and an "Elegy on the
Death of Prince Henry"; he was held in high honour by James VI. and
followed him to London, obtained a grant of Nova Scotia, and made
Secretary of State for Scotland; he has been ranked as a poet with
Drummond of Hawthornden, who was his friend (1580-1640).
STIRLING-MAXWELL, See MAXWELL, STIRLING.
STIRLING (17), the county town of Stirlingshire, and one of the most
ancient and historically-interesting cities of Scotland; occupies a fine
site on the Forth, 36 m. NW. of Edinburgh and 29 m. NE. of Glasgow; most
prominent feature is the rocky castle hill, rising at the westward end of
the town to a height of 420 feet, and crowned by the ancient castle, a
favourite Stuart residence, and associated with many stirring events in
Scottish history, and utilised now as a garrison-station; interesting
also are "Argyll's Lodging," Greyfriars Church (Pointed Gothic of the
15th century), the fine statue of Bruce, &c.; has manufactures of
tartans, tweeds, carpets, &c., and a trade in agricultural and mining
STIRLINGSHIRE (126), a midland county of Scotland, stretching E. and
W. from Dumbarton (W.) to the Forth (E.); between Lanark (S.) and Perth
(N.) it forms the borderland between the Lowlands and the Highlands; Loch
Lomond skirts the western border, and on the northern Loch Katrine,
stretching into Perthshire; Ben Lomond and lesser heights rise in the
NW.; main streams are the Avon, Carron, Bannock, &c.; between Alloa and
Stirling stretches the fertile and well-cultivated plain, "The Carse of
Stirling"; in the W. lies a portion of the great western coal-field, from
which coal and iron-stone are largely extracted; principal towns are
STIRLING (q. v.), Falkirk, and Kilsyth; interesting remains of
Antoninus' Wall, from Forth to Clyde, still exist; within its borders
were fought the battles of Bannockburn, Sauchieburn, Stirling Bridge,
STIRRUP CUP, a "parting cup" given by the Highlanders to guests when
they are leaving and have their feet in the stirrups.
STOBSAEUS, JOANNES, a native of Stobi, in Macedonia; flourished at
the end of the 5th and beginning of the 6th century; celebrated as the
compiler (about 500 A.D.) of a Greek Anthology, through which many
valuable extracts are preserved to us from works which have since his day
STOCK EXCHANGE, a mart for the buying and selling of Government
stocks, company shares, and various securities, carried on usually by the
members of an associated body of brokers having certain rules and
regulations. Such associations exist now in most of the important cities
of the United Kingdom and commercial world generally (on the Continent
are known as _Bourses_). The London Stock Exchange, transacting business
in handsome buildings in Capel Court, facing the Bank of England, was
established in 1801, stock-exchange transactions previous to then being
carried on in a loose, ill-regulated fashion by private parties chiefly
in and around Change Alley, the scene of the memorable SOUTH SEA
BUBBLE (q. v.) speculation. The great development in stock-exchange
business in recent times is due chiefly to the sale of foreign and
colonial bonds, and the remarkable growth and spread of joint-stock
companies since the Joint-Stock Company Act of 1862.
STOCKHOLM (246), capital of Sweden; occupies a charming site on the
channel leading out of Lake Maelar into a bay of the Baltic; stands partly
on the mainland and partly on nine islands, communication between which
is facilitated by handsome bridges and a busy service of boats; its
wooded and rocky islands, crowned with handsome buildings, its winding
waterways, peninsulas, crowded wharves, and outlook over the isleted
lake, combine to make it one of the most picturesque cities of Europe;
Town Island, the nucleus of the city, is occupied by the royal palace,
House of Nobles, principal wharf, &c., while on Knights' Island stand the
Houses of Parliament, law-courts, and other public buildings; Norrmalm,
with the Academy of Science, National Museum, Academy of Fine Arts, Hop
Garden, &c., is the finest quarter of the city; manufactures embrace
sugar, tobacco, silks, linen, cotton, &c., besides which there are
flourishing iron-works and a busy export trade in iron and steel, oats,
and tar, despite the hindrance caused by the ice during three or four
months in winter; founded in 1255 by Birger Jarl.
STOCKMAR, BARON DE, statesman, born at Coburg; bred to medicine,
became physician to Leopold I. of Belgium, and at length his adviser; was
adviser also of Queen Victoria before her accession; accompanied Prince
Albert to Italy before his marriage, and joined him thereafter in England
as the trusted friend of both the queen and him; he had two political
ideals--a united Germany under Prussia, and unity of purpose between
Germany and England (1757-1863).
STOCKPORT (70), a cotton town of East Cheshire; occupies a site on
the slopes of a narrow gorge overlooking the confluence of the Thame and
Goyt (forming the Mersey), 37 m. E. of Liverpool; a handsome viaduct
spans the river; has an old grammar-school, free library, technical
school, &c.; during the present century has grown to be a busy centre of
cotton manufactures, and has besides flourishing iron and brass
foundries, machine-shops, breweries, &c.
STOCKTON-ON-TEES (69), a prosperous manufacturing town and port of
Durham, on the Tees, 4 m. from its mouth; an iron bridge spanning the
river connects it with Thornaby-on-Tees; has the usual public buildings;
steel and iron shipbuilding building, potteries, foundries, machine-shops
are flourishing industries; iron and earthenware are the chief exports,
and with imports of corn and timber give rise to a busy and increasing
shipping, facilitated by the excellent river-way.
STOICS, the disciples of Zeno; derived their name from the _stoa_ or
portico in Athens where their master taught and founded the school in 340
B.C. The doctrines of the school were completely antagonistic to those
of Epicurus, and among the disciples of it are to be reckoned some of the
noblest spirits of the heathen world immediately before and after the
advent of Christ. These appear to have been attracted to it by the
character of its moral teachings, which were of a high order indeed. The
principle of morality was defined to be conformity to reason, and the
duty of man to lie in the subdual of all passion and a composed
submission to the will of the gods. It came short of Christian morality,
as indeed all Greek philosophy did, in not recognising the Divine
significance and power of humility, and especially in its failure to see,
still more to conform to, the great doctrine of Christ which makes the
salvation of a man to depend on the interest he takes in, as well as in
the fact of the salvation of, other men. The Stoic was a proud man, and
not a humble, and was content if he could only have his own soul for a
prey. He did not see--and no heathen ever did--that the salvation of one
man is impossible except in the salvation of other men, and that no man
can save another unless he descend into that other's case and stand, as
it were, in that other's stead. It is the glory of Christ that He was the
first to feel Himself, and to reveal to others, the eternal validity and
divinity of this truth. The Stoic morality is selfish; the morality of
Christ is brotherly.
STOKE-UPON-TRENT (24), chief seat of the "Potteries," in
Staffordshire, on the Trent and the Trent and Mersey Canal, 15 m. SE. of
Crewe; is of modern growth, with free library, infirmary, public baths,
statue to Wedgwood, &c., and is busily engaged in the manufacture of all
sorts of porcelain ware, earthenware, encaustic tiles, &c., besides which
there are flourishing iron-works, machine-shops, coal-mines, &c.
STOKES, SIR GEORGE GABRIEL, mathematician and physicist, born in
Skreen, co. Sligo; he is great in the department of mathematical physics,
and has been specially devoted to the study of hydro-dynamics and the
theory of light; has opened new fields of investigation, and supplied
future experimenters with valuable hints; he was one of the foremost
physicists of the day; _b_. 1819.
STOLBERG, CHRISTIAN, COUNT, German poet of the Goettingen school, to
which Buerger and Voss belonged, born in Hamburg; was with his brother a
friend of Goethe's, and held a civil appointment in Holstein (1748-1821).
STOLBERG, FRIEDRICH LEOPOLD, COUNT OF, German poet, born in
Holstein, brother of preceding; held State appointments in Denmark;
joined the Romish Church, and showed a religious and ascetic temper
STOLE, a long scarf worn by bishops and priests in the
administration of the sacraments of the Church, and sometimes when
preaching, as well as in symbol of authority.
STONE AGE, the name given to that period in the history of
civilisation when the weapons of war and the chase and the implements of
industry were made of stone, prior to employment for these purposes of
bronze, characteristic of the age succeeding.
STONE CIRCLES, circles of STANDING STONES (q. v.) found in
various parts of Great Britain, North Europe generally, and also, but of
more recent origin, in North India; were certainly, in the most of cases,
set up to mark the circular boundary of a place of burial; erroneously
ascribed to the Druids; from the character of numerous cinerary urns
exhumed, seem to have belonged to the bronze age in Great Britain; most
interesting are those of Stennis, in Orkney, with a circumference of 340
ft., Avebury, in Wiltshire, and STONEHENGE (q. v.).
STONEHAVEN (4), fishing port and county town of Kincardineshire,
situated at the entrance of Carron Water (dividing the town) into South
Bay, 16 m. SSW. of Aberdeen; has a small harbour, and is chiefly engaged
in herring and haddock fishing.
STONEHENGE, the greatest and best preserved of the STONE
CIRCLES (q. v.) of Britain, situated in Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire,
7 m. N. of Salisbury; "consists of two concentric circles, enclosing two
ellipses"; the diameter of the space enclosed is 100 ft.; the stones are
from 13 ft. to 28 ft. high; is generally regarded as an exceptional
development of the ordinary stone circle, but the special purpose of its
unusual construction is still a matter of uncertainty.
STONYHURST, a celebrated Roman Catholic college in East Lancashire,
10 m. N. of Blackburn; established in 1794 by certain Jesuit fathers who,
after the suppression of their seminary at St. Omer, in France, by the
Bourbons, took up their residence at Bruges and then at Liege, but fled
thence to England during the Revolution, and accepted the shelter offered
them at Stonyhurst by Mr. Weld of Lulworth; there are about 300 students,
and upwards of 30 masters; a preparatory school has been established at
Hodder, a mile distant; in 1840 was affiliated to the University of
London, for the degrees of which its students are chiefly trained;
retains in its various institutions many marks of its French origin.
STOOL OF REPENTANCE, in Scotland in former times an elevated seat in
a church on which for offences against morality people did penance and
STORM, THEODORE WOLDSEN, German poet and exquisite story-teller,
born in Sleswig; was a magistrate and judge in Sleswig-Holstein
STORM-AND-STRESS PERIOD, name given in the history of German
literature to a period at the close of the 18th century, when the nation
began to assert its freedom from artificial literary restraint, a period
to which Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen" and Schiller's "Robbers"
belong, and the spirit of which characterises it; the representatives of
the period were called Kraftmaenner (Power-men), who "with extreme
animation railed against Fate in general, because it enthralled free
virtue, and with clenched hands or sounding shields hurled defiance
towards the vault of heaven."
STORMS, CAPE OF, name originally given in 1486 to the Cape of Good
Hope by the Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Dias.
STORNOWAY, a fishing-port, the capital of Lewis, and the chief town
in the Outer Hebrides, with Stornoway Castle adjoining.
STORTHING (i. e. great court), the national Parliament of Norway,
composed of two chambers, the Lagthing or Upper Chamber, and the
Odelsthing or Lower.
STORY, JOSEPH, American jurist and judge, born in Massachusetts
STORY, WILLIAM WETMORE, poet and sculptor, son of preceding; _b_.
STOTHARD, THOMAS, artistic designer and book illustrator, as well as
painter, born in London, son of an innkeeper; illustrated, among other
works, "Pilgrim's Progress," and along with Turner, Rogers' "Italy"
STOURBRIDGE, manufacturing town in Worcestershire; its staple
manufactures are glass and pottery.
STOW, JOHN, English antiquary, born in London; bred a tailor; took
to antiquarian pursuits, which he prosecuted with the zeal of a devotee
that spared no sacrifice; wrote several works on antiquities, the chief
and most valuable being his "Survey of London and Westminster"; he ended
his days in poverty (1525-1605).
STOWELL, WILLIAM SCOTT, eminent English judge, born at Heworth,
brother of Lord Eldon; famed for his judicial decisions (1745-1836).
STRABO, ancient geographer, born at Amasia, in Pontus; flourished in
the reign of Augustus, and the early part of that of Tiberius; was a
learned man, lived some years in Rome, and travelled much in various
countries; wrote a history of 43 books, all lost, and a work on
geography, in 17 books, which has come down to us entire all to the 7th;
the work is in general not descriptive; it comprehends principally
important political events in connection with the countries visited, with
a notice of their illustrious men, or whatever seemed to him
characteristic in them or was of interest to himself; born about 63 B.C.
STRADDHA, the funeral rites and funeral offerings for the dead among
STRAFFORD, THOMAS WENTWORTH, EARL OF, English statesman, born in
London, of an old Yorkshire family; studied at Cambridge; after some
months' travel on the Continent entered Parliament in 1614, but took no
active part in affairs till 1621; he took sides at first with the party
for freedom, but in 1622 felt compelled to side with the king, to his
elevation of greater and greater influence as his counsellor; his policy,
named "Thorough," was to establish a strong Government with the king at
the head, and to put down with a strong hand all opposition to the royal
authority; appointed Lord-Deputy in Ireland in 1633, he did all he could
to increase the royal resources, and was at length, in 1640, exalted to
the Lord-Lieutenancy, being at the same time created Earl of Strafford;
he had risen by this time to be the chief adviser of the king, and was
held responsible for his arbitrary policy; after the meeting of the Long
Parliament he was impeached for high treason; the impeachment seemed
likely to fail, when a Bill of Attainder was produced; to this the king
refused his assent, but he had to yield to the excitement his refusal
produced, and as the result Strafford was beheaded on Tower Hill
STRAITS SETTLEMENTS (507, of which 150 are Chinese), British colony
in the East Indies, embracing the British possessions in the Malay
Peninsula (on the Strait of Malacca), Singapore, Malacca, Penang, and the
Keeling Islands and Christmas Island; were under the jurisdiction of the
Governor-General of India till 1867, in which year they passed under the
control of the Colonial Office at home.
STRALSUND (28), a fortified seaport of North Prussia, on Strela
Sound, opposite the island of Ruegen, in the Baltic, and 66 m. NW. of
Stettin, forms of itself an islet, and is connected with the mainland
(Pomerania) by bridges; is a quaint old town, dating back to the 13th
century; figures often in the wars of Prussia, and is now a place of
considerable commercial importance.
STRANGFORD, PERCY C. S. SMYTHE, VISCOUNT, diplomatist; graduated at
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1800; entered the diplomatic service, and in
the following year succeeded to the title; was ambassador to Portugal,
Sweden, Turkey, and Russia; translated the "Rimas" of Camoens, and was
raised to the peerage (1825) as Baron Penshurst (1780-1855).
STRANGFORD, PERCY E. F. W. SMYTHE, son of preceding, diplomatist and
noted philologist, born at St. Petersburg; passed through Harrow and
Oxford; entered the diplomatic service; became attache at Constantinople,
and during the Crimean War served as Oriental Secretary, acquiring the
while a profound grip of the Eastern Question, and an unrivalled
knowledge of European and Asiatic languages--Turkish, Persian, Arabic,
Slavonic, Afghan, Basque, &c.; succeeded to the title in 1855, and
henceforth resided chiefly in London; was President of the Asiatic
Society, and was considered by Freeman "our greatest English
philologist"; author of various articles on political, geographical, and
philological subjects (1825-1869).
STRANRAER (6), a royal burgh and seaport of Wigtownshire, finely
situated at the southern extremity of Loch Ryan, 73 m. W. of Dumfries;
has an interesting 16th-century castle, and a handsome town-hall and
court-house; there is some shipping in agricultural produce, and steamers
ply daily between Stranraer and Larne, in Ireland.
STRAPAROLA, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO, author of a famous collection of
stories after the style of Boccaccio's "Decameron," partly borrowed and
partly genuine folk-stories, which ranks as an Italian classic, and has
been translated into various European languages; flourished in the 16th
STRAP, HUGH, a simple-hearted friend and adherent of Roderick Random
in Smollett's novel of that name.
STRAPPADO, an obsolete military punishment by drawing a culprit to
the top of a beam and then letting him drop the length of the rope.
STRASBURG (124), capital, since 1871, of Alsace-Lorraine, on the
Ill, a few miles above its confluence with the Rhine, 89 m. N. of Basel;
a place of great strategical importance, and a fortress of the first
class; is a city of Roman origin, and contains a magnificent Gothic
cathedral (11th century) with a famous astronomical clock, an imperial
palace, university, &c.; manufactures embrace beer, leather, cutlery,
jewellery, &c.; there is also a busy transit trade; a free town of the
German empire in the 13th century; fell into the hands of the French in
1681, and was captured by the Germans, after a seven weeks' siege, on
28th September 1870, after which it became finally German, as it was
originally, by the peace of Frankfort, May 1871.
STRATFORD (40), manufacturing town in Essex, on the Lee, 4 m. NE. of
STRATFORD DE REDCLIFFE, SIR STAFFORD CANNING, FIRST VISCOUNT, a
distinguished ambassador, born in London, son of a well-connected
merchant, and cousin to Canning the statesman; passed from Cambridge to
the Foreign Office in 1807 as a precis-writer to his cousin; in three
years had risen to the post of minister-plenipotentiary at
Constantinople, where he speedily gave evidence of his remarkable powers
as a diplomatist by arranging unaided the treaty of Bucharest (1814)
between Russia and Turkey, and so setting free the Russian army to fall
upon Napoleon, then retreating from Moscow; as minister to Switzerland
aided the Republic in drawing up its constitution, and in the same year
(1815) acted as commissioner at the Congress of Vienna; was subsequently
employed in the United States and various European capitals, but his
unrivalled knowledge of the Turkish question brought him again, in 1842,
to Constantinople as ambassador, where his remarkable power and influence
over the Turks won him the title of "Great Elchi"; exerted in vain his
diplomatic skill to prevent the rupture between Turkey and Russia, which
precipitated the Crimean War; resigned his embassy in 1858; was raised to
the peerage in 1852; sat in Parliament for several years previous to
1842, but failed to make his mark as a debater; ranks among the great
ambassadors of England (1786-1880).
STRATFORD-ON-AVON (8), a pleasant old market-town of Warwickshire,
on the right bank of the Avon, 8 m. SW. of Warwick and 110 m. NW. of
London; forever famous as the birth and burial place of Shakespeare, with
whom all that is of chief interest in the town is associated, the house
he was born in, his old school, Anne Hathaway's cottage on the
outskirts, the fine Early English church (14th century), where he lies
buried, the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, museum, &c.; is Visited
annually by some 20,000 pilgrims; a thriving agricultural centre.
STRATHCLYDE or NORTHERN CUMBRIA, an ancient kingdom of the
Britons, which originated in the 8th century, and comprised the W. side
of Scotland between the Solway and the Clyde; Alclyde or Dumbarton was
the capital; was permanently annexed to Scotland in 1124 under David I.
STRATHFIELDSAYE, an estate in Hampshire with a fine Queen Anne
mansion, 7 m. NE. of Basingstoke, purchased by Parliament for L263,000,
and presented to the Duke of Wellington in 1817.
STRATHMORE ("Great Valley"), the great plain of Scotland stretching
for 100 m. (5 to 10 m. broad), in a north-easterly direction from
Dumbartonshire to Stonehaven, in Kincardineshire, between the great
mountain barrier of the Highlands, the Grampians, and the Southern
Lennox, Ochil, and Sidlaw Hills; in a more restricted sense denotes the
plain between Perth and Brechin.
STRATHPEFFER, a watering-place in Ross and Cromarty, 5 m. W. of
Dingwall, a great health-resort, and much frequented on account of its
mineral waters and bracing air and other attractions.
STRAUSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH, German theological and biblical critic,
born at Ludwigsburg, in Wuertemberg; studied in the Theological Institute
of Tuebingen under Baur, was ordained in 1830, and went in 1834 to Berlin
to attend the lectures of Hegel and Schleiermacher, and returning to
Tuebingen gave lectures on Hegel in 1832, he the while maturing his famous
theory which, published in 1835, made his name known over the whole
theological world; this was his "Leben Jesu," the first volume of which
appeared that year, in which he maintained that, while the life of Christ
had a historical basis, all the supernatural element in it and the
accounts of it were simply and purely mythical, and the fruit of the idea
of His person as Divine which at the foundation of the Christian religion
took possession of the mind of the Church; the book proved epoch-making,
and the influence of it, whether as accepted or as rejected, affected, as
it still does, the whole theology of the Church; the effect of it was a
shock to the whole Christian world, for it seemed as if with the denial
of the supernatural the whole Christian system fell to pieces; and its
author found the entire Christian world opposed to him, and he was cast
out of the service of the Church; this, however, did not daunt his
ardour, for he never abandoned the ground he had taken up; his last work
was entitled "Der Alte und der Neue Glaube," in which he openly
repudiates the Christian religion, and assigns the sovereign authority in
spiritual matters to science and its handmaid art. In a spiritual
reference the whole contention of Strauss against Christianity is a
tissue of irrelevancies, for the spirit of it, which is its life and
essence, is true whatever conclusion critics in their seraphic wisdom may
come to regarding the facts (1808-1874).
STRAUSS, JOHANN, musical composer, born at Vienna; was a musical
conductor and composer, chiefly of waltz music.
STREATHAM (48), a Surrey suburb of London, 61/2 m. SW. of St. Paul's.
STREET, GEORGE EDMUND, architect, born in Essex; was the architect
of the New Law Courts in London; had been trained under Gilbert Scott
STRELITZES, the name given to the life-guards of the czar, which at
one time numbered 40,000; became so unruly and dangerous to the State
that they were dissolved by Peter the Great, and dispersed in 1705.
STRETTON, HESBA, the _nom de plume_ of Sarah Smith, daughter of a
Shropshire bookseller, whose semi-religious stories, chiefly for the
young, have won wide acceptance in English homes since the publication of
"Jessica's First Prayer" in 1867; was a regular contributor to _Household
Words_ and _All the Year Round_ during Dickens's editorship; has written
upwards of 40 volumes.
STRICKLAND, AGNES, biographer of the queens of England, born at
Roydon Hall, near Southwold, Suffolk; had already published poems and
some minor works before she conceived the plan of writing a series of
biographies of the queens of England; these appeared in 12 vols. during
1840-1848, and such was their popularity that a similar work dealing with
the queens of Scotland was immediately undertaken; was aided in these by
her sister Elizabeth (1794-1875); was the author of various other works,
"Lives of the Seven Bishops," "Bachelor Kings of England," &c.; her
writings are of no value as history, but are full of entertaining details
STRINDBERG, AUGUST, the most noted of modern Swedish writers, born
at Stockholm; accumulated stores of valuable experience during various
early employments, which he utilised in his first successful work, "The
Red Room" (1879), a satire on social life in Sweden, "The New Kingdom"
(1882), equally bitter in its attack on social conventions, got him into
trouble, and since then his life has been spent abroad; "Married Life," a
collection of short stories, brought upon him a charge of "outraging
Christianity," but after trial at Stockholm, in which he eloquently
defended himself, he was acquitted; a prolific writer in all kinds of
literature, and imbued with modern scientific and socialistic ideas, his
writings lack the repose necessary to the highest literary achievement;
STROMBOLI, one of the Lipari Islands; has an active volcano, the
cone 3022 ft., which erupts every five minutes what happens to be little
else than steam; it is 12 m. in circuit, and contains about 1000
STROMKARL, a Norwegian spirit who has 11 different music strains, to
10 of which people may dance, the 11th being his night strain, to the
tune of which every one and everything begins to dance.